Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10576

Search results for: post weld heat treatment

10576 Influence of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of TIG Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints

Authors: Gurmeet Singh Cheema, Navjotinder Singh, Gurjinder Singh, Amardeep Singh


Aluminium and its alloys play have excellent corrosion resistant properties, ease of fabrication and high specific strength to weight ratio. In this investigation an attempt has been made to study the effect of different post weld heat treatment methods on the mechanical and metallurgical properties of TIG welded joints of the commercial aluminium alloy. Three different methods of post weld heat treatments are, solution heat treatment, artificial aged and combination of solution heat treatment and artificial aging are given to TIG welded aluminium joints. Mechanical and metallurgical properties of as welded and post weld treated joints of the aluminium alloys was examined.

Keywords: aluminium alloys, TIG welding, post weld heat treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
10575 Modelling of Phase Transformation Kinetics in Post Heat-Treated Resistance Spot Weld of AISI 1010 Mild Steel

Authors: B. V. Feujofack Kemda, N. Barka, M. Jahazi, D. Osmani


Automobile manufacturers are constantly seeking means to reduce the weight of car bodies. The usage of several steel grades in auto body assembling has been found to be a good technique to enlighten vehicles weight. This few years, the usage of dual phase (DP) steels, transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels and boron steels in some parts of the auto body have become a necessity because of their lightweight. However, these steels are martensitic, when they undergo a fast heat treatment, the resultant microstructure is essential, made of martensite. Resistance spot welding (RSW), one of the most used techniques in assembling auto bodies, becomes problematic in the case of these steels. RSW being indeed a process were steel is heated and cooled in a very short period of time, the resulting weld nugget is mostly fully martensitic, especially in the case of DP, TRIP and boron steels but that also holds for plain carbon steels as AISI 1010 grade which is extensively used in auto body inner parts. Martensite in its turn must be avoided as most as possible when welding steel because it is the principal source of brittleness and it weakens weld nugget. Thus, this work aims to find a mean to reduce martensite fraction in weld nugget when using RSW for assembling. The prediction of phase transformation kinetics during RSW has been done. That phase transformation kinetics prediction has been made possible through the modelling of the whole welding process, and a technique called post weld heat treatment (PWHT) have been applied in order to reduce martensite fraction in the weld nugget. Simulation has been performed for AISI 1010 grade, and results show that the application of PWHT leads to the formation of not only martensite but also ferrite, bainite and pearlite during the cooling of weld nugget. Welding experiments have been done in parallel and micrographic analyses show the presence of several phases in the weld nugget. Experimental weld geometry and phase proportions are in good agreement with simulation results, showing here the validity of the model.

Keywords: resistance spot welding, AISI 1010, modeling, post weld heat treatment, phase transformation, kinetics

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10574 Microstructure and Hardness Changes on T91 Weld Joint after Heating at 560°C

Authors: Suraya Mohamad Nadzir, Badrol Ahmad, Norlia Berahim


T91 steel has been used as construction material for superheater tubes in sub-critical and super critical boiler. This steel was developed with higher creep strength property as compared to conventional low alloy steel. However, this steel is also susceptible to materials degradation due to its sensitivity to heat treatment especially Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) after weld repair process. Review of PWHT process shows that the holding temperature may different from one batch to other batch of samples depending on the material composition. This issue was reviewed by many researchers and one of the potential solutions is the development of weld repair process without PWHT. This process is possible with the use of temper bead welding technique. However, study has shown the hardness value across the weld joint with exception of PWHT is much higher compare to recommended hardness value. Based on the above findings, a study to evaluate the microstructure and hardness changes of T91 weld joint after heating at 560°C at varying duration was carried out. This study was carried out to evaluate the possibility of self-tempering process during in-service period. In this study, the T91 weld joint was heat-up in air furnace at 560°C for duration of 50 and 150 hours. The heating process was controlled with heating rate of 200°C/hours, and cooling rate about 100°C/hours. Following this process, samples were prepared for the microstructure examination and hardness evaluation. Results have shown full tempered martensite structure and acceptance hardness value was achieved after 50 hours heating. This result shows that the thin component such as T91 superheater tubes is able to self-tempering during service hour.

