Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 111

Search results for: phyto-chemicals

111 Understanding Health-Related Properties of Grapes by Pharmacokinetic Modelling of Intestinal Absorption

Authors: Sophie N. Selby-Pham, Yudie Wang, Louise Bennett

Abstract:

Consumption of grapes promotes health and reduces the risk of chronic diseases due to the action of grape phytochemicals in regulation of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation (OSI). The bioefficacy of phytochemicals depends on their absorption in the human body. The time required for phytochemicals to achieve maximal plasma concentration (Tₘₐₓ) after oral intake reflects the time window of maximal bioefficacy of phytochemicals, with Tₘₐₓ dependent on physicochemical properties of phytochemicals. This research collated physicochemical properties of grape phytochemicals from white and red grapes to predict their Tₘₐₓ using pharmacokinetic modelling. The predicted values of Tₘₐₓ were then compared to the measured Tₘₐₓ collected from clinical studies to determine the accuracy of prediction. In both liquid and solid intake forms, white grapes exhibit a shorter Tₘₐₓ range (0.5-2.5 h) versus red grapes (1.5-5h). The prediction accuracy of Tₘₐₓ for grape phytochemicals was 33.3% total error of prediction compared to the mean, indicating high prediction accuracy. Pharmacokinetic modelling allows prediction of Tₘₐₓ without costly clinical trials, informing dosing frequency for sustained presence of phytochemicals in the body to optimize the health benefits of phytochemicals.

Keywords: absorption kinetics, phytochemical, phytochemical absorption prediction model, Vitis vinifera

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110 Interaction of Phytochemicals Present in Green Tea, Honey and Cinnamon to Human Melanocortin 4 Receptor

Authors: Chinmayee Choudhury

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Human Melanocortin 4 Receptor (HMC4R) is one of the most potential drug targets for the treatment of obesity which controls the appetite. A deletion of the residues 88-92 in HMC4R is sometimes the cause of severe obesity in the humans. In this study, two homology models are constructed for the normal as well as mutated HMC4Rs and some phytochemicals present in Green Tea, Honey and Cinnamon have been docked to them to study their differential binding to the normal and mutated HMC4R as compared to the natural agonist α- MSH. Two homology models have been constructed for the normal as well as mutated HMC4Rs using the Modeller9v7. Some of the phytochemicals present in Green Tea, Honey, and Cinnamon, which have appetite suppressant activities are constructed, minimized and docked to these normal and mutated HMC4R models using ArgusLab 4.0.1. The mode of binding of the phytochemicals with the Normal and Mutated HMC4Rs have been compared. Further, the mode of binding of these phytochemicals with that of the natural agonist α- Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone(α-MSH) to both normal and mutated HMC4Rs have also been studied. It is observed that the phytochemicals Kaempherol, Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) present in Green Tea and Honey, Isorhamnetin, Chlorogenic acid, Chrysin, Galangin, Pinocambrin present in Honey, Cinnamaldehyde, Cinnamyl acetate and Cinnamyl alcohol present in Cinnamon have capacity to form more stable complexes with the Mutated HMC4R as compared to α- MSH. So they may be potential agonists of HMC4R to suppress the appetite.

Keywords: HMC4R, α-MSH, docking, photochemical, appetite suppressant, homology modelling

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109 Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Leaves, Stem-Bark, Root, Fruits, and Seeds and Ethanolic Extracts

Authors: I. Sani, F. Bello, Isah M. Fakai, A. Abdulhamid

Abstract:

Phytochemicals are active secondary plant metabolites responsible for most of the claimed medicinal activities of plants. Eucalyptus camaldulensis is one of those plants that possess these phytochemicals and claimed to possess medicinal activities on various ailments. The phytochemicals constituents of various parts of this plant were investigated using standard methods of phytochemicals screening in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Qualitative screening revealed that tannins, saponins, glycosides, steroids, and anthraquinones were present in aqueous extract of all the parts of the plant, whereas alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were absent. On the other hand, tannins and steroids were present in the ethanolic extract of all the parts of the plant, while saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were present only in some parts of the plant. However, glycosides and anthraquinone were absent in all the ethanolic extracts. The quantitative screening revealed large amount of saponins in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts across the various parts of the plant. Whereas small amount of tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids were found only in the ethanolic extract of some parts of the plant. The presence of these phytochemicals in Eucalyptus camaldulensis could therefore justify the applications of the plant in management and curing of various ailments as claimed traditionally.

Keywords: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, phytochemical screening, aqueous extract, ethanolic extract

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108 Eucalyptus camaldulensis: Phytochemical Composition of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of the Leaves, Stem-Bark, Root, Fruits, and Seeds

Authors: I. Sani, A. Abdulhamid, F. Bello, Isah M. Fakai

Abstract:

Phytochemicals are active secondary plant metabolites responsible for most of the claimed medicinal activities of plants. Eucalyptus camaldulensis is one of those plants that possess these phytochemicals and claimed to possess medicinal activities on various ailments. The phytochemicals constituents of various parts of this plant were investigated using standard methods of phytochemicals screening in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Qualitative screening revealed that tannins, saponins, glycosides, steroids and anthraquinones were present in aqueous extract of all the parts of the plant, whereas alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were absent. On the other hand, tannins and steroids were present in the ethanolic extract of all the parts of the plant, while saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were present only in some parts of the plant. However, glycosides and anthraquinone were absent in all the ethanolic extracts. The quantitative screening revealed large amount of saponins in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts across the various parts of the plant. Whereas small amount of tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids were found only in the ethanolic extract of some parts of the plant. The presence of these phytochemicals in Eucalyptus camaldulensis could therefore justify the applications of the plant in management and curing of various ailments as claimed traditionally.

Keywords: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, phytochemical Screening, aqueous extract, ethanolic extract

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107 Phytochemicals, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Screening of Marine Microalgal Strain, Amphora Sp.

