Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1491

Search results for: boiler steel

1491 High Temperature Behavior of a 75Cr3C2–25NiCr Coated T91 Boiler Steel in an Actual Industrial Environment of a Coal Fired Boiler

Authors: Buta Singh Sidhu, Sukhpal Singh Chatha, Hazoor Singh Sidhu

Abstract:

In the present investigation, 75Cr3C2-25NiCr coating was deposited on T91 boiler tube steel substrate by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) process to enhance high-temperature corrosion resistance. High-temperature performance of bare, as well as HVOF-coated steel specimens was evaluated for 1500 h under cyclic conditions in the platen superheater zone coal-fired boiler, where the temperature was around 900 °C. Experiments were carried out for 15 cycles each of 100 h duration followed by 1 h cooling at ambient temperature. The performance of the bare and coated specimens was assessed via metal thickness loss corresponding to the corrosion scale formation and the depth of internal corrosion attack. 75Cr3C2-25NiCr coating deposited on T91 steel imparted better hot corrosion resistance than the uncoated steel. Inferior resistance of bare T91 steel is attributed to the formation of pores and loosely bounded oxide scale rich in Fe2O3.

Keywords: 75Cr3C2-25NiCr, HVOF process, boiler steel, coal fired boilers

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
1490 High-Temperature Behavior of Boiler Steel by Friction Stir Processing

Authors: Supreet Singh, Manpreet Kaur, Manoj Kumar

Abstract:

High temperature corrosion is an imperative material degradation method experienced in thermal power plants and other energy generation sectors. Metallic materials such as ferritic steels have special properties such as easy fabrication and machinibilty, low cost, but a serious drawback of these materials is the worsening in properties initiating from the interaction with the environments. The metallic materials do not endure higher temperatures for extensive period of time because of their poor corrosion resistance. Friction Stir Processing (FSP), has emerged as the potent surface modification means and control of microstructure in thermo mechanically heat affecting zones of various metal alloys. In the current research work, FSP was done on the boiler tube of SA 210 Grade A1 material which is regularly used by thermal power plants. The strengthening of SA210 Grade A1 boiler steel through microstructural refinement by Friction Stir Processing (FSP) and analyze the effect of the same on high temperature corrosion behavior. The high temperature corrosion performance of the unprocessed and the FSPed specimens were evaluated in the laboratory using molten salt environment of Na₂SO₄-82%Fe₂(SO₄). The unprocessed and FSPed low carbon steel Gr A1 evaluation was done in terms of microstructure, corrosion resistance, mechanical properties like hardness- tensile. The in-depth characterization was done by EBSD, SEM/EDS and X-ray mapping analyses with an aim to propose the mechanism behind high temperature corrosion behavior of the FSPed steel.

Keywords: boiler steel, characterization, corrosion, EBSD/SEM/EDS/XRD, friction stir processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
1489 Optimizing Boiler Combustion System in a Petrochemical Plant Using Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System and Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Yul Y. Nazaruddin, Anas Y. Widiaribowo, Satriyo Nugroho

Abstract:

Boiler is one of the critical unit in a petrochemical plant. Steam produced by the boiler is used for various processes in the plant such as urea and ammonia plant. An alternative method to optimize the boiler combustion system is presented in this paper. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) approach is applied to model the boiler using real-time operational data collected from a boiler unit of the petrochemical plant. Nonlinear equation obtained is then used to optimize the air to fuel ratio using Genetic Algorithm, resulting an optimal ratio of 15.85. This optimal ratio is then maintained constant by ratio controller designed using inverse dynamics based on ANFIS. As a result, constant value of oxygen content in the flue gas is obtained which indicates more efficient combustion process.

Keywords: ANFIS, boiler, combustion process, genetic algorithm, optimization.