Keywords: T91, weld-joint, tempered martensite, self-tempering

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10573 Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructural Evolution in Weld Region of X70 Pipeline Steel

Authors: K. Digheche, K. Saadi, Z. Boumerzoug


Welding is one of the most important technological processes used in many branches of industry such as industrial engineering, shipbuilding, pipeline fabrication among others. Generally, welding is the preferred joining method and most common steels are weldable. This investigation is a contribution to scientific work of welding of low carbon steel. This work presents the results of the isothermal heat treatment effect at 200, 400 and 600 °C on microstructural evolution in weld region of X70 pipeline steel. The welding process has been realized in three passes by industrial arc welding. We have found that the heat treatments cause grain growth reaction.

Keywords: heat treatments, low carbon steel, microstructures, welding

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10572 Effect of Welding Heat Input on Intergranular Corrosion of Inconel 625 Overlay Weld Metal

Authors: Joon-Suk Kim, Hae-Woo Lee


This study discusses the effect of welding heat input on intergranular corrosion of the weld metal of Inconel 625 alloy. A specimen of Inconel 625 with a weld metal that controlled welding heat input was manufactured, and aging heat treatment was conducted to investigate sensitization by chromium carbides. The electrochemical SL and DL EPR experiments, together with the chemical ferric sulfate-sulfuric acid and nitric acid tests, were conducted to determine intergranular corrosion susceptibility between the specimens. In the SL and DL EPR experiments, specimens were stabilized in the weld metal, and therefore intergranular corrosion susceptibility could not be determined. However, in the ferric sulfate-sulfuric acid and nitric acid tests, the corrosion speed increased as heat input increased. This was because the amount of diluted Fe increased as the welding heat input increased, leading to microsegregation between the dendrites, which had a negative effect on the corrosion resistance.

Keywords: Inconel 625, weling, overlay, heat input, intergranular corrosion

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10571 Effect of Filler Metal Diameter on Weld Joint of Carbon Steel SA516 Gr 70 and Filler Metal SFA 5.17 in Submerged Arc Welding SAW

Authors: A. Nait Salah, M. Kaddami


This work describes an investigation on the effect of filler metals diameter to weld joint, and low alloy carbon steel A516 Grade 70 is the base metal. Commercially SA516 Grade70 is frequently used for the manufacturing of pressure vessels, boilers and storage tank, etc. In fabrication industry, the hardness of the weld joint is between the important parameters to check, after heat treatment of the weld. Submerged arc welding (SAW) is used with two filler metal diameters, and this solid wire electrode is used for SAW non-alloy and for fine grain steels (SFA 5.17). The different diameters were selected (Ø = 2.4 mm and Ø = 4 mm) to weld two specimens. Both specimens were subjected to the same preparation conditions, heat treatment, macrograph, metallurgy micrograph, and micro-hardness test. Samples show almost similar structure with highest hardness. It is important to indicate that the thickness used in the base metal is 22 mm, and all specifications, preparation and controls were according to the ASME section IX. It was observed that two different filler metal diameters performed on two similar specimens demonstrated that the mechanical property (hardness) increases with decreasing diameter. It means that even the heat treatment has the same effect with the same conditions, the filler metal diameter insures a depth weld penetration and better homogenization. Hence, the SAW welding technique mentioned in the present study is favorable to implicate for the industry using the small filler metal diameter.

Keywords: ASME, base metal, micro-hardness test, submerged arc welding

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10570 Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of SA 210 Gr. C Pipes Welded by Tungsten Inert Gas

Authors: H. Demirtaş, İ. H. Kara, H. Ahlatcı


Welding failures of steel pipes in power plants usually occur in weld zones. This is similar for the economizer, water walls and superheaters in the power plants where SA 210 Gr. C steel pipes are used. Although these steel pipes have very good welding properties, the welding parameters are also important for the welding life. Welding processes of this pipes are carried out by TIG and SMA techniques. In this study SA 210 Gr. C steel pipes were welded by TIG method and investigated how PWHT affected the welding properties. The results show that this steel does not require post weld heat treatment.

