Search results for: Sandeep Singh Sandhu
1079 Effect of Ultrasonic Vibration on the Dilution, Mechanical, and Metallurgical Properties in Cladding of 308 on Mild Steel
Authors: Sandeep Singh Sandhu, Karanvir Singh Ghuman, Parminder Singh Saini
Abstract:The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of ultrasonic vibration on the cladding of the AISI 308 on the mild steel plates using the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW). Ultrasonic vibrations were applied to molten austenitic stainless steel during the welding process. Due to acoustically induced cavitations and streaming there is a complete mixture of the clad metal and the base metal. It was revealed that cladding of AISI 308 over mild steel along with ultrasonic vibrations result in uniform and finer grain structures. The effect of the vibration on the dilution, mechanical properties and metallographic studies were also studied. It was found that the welding done using the ultrasonic vibration has the less dilution and CVN value for the vibrated sample was also high.
Keywords: surfacing, ultrasonic vibrations, mechanical properties, shielded metal arc weldingProcedia PDF Downloads 400
1078 Evaluation of High Temperature Wear Performance of as Cladded and Tig Re-Melting Stellite 6 Cladded Overlay on Aisi-304L Using SMAW Process
Authors: Manjit Singha, Sandeep Singh Sandhu, A. S. Shahi
Abstract:Stellite 6 is cobalt based superalloy used for protective coatings. It is used to improve the wear performance of stainless steel engineering components subjected to harsh environmental conditions. This paper reports the high temperature wear analysis of satellite 6 cladded on AISI 304 L substrate using SMAW process. Bead on plate experiment was carried out by varying current and electrode manipulation techniques to optimize the dilution and hardness. 80 Amp current and weaving technique was found to be the optimum set of parameters for overlaying which were further used for multipass multilayer cladding on two plates of AISI 304 L substrate. On the first plate, seven layers seven passes of stellite 6 was overlaid which was used in as cladded form and the second plate was overlaid with five layers five passes of satellite 6 with further TIG remelting. The wear performance was examined for normal temperature environmental condition and harsh temperature environmental condition. The satellite 6 coating with TIG remelting was found to be better in both the conditions even with lesser metal deposition due to its finer grain structure.
Keywords: surfacing, stellite 6, dilution, overlay, SMAW, high-temperature frictional wear, micro-structure, micro-hardnessProcedia PDF Downloads 227
1077 Cryptosystems in Asymmetric Cryptography for Securing Data on Cloud at Various Critical Levels
Authors: Sartaj Singh, Amar Singh, Ashok Sharma, Sandeep Kaur
Abstract:With upcoming threats in a digital world, we need to work continuously in the area of security in all aspects, from hardware to software as well as data modelling. The rise in social media activities and hunger for data by various entities leads to cybercrime and more attack on the privacy and security of persons. Cryptography has always been employed to avoid access to important data by using many processes. Symmetric key and asymmetric key cryptography have been used for keeping data secrets at rest as well in transmission mode. Various cryptosystems have evolved from time to time to make the data more secure. In this research article, we are studying various cryptosystems in asymmetric cryptography and their application with usefulness, and much emphasis is given to Elliptic curve cryptography involving algebraic mathematics.
Keywords: cryptography, symmetric key cryptography, asymmetric key cryptographyProcedia PDF Downloads 33
1076 A Method for Solving a Bi-Objective Transportation Problem under Fuzzy Environment
Authors: Sukhveer Singh, Sandeep Singh
Abstract:A bi-objective fuzzy transportation problem with the objectives to minimize the total fuzzy cost and fuzzy time of transportation without according priorities to them is considered. To the best of our knowledge, there is no method in the literature to find efficient solutions of the bi-objective transportation problem under uncertainty. In this paper, a bi-objective transportation problem in an uncertain environment has been formulated. An algorithm has been proposed to find efficient solutions of the bi-objective transportation problem under uncertainty. The proposed algorithm avoids the degeneracy and gives the optimal solution faster than other existing algorithms for the given uncertain transportation problem.