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
1488 Steady State Modeling and Simulation of an Industrial Steam Boiler

Authors: Amina Lyria Deghal Cheridi, Abla Chaker, Ahcene Loubar

Abstract:

Relap5 system code is one among powerful tools, which is used in the area of design and safety evaluation. This work aims to simulate the behavior of a radiant steam boiler at the steady-state conditions using Relap5 code system. To perform this study, a detailed Relap5 model is built including all the parts of the steam boiler. The control and regulation systems are also considered. To reproduce the most important parameters and phenomena with an acceptable accuracy and fidelity, a strong qualification work is undertaken concerning the facility nodalization. It consists of making a comparison between the code results and the plant available data in steady-state operation mode. Therefore, the model qualification results at the steady-state are in good agreement with the steam boiler experimental data. The steam boiler Relap5 model has proved satisfactory; and the model was capable of predicting the main thermal-hydraulic steady-state conditions of the steam boiler.

Keywords: industrial steam boiler, model qualification, natural circulation, relap5/mod3.2, steady state simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
1487 Numerical and Experimental Studies on the Characteristic of the Air Distribution in the Wind-Box of a Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler

Authors: Xiaozhou Liu, Guangyu Zhu, Yu Zhang, Hongwei Wu

Abstract:

The wind-box is one of the important components of a Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler. The uniformity of air flow in the wind-box of is very important for highly efficient operation of the CFB boiler. Non-uniform air flow distribution within the wind-box can reduce the boiler's thermal efficiency, leading to higher energy consumptions. An effective measure to solve this problem is to install an air flow distributing device in the wind-box. In order to validate the effectiveness of the air flow distributing device, visual and velocity distribution uniformity experiments have been carried out under five different test conditions by using a 1:64 scale model of a 220t/hr CFB boiler. It has been shown that the z component of flow velocity remains almost the same at control cross-sections of the wind-box, with a maximum variation of less than 10%. Moreover, the same methodology has been carried out to a full-scale 220t/hr CFB boiler. The hot test results depict that the thermal efficiency of the boiler has increased from 85.71% to 88.34% when tested with an air flow distributing device in place, which is equivalent to a saving of 5,000 tons of coal per year. The economic benefits of this energy-saving technology have been shown to be very significant, which clearly demonstrates that the technology is worth applying and popularizing.

Keywords: circulating fluidized bed, CFB, wind-box, air flow distributing device, visual experiment, velocity distribution uniformity experiment, hot test

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
1486 Simulation of Improving the Efficiency of a Fire-Tube Steam Boiler

Authors: Roudane Mohamed

Abstract:

In this study we are interested in improving the efficiency of a steam boiler to 4.5T/h and minimize fume discharge temperature by the addition of a heat exchanger against the current in the energy system, the output of the boiler. The mathematical approach to the problem is based on the use of heat transfer by convection and conduction equations. These equations have been chosen because of their extensive use in a wide range of application. A software and developed for solving the equations governing these phenomena and the estimation of the thermal characteristics of boiler through the study of the thermal characteristics of the heat exchanger by both LMTD and NUT methods. Subsequently, an analysis of the thermal performance of the steam boiler by studying the influence of different operating parameters on heat flux densities, temperatures, exchanged power and performance was carried out. The study showed that the behavior of the boiler is largely influenced. In the first regime (P = 3.5 bar), the boiler efficiency has improved significantly from 93.03 to 99.43 at the rate of 6.47% and 4.5%. For maximum speed, the change is less important, it is of the order of 1.06%. The results obtained in this study of great interest to industrial utilities equipped with smoke tube boilers for the preheating air temperature intervene to calculate the actual temperature of the gas so the heat exchanged will be increased and minimize temperature smoke discharge. On the other hand, this work could be used as a model of computation in the design process.

Keywords: numerical simulation, efficiency, fire tube, heat exchanger, convection and conduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
1485 Hot Corrosion Susceptibility of Uncoated Boiler Tubes during High Vanadium Containing Fuel Oil Operation in Boiler Applications

Authors: Nicole Laws, William L. Roberts, Saumitra Saxena, Krishnamurthy Anand, Sreenivasa Gubba, Ziad Dawood, Aiping Chen

Abstract:

Boiler-fired power plants that operate steam turbines in Saudi Arabia use vanadium-containing fuel oil. In a super- or sub-critical steam cycle, the skin temperature of boiler tube metal can reach close to 600-1000°C depending on the location of the tubes. At high temperatures, corrosion by the sodium-vanadium-oxygen-sulfur eutectic can become a significant risk. The experimental work utilized a state-of-the-art high-temperature, high-pressure burner rig at KAUST, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology. To establish corrosion rates of different boiler tubes and materials, SA 213 T12, SA 213 T22, SA 213 T91, and Inconel 600, were used under various corrosive media, including vanadium to sulfur levels and vanadium to sodium ratios. The results obtained from the experiments establish a corrosion rate map for the materials involved and layout an empirical framework to rank the life of boiler tube materials under different operating conditions. Safe windows of operation are proposed for burning liquid fuels under varying vanadium, sodium, and sulfur levels before corrosion rates become a matter of significance under high-temperature conditions

Keywords: boiler tube life, hot corrosion, steam boilers, vanadium in fuel oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
1484 Characterization of Nanostructured and Conventional TiAlN and AlCrN Coated ASTM-SA213-T-11 Boiler Steel

Authors: Vikas Chawla, Buta Singh Sidhu, Amita Rani, Amit Handa

Abstract:

The main objective of the present work is microstructural and mechanical characterization of the conventional and nanostructured TiAlN and AlCrN coatings deposited on T-11 boiler steel. In case of conventional coatings, Al-Cr and Ti-Al metallic powders were deposited using plasma spray process followed by gas nitriding of the surface which was done in the lab with optimized parameters after conducting several trials on plasma-sprayed coated specimens. The physical vapor deposition process (PAPVD) was employed for depositing nanostructured TiAlN and AlCrN coatings. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) attachment, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis and the X-Ray mapping analysis techniques have been used to study surface and cross-sectional morphology of the coatings. The surface roughness and micro-hardness were also measured. A good adhesion of the conventional thick TiAlN and AlCrN coatings was found. The coatings under study are recommended for the applications to super-heater and re-heater tubes of the boilers based upon the outcomes of the research work.

Keywords: nanostructure, physical vapour deposition, oxides, thin films, electron microscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
1483 Computational Fluid Dynamics Study on Water Soot Blower Direction in Tangentially Fired Pulverized-Coal Boiler

Authors: Teewin Plangsrinont, Wasawat Nakkiew

Abstract:

In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was utilized to simulate and predict the path of water from water soot blower through an ambient flow field in 300-megawatt tangentially burned pulverized coal boiler that utilizes a water soot blower as a cleaning device. To predict the position of the impact of water on the opposite side of the water soot blower under identical conditions, the nozzle size and water flow rate were fixed in this investigation. The simulation findings demonstrated a high degree of accuracy in predicting the direction of water flow to the boiler's water wall tube, which was validated by comparison to experimental data. Results show maximum deviation value of the water jet trajectory is 10.2 percent.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, tangentially fired boiler, thermal power plant, water soot blower

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
1482 A Comprehensive CFD Model for Sugar-Cane Bagasse Heterogeneous Combustion in a Grate Boiler System

Authors: Daniel José de Oliveira Ferreira, Juan Harold Sosa-Arnao, Bruno Cássio Moreira, Leonardo Paes Rangel, Song Won Park

Abstract:

The comprehensive CFD models have been used to represent and study the heterogeneous combustion of biomass. In the present work, the operation of a global flue gas circuit in the sugar-cane bagasse combustion, from wind boxes below primary air grate supply, passing by bagasse insertion in swirl burners and boiler furnace, to boiler bank outlet is simulated. It uses five different meshes representing each part of this system located in sequence: wind boxes and grate, boiler furnace, swirl burners, super heaters and boiler bank. The model considers turbulence using standard k-ε, combustion using EDM, radiation heat transfer using DTM with 16 ray directions and bagasse particle tracking represented by Schiller-Naumann model. The results showed good agreement with expected behavior found in literature and equipment design. The more detailed results view in separated parts of flue gas system allows to observe some flow behaviors that cannot be represented by usual simplifications like bagasse supply under homogeneous axial and rotational vectors and others that can be represented using new considerations like the representation of 26 thousand grate orifices by 144 rectangular inlets.