Keywords: SA 210 Gr. C steel pipes, TIG welding, HAZ region, Widmanstatten ferrite

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
10569 Effect of Postweld Soaking Temperature on Mechanical Properties of AISI 1018 Steel Plate Welded in Aqueous Environment

Authors: Yahaya Taiwo, Adedayo M. Segun


This study investigated the effect of postweld soaking temperature on mechanical properties of AISI 1018 steel plate welded in aqueous environment. Pairs of 90 x 70 x 12 mm, AISI 1018 steel plates were welded with weld zone beyond distance 10 mm from weld centerline immersed in a water jacket at 25°C. The welded specimens were tempered at temperature of 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600°C for 1.5 hours. Tensile, hardness and toughness tests at distances 15, 30, 45 and 60 mm from the weld centreline with micro structural evaluation were carried out. The results show that the aqueous environment as-weld sample exhibited higher hardness and tensile strength values of 45.3 HV and 448.12 N/mm2 respectively while the hardness and tensile strength of aqueous environment postweld heat treated samples were 44.9 HV and 378.98 N/mm2. This revealed 0.82% and 15.4% reduction in hardness and strength respectively. The metallographic tests showed that the postweld heat treated AISI 1018 steel micro structure contained tempered martensite with ferritic structure and precipitation of carbides. Postweld heat treatment produced materials of lower hardness and improved toughness.

Keywords: air weld samples, aqueous environment weld samples, soaking temperature, water jacket

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
10568 Evaluation of Fatigue Crack Growth Rate in Weldments

Authors: Pavel Zlabek, Vaclav Mentl


The fatigue crack growth rate evaluation is a basic experimental characteristic when assessment o f the remaining lifetime is needed. Within the repair welding technology project, the crack growth rate at cyclic loading was measured in base and weld metals and in the situation when cracks were initiated in base metal and grew into the weld metal through heat-affected zone and back to the base metal. Two welding technologies were applied and specimens in as-welded state and after heat treatment were tested. Fatigue crack growth rate measurement was performed on CrMoV pressure vessel steel and the tests were performed at room temperature. The crack growth rate was measured on CCT test specimens (see figure) for both the base and weld metals and also in the case of crack subsequent transition through all the weld zones. A 500 kN MTS controlled electro-hydraulic testing machine and Model 632.13C-20 MTS extensometer were used to perform the tests.

Keywords: cracks, fatigue, steels, weldments

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10567 Unusual Weld Failures of Rotary Compressor during Hydraulic Tests: Analysis revealed Boron Induced Cracking in Fusion Zone

Authors: Kaushal Kishore, Vaibhav Jain, Hrishikesh Jugade, Saurabh Hadas, Manashi Adhikary, Goutam Mukhopadhyay, Sandip Bhattacharyya


Rotary air compressors in air conditioners are used to suck excessive volume of air from the atmosphere in a small space to provide drive to the components attached to them. Hydraulic test is one of the most important methods to decide the suitability of these components for usage. In the present application, projection welding is used to join the hot rolled steel sheets after forming for manufacturing of air compressors. These sheets belong to two different high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel grades. It was observed that one batch of compressors made of a particular grade was cracking from the weld, whereas those made of another grade were passing the hydraulic tests. Cracking was repeatedly observed from the weld location. A detailed comparative study of the compressors which failed and successfully passed pressure tests has been presented. Location of crack initiation was identified to be the interface of fusion zone/heat affected zone. Shear dimples were observed on the fracture surface confirming the ductile mode of failure. Hardness profile across the weld revealed a sharp rise in hardness in the fusion zone. This was attributed to the presence of untempered martensitic lath in the fusion zone. A sharp metallurgical notch existed at the heat affected zone/fusion zone interface due to transition in microstructure from acicular ferrite and bainite in HAZ to untempered martensite in the fusion zone. In contrast, welds which did not fail during the pressure tests showed a smooth hardness profile with no abnormal rise in hardness in the fusion zone. The bainitic microstructure was observed in the fusion zone of successful welds. This difference in microstructural constituents in the fusion zone was attributed to the presence of a small amount of boron (0.002 wt. %) in the sheets which were cracking. Trace amount of boron is known to substantially increase the hardenability of HSLA steel, and cooling rate during resolidification in the fusion zone is sufficient to form martensite. Post-weld heat treatment was recommended to transform untempered martensite to tempered martensite with lower hardness.