Keywords: uncertain transportation problem, efficient solution, ranking function, fuzzy transportation problemProcedia PDF Downloads 265
1075 Investigation of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Dissimilar Aluminium Alloys
Authors: Gurpreet Singh, Hazoor Singh, Kulbir Singh Sandhu
Abstract:Friction Stir Welding Process emerged as promising solid-state welding and eliminates various welding defects like cracks and porosity in joining of dissimilar aluminum alloys. In the present research, Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is carried out on dissimilar aluminum alloys 2000 series and 6000 series this combination of alloys are highly used in automobile and aerospace industry due to their good strength to weight ratio, mechanical, and corrosion properties. The joints characterized by applying various destructive and non-destructive tests. Three critical welding parameters were considered i.e. Tool Rotation speed, Transverse speed, and Tool Geometry. The effective range of tool rotation speed from 1200-1800 rpm and transverse speed from 60-240 mm/min and tool geometry was studied. The two-different difficult to weld alloys were successfully welded. All the samples showed different microstructure with different set of welding parameters. It has been revealed with microstructure scans that grain refinement plays a crucial role in mechanical properties.
Keywords: aluminum alloys, friction stir welding, mechanical properties, microstructureProcedia PDF Downloads 186
1074 Wear Performance of Stellite 21 Cladded Overlay on Aisi 304L
Authors: Sandeep Singh Sandhua, Karanvir Singh Ghuman, Arun Kumar
Abstract:Stellite 21 is cobalt based super alloy used in improving the wear performance of stainless steel engineering components subjected to harsh environmental conditions. This piece of research focuses on the wear analysis of satellite 21 cladded on AISI 304 L substrate using SMAW process. Bead on plate experiments were carried out by varying current and electrode manipulation techniques to optimize the dilution and microhardness. 80 Amp current and weaving technique was found to be optimum set of parameters for overlaying which were further used for multipass multilayer cladding of AISI 304 L substrate. The wear performance was examined on pin on dics wear testing machine under room temperature conditions. The results from this study show that Stellite 21 overlays show a significant improvement in the frictional wear resistance after TIG remelting. It is also established that low dilution procedures are important in controlling the metallurgical composition of these overlays which has a consequent effect in enhancing hardness and wear resistance of these overlays.
Keywords: surfacing, stellite 21, dilution, SMAW, frictional wear, micro-hardnessProcedia PDF Downloads 179
1073 Analysis of Big Data
Authors: Sandeep Sharma, Sarabjit Singh
Abstract:As per the user demand and growth trends of large free data the storage solutions are now becoming more challenge-able to protect, store and to retrieve data. The days are not so far when the storage companies and organizations are start saying 'no' to store our valuable data or they will start charging a huge amount for its storage and protection. On the other hand as per the environmental conditions it becomes challenge-able to maintain and establish new data warehouses and data centers to protect global warming threats. A challenge of small data is over now, the challenges are big that how to manage the exponential growth of data. In this paper we have analyzed the growth trend of big data and its future implications. We have also focused on the impact of the unstructured data on various concerns and we have also suggested some possible remedies to streamline big data.
Keywords: big data, unstructured data, volume, variety, velocityProcedia PDF Downloads 453
1072 Orphan Node Inclusion Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network
Authors: Sandeep Singh Waraich
Abstract:Wireless sensor network (WSN ) consists of a large number of sensor nodes. The disparity in their energy consumption usually lead to the loss of equilibrium in wireless sensor network which may further results in an energy hole problem in wireless network. In this paper, we have considered the inclusion of orphan nodes which usually remain unutilized as intermediate nodes in multi-hop routing. The Orphan Node Inclusion (ONI) Protocol lets the cluster member to bring the orphan nodes into their clusters, thereby saving important resources and increasing network lifetime in critical applications of WSN.