Authors: S. Beekrum, B. Odhav, R. Lalloo, E. A. Amonsou

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Marine microalgae are rich sources of novel and biologically active metabolites; therefore they may be used in the food industry as natural food ingredients and functional foods. They have several biological applications related to health benefits, among others. The aim of the study focused on the screening of phytochemicals from Amphora sp. biomass extracts, and to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. Amphora sp. biomass was obtained from CSIR (South Africa) and methanol, hexane and water extracts were prepared. The in vitro antimicrobial effect of extracts were tested against some pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans), using the disc diffusion assay. Qualitative analyses of phytochemicals were conducted by chemical tests. The present investigation revealed that all extracts showed relatively strong antibacterial activity against most of the tested bacteria. The highest phenolic content was found in the methanolic extract. Results of the DPPH assay showed that the biomass contained strong antioxidant capacity, 79% in the methanolic extract and 85% in the hexane extract. Extracts have displayed effectively reducing power and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity. Results of this study have highlighted potential antioxidant activity in the methanol and hexane extracts. The results of the phytochemical screening showed the presence of terpenoids and sterols with potential applications as food flavorants and functional foods, respectively. The use of Amphora sp. as a natural antioxidant source and a potential source of antibacterial compounds and phytochemicals in the food industry appears promising and should be investigated further.

Keywords: antioxidants, antimicrobial, microalgae, phytochemicals, cymbella

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106 Phytochemical Screening and Toxicological Studies of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Boswellia papyrifera (DEL) in Rats

Authors: Y. Abdulmumin, K. I. Matazu, A. M. Wudil, A. J. Alhassan, A. A. Imam

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Phytochemical analysis of Boswellia papryfera confirms the presence of various phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycosides in its aqueous stem bark extract at different concentration, with tannins being the highest (0.611 ± 0.002 g %). Acute toxicity test (LD50, oral, rat) of the extract showed no mortality at up to 5000 mg/kg and the animals were found active and healthy. The extract was declared as practically non-toxic, this suggest the safety of the extract in traditional medicine.

Keywords: acute toxicity, aqueous extract, boswellia papryfera, phytochemicals and stem bark

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105 Phytochemical Screening and Toxicological Studies of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Boswellia papyrifera (DEL) in Albino Rats

Authors: Y. Abdulmumin, K. I. Matazu, A. M. Wudil, A. J. Alhassan, A. A. Imam

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Phytochemical analysis of Boswellia papryfera confirms the presence of various phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycosides in its aqueous stem bark extract at different concentration, with tannins being the highest (0.611 ± 0.002 g %). Acute toxicity test (LD50,oral, rat) of the extract showed no mortality at up to 5000 mg/kg and the animals were found active and healthy. The extract was declared as practically non-toxic, this suggest the safety of the extract in traditional medicine.

Keywords: acute toxicity, aqueous extract, boswellia papryfera, phytochemicals, stem bark extract

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104 Effects of Drying Temperatures on the Qualitative and Quantitative Phytochemicals of Aqueous Extracts If the Calyces of Hibiscus Sabdariffa

Authors: John O. Efosa, S. Egielewa, M. A. Azeke

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Hibiscus sabdariffa (Hs) is known for its delicacy and also for medicinal properties. The flower calyces are usually sun- or oven-dried after harvesting. There are unverified claims that calyces dried at lower temperatures have better medicinal potentials than those dried at higher temperatures. The present work, therefore, aimed to study the effects of drying temperatures on the photochemical composition and antioxidant potential of aqueous extracts of the calyces of Hs. The calyces were dried at different temperatures (freeze-drying at -580C, drying at 300C, 400C, and 500 C.) respectively to constant weight. Samples (25 g) of dried calyces from each drying temperatures were weighed and placed in clean conical flasks and extracted; each was used for the analysis. Validated analytical assays were used for the determination of the different Phytochemicals. From the results obtained, it was observed that drying at 30°C resulted in the highest retention of total phenols, total flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids and saponins. Using the Inhibition Concentration values (IC50), some antioxidant parameters were found to follow the same trend as the earlier mentioned phytochemicals. Drying at 30°C resulted in the highest retention of DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential (FRAP), Nitrite radical scavenging Activity, 2, 2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzotiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity There were, however, significant reductions in vitamin C and oxalate contents as the drying temperature increased (P < 0.05). From the results, it recommended that the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa be dried at 30°C in order to optimally elicit its medicinal potentials.

Keywords: antioxidant, drying temperature, hibiscus sabdariffa, phytochemicals, quantitative

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103 Health Promoting Properties of Phytochemicals from Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) for Cancer and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Authors: Jeremy J. Johnson

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Mediterranean herbs including rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) contain a variety of phytochemicals including diterpenes that possess extensive biological activity. Applications of diterpenes, including the more abundant forms carnosol and carnosic acid, have been shown to possess anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferation properties. To confirm these properties, we have evaluated rosemary extract and selected diterpenes for biological activity in cancer and inflammatory models. Our preliminary data have revealed that select diterpenes can disrupt androgen receptor functionality in prostate and breast cancer cells. This property is unique among natural products for hormone-responsive cancers. The second area of interest has been evaluating rosemary extract and selected diterpenes for activation of sestrin-2, an antioxidant protein, in colon cancer cells. A combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches have been utilized to characterize the activity of rosemary diterpenes in rosemary. Taken together, these results suggest that phytochemicals found in rosemary have distinct pharmacological actions for disrupting cell-signaling pathways in cancer and inflammatory bowel disease.