Keywords: compressor, cracking, martensite, weld, boron, hardenability, high strength low alloy steel

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10566 2D and 3D Unsteady Simulation of the Heat Transfer in the Sample during Heat Treatment by Moving Heat Source

Authors: Zdeněk Veselý, Milan Honner, Jiří Mach


The aim of the performed work is to establish the 2D and 3D model of direct unsteady task of sample heat treatment by moving source employing computer model on the basis of finite element method. The complex boundary condition on heat loaded sample surface is the essential feature of the task. Computer model describes heat treatment of the sample during heat source movement over the sample surface. It is started from the 2D task of sample cross section as a basic model. Possibilities of extension from 2D to 3D task are discussed. The effect of the addition of third model dimension on the temperature distribution in the sample is showed. Comparison of various model parameters on the sample temperatures is observed. Influence of heat source motion on the depth of material heat treatment is shown for several velocities of the movement. Presented computer model is prepared for the utilization in laser treatment of machine parts.

Keywords: computer simulation, unsteady model, heat treatment, complex boundary condition, moving heat source

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10565 An Experimental Study on the Effect of Heat Input on the Weld Efficiency of TIG-MIG Hybrid Welding of Type-304 Austenitic Stainless Steel

Authors: Emmanuel Ogundimu, Esther Akinlabi, Mutiu Erinosho


Welding is described as the process of joining metals so that bonding can be created as a result of inter-atomic penetration. This study investigated the influence of heat input on the efficiency of the welded joints of 304 stainless steel. Three welds joint were made from two similar 304 stainless steel plates of thickness 6 mm. The tensile results obtained showed that the maximum average tensile strength of 672 MPa is possessed by the sample A1 with low heat input. It was discovered that the tensile strength, % elongation and weld joint efficiency decreased with the increase in heat input into the weld. The average % elongation for the entire samples ranged from 28.4% to 36.5%. Sample A1 had the highest joint efficiency of 94.5%. However, the optimum welding current of 190 for TIG- MIG hybrid welding of type-304 austenite stainless steel can be recommended for advanced technological applications such as aircraft manufacturing, nuclear industry, automobile industry, and processing industry.

Keywords: microhardness, microstructure, tensile, MIG welding, process, tensile, shear stress TIG welding, TIG-MIG welding

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10564 Effect of Solution Heat Treatment on Intergranular Corrosion Resistance of Welded Stainless Steel AISI 321

Authors: Amir Mahmoudi


In this investigation, AISI321 steel after welding by Shilded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) was solution heat treated in various temperatures and times, and then was sensitizied. Results indicated, increasing of temperature in solution heat treatment raises the sensitization and creates the cavity structure in grain boundaries. Besides, in order to examine the effect of time on solution heat treatment, all samples were solution heat treated at different times and fixed temperature (1050°C). By increasing the time, more chrome carbides were created due to dissolution of delta ferrite phase and reproduce titanium carbides. Additionally, the best process for solution heat treatment for this steel was suggested.

Keywords: stainless steel, solution heat treatment, intergranular corrosion, DLEPR

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10563 Effect of T6 and Re-Aging Heat Treatment on Mechanical Properties of 7055 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: M. Esmailian, M. Shakouri, A. Mottahedi, S. G. Shabestari


Heat treatable aluminium alloys such as 7075 and 7055, because of high strength and low density, are used widely in aircraft industry. For best mechanical properties, T6 heat treatment has recommended for this regards, but this temper treatment is sensitive to corrosion induced and Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) damage. For improving this property, the over-aging treatment (T7) applies to this alloy, but it decreases the mechanical properties up to 30 percent. Hence, to increase the mechanical properties, without any remarkable decrease in SCC resistant, Retrogression and Re-Aging (RRA) heat treatment is used. This treatment performs in a relatively short time. In this paper, the RRA heat treatment was applied to 7055 aluminum alloy and then effect of RRA time on the mechanical properties of 7055 has been investigated. The results show that the 40 minute time is suitable time for retrogression of 7055 aluminum alloy and ultimate strength increases up to 625MPa.