Keywords: wireless sensor network, orphan node, clustering, ONI protocolProcedia PDF Downloads 274
1071 Study of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties Obtained by FSW of Similar and Dissimilar Non-Ferrous Alloys Used in Aerospace and Automobile Industry
Authors: Ajay Sidana, Kulbir Singh Sandhu, Balwinder Singh Sidhu
Abstract:Joining of dissimilar non-ferrous alloys like aluminium and magnesium alloys becomes important in various automobile and aerospace applications due to their low density and good corrosion resistance. Friction Stir Welding (FSW), a solid state joining process, successfully welds difficult to weld similar and dissimilar aluminum and magnesium alloys. Two tool rotation speeds were selected by keeping the transverse speed constant to weld similar and dissimilar alloys. Similar(Al to Al) and Dissimilar(Al to Mg) weld joints were obtained by FSW. SEM scans revealed that higher tool rotation fragments the coarse grains of base material into fine grains in the weld zone. Also, there are less welding defects in weld joints obtained with higher tool rotation speed. The material of dissimilar alloys was mixed with each other forming recrystallised new intermetallics. There was decrease in hardness of similar weld joint however there is significant increase in hardness of weld zone in case of dissimilar weld joints due to stirring action of tool and formation of inter metallics. Tensile tests revealed that there was decrease in percentage elongation in both similar and dissimilar weld joints.
Keywords: aluminum alloys, magnesium alloys, friction stir welding, microstructure, mechanical propertiesProcedia PDF Downloads 389
1070 Morphological Processing of Punjabi Text for Sentiment Analysis of Farmer Suicides
Authors: Jaspreet Singh, Gurvinder Singh, Prabhsimran Singh, Rajinder Singh, Prithvipal Singh, Karanjeet Singh Kahlon, Ravinder Singh Sawhney
Abstract:Morphological evaluation of Indian languages is one of the burgeoning fields in the area of Natural Language Processing (NLP). The evaluation of a language is an eminent task in the era of information retrieval and text mining. The extraction and classification of knowledge from text can be exploited for sentiment analysis and morphological evaluation. This study coalesce morphological evaluation and sentiment analysis for the task of classification of farmer suicide cases reported in Punjab state of India. The pre-processing of Punjabi text involves morphological evaluation and normalization of Punjabi word tokens followed by the training of proposed model using deep learning classification on Punjabi language text extracted from online Punjabi news reports. The class-wise accuracies of sentiment prediction for four negatively oriented classes of farmer suicide cases are 93.85%, 88.53%, 83.3%, and 95.45% respectively. The overall accuracy of sentiment classification obtained using proposed framework on 275 Punjabi text documents is found to be 90.29%.
Keywords: deep neural network, farmer suicides, morphological processing, punjabi text, sentiment analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 204
1069 Some Efficient Higher Order Iterative Schemes for Solving Nonlinear Systems
Authors: Sandeep Singh
Abstract:In this article, two classes of iterative schemes are proposed for approximating solutions of nonlinear systems of equations whose orders of convergence are six and eight respectively. Sixth order scheme requires the evaluation of two vector-functions, two first Fr'echet derivatives and three matrices inversion per iteration. This three-step sixth-order method is further extended to eighth-order method which requires one more step and the evaluation of one extra vector-function. Moreover, computational efficiency is compared with some other recently published methods in which we found, our methods are more efficient than existing numerical methods for higher and medium size nonlinear system of equations. Numerical tests are performed to validate the proposed schemes.
Keywords: Nonlinear systems, Computational complexity, order of convergence, Jarratt-type schemeProcedia PDF Downloads 74
1068 Mechanical Analysis and Characterization of Friction Stir Processed Aluminium Alloy
Authors: Jaswinder Kumar, Kulbir Singh Sandhu
Abstract:Friction stir processing (FSP) is a solid-state surface processing technique. A single-pass FSP was performed on Aluminum alloy at combinations of different tool rotational speeds with cylindrical threaded pin profiled tool. The effect of these parameters on tribological properties was studied. The wear resistance is found to be increased from base metal to a single pass FSP sample. The results revealed that with an increase in tool rotational speed, the wear rate increases. The high heat generation causes matrix softening, which results in an increased wear rate; on the other hand, high heat generation leads to coarse grains, which also affected tribological properties. Furthermore, Microstructure results showed that FSPed alloy has a more refined grain structure as compare to the base material, which may be resulted in enhancement of hardness and resistance to wear in FSP.