Keywords: rosemary, diterpene, cancer, inflammation

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102 Phytochemical Content and Bioactive Properties of Wheat Sprouts

Authors: Jasna Čanadanović-Brunet, Lidija Jevrić, Gordana Ćetković, Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Jelena Vulić, Slađana Stajčić

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Wheat contains high amount of nutrients such as dietary fiber, resistant starch, vitamins, minerals and microconstituents, which are building blocks of body tissues, but also help in the prevention of diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes. Sprouting enhances the nutritional value of whole wheat through biosynthesis of tocopherols, polyphenols and other valuable phytochemicals. Since the nutritional and sensory benefits of germination have been extensively documented, using of sprouted grains in food formulations is becoming a trend in healthy foods. The present work addressed the possibility of using freeze-dried sprouted wheat powder, obtained from spelt-wheat cv. ‘Nirvana’ (Triticum spelta L.) and winter wheat cv. ‘Simonida’ (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. vulgare var. lutescens), as a source of phytochemicals, to improve the functional status of the consumer. The phytochemicals' content (total polyphenols, flavonoids, chlorophylls and carotenoids) and biological activities (antioxidant activity on DPPH radicals and antiinflammatory activity) of sprouted wheat powders were assessed spectrophotometrically. The content of flavonoids (216.52 mg RE/100 g), carotenoids (22.84 mg β-carotene/100 g) and chlorophylls (131.23 mg/100 g), as well as antiinflammatory activity (EC50=3.70 mg/ml) was found to be higher in sprouted spelt-wheat powder, while total polyphenols (607.21 mg GAE/100 g) and antioxidant activity on DDPPH radicals (EC50=0.27 mmol TE/100 g) was found to be higher in sprouted winter wheat powders. Simulation of gastro-intestinal digestion of sprouted wheat powders clearly shows that intestinal digestion caused a higher release of polyphenols than gastric digestion for both samples, which indicates their higher bioavailability in the colon. The results of the current study have shown that wheat sprouts can provide a high content of phytochemicals and considerable bioactivities. Moreover, data reported show that they contain a unique pattern of bioactive molecules, which make these cereal sprouts attractive functional foods for a health-promoting diet.

Keywords: wheat, sprouts, phytochemicals, bioactivity

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101 Extraction and Antibacterial Studies of Oil from Three Mango Kernel Obtained from Makurdi, Nigeria

Authors: K. Asemave, D. O. Abakpa, T. T. Ligom

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The ability of bacteria to develop resistance to many antibiotics cannot be undermined, given the multifaceted health challenges in the present times. For this reason, a lot of attention is on botanicals and their products in search of new antibacterial agents. On the other hand, mango kernel oils (MKO) can be heavily valorized by taking advantage of the myriads bioactive phytochemicals it contains. Herein, we validated the use of MKO as bioactive agent against bacteria. The MKOs for the study were extracted by soxhlet means with ethanol and hexane for 4 h from 3 different mango kernels, namely; 'local' (sample A), 'julie' (sample B), and 'john' (sample C). Prior to the extraction, ground fine particles of the kernels were obtained from the seed kernels dried in oven at 100 °C for 8 h. Hexane gave higher yield of the oils than ethanol. It was also qualitatively confirmed that the mango kernel oils contain some phytochemicals such as phenol, quinone, saponin, and terpenoid. The results of the antibacterial activities of the MKO against both gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) at different concentrations showed that the oils extracted with ethanol gave better antibacterial properties than those of the hexane. More so, the bioactivities were best with the local mango kernel oil. Indeed this work has completely validated the previous claim that MKOs are effective antibacterial agents. Thus, these oils (especially the ethanol-derived ones) can be used as bacteriostatic and antibacterial agents in say food, cosmetics, and allied industries.

Keywords: bacteria, mango, kernel, oil, phytochemicals

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100 Phytochemical Screening and Hepatotoxic Effect of Datura metel Linn. Aqueous Seed Extract in Albino Wistar Rats

Authors: I. M. Fakai, A. Abdulhamid, I. Sani, F. Bello, E. O. Olusesi

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The phytochemical screening and hepatotoxic effect of Datura metel aqueous seeds extract in Albino Wistar rats were evaluated. Phytochemicals were screened using standard methods. The enzymes activity and liver function indices were also determined using standard methods of analysis. The phytochemicals screening revealed the presence of alkaloid, tannin, glycoside and flavonoid. The organ-body weight decreased significantly (P<0.05) at all the doses of the extract treated groups compared to the control. The activity of alkaline phosphatase decreased significantly (P<0.05) in the liver and increased significantly in the serum at all the doses of the extract treated groups compared to the control. The activity of serum alanine transaminase increased significantly (P<0.05) while there is no significant difference (P>0.05) in the activity liver alanine transaminase at all the doses of the extract treated groups compared to the control. The result also revealed significant increase (P<0.05) in the aspartate transaminase activity in both liver and serum at all doses of the extract treated groups compared to the control. Serum total protein, albumin, globulin, and total bilirubin concentration decreased significantly (P<0.05), while direct bilirubin concentration increased significantly (P<0.05) at all the doses of the extract treated groups compared to the control. The present study therefore revealed that, the present of some phytochemicals in the plant extract attributed the plant to its hepatotoxic effects as revealed in the alteration of marker enzymes and some liver function indices analyzed.

Keywords: datura metel, transaminases, hepatotoxic effect, phytochemicals, rats

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99 Phyto-Therapeutic, Functional and Nutritional Acclaims of Turnip (Brassica rapus L.): An Overview

Authors: Tabussam Tufail

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Purpose: The core purpose of the current review article is to elaborate the phytochemicals present in turnip (brassica rapus l.) and also allied health claims. Plant-based foods contain a significant amount of bioactive compounds which provide desirable health benefits beyond the basic nutrition. Epidemiological evidence suggests that consumption of a diet rich in vegetables and fruits has positive implications for human health. Design: Potential of turnip peroxidase (TP) for the treatment of phenolic-contaminated solutions has been reviewed. However, issues of taste along with behavioral nutrition ought to be considered. So in the last decades, special attention has been paid towards edible plants, especially those that are rich in secondary metabolites (frequently called phytochemicals) and nowadays, there is an increasing interest in the antioxidant activity of such phytochemicals present in the diet. These chemicals favor nutritional and phytotherapy that is emerging as new concepts of health aid in recent years. Turnip is rich in these valuable ingredients though it can be employed as having health promoting and healing properties. Findings: Numerous bioactive components i.e. organic acids, phenolic compounds, turnip peroxidase, kaempeferol, vitamin-K, etc. are present in turnip. The review focused on the significance of plant derived (especially turnip) phenolic compounds as a source of certain beneficial compounds for human health. Owing to the presence of bioactive moieties, the turnip has high antioxidant activity, positive role in blood clotting, effectual in phenobarbital-induced sleeping time, effective against hepatic injury in diabetics and also have a good hepatoprotective role. Strong recommendations for consumption of nutraceuticals from turnip have become progressively popular to improve health, and to prevent from diseases.