Keywords: comprehensive CFD model, sugar-cane bagasse combustion, sugar-cane bagasse grate boiler, axial

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
1481 Hybrid Stainless Steel Girder for Bridge Construction

Authors: Tetsuya Yabuki, Yasunori Arizumi, Tetsuhiro Shimozato, Samy Guezouli, Hiroaki Matsusita, Masayuki Tai

Abstract:

The main object of this paper is to present the research results of the development of a hybrid stainless steel girder system for bridge construction undertaken at University of Ryukyu. In order to prevent the corrosion damage and reduce the fabrication costs, a hybrid stainless steel girder in bridge construction is developed, the stainless steel girder of which is stiffened and braced by structural carbon steel materials. It is verified analytically and experimentally that the ultimate strength of the hybrid stainless steel girder is equal to or greater than that of conventional carbon steel girder. The benefit of the life-cycle cost of the hybrid stainless steel girder is also shown.

Keywords: smart structure, hybrid stainless steel members, ultimate strength, steel bridge, corrosion prevention

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
1480 Optimization and Analysis of Heat Recovery System on Gas Complex Turbo Generators

Authors: Ensieh Hajeb, Hefzollah Mohammadiyan, Mohamad Baqer Heidari

Abstract:

In this paper layout plans and determine the best place to install a heat recovery boilers , gas turbines , and simulation models built to evaluate the performance of the design and operating conditions, heat recovery boiler design using model built on the basis of operating conditions , the effect of various parameters on the performance of the designed heat recovery boiler , heat recovery boiler installation was designed to evaluate the technical and economic impact on performance would be Turbo generator. Given the importance of this issue, that is the main goal of economic efficiency and reduces costs; this project has been implemented similar plans in which the target is implementation specific patterns. The project will also help us in the process of gas refineries and the actual efficiency of the process after adding a system to analyze the turbine and predict potential problems and how to fix them and appropriate measures according to the results of simulation analysis and results of the process gain. The results of modeling and the effect of different parameters on this line, the software has been ThermoFlow.

Keywords: boiler, gas turbine, turbo generator, power flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
1479 A Range of Steel Production in Japan towards 2050

Authors: Reina Kawase

Abstract:

Japan set the goal of 80% reduction in GHG emissions by 2050. To consider countermeasures for reducing GHG emission, the production estimation of energy intensive materials, such as steel, is essential. About 50% of steel production is exported in Japan, so it is necessary to consider steel production including export. Steel productions from 2005-2050 in Japan were estimated under various global assumptions based on combination of scenarios such as goods trade scenarios and steel making process selection scenarios. Process selection scenarios decide volume of steel production by process (basic oxygen furnace and electric arc furnace) with considering steel consumption projection, supply-demand balance of steel, and scrap surplus. The range of steel production by process was analyzed. Maximum steel production was estimated under the scenario which consumes scrap in domestic steel production at maximum level. In 2035, steel production reaches 149 million ton because of increase in electric arc furnace steel. However, it decreases towards 2050 and amounts to 120 million ton, which is almost same as a current level. Minimum steel production is under the scenario which assumes technology progress in steel making and supply-demand balance consideration in each region. Steel production decreases from base year and is 44 million ton in 2050.

Keywords: goods trade scenario, steel making process selection scenario, steel production, global warming

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
1478 Structural Performance of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Steel Plates: Experimental Study

Authors: Mazin Mohammed S. Sarhan

Abstract:

This study presents the performance of concrete beams reinforced with steel plates as a technique of reinforcement. Three reinforced concrete beams with the dimensions of 200 mm x 300 mm x 4000 mm (width x height x length, respectively) were experimentally investigated under flexural loading. The deformed steel bars were used as the main reinforcement for the first beam. A steel plate placed horizontally was used as the main reinforcement for the second beam. The bond between the steel plate and the surrounding concrete was enhanced by using steel bolts (with a diameter of 20 mm and length of 100 mm) welded to the steel plate at a regular distance of 200 mm. A pair of steel plates placed vertically was used as the main reinforcement for the third beam. The bond between the pair steel plates and the surrounding concrete was enhanced by using 4 equal steel angles (with the dimensions of 75 mm x 75 mm and the thickness of 8 mm) for each vertical steel plate. Two steel angles were welded at each end of the steel plate. The outcomes revealed that the bending stiffness of the beams reinforced with steel plates was higher than that reinforced with deformed steel bars. Also, the flexural ductile behavior of the second beam was much higher than the rest beams.