Keywords: friction stir processing, aluminium alloy, microhardness, microstructureProcedia PDF Downloads 50
1067 Studies on Corrosion Resistant Composite Coating for Metallic Surfaces
Authors: Navneetinder Singh, Harprabhjot Singh, Harpreet Singh, Supreet Singh
Abstract:Many materials are known to mankind that is widely used for synthesis of corrosion resistant hydrophobic coatings. In the current work, novel hydrophobic composite was synthesized by mixing polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and 20 weight% ceria particles followed by sintering. This composite had same hydrophobic behavior as PTFE. Moreover, composite showed better scratch resistance than virgin PTFE. Pits of plasma sprayed Ni₃Al coating were exploited to hold PTFE composite on the substrate as Superni-75 alloy surface through sintering process. Plasma sprayed surface showed good adhesion with the composite coating during scratch test. Potentiodynamic corrosion test showed 100 fold decreases in corrosion rate of coated sample this may be attributed to inert and hydrophobic nature of PTFE and ceria.
Keywords: polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE, ceria, coating, corrosionProcedia PDF Downloads 247
1066 The Effect of Size, Thickness, and Type of the Bonding Interlayer on Bullet Proof Glass as per EN 1063
Authors: Rabinder Singh Bharj, Sandeep Kumar
Abstract:This investigation presents preparation of sample and analysis of results of ballistic impact test as per EN 1063 on the size, thickness, number, position, and type of the bonding interlayer Polyvinyl Butyral, Poly Carbonate and Poly Urethane on bullet proof glass. It was observed that impact energy absorbed by bullet proof glass increases with the increase of the total thickness from 33mm to 42mm to 51mm for all the three samples respectively. Absorption impact energy is greater for samples with more number of bonding interlayers than with the number of glass layers for uniform increase in total sample thickness. There is no effect on the absorption impact energy with the change in position of the bonding interlayer.
Keywords: absorbed energy, bullet proof glass, laminated glass, safety glassProcedia PDF Downloads 321
1065 Influence of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of TIG Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints
Authors: Gurmeet Singh Cheema, Navjotinder Singh, Gurjinder Singh, Amardeep Singh
Abstract:Aluminium and its alloys play have excellent corrosion resistant properties, ease of fabrication and high specific strength to weight ratio. In this investigation an attempt has been made to study the effect of different post weld heat treatment methods on the mechanical and metallurgical properties of TIG welded joints of the commercial aluminium alloy. Three different methods of post weld heat treatments are, solution heat treatment, artificial aged and combination of solution heat treatment and artificial aging are given to TIG welded aluminium joints. Mechanical and metallurgical properties of as welded and post weld treated joints of the aluminium alloys was examined.
Keywords: aluminium alloys, TIG welding, post weld heat treatmentProcedia PDF Downloads 410
1064 Comparative Performance and Emission Analysis of Diesel Engine Fueled with Diesel and Bitter Apricot Kernal Oil Biodiesel Blends
Authors: Virender Singh Gurau, Akash Deep, Sarbjot S. Sandhu
Abstract:Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. In the present research work Bitter Apricot kernel oil was employed as a feedstock for the production of biodiesel. The physicochemical properties of the Bitter Apricot kernel oil methyl ester were investigated as per ASTM D6751. From the series of engine testing, it is concluded that the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) with biodiesel blend was little lower than that of diesel. BSEC is slightly higher for Bitter apricot kernel oil methyl ester blends than neat diesel. For biodiesel blends, CO emission was lower than diesel fuel as B 20 reduced CO emissions by 18.75%. Approximately 11% increase in NOx emission was observed with 20% biodiesel blend. It is observed that HC emissions tend to decrease for biodiesel based fuels and Smoke opacity was found lower for biodiesel blends in comparison to diesel fuel.
Keywords: biodiesel, transesterification, bitter apricot kernel oil, performance and emission testingProcedia PDF Downloads 264
1063 Performance Analysis of VoIP Coders for Different Modulations Under Pervasive Environment
Authors: Jasbinder Singh, Harjit Pal Singh, S. A. Khan
Abstract:The work, in this paper, presents the comparison of encoded speech signals by different VoIP narrow-band and wide-band codecs for different modulation schemes. The simulation results indicate that codec has an impact on the speech quality and also effected by modulation schemes.