Keywords: phytochemicals, turnip, antioxidants, health benefits

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98 A Multi-Beneficial Gift of Nature (Noni Fruit): Nutritional, Functional, and Post-Harvest Aspects

Authors: Mahsa Moteshakeri

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Morinda citrifolia L., a miracle fruit with common name of Noni, has been widely used as food and traditional medicine in the Polynesians culture. Current scientific evidences have proved the therapeautical and nutritional properties of this fruit so that its extensive production in tropical regions in recent years has emerged a competitive global Noni market mainly as a dietary supplement in the form of juice or tablet. However, there is not much record on the processing method applied on fresh fruit postharvest or even its mechanism of action in controlling diseases. This review aimed to provide a comprehensive data on phytochemicals, technical, and nutritional advances on Noni fruit and recent patents published, as well as medicinal properties of the fruit in order to benefit future investigations on this precious fruit either in industrial or therapeautical section.

Keywords: noni fruit, phytochemicals, therapeautic properties of fruit, nutritional properties of fruit

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97 Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Ficus sagittifolia (Warburg Ex Mildbread and Burret)

Authors: Taiwo O. Margaret, Olaoluwa O. Olaoluwa

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Moraceae family has immense phytochemical constituents and significant pharmacological properties, hence have great medicinal values. The aim of this study was to screen and quantify phytochemicals as well as the antioxidant activities of the leaf and stem bark extracts and fractions (crude ethanol extracts, n-hexane, ethyl acetate and aqueous ethanol fractions) of Ficus sagittifolia. Leaf and stem bark of F. sagittifolia were extracted by maceration method using ethanol to give ethanol crude extract. The ethanol crude extract was partitioned by n-hexane and ethyl-acetate to give their respective fractions. All the extracts were screened for their phytochemicals using standard methods. The total phenolic, flavonoid, tannin, saponin contents and antioxidant activity were determined by spectrophotometric method while the alkaloid content was evaluated by titrimetric method. The amount of total phenolic in extracts and fractions were estimated in comparison to gallic acid, whereas total flavonoids, tannins and saponins were estimated corresponding to quercetin, tannic acid and saponin respectively. 2, 2-diphenylpicryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH)* and phosphomolybdate methods were used to evaluate the antioxidant activities of leaf and stem bark of F. sagittifolia. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids/steroids, alkaloids for both extracts of leaf and stem bark of F. sagittifolia. The phenolic content of F. sagittifolia was most abundant in leaf ethanol crude extract as 3.53 ± 0.03 mg/g equivalent of gallic acid. Total flavonoids and tannins content were highest in stem bark aqueous ethanol fraction of F. sagittifolia estimated as 3.41 ± 0.08 mg/g equivalent of quercetin and 1.52 ± 0.05 mg/g equivalent of tannic acid respectively. The hexane leaf fraction of F. sagittifolia had the utmost saponin and alkaloid content as 5.10 ± 0.48 mg/g equivalent of saponins and 0.171 ± 0.39 g of alkaloids. Leaf aqueous ethanol fraction of F. sagittifolia showed high antioxidant activity (IC50 value of 63.092 µg/mL) and stem ethanol crude extract (227.43 ± 0.78 mg/g equivalent of ascorbic acid) for DPPH and phosphomolybdate method respectively and the least active was found to be the stem hexane fraction using both methods (313.32 µg/mL; 16.21 ± 1.30 mg/g equivalent of ascorbic acid). The presence of these phytochemicals in the leaf and stem bark of F. sagittifolia are responsible for their therapeutic importance as well as the ability to scavenge free radicals in living systems.

Keywords: Moraceae, Ficus sagittifolia, phytochemicals, antioxidant

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96 Effects of Microwave Heating Rate on the Color, Total Anthocyanin Content and Total Phenolics of Elderberry Juice during Come-up-Time

Authors: Balunkeswar Nayak, Hanjun Cao, Xinruo Zhang

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Elderberry could protect human health from oxidative stress, and reduce aging and certain cardiovascular diseases due to the presence of bioactive phytochemicals with high antioxidant capacity. However, these bioactive phytochemicals, such as anthocyanins and other phenolic acids, are susceptible to degradation during processing of elderberries to juice, jam, and powder due to intensity and duration of thermal exposure. The effects of microwave heating rate during come-up-times, using a domestic 2450 MHz microwave, on the color, total anthocyanin content and total phenolics on elderberry juice was studied. With a variation of come-up-time from 30 sec to 15 min at different power levels (10–50 % of total wattage), the temperature of elderberry juice vary from 40.6 °C to 91.5 °C. However, the color parameters (L, A, and B), total anthocyanin content (using pH differential method) and total phenolics did not vary significantly when compared to the control samples.

Keywords: elderberry, microwave, color, thermal exposure

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95 Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Leaves

Authors: Amit Keshav, Alok Sharma, Bidyut Mazumdar

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Colocasia esculenta leaves and roots are widely used in Asian countries, such as, India, Srilanka and Pakistan, as food and feed material. The root is high in carbohydrates and rich in zinc. The leaves and stalks are often traditionally preserved to be eaten in dry season. Leaf juice is stimulant, expectorant, astringent, appetizer, and otalgia. Looking at the medicinal uses of the plant leaves; phytochemicals were extracted from the plant leaves and were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to find the functional groups. Phytochemical analysis of Colocasia esculenta (L.) leaf was studied using three solvents (methanol, chloroform, and ethanol) with soxhlet apparatus. Powder of the leaves was employed to obtain the extracts, which was qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed for phytochemical content using standard methods. Phytochemical constituents were abundant in the leave extract. Leaf was found to have various phytochemicals such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, oxalates and phenols etc., which could have lot of medicinal benefits such as reducing headache, treatment of congestive heart failure, prevent oxidative cell damage etc. These phytochemicals were identified using UV spectrophotometer and results were presented. In order to find the antioxidant activity of the extract, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method was employed using ascorbic acid as standard. DPPH scavenging activity of ascorbic acid was found to be 84%, whereas for ethanol it was observed to be 78.92%, for methanol: 76.46% and for chloroform: 72.46%. Looking at the high antioxidant activity, Colocasia esculenta may be recommended for medicinal applications. The characterizations of functional groups were analyzed using FTIR spectroscopy.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Colocasia esculenta, leaves, characterization, FTIR