Keywords: concrete beam, deflection, ductility, plate

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
1477 Ultimate Stress of the Steel Tube in Circular Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Stub Columns Subjected to Axial Compression

Authors: Siqi Lin, Yangang Zhao

Abstract:

Concrete-filled steel tube column achieves the excellent performance of high strength, stiffness, and ductility due to the confinement from the steel tube. Well understanding the stress of the steel tube is important to make clear the confinement effect. In this paper, the ultimate stress of the steel tube in circular concrete-filled steel tube columns subjected to axial compression was studied. Experimental tests were conducted to investigate the effects of the parameters, including concrete strength, steel strength, and D/t ratio, on the ultimate stress of the steel tube. The stress of the steel tube was determined by employing the Prandtl-Reuss flow rule associated with isotropic strain hardening. Results indicate that the stress of steel tube was influenced by the parameters. Specimen with higher strength ratio fy/fc and smaller D/t ratio generally leads to a higher utilization efficiency of the steel tube.

Keywords: concrete-filled steel tube, axial compression, ultimate stress, utilization efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
1476 Architectural Strategies for Designing Durable Steel Structural Systems

Authors: Alireza Taghdiri, Sara Ghanbarzade Ghomi

Abstract:

Nowadays, steel structures are used for not only common buildings but also high-rise construction and wide span covering. The advanced methods of construction as well as the advanced structural connections have a great effect on architecture. However a better use of steel structural systems will be achieved with the deep understanding of steel structures specifications and their substantial advantages. On the other hand, the steel structures face to the different environmental factors such as air flow which cause erosion and corrosion. With the time passing, the amount of these steel mass damages and also the imposed stress will be increased. In other words, the position of erosion in steel structures related to existing stresses indicates that effective environmental conditions will gradually decrease the structural resistance of steel components and result in decreasing the durability of steel components. In this paper, the durability of different steel structural components is evaluated and on the basis of these stress, architectural strategies for designing the system and the components of steel structures is recognized in order to achieve an optimum life cycle.

Keywords: durability, bending stress, erosion in steel structure, life cycle

Procedia PDF Downloads 422
1475 CFD Study for Normal and Rifled Tube with a Convergence Check

Authors: Sharfi Dirar, Shihab Elhaj, Ahmed El Fatih

Abstract:

Computational fluid dynamics were used to simulate and study the heated water boiler tube for both normal and rifled tube with a refinement of the mesh to check the convergence. The operation condition was taken from GARRI power station and used in a boundary condition accordingly. The result indicates the rifled tube has higher heat transfer efficiency than the normal tube.

Keywords: boiler tube, convergence check, normal tube, rifled tube

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
1474 Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of SA 210 Gr. C Pipes Welded by Tungsten Inert Gas

Authors: H. Demirtaş, İ. H. Kara, H. Ahlatcı

Abstract:

Welding failures of steel pipes in power plants usually occur in weld zones. This is similar for the economizer, water walls and superheaters in the power plants where SA 210 Gr. C steel pipes are used. Although these steel pipes have very good welding properties, the welding parameters are also important for the welding life. Welding processes of this pipes are carried out by TIG and SMA techniques. In this study SA 210 Gr. C steel pipes were welded by TIG method and investigated how PWHT affected the welding properties. The results show that this steel does not require post weld heat treatment.

Keywords: SA 210 Gr. C steel pipes, TIG welding, HAZ region, Widmanstatten ferrite

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
1473 Behaviour of Beam Reinforced with Longitudinal Steel-CFRP Composite Reinforcement under Static Load

Authors: Faris A. Uriayer, Mehtab Alam

Abstract:

The concept of using a hybrid composite by combining two or more different materials to produce bilinear stress–strain behaviour has become a subject of interest. Having studied the mechanical properties of steel-CFRP specimens (CFRP Laminate Sandwiched between Mild Steel Strips), full size steel-CFRP composite reinforcement were fabricated and used as a new reinforcing material inside beams in lieu of traditional steel bars. Four beams, three beams reinforced with steel-CFRP composite reinforcement and one beam reinforced with traditional steel bars were cast, cured and tested under quasi-static loading. The flexural test results of the beams reinforced with this composite reinforcement showed that the beams with steel-CFRP composite reinforcement had comparable flexural strength and flexural ductility with beams reinforced with traditional steel bars.