Keywords: VoIP, coders, modulations, BER, MOSProcedia PDF Downloads 382
1062 Vibration Analysis of a Solar Powered UAV
Authors: Kevin Anderson, Sukhwinder Singh Sandhu, Nouh Anies, Shilpa Ravichandra, Steven Dobbs, Donald Edberg
Abstract:This paper presents the results of a Finite Element based vibration analysis of a solar powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The purpose of this paper was to quantify the free vibration, forced vibration response due to differing point inputs in order to mimic the vibration induced by actuators (magnet in coil generators) used to aid in the flight of the UAV. A Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) study was performed in order to ascertain pertinent deigns stresses and deflections as well as aerodynamic parameters of the UAV airfoil. The 10 ft span airfoil is modeled using Mylar as the primary material. Results show that the free mode in bending is 4.8 Hz while the first forced bending mode is in the range of 16.2 to 16.7 Hz depending on the location of excitation. The free torsional bending mode is 28.3 Hz, and the first forced torsional mode is in the range of 26.4 to 27.8 Hz, depending on the location of excitation. The FSI results predict the coefficients of aerodynamic drag and lift of 0.0052 and 0.077, respectively, which matches hand-calculations used to validate the Finite Element based results. FSI based maximum von Mises stresses and deflections were found to be 0.282 MPa and 3.4 mm, respectively. Dynamic pressures on the airfoil range of 1.04 to 1.23 kPa corresponding to velocity magnitudes in the range of 22 to 66 m/s.
Keywords: ANSYS, finite element, FSI, UAV, vibrationsProcedia PDF Downloads 428
1061 A Novel Approach towards Test Case Prioritization Technique
Authors: Kamna Solanki, Yudhvir Singh, Sandeep Dalal
Abstract:Software testing is a time and cost intensive process. A scrutiny of the code and rigorous testing is required to identify and rectify the putative bugs. The process of bug identification and its consequent correction is continuous in nature and often some of the bugs are removed after the software has been launched in the market. This process of code validation of the altered software during the maintenance phase is termed as Regression testing. Regression testing ubiquitously considers resource constraints; therefore, the deduction of an appropriate set of test cases, from the ensemble of the entire gamut of test cases, is a critical issue for regression test planning. This paper presents a novel method for designing a suitable prioritization process to optimize fault detection rate and performance of regression test on predefined constraints. The proposed method for test case prioritization m-ACO alters the food source selection criteria of natural ants and is basically a modified version of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO). The proposed m-ACO approach has been coded in 'Perl' language and results are validated using three examples by computation of Average Percentage of Faults Detected (APFD) metric.
Keywords: regression testing, software testing, test case prioritization, test suite optimizationProcedia PDF Downloads 232
1060 Tribological Behavior of Warm Rolled Spray Formed Al-6Si-1Mg-1Graphite Composite
Authors: Surendra Kumar Chourasiya, Sandeep Kumar, Devendra Singh
Abstract:In the present investigation tribological behavior of Al-6Si-1Mg-1Graphite composite has been explained. The composite was developed through the unique spray forming route in the spray forming chamber by using N₂ gas at 7kg/cm² and the flight distance was 400 mm. Spray formed composite having a certain amount of porosity which was reduced by the deformations. The composite was subjected to the warm rolling (WR) at 250ºC up to 40% reduction. Spray forming composite shows the considerable microstructure refinement, equiaxed grains, distribution of silicon and graphite particles in the primary matrix of the composite. Graphite (Gr) was incorporated externally during the process that works as a solid lubricant. Porosity decreased after reduction and hardness increases. Pin on disc test has been performed to analyze the wear behavior which is the function of sliding distance for all percent reduction of the composite. 30% WR composite shows the better result of wear rate and coefficient of friction. The improved wear properties of the composite containing Gr are discussed in light of the microstructural features of spray formed the composite and the nature of the debris particles. Scanning electron microscope and optical microscope analysis of the present material supported the prediction of aforementioned changes.