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94 Chemometric Estimation of Phytochemicals Affecting the Antioxidant Potential of Lettuce

Authors: Milica Karadzic, Lidija Jevric, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanovic, Strahinja Kovacevic, Aleksandra Tepic-Horecki, Zdravko Sumic

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In this paper, the influence of six different phytochemical content (phenols, carotenoids, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a + b and vitamin C) on antioxidant potential of Murai and Levistro lettuce varieties was evaluated. Variable selection was made by generalized pair correlation method (GPCM) as a novel ranking method. This method is used for the discrimination between two variables that almost equal correlate to a dependent variable. Fisher’s conditional exact and McNemar’s test were carried out. Established multiple linear (MLR) models were statistically evaluated. As the best phytochemicals for the antioxidant potential prediction, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a + b and total carotenoids content stand out. This was confirmed through both GPCM and MLR, predictive ability of obtained MLR can be used for antioxidant potential estimation for similar lettuce samples. This article is based upon work from the project of the Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development of Vojvodina (No. 114-451-347/2015-02).

Keywords: antioxidant activity, generalized pair correlation method, lettuce, regression analysis

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93 Determination of 1-Deoxynojirimycin and Phytochemical Profile from Mulberry Leaves Cultivated in Indonesia

Authors: Yasinta Ratna Esti Wulandari, Vivitri Dewi Prasasty, Adrianus Rio, Cindy Geniola

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Mulberry is a plant that widely cultivated around the world, mostly for silk industry. In recent years, the study showed that the mulberry leaves have an anti-diabetic effect which mostly comes from the compound known as 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ). DNJ is a very potent α-glucosidase inhibitor. It will decrease the degradation rate of carbohydrates in digestive tract, leading to slower glucose absorption and reducing the post-prandial glucose level significantly. The mulberry leaves also known as the best source of DNJ. Since then, the DNJ in mulberry leaves had received a considerable attention, because of the increased number of diabetic patients and the raise of people awareness to find a more natural cure for diabetic. The DNJ content in mulberry leaves varied depend on the mulberry species, leaf’s age, and the plant’s growth environment. Few of the mulberry varieties that were cultivated in Indonesiaare Morus alba var. kanva-2, M. alba var. multicaulis, M. bombycis var. lembang, and M. cathayana. The lack of data concerning phytochemicals contained in the Indonesian mulberry leaves are restraining their use in the medicinal field. The aim of this study is to fully utilize the use of mulberry leaves cultivated in Indonesia as a medicinal herb in local, national, or global community, by determining the DNJ and other phytochemical contents in them. This study used eight leaf samples which are the young leaves and mature leaves of both Morus alba var. kanva-2, M. alba var. multicaulis, M. bombycis var. lembang, and M. cathayana. The DNJ content was analyzed using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The stationary phase was silica C18 column and the mobile phase was acetonitrile:acetic acid 0.1% 1:1 with elution rate 1 mL/min. Prior to HPLC analysis the samples were derivatized with FMOC to ensure the DNJ detectable by VWD detector at 254 nm. Results showed that the DNJ content in samples are ranging from 2.90-0.07 mg DNJ/ g leaves, with the highest content found in M. cathayana mature leaves (2.90 ± 0.57 mg DNJ/g leaves). All of the mature leaf samples also found to contain higher amount of DNJ from their respective young leaf samples. The phytochemicals in leaf samples was tested using qualitative test. Result showed that all of the eight leaf samples contain alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, and terpenes. The presence of this phytochemicals contribute to the therapeutic effect of mulberry leaves. The pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) analysis was also performed to the eight samples to quantitatively determine their phytochemicals content. The pyrolysis temperature was set at 400 °C, with capillary column Phase Rtx-5MS 60 × 0.25 mm ID stationary phase and helium gas mobile phase. Few of the terpenes found are known to have anticancer and antimicrobial properties. From all the results, all of four samples of mulberry leaves which are cultivated in Indonesia contain DNJ and various phytochemicals like alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, and terpenes which are beneficial to our health.

Keywords: Morus, 1-deoxynojirimycin, HPLC, Py-GC-MS

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92 Antimicrobial Activity of Seed Oil of Garlic and Moringa oleifera against Some Food-Borne Microorganisms

Authors: Mansur Abdulrasheed, Ibrahim I. Hussein, Ahmed M. Mubarak, Ahmed F. Umar

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This study was aimed at evaluating the phytochemical constituents and the antimicrobial activity of the seed oil of Moringa oleifera and garlic against some selected food-borne microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) using disc diffusion method. The results of the phytochemical screening revealed differences in the presence of the phytochemicals among the extracts. Saponins were detected in both Moringa oleifera and garlic seed oil, while alkaloid and tannins were observed in seed oil of garlic. Furthermore, the antibacterial assay results show that the seed oil of Moringa oleifera was inactive against all the tested organisms, even at 100 % concentration. In contrast, garlic oil was found to be active against all the tested organisms. The highest inhibition was observed in E. coli (12 mm) at 100 % concentration, while at 20 % concentration, Salmonella Sp and P. aeruginosa showed the least inhibiton (6 mm). The antimicrobial activity of the seed oil of garlic may be attributed to its phytochemicals components which were not detected in the seed oil of Moringa oleifera. The results of this study have shown the potentials of the seed oil of garlic as an antimicrobial agent more especially in foods, by inhibiting the growth of the test organisms, which range from food-borne pathogens to food spoilage organisms.