Keywords: CFRP laminate, steel strip, flexural behaviour, modified model, concrete beam

Procedia PDF Downloads 522
1472 Investigation of the Corroded Steel Beam

Authors: Hesamaddin Khoshnoodi, Ahmad Rahbar Ranji

Abstract:

Corrosion in steel structures is one of the most important issues that should be considered in designing and constructing. Corrosion reduces the cross section and load capacity of element and leads to costly damage of structures. In this paper, the corrosion has been modeled for moment stresses. Moreover, the steel beam has been modeled using ABAQUS advanced finite element software. The conclusions of this study demonstrated that the displacement of the analyzed composite steel girder bridge might increase.

Keywords: Abaqus, Corrosion, deformation, Steel Beam

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
1471 Using Recyclable Steel Material in Tall Buildings

Authors: O. Eren, L. Zakar

Abstract:

Recycling steel building components is key to the sustainability of a structure’s end-of-life, as it is the most economical solution. In this paper the effects of usage of recycled steel material in tall buildings aspects are investigated.

Keywords: building, recycled material, steel, structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
1470 Bond Strength of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Steel Plates: Experimental Study

Authors: Mazin Mohammed Sarhan Sarhan

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental study of the bond behaviour of confined concrete beams reinforced with a chequer steel plate or a deformed steel bar by using the beam-bending pullout test. A total of three beams of 225 mm width, 300 mm height, and 600 mm length were cast and tested. All the beams had the same details of compression reinforcement and stirrups; two plain steel bars of 10 mm diameter (R10) were used for the compression reinforcement, and plain steel bars (R10) at a distance of 80 mm centre to centre were used for the stirrups. The first beam was reinforced with a deformed steel bar while the remaining beams were reinforced with horizontal or vertical chequer steel plates. The results showed no significant difference in the bond force between the beams reinforced with a deformed steel bar or a horizontal steel plate. The beam reinforced with a vertical steel plate considerably presented a bond force higher than the beam reinforced with a horizontal steel plate.

Keywords: bond, pullout, reinforced concrete, steel plate

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
1469 Estimation of World Steel Production by Process

Authors: Reina Kawase

Abstract:

World GHG emissions should be reduced 50% by 2050 compared with 1990 level. CO2 emission reduction from steel sector, an energy-intensive sector, is essential. To estimate CO2 emission from steel sector in the world, estimation of steel production is required. The world steel production by process is estimated during the period of 2005-2050. The world is divided into aggregated 35 regions. For a steel making process, two kinds of processes are considered; basic oxygen furnace (BOF) and electric arc furnace (EAF). Steel production by process in each region is decided based on a current production capacity, supply-demand balance of steel and scrap, technology innovation of steel making, steel consumption projection, and goods trade. World steel production under moderate countermeasure scenario in 2050 increases by 1.3 times compared with that in 2012. When domestic scrap recycling is promoted, steel production in developed regions increases about 1.5 times. The share in developed regions changes from 34 %(2012) to about 40%(2050). This is because developed regions are main suppliers of scrap. 48-57% of world steel production is produced by EAF. Under the scenario which thinks much of supply-demand balance of steel, steel production in developing regions increases is 1.4 times and is larger than that in developed regions. The share in developing regions, however, is not so different from current level. The increase in steel production by EAF is the largest under the scenario in which supply-demand balance of steel is an important factor. The share reaches 65%.

Keywords: global steel production, production distribution scenario, steel making process, supply-demand balance

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
1468 Energy and Economic Analysis of Heat Recovery from Boiler Exhaust Flue Gas

Authors: Kemal Comakli, Meryem Terhan

Abstract:

In this study, the potential of heat recovery from waste flue gas was examined in 60 MW district heating system of a university, and fuel saving was aimed by using the recovered heat in the system as a source again. Various scenarios are intended to make use of waste heat. For this purpose, actual operation data of the system were taken. Besides, the heat recovery units that consist of heat exchangers such as flue gas condensers, economizers or air pre-heaters were designed theoretically for each scenario. Energy analysis of natural gas-fired boiler’s exhaust flue gas in the system, and economic analysis of heat recovery units to predict payback periods were done. According to calculation results, the waste heat loss ratio from boiler flue gas in the system was obtained as average 16%. Thanks to the heat recovery units, thermal efficiency of the system can be increased, and fuel saving can be provided. At the same time, a huge amount of green gas emission can be decreased by installing the heat recovery units.