Keywords: Al-6Si-1Mg-1Graphite, spray forming, warm rolling, wearProcedia PDF Downloads 493
1059 A Process for Prevention of Browning in Fresh Cut Tender Jackfruit
Authors: Ramachandra Pradhan, Sandeep Singh Rama, Sabyasachi Mishra
Abstract:Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) in its tender form is consumed as a vegetable and popular for its flavour, colour and meat like texture. In South Asian countries like Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Indonesia the market value for tender jackfruit is very high. However, due to lack of technology the marketing and transportation of the fruit is a challenge. The processing activities like washing, sorting, peeling and cutting enhances oxidative stress in fresh cut jackfruit. It is also having the ill effects on quality of fresh cut tender jackfruit by an increase in microbial contaminations, excessive tissue softening, and depletion of phytochemicals and browning. Hence, this study was conducted as a solution to the above problem. Fresh cut tender Jackfruit slices were processed by using the independent parameters such as concentration of CaCl2 (2-5%), concentration of citric acid (1-2.5%) and treatment time (4-10 min.) and the depended variables were Browning index (BI), colour change (ΔE), Firmness (F) and Overall all acceptability (OAA) after the treatment. From the response variables the best combination of independent variables was resulted as 3% concentration of CaCl2 and 2% concentration of citric acid for 6 minutes. At these optimised processing treatments, the browning can be prevented for fresh cut tender jackfruit. This technology can be used by the researcher, scientists, industries, etc. for further processing of tender jackfruit.
Keywords: tender jackfruit, browning index, firmness, textureProcedia PDF Downloads 203
1058 Mind-Wandering and Attention: Evidence from Behavioral and Subjective Perspective
Authors: Riya Mishra, Trayambak Tiwari, Anju Lata Singh, I. L. Singh, Tara Singh
Abstract:Decrement in vigilance task performance echoes impediment in effortful attention; here attention fluctuated in the realm of external and internal milieu of a person. To examine this fluctuation across time period, we employed two experiments of vigilance task with variation in thought probing rate, which was embedded in the task. The thought probe varies in terms of <2 minute per thought probe and <4 minute per thought probe during vigilance task. A 2x4 repeated measure factorial design was used. 15 individuals participated in this study with an age range of 20-26 years. It was found that thought probing rate has a negative trend with vigilance task performance whereas the subjective measures of mind-wandering have a positive relation with thought probe rate.
Keywords: criterion response, mental status, mind-wandering, thought probe, vigilanceProcedia PDF Downloads 297
1057 Characterisation and in vitro Corrosion Resistance of Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite and Hydroxyapatite: Silicon Oxide Coatings on 316L SS
Authors: Gurpreet Singh, Hazoor Singh, Buta Singh Sidhu
Abstract:In the current investigation plasma spray technique was used for depositing hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA – silicon oxide (SiO2) coatings on 316L SS substrate. In HA-SiO2 coating, 20 wt% SiO2 was mixed with HA. The feedstock and coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses. The corrosion resistance of the uncoated, HA coated and HA + 20 wt% SiO2 coated 316L SS was investigated by electrochemical corrosion testing in simulated human body fluid (Ringer’s solution). The influence of SiO2 (20 wt%) on corrosion resistance was determined. After the corrosion testing, the samples were analyzed by XRD and SEM/EDX analyses. The addition of SiO2 reduces the crystallinity of the coating. The corrosion resistance of the 316L SS was found to increase after the deposition of the HA + 20 wt% SiO2 and HA coatings.
Keywords: HA, SiO2, corrosion, Ringer’s solution, 316L SSProcedia PDF Downloads 296
1056 Reduction of Wear via Hardfacing of Rotavator Blades
Authors: Gurjinder Singh Randhawa, Jonny Garg, Sukhraj Singh, Gurmeet Singh Cheema
Abstract:A major problem related to the use of rotavator is wear of rotavator blades due to abrasion by soil hard particles, as it seriously affects tillage quality and agricultural production economy. The objective of this study was to increase the wear resistance by covering the rotavator blades with two different hard facing electrodes. These blades are generally produced from low carbon or low alloy steel. During the field work i.e. preparing land for the cultivation these blades are subjected to severe wear conditions. Comparative wear tests on a regular rotavator blade and two kinds of hardfacing with electrodes were conducted in the field. These two different hardfacing electrodes, which are designated HARD ALLOY-400 and HARD ALLOY-650, were used for hardfacing. The wear rate in the field tests was found to be significantly different statistically. When the cost is taken into consideration; HARD ALLOY-650 and HARD ALLOY-400 have been found to be the best hardfacing electrodes.