Keywords: 7055 Aluminum alloy, mechanical properties, SCC resistance, heat Treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
10562 Effect of Variation of Temperature Distribution on Mechanical Properties of Shield Metal Arc Welded Duplex Stainless Steel

Authors: Arvind Mittal, Rajesh Gupta


Influence of heat input on the micro structure and mechanical properties of shield metal arc welded of duplex stainless steel UNSNO.S-31803 has been investigated. Three heat input combinations designated as low heat (0.675 KJ/mm), medium heat (0.860 KJ/mm) and high heat (1.094 KJ/mm) and weld joints made using these combinations were subjected to micro structural evaluations and tensile and impact testing so as to analyze the effect of thermal arc energy on the micro structure and mechanical properties of these joints. The result of this investigation shows that the joints made using low heat input exhibited higher tensile strength than those welded with medium and high heat input. Heat affected zone of welded joint made with medium heat input has austenitic ferritic grain structure with some patchy austenite provide high toughness. Significant grain coarsening was observed in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of medium and high heat input welded joints, whereas low heat input welded joint shows the fine grain structure in the heat affected zone with small amount of dendritic formation and equiaxed grain structure where inner zone indicates slowly cooled grains in the direction of heat dissipation. This is the main reason for the observable changes of tensile properties of weld joints welded with different arc energy inputs.

Keywords: microstructure, mechanical properties, shield metal arc welded, duplex stainless steel

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10561 Optimization of Alkali Silicate Glass Heat Treatment for the Improvement of Thermal Expansion and Flexural Strength

Authors: Stephanie Guerra-Arias, Stephani Nevarez, Calvin Stewart, Rachel Grodsky, Denis Eichorst


The objective of this study is to describe the framework for optimizing the heat treatment of alkali silicate glasses, to enhance the performance of hermetic seals in extreme environments. When connectors are exposed to elevated temperatures, residual stresses develop due to the mismatch of thermal expansions between the glass, metal pin, and metal shell. Excessive thermal expansion mismatch compromises the reliability of hermetic seals. In this study, a series of heat treatment schedules will be performed on two commercial sealing glasses (one conventional sealing glass and one crystallizable sealing glass) using a design of experiments (DOE) approach. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) will be measured pre- and post-heat treatment using thermomechanical analysis (TMA). Afterwards, the flexural strength of the specimen will be measured using a four-point bend fixture mounted in a static universal testing machine. The measured material properties will be statistically analyzed using MiniTab software to determine which factors of the heat treatment process have a strong correlation to the coefficient of thermal expansion and/or flexural strength. Finally, a heat-treatment will be designed and tested to ensure the optimal performance of the hermetic seals in connectors.

Keywords: glass-ceramics, design of experiment, hermetic connectors, material characterization

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10560 Separation of Hazardous Brominated Plastics from Waste Plastics by Froth Flotation after Surface Modification with Mild Heat-Treatment

Authors: Nguyen Thi Thanh Truc, Chi-Hyeon Lee, Srinivasa Reddy Mallampati, Byeong-Kyu Lee


This study evaluated to facilitate separation of ABS plastics from other waste plastics by froth flotation after surface hydrophilization of ABS with heat treatment. The mild heat treatment at 100oC for 60s could selectively increase the hydrophilicity of the ABS plastics surface (i.e., ABS contact angle decreased from 79o to 65.8o) among other plastics mixture. The SEM and XPS results of plastic samples sufficiently supported the increase in hydrophilic functional groups and decrease contact angle on ABS surface, after heat treatment. As a result of the froth flotation (at mixing speed 150 rpm and airflow rate 0.3 L/min) after heat treatment, about 85% of ABS was selectively separated from other heavy plastics with 100% of purity. The effect of optimum treatment condition and detailed mechanism onto separation efficiency in the froth floatation was also investigated. This research is successful in giving a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for ABS separation from waste plastics.

Keywords: ABS, hydrophilic, heat treatment, froth flotation, contact angle

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10559 Investigation of Distortion and Impact Strength of 304L Butt Joint Using Different Weld Groove

Authors: A. Sharma, S. S. Sandhu, A. Shahi, A. Kumar


The aim of present investigation was to carry out Finite element modeling of distortion in the case of butt weld. 12mm thick AISI 304L plates were butt welded using three different combinations of groove design namely Double U, Double V and Composite. A full simulation of shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) of nonlinear heat transfer is carried out. Aspects like, temperature-dependent thermal properties of AISI stainless steel above liquid phase, the effect of thermal boundary conditions, were included in the model. Since welding heat dissipation characteristics changed due to variable groove design significant changes in the microhardness tensile strength and impact toughness of the joints were observed. The cumulative distortion was found to be least in double V joint followed by the Composite and Double U-joints. All the joints have joint efficiency more than 100%. CVN value of the Double V-groove weld metal was highest. The experimental results and the FEM results were compared and reveal a very good correlation for distortion and weld groove design for a multipass joint with a standard analogy of 83%.