Keywords: antimicrobial, garlic, Moringa oleifera, food borne pathogens

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91 Comparison of Antimicrobial Activity of Seed Oil of Garlic and Moringa oleifera against Some Food-Borne Microorganisms

Authors: Mansur Abdulrasheed, Ibrahim I. Hussein, Ahmed M. Mubarak, Ahmed F. Umar

Abstract:

This study was aimed at evaluating the phytochemical constituents and the antimicrobial activity of the seed oil of Moringa oleifera and garlic against some selected food-borne microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) using disc diffusion method. The results of the phytochemical screening revealed differences in the presence of the phytochemicals among the extracts. Saponins were detected in both Moringa oleifera and garlic seed oil, while alkaloid and tannins were observed in seed oil of garlic. Furthermore, the antibacterial assay results show that the seed oil of Moringa oleifera was inactive against all the tested organisms, even at 100 % concentration. In contrast, garlic oil was found to be active against all the tested organisms. The highest inhibition was observed in E. coli (12 mm)at 100 % concentration, while at 20 % concentration, Salmonella Sp and P. aeruginosa showed the least inhibit on (6 mm). The antimicrobial activity of the seed oil of garlic may be attributed to its phytochemicals components which were not detected in the seed oil of Moringa oleifera. The results of this study have shown the potentials of the seed oil of garlic as an antimicrobial agent more especially in foods, by inhibiting the growth of the test organisms, which range from food-borne pathogens to food spoilage organisms.

Keywords: antimicrobial, garlic, Moringa oleifera, food borne pathogens

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90 Phytochemical Screening and in vitro Antibacterial and Antioxidant Potential of Microalgal Strain, Cymbella

Authors: S. Beekrum, B. Odhav, R. Lalloo, E. O. Amonsou

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Marine microalgae are rich sources of the novel and biologically active metabolites; therefore, they may be used in the food industry as natural food ingredients and functional foods. They have several biological applications related with health benefits, among others. In the past decades, food scientists have been searching for natural alternatives to replace synthetic antioxidants. The use of synthetic antioxidants has decreased due to their suspected activity as promoters of carcinogenesis, as well as consumer rejection of synthetic food additives. The aim of the study focused on screening of phytochemicals from Cymbella biomass extracts, and to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. Cymbella biomass was obtained from CSIR (South Africa), and four different solvents namely methanol, acetone, n-hexane and water were used for extraction. To take into account different antioxidant mechanisms, seven different antioxidant assays were carried out. These include free radical scavenging (DPPH assay), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assay), radical cation (ABTS assay), superoxide anion radical scavenging, reducing power, determination of total phenolic compounds and determination of total flavonoid content. The total content of phenol and flavonoid in extracts were determined as gallic acid equivalent, and as rutin equivalent, respectively. The in vitro antimicrobial effect of extracts were tested against some pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans), using the disc diffusion assay. Qualitative analyses of phytochemicals were conducted by chemical tests to screen for the presence of tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, phenols, steroids, saponins, glycosides and alkaloids. The present investigation revealed that all extracts showed relatively strong antibacterial activity against most of the tested bacteria. The methanolic extract of the biomass contained a significantly high phenolic content of 111.46 mg GAE/g, and the hexane extract contained 65.279 mg GAE/g. Results of the DPPH assay showed that the biomass contained strong antioxidant capacity, 79% in the methanolic extract and 85% in the hexane extract. Extracts have displayed effective reducing power and superoxide anion radical scavenging. Results of this study have highlighted potential antioxidant activity in the methanol and hexane extracts. The obtained results of the phytochemical screening showed the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids, phenols and saponins. The use of Cymbella as a natural antioxidant source and a potential source of antibacterial compounds and phytochemicals in the food industry appears promising and should be investigated further.

Keywords: antioxidants, antimicrobial, Cymbella, microalgae, phytochemicals

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89 Ethnopharmacological Analysis of Fermented Herbal Concoctions

Authors: Ishmael Ntlhamu

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In Limpopo Province, the use of herbal concoctions is becoming very popular. These concoctions are claimed to be capable of treating ulcers, diabetes, certain STDs, blood cleansing, and many more types of diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical composition, evaluate the pharmacological effects and consumption safety in herbal concoctions to treat various kinds of ailments in Limpopo. The concoctions were extracted with 80% acetone. Microorganisms in the concoctions were identified using the Vitek 2 compact system. Qualitative phytochemical analysis was determined using standard chemical tests and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Total polyphenol content was quantified. Antioxidant activity was quantified using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and ferric reducing power. Antimicrobial activities were determined using a broth micro-dilution assay and bioautography. Cell viability assay was used to determine the cytotoxicity. Results showed that concoctions had antioxidant activity. Presence of different phytoconstituents was observed. Isolated microorganisms were identified as Burkholderia pseudomallei, Staphylococcus vitulimus, Enterococcus columbae, Kocuria kristanae, Staphylococcus intermedius, Cryptococcus laurenti. and Burkholderia pseudomallei (highly pathogenic). Therefore, phytochemicals prove that the concoctions can heal as the antimicrobial tests also displayed activity. Moreover, the concoctions did not exhibit cytotoxic effects. However, contaminants raise concerns, not only for consumer safety but also the quality of herbal concoctions available as part of the traditional medicinal practice in Limpopo.

Keywords: antimicrobials, concoctions, cytotoxicity, phytochemicals

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88 Microbial Bioagent Triggered Biochemical Response in Tea (Camellia sinensis) Inducing Resistance against Grey Blight Disease and Yield Enhancement

Authors: Popy Bora, L. C. Bora, A. Bhattacharya, Sehnaz S. Ahmed

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Microbial bioagents, viz., Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis, and Trichoderma viride were assessed for their ability to suppress grey blight caused by Pestalotiopsis theae, a major disease of tea crop in Assam. The expression of defense-related phytochemicals due to the application of these bioagents was also evaluated. The individual bioagents, as well as their combinations, were screened for their bioefficacy against P. theae in vitro using nutrient agar (NA) as basal medium. The treatment comprising a combination of the three bioagents, P. fluorescens, B. subtilis, and T. viride showed significantly the highest inhibition against the pathogen. Bioformulation of effective bioagent combinations was further evaluated under field condition, where significantly highest reduction of grey blight (90.30%), as well as the highest increase in the green leaf yield (10.52q/ha), was recorded due to application of the bioformulation containing the three bioagents. The application of the three bioformulation also recorded an enhanced level of caffeine (4.15%) and polyphenols (22.87%). A significant increase in the enzymatic activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase were recorded in the plants treated with the microbial bioformulation of the three bioagents. The present investigation indicates the role of microbial agents in suppressing disease, inducing plant defense response, as well as improving the quality of tea.