Keywords: hardfacing, rotavator blades, hard alloy-400, abrasive wearProcedia PDF Downloads 328
1055 Impact of Instrument Transformer Secondary Connections on Performance of Protection System: Experiences from Indian POWERGRID
Authors: Pankaj Kumar Jha, Mahendra Singh Hada, Brijendra Singh, Sandeep Yadav
Abstract:Protective relays are commonly connected to the secondary windings of instrument transformers, i.e., current transformers (CTs) and/or capacitive voltage transformers (CVTs). The purpose of CT and CVT is to provide galvanic isolation from high voltages and reduce primary currents and voltages to a nominal quantity recognized by the protective relays. Selecting the correct instrument transformers for an application is imperative: failing to do so may compromise the relay’s performance, as the output of the instrument transformer may no longer be an accurately scaled representation of the primary quantity. Having an accurately rated instrument transformer is of no use if these devices are not properly connected. The performance of the protective relay is reliant on its programmed settings and on the current and voltage inputs from the instrument transformers secondary. This paper will help in understanding the fundamental concepts of the connections of Instrument Transformers to the protection relays and the effect of incorrect connection on the performance of protective relays. Multiple case studies of protection system mal-operations due to incorrect connections of instrument transformers will be discussed in detail in this paper. Apart from the connection issue of instrument transformers to protective relays, this paper will also discuss the effect of multiple earthing of CTs and CVTs secondary on the performance of the protection system. Case studies presented in this paper will help the readers to analyse the problem through real-world challenges in complex power system networks. This paper will also help the protection engineer in better analysis of disturbance records. CT and CVT connection errors can lead to undesired operations of protection systems. However, many of these operations can be avoided by adhering to industry standards and implementing tried-and-true field testing and commissioning practices. Understanding the effect of missing neutral of CVT, multiple earthing of CVT secondary, and multiple grounding of CT star points on the performance of the protection system through real-world case studies will help the protection engineer in better commissioning the protection system and maintenance of the protection system.
Keywords: bus reactor, current transformer, capacitive voltage transformer, distance protection, differential protection, directional earth fault, disturbance report, instrument transformer, ICT, REF protection, shunt reactor, voltage selection relay, VT fuse failureProcedia PDF Downloads 14
1054 Exploring Relationship between Attention and Consciousness
Authors: Aarushi Agarwal, Tara Singh, Anju Lata Singh, Trayambak Tiwari, Indramani Lal Singh
Abstract:The existing interdependent relationship between attention and consciousness has been put to debate since long. To testify the nature, dual-task paradigm has been used to simultaneously manipulate awareness and attention. With central discrimination task which is attentional demanding, participants also perform simple discrimination task in the periphery in near absence of attention. Individual-based analysis of performance accuracy in single and dual condition showed and above chance level performance i.e. more than 80%. In order to widen the understanding of extent of discrimination carried in near absence of attention, natural image and its geometric equivalent shape were presented in the periphery; synthetic objects accounted to lower level of performance than natural objects in dual condition. The gaze plot and heatmap indicate that peripheral performance do not necessarily involve saccade every time, verifying the discrimination in the periphery was in near absence of attention. Thus our studies show an interdependent nature of attention and awareness.