Keywords: heat recovery from flue gas, energy analysis of flue gas, economical analysis, payback period

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
1467 Implemented Cascade with Feed Forward by Enthalpy Balance Superheated Steam Temperature Control for a Boiler with Distributed Control System

Authors: Kanpop Saion, Sakreya Chitwong

Abstract:

Control of superheated steam temperature in the steam generation is essential for the efficiency safety and increment age of the boiler. Conventional cascade PID temperature control in the super heater is known to be efficient to compensate disturbance. However, the complex of thermal power plant due to nonlinearity, load disturbance and time delay of steam of superheater system is bigger than other control systems. The cascade loop with feed forward steam temperature control with energy balance compensator using thermodynamic model has been used for the compensation the complex structure of superheater. In order to improve the performance of steam temperature control. The experiment is implemented for 100% load steady and load changing state. The cascade with feed forward with energy balance steam temperature control has stabilized the system as well.

Keywords: cascade with feed forward, boiler, superheated steam temperature control, enthalpy balance

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
1466 Increased Efficiency during Oxygen Carrier Aided Combustion of Municipal Solid Waste in an Industrial Scaled Circulating Fluidized Bed-Boiler

Authors: Angelica Corcoran, Fredrik Lind, Pavleta Knutsson, Henrik Thunman

Abstract:

Solid waste volumes are at current predominately deposited on landfill. Furthermore, the impending climate change requires new solutions for a sustainable future energy mix. Currently, solid waste is globally utilized to small extent as fuel during combustion for heat and power production. Due to its variable composition and size, solid waste is considered difficult to combust and requires a technology with high fuel flexibility. One of the commercial technologies used for combustion of such difficult fuels is circulating fluidized beds (CFB). In a CFB boiler, fine particles of a solid material are used as 'bed material', which is accelerated by the incoming combustion air that causes the bed material to fluidize. The chosen bed material has conventionally been silica sand with the main purpose of being a heat carrier, as it transfers heat released by the combustion to the heat-transfer surfaces. However, the release of volatile compounds occurs rapidly in comparison with the lateral mixing in the combustion chamber. To ensure complete combustion a surplus of air is introduced, which decreases the total efficiency of the boiler. In recent years, the concept of partly or entirely replacing the silica sand with an oxygen carrier as bed material has been developed. By introducing an oxygen carrier to the combustion chamber, combustion can be spread out both temporally and spatially in the boiler. Specifically, the oxygen carrier can take up oxygen from the combustion air where it is in abundance and release it to combustible gases where oxygen is in deficit. The concept is referred to as oxygen carrier aided combustion (OCAC) where the natural ore ilmenite (FeTiO3) has been the oxygen carrier used. The authors have validated the oxygen buffering ability of ilmenite during combustion of biomass in Chalmers 12-MWth CFB boiler in previous publications. Furthermore, the concept has been demonstrated on full industrial scale during combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) in E.ON’s 75 MWth CFB boiler. The experimental campaigns have showed increased mass transfer of oxygen inside the boiler when combustion both biomass and MSW. As a result, a higher degree of burnout is achieved inside the combustion chamber and the plant can be operated at a lower surplus of air. Moreover, the buffer of oxygen provided by the oxygen carrier makes the system less sensitive to disruptions in operation. In conclusion, combusting difficult fuels with OCAC results in higher operation stability and an increase in boiler efficiency.