Keywords: enzymatic activity, grey blight, microbial bioagents, Pestalotiopsis theae, phytochemicals, plant defense, tea

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87 Identification of Phenolic Compounds with Antibacterial Activity in Raisin Extract

Authors: Yousef M. Abouzeed A. Elfahem, F. Zgheel, M. A. Saad, Mohamed O. Ahmed

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The bioactive properties of phytochemicals indicate their potential as natural drug products to prevent and treat human disease; in particular, compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities may represent a novel class of safe and effective drugs. Following desiccation, grapes (Vitis vinifera) become more resistant to microbial-based degradation, suggesting that raisins may be a source of antimicrobial compounds. To investigate this hypothesis, total phenolic extracts were obtained from common raisins, local market-sourced. The acetone extract was tested for antibacterial activity against four prevalent bacterial pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli). Antibiotic sensitivity and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) were determined for each bacterium. High performance liquid chromatography was used to identify compounds in the total phenolic extract. The raisin phenolic extract inhibited growth of all the tested bacteria; the greatest inhibitive effect (normalized to cefotaxime sodium control antibiotic) occurred against P. aeruginosa, followed by S. aureus > Salmonella spp.= E. coli. The phenolic extracts contained the bioactive compounds catechin, quercetin, and rutin. Thus, phytochemicals in raisin extract have antibacterial properties; this plant-based extract, or its bioactive constituents, may represent a promising natural preservative or antimicrobial agent for the food industry or anti-infective drug.

Keywords: Vitis vinifera raisin, extraction, phenolic compounds, antibacterial activity

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86 In vitro Study of Inflammatory Gene Expression Suppression of Strawberry and Blackberry Extracts

Authors: Franco Van De Velde, Debora Esposito, Maria E. Pirovani, Mary A. Lila

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The physiology of various inflammatory diseases is a complex process mediated by inflammatory and immune cells such as macrophages and monocytes. Chronic inflammation, as observed in many cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders, occurs when the low-grade inflammatory response fails to resolve with time. Because of the complexity of the chronic inflammatory disease, major efforts have focused on identifying novel anti-inflammatory agents and dietary regimes that prevent the pro-inflammatory process at the early stage of gene expression of key pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines. The ability of the extracts of three blackberry cultivars (‘Jumbo’, ‘Black Satin’ and ‘Dirksen’), and one strawberry cultivar (‘Camarosa’) to inhibit four well-known genetic biomarkers of inflammation: inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxynase-2 (Cox-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in an in vitro lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine RAW 264.7 macrophage model were investigated. Moreover, the effect of latter extracts on the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production was assessed. Assay was conducted with 50 µg/mL crude extract concentration, an amount that is easily achievable in the gastrointestinal tract after berries consumption. The mRNA expression levels of Cox-2 and IL-6 were reduced consistently (more than 30%) by extracts of ‘Jumbo’ and ‘Black Satin’ blackberries. Strawberry extracts showed high reduction in mRNA expression levels of IL-6 (more than 65%) and exhibited moderate reduction in mRNA expression of Cox-2 (more than 35%). The latter behavior mirrors the intracellular ROS production of the LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages after the treatment with blackberry ‘Black Satin’ and ‘Jumbo’, and strawberry ‘Camarosa’ extracts, suggesting that phytochemicals from these fruits may play a role in the health maintenance by reducing oxidative stress. On the other hand, effective inhibition in the gene expression of IL-1β and iNOS was not observed by any of blackberry and strawberry extracts. However, suppression in the NO production in the activated macrophages among 5–25% was observed by ‘Jumbo’ and ‘Black Satin’ blackberry extracts and ‘Camarosa’ strawberry extracts, suggesting a higher NO suppression property by phytochemicals of these fruits. All these results suggest the potential beneficial effects of studied berries as functional foods with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory roles. Moreover, the underlying role of phytochemicals from these fruits in the protection of inflammatory process will deserve to be further explored.

Keywords: cyclooxygenase-2, functional foods, interleukin-6, reactive oxygen species

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85 Assessment of in vitro Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Potentials of Methanol Extract of Chrysophyllum albidum Cotyledon

Authors: Christianah Adebimpe Dare, Nelson Oghenebrorhie Elvis

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This study was aimed at analysing the phytochemicals in Chrysophyllum albidum cotyledon extract and their in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The star apple fruit was bought at Igbona market Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. The seed from the fruit was removed and defatted. The residue was exhaustively extracted with methanol. The Chrysophyllum albidum cotyledon methanol extract (CCME) was phytochemically screened, flavonoids and phenol contents, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory assays were carried out on the extract using standard procedures. Phytochemicals analysis revealed the presence of steroids, tannins, flavonoid, saponin, triterpenes, and xanthoproteins. The phenolic concentration, total flavonoids concentration, and total sugar concentration were found to be 26.72 ± 0.048 µgTAE/mg, 23.12 ± 1.92µg of Rutin equivalent (RTE)/mg (10.49 ± 1.12µg of Quercetin equivalent (QE/mg) and 778.38 ± 12.82 µg of glucose/ml, respectively. The extract demonstrated significant inhibitory effect compared with the standards as potent antioxidant with percentage inhibition of DPPH as 38.10 %-39.51 %, lipid peroxidation as 45.85 %-65.85 %; ferric reducing power showed linear correlation to the standard and the anti-inflammatory potential with 22.06 %-26.37 % protection of the human red blood membrane and the percentage inhibition of denaturation of albumin 3.42 %-7.32 %. The study showed that C. albidum cotyledon methanol extract is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent to combat oxidative stress and pathological diseases caused by reactive species.