Keywords: attention, awareness, dual task paradigm, natural and geometric imagesProcedia PDF Downloads 421
1053 Experimental Investigation on Sustainable Machining of Hastelloy C-276 Utilizing Different Cooling Strategies
Authors: Balkar Singh, Gurpreet Singh, Vivek Aggarwal, Sehijpal Singh
Abstract:The present research focused to improve the machinability of Hastelloy C-276 at different machining speeds such as 31, 55, and 79 m/min. The use of CO2 gas and Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) was applied as coolant and lubrication purposes to enhance the machinability of the superalloy. The output in the form of surface roughness (S.R) and heat generation was monitored under dry, MQL, and MQL-CO2-cooled conditions. The Design of the Experiment was prepared using MINITAB software utilizing Taguchi L-27 orthogonal arrays followed by ANOVA analysis for finding the impact of input variables on output responses. At different speeds and lubrication conditions, different behavioral patterns for Surface Roughness and the temperature was observed. ANOVA analysis depicted that the cooling environment impacted the S.R. majorly (50%) followed by cutting speed (29.84%), feed rate (5.09%), and least through depth of cut (4.95%). On the other side, the temperature was greatly influenced by cutting speed (69.12%), Cryo-MQL (8.09%), feed rate (7.59%), and depth of cut (6.20%). Experimental results revealed that Cryo-MQL cooling enhanced the Surface roughness by 12% compared to MQL condition.
Keywords: Hastelloy C-276, minimum quantity lubrication, olive oil, cryogenic Cooling (CO2)Procedia PDF Downloads 11
1052 Error Analysis of Wavelet-Based Image Steganograhy Scheme
Authors: Geeta Kasana, Kulbir Singh, Satvinder Singh
Abstract:In this paper, a steganographic scheme for digital images using Integer Wavelet Transform (IWT) is proposed. The cover image is decomposed into wavelet sub bands using IWT. Each of the subband is divided into blocks of equal size and secret data is embedded into the largest and smallest pixel values of each block of the subband. Visual quality of stego images is acceptable as PSNR between cover image and stego is above 40 dB, imperceptibility is maintained. Experimental results show better tradeoff between capacity and visual perceptivity compared to the existing algorithms. Maximum possible error analysis is evaluated for each of the wavelet subbands of an image. Procedia PDF Downloads 370
1051 Application of Space Technology at Cadestral Level and Land Resources Management with Special Reference to Bhoomi Sena Project of Uttar Pradesh, India
Authors: A. K. Srivastava, Sandeep K. Singh, A. K. Kulshetra
Abstract:Agriculture is the backbone of developing countries of Asian sub-continent like India. Uttar Pradesh is the most populous and fifth largest State of India. Total population of the state is 19.95 crore, which is 16.49% of the country that is more than that of many other countries of the world. Uttar Pradesh occupies only 7.36% of the total area of India. It is a well-established fact that agriculture has virtually been the lifeline of the State’s economy in the past for long and its predominance is likely to continue for a fairly long time in future. The total geographical area of the state is 242.01 lakh hectares, out of which 120.44 lakh hectares is facing various land degradation problems. This needs to be put under various conservation and reclamation measures at much faster pace in order to enhance agriculture productivity in the State. Keeping in view the above scenario Department of Agriculture, Government of Uttar Pradesh has formulated a multi-purpose project namely Bhoomi Sena for the entire state. The main objective of the project is to improve the land degradation using low cost technology available at village level. The total outlay of the project is Rs. 39643.75 Lakhs for an area of about 226000 ha included in the 12th Five Year Plan (2012-13 to 2016-17). It is expected that the total man days would be 310.60 lakh. An attempt has been made to use the space technology like remote sensing, geographical information system, at cadastral level for the overall management of agriculture engineering work which is required for the treatment of degradation of the land. After integration of thematic maps a proposed action plan map has been prepared for the future work.
Keywords: GPS, GIS, remote sensing, topographic survey, cadestral mappingProcedia PDF Downloads 245
1050 Digital Image Forensics: Discovering the History of Digital Images
Authors: Gurinder Singh, Kulbir Singh
Abstract:Digital multimedia contents such as image, video, and audio can be tampered easily due to the availability of powerful editing softwares. Multimedia forensics is devoted to analyze these contents by using various digital forensic techniques in order to validate their authenticity. Digital image forensics is dedicated to investigate the reliability of digital images by analyzing the integrity of data and by reconstructing the historical information of an image related to its acquisition phase. In this paper, a survey is carried out on the forgery detection by considering the most recent and promising digital image forensic techniques.
Keywords: Computer Forensics, Multimedia Forensics, Image Ballistics, Camera Source Identification, Forgery DetectionProcedia PDF Downloads 156