Keywords: OCAC, ilmenite, combustion, CFB

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
1465 Microstructure and Hardness Changes on T91 Weld Joint after Heating at 560°C

Authors: Suraya Mohamad Nadzir, Badrol Ahmad, Norlia Berahim

Abstract:

T91 steel has been used as construction material for superheater tubes in sub-critical and super critical boiler. This steel was developed with higher creep strength property as compared to conventional low alloy steel. However, this steel is also susceptible to materials degradation due to its sensitivity to heat treatment especially Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) after weld repair process. Review of PWHT process shows that the holding temperature may different from one batch to other batch of samples depending on the material composition. This issue was reviewed by many researchers and one of the potential solutions is the development of weld repair process without PWHT. This process is possible with the use of temper bead welding technique. However, study has shown the hardness value across the weld joint with exception of PWHT is much higher compare to recommended hardness value. Based on the above findings, a study to evaluate the microstructure and hardness changes of T91 weld joint after heating at 560°C at varying duration was carried out. This study was carried out to evaluate the possibility of self-tempering process during in-service period. In this study, the T91 weld joint was heat-up in air furnace at 560°C for duration of 50 and 150 hours. The heating process was controlled with heating rate of 200°C/hours, and cooling rate about 100°C/hours. Following this process, samples were prepared for the microstructure examination and hardness evaluation. Results have shown full tempered martensite structure and acceptance hardness value was achieved after 50 hours heating. This result shows that the thin component such as T91 superheater tubes is able to self-tempering during service hour.

Keywords: T91, weld-joint, tempered martensite, self-tempering

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
1464 Effect of Demineralized Water Purity on the Corrosion Behavior of Steel Alloys

Authors: A. M. El-Aziz, M. Elsehamy, H. Hussein

Abstract:

Steel or stainless steel have reasonable corrosion behavior in water, their corrosion resistance is significantly dependent on the water purity. It was not expected that demineralized water has an aggressive effect on steel alloys, in this study, the effect of water with different purity on steel X52 and stainless steel 316L was investigated. Weight loss and electrochemical measurements were employed to measure the corrosion behavior. Samples were microscopically investigated after test. It was observed that the higher the water purity the more reactive it is. Comparative analysis of the potentiodynamic curves for different water purity showed the aggressiveness of the demineralised water (conductivity of 0.05 microSiemens per cm) over the distilled water. Whereas, the corrosion rates of stainless steel 858 and 623 nm/y for demi and distilled water respectively. On the other hand, the corrosion rates of carbon steel x52 were estimated about 4.8 and 3.6 µm/y for demi and distilled water, respectively. Open circuit potential (OCP) recorded more positive potentials in case of stainless steel than carbon steel in different water purities. Generally, stainless steel illustrated high pitting resistance than carbon steel alloy, the surface film was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). This behavior was explained based on that demi and distilled water might be considered as ‘hungry water’ in which it wants to be in equilibrium and will pull ions out of the surrounding metals trying to satisfy its ‘hunger’.

Keywords: corrosion, demineralized water, distilled water, steel alloys

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1463 Calculating Quantity of Steel Bar Placed in Mesh Form in a Circular Slab or Dome

Authors: Karam Chand Gupta

Abstract:

When steel reinforcement is placed in mesh form in circular concrete slab at base or domes at top in case of over head service reservoir or any other structure, it is difficult to estimate/measure the total quantity of steel that would be needed or placed. For the purpose of calculating the total length of the steel bars, at present, the practice is – the length of each bar is measured and then added up. This is tiresome and time consuming process. I have derived a mathematics formula with the help of which we can calculate in one line the quantity of total steel that will be needed. This will not only make it easy and time saving but also avoids any error in making entries and calculations.

Keywords: dome, mesh, slab, steel

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1462 Seismic Response of Braced Steel Frames with Shape Memory Alloy and Mega Bracing Systems

Authors: Mohamed Omar

Abstract:

Steel bracing members are widely used in steel structures to reduce lateral displacement and dissipate energy during earthquake motions. Concentric steel bracing provide an excellent approach for strengthening and stiffening steel buildings. Using these braces the designer can hardly adjust the stiffness together with ductility as needed because of buckling of braces in compression. In this study the use of SMA bracing and steel bracing (Mega) utilized in steel frames are investigated. The effectiveness of these two systems in rehabilitating a mid-rise eight-storey steel frames were examined using time-history nonlinear analysis utilizing Seismo-Struct software. Results show that both systems improve the strength and stiffness of the original structure but due to excellent behavior of SMA in nonlinear phase and under compressive forces this system shows much better performance than the rehabilitation system of Mega bracing.

Keywords: finite element analysis, seismic response, shapes memory alloy, steel frame, mega bracing

Procedia PDF Downloads 186