Keywords: albumin denaturation, free radicals, lipid peroxidation, reactive species

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84 Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis of Methanolic Extract of Camellia sinensis Linn. Leaves

Authors: Babar Ali, Mohammad Rashid, Showkat Rasool Mir, Mohammad Ali, Saiba Shams

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Background: The plant Camellia sinensis (Theaceae) is an evergreen shrub indigenous to Assam (India) and parts of China and Japan. Traditional Chinese medicine has recommended green tea for headaches, body aches and pains, digestion, enhancement of immune defense, detoxification, as an energizer and to prolong life. The leaves have more than 700 chemical constituents, among which flavanoids, amino acids, vitamins (C, E, K), caffeine and polysaccharides. Adulteration and substitution may affect the quality of formulation containing tea leaves. Standardization of medicinal preparation is essential for further therapeutic results and for global acceptance. Hence, chromatographic fingerprint profiles were carried out for establishing the standards. Materials and methods: TLC studies for methanolic extracts of the leaves of Camellia sinensis were carried out in a new developed solvent system, Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid (7:3:1). TLC plates were dried in air, visualized in UV at wavelengths 254 nm and 366 nm and photographed. Results: Results provide valuable clue regarding their polarity and selection of solvents for separation of phytochemicals. Fingerprinting of methanolic extract of Camellia sinensis leaves revealed the presence of various phytochemicals in UV at 254 nm and 366 nm. Conclusion: Fingerprint profile is quite helpful in setting up of standards and thus to keep a check on intentional/unintentional adulteration. TLC offers major advantages over other conventional chromatographic techniques such as unsurpassed flexibility (esp. stationary and mobile phase), choice of detection wavelength, user friendly, rapid and cost effective.

Keywords: Cammelia sinensis Linn., standardization, methanolic extract, thin layer chromatography

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83 In vitro Control of Mycosphaerella arachidis Deighton the Early Leaf Spot Disease Pathogen of Groundnut by the Extracts from Six Medicinal Plants

Authors: Matthew Omoniyi Adebola, Jude E Amadi

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Ground nut (Arachis hypogaea) is one of the most popular commercial crops in Nigeria. Its suc-cessful production has been drastically affected by early leaf spot disease caused by Mycosphae-rella arachidis Deighton. In vitro control of the pathogen by six medicinal plants (Entada afri-cana, Vitex doniana, Lawsonia inermis, Azadirachta indica, Acalypha hispida and Nuaclea lati-folia) was assessed in this study. The extracts of the plants were prepared using cold and hot wa-ter and alcohol. The pathogen was isolated from ground nut infected with early leaf spot disease. The results revealed a great significant difference (P<0.05) in yield of extracts between cold water, hot water, and alcohol extracts. A significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in percentage concentrations of the various phytochemical constituents present in the extracts. Flavonoids per-centage concentration was the highest (0.68 - 1.95%) followed by saponnin(0.09-1.53%) in N. latifolia extracts. Steroiods had the least percentage concentrations (0.00- 0.09%)followed by terpenoids(0.02–0.71%) and proanthocyannin (0.05 – 0.86%). N. latifolia extracts produced the highest percentage concentrations (0.07–1.95%) of all the phytochemicals followed by A. indi-ca(0.05–1.64%)and least concentrations were obtained in A. hispidia(0.09 – 0.87%)and V. do-niana (0.00–0.88%). The extracts inhibited spore germination and growth of M. arachidis. The inhibition by alcohol extracts was high and significantly different (P>0.05) from cold and hot water extracts. Alcohol extract of L. inermis gave 100% spore germination inhibition followed by N. latifolia and A.indica with 97.75% and 85.60% inhibition respectively. Therefore, field trials of these six medicinal plants on the control of early leaf spot disease of ground nut are rec-ommended.

Keywords: groundnut, phytochemicals, medicinal plants, extracts, inhibition

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82 In vivo Genotoxicity Testing of Sesbania Grandiflora (Katuray) Flower Methanolic Extract

Authors: Levylee Bautista, Dawn Grace Santos, Aishwarya Veluchamy, Jesusa Santos, Ghafoor, Jr. I Haque, Rodolfo Rafael

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The booming interest in using natural compounds as an alternative to conventional medications has paved way to focus the attention on plants that provide rich sources of bioactive phytochemicals. For regulatory purposes, evaluation of the genotoxic effects of such alternatives is therefore empirical as part of the plant’s hazard assessment. Sesbania grandiflora is among the plants used as a traditional remedy in folk medicine and a subject of research for its medicinal benefits. This study aimed to evaluate the genotoxic potential induced by S. grandiflora flower methanol extract (SGFME) in terms of the frequency of micronucleus (MN) in polychromatic erythrocyte (PCE) (MNPCE) and PCE ratio employing the micronucleus assay. The frequency of MN was examined in bone marrow cells (BMCs) obtained from male Swiss albino mice exposed in vivo to four different concentrations (11.25, 22.5, 40, and 90 mg/kg) of SGFME and MMC (70 mg/kg; positive control) and sacrificed 24 hours post-intraperitoneal injection. Results showed a significant (p < 0.01) rate of MNPCEs for 11.25 and 22.5 tested concentrations of SGFME and is comparable with the MMC-treated mice. Although PCE ratio values in all doses of SGFME-treated mice were over 0.20, it is worth noting that 40 and 90 tested concentrations of SGFME-treated mice exhibited the lowest value, i.e., 0.22 and 0.28, respectively. The present study has demonstrated that S. grandiflora possesses genotoxic potential for murine BMCs. Such activity could be ascribed from the bioactive compounds present in S. grandiflora that require further isolation and characterization of the active molecules. Likewise, findings of this study warrant a caution of the use of S. grandiflora insomuch as further investigations do not demonstrate their safety.

Keywords: genotoxicity, micronucleus, phytochemicals, Sesbania grandiflora

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