Keywords: AISI 304 L, Butt joint, distortion, FEM, groove design, SMAW

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10558 Studies on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Simulated Heat Affected Zone in a Micro Alloyed Steel

Authors: Sanjeev Kumar, S. K. Nath


Proper selection of welding parameters for getting excellent weld is a challenge. HAZ simulation helps in identifying suitable welding parameters like heating rate, cooling rate, peak temperature, and energy input. In this study, the influence of weld thermal cycle of heat affected zone (HAZ) is simulated for Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) using Gleeble ® 3800 thermomechanical simulator. A (Micro-alloyed) MA steel plate of thickness 18 mm having yield strength 450MPa is used for making test specimens. Determination of the mechanical properties of weld simulated specimens including Charpy V-notch toughness and hardness is performed. Peak temperatures of 1300°C, 1150°C, 1000°C, 900°C, 800°C, heat energy input of 22KJ/cm and preheat temperatures of 30°C have been used with Rykalin-3D simulation model. It is found that the impact toughness (75J) is the best for the simulated HAZ specimen at the peak temperature 900ºC. For parent steel, impact toughness value is 26.8J at -50°C in transverse direction.

Keywords: HAZ simulation, mechanical properties, peak temperature, ship hull steel, weldability

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10557 Studying the Possibility to Weld AA1100 Aluminum Alloy by Friction Stir Spot Welding

Authors: Ahmad K. Jassim, Raheem Kh. Al-Subar


Friction stir welding is a modern and an environmentally friendly solid state joining process used to joint relatively lighter family of materials. Recently, friction stir spot welding has been used instead of resistance spot welding which has received considerable attention from the automotive industry. It is environmentally friendly process that eliminated heat and pollution. In this research, friction stir spot welding has been used to study the possibility to weld AA1100 aluminum alloy sheet with 3 mm thickness by overlapping the edges of sheet as lap joint. The process was done using a drilling machine instead of milling machine. Different tool rotational speeds of 760, 1065, 1445, and 2000 RPM have been applied with manual and automatic compression to study their effect on the quality of welded joints. Heat generation, pressure applied, and depth of tool penetration have been measured during the welding process. The result shows that there is a possibility to weld AA1100 sheets; however, there is some surface defect that happened due to insufficient condition of welding. Moreover, the relationship between rotational speed, pressure, heat generation and tool depth penetration was created.

Keywords: friction, spot, stir, environmental, sustainable, AA1100 aluminum alloy

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10556 Genetic Algorithm Approach for Inverse Mapping of Weld Bead Geometry in Shielded Metal Arc-Welding

Authors: D. S. Nagesh, G. L. Datta


In the field of welding, various studies had been made by some of the previous investigators to predict as well as optimize weld bead geometric descriptors. Modeling of weld bead shape is important for predicting the quality of welds. In most of the cases design of experiments technique to postulate multiple linear regression equations have been used. Nowadays Genetic Algorithm (GA) an intelligent information treatment system with the characteristics of treating complex relationships as seen in welding processes used as a tool for inverse mapping/optimization of the process is attempted.

Keywords: SMAW, genetic algorithm, bead geometry, optimization/inverse mapping

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10555 Inverse Mapping of Weld Bead Geometry in Shielded Metal Arc-Welding: Genetic Algorithm Approach

Authors: D. S. Nagesh, G. L. Datta


In the field of welding, various studies had been made by some of the previous investigators to predict as well as optimize weld bead geometric descriptors. Modeling of weld bead shape is important for predicting the quality of welds. In most of the cases, design of experiments technique to postulate multiple linear regression equations have been used. Nowadays, Genetic Algorithm (GA) an intelligent information treatment system with the characteristics of treating complex relationships as seen in welding processes used as a tool for inverse mapping/optimization of the process is attempted.

Keywords: smaw, genetic algorithm, bead geometry, optimization/inverse mapping

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
10554 Effects of Heat Treatment on the Elastic Constants of Cedar Wood

Authors: Tugba Yilmaz Aydin, Ergun Guntekin, Murat Aydin


Effects of heat treatment on the elastic constants of cedar wood (Cedrus libani) were investigated. Specimens were exposed to heat under atmospheric pressure at four different temperatures (120, 150, 180, 210 °C) and three different time levels (2, 5, 8 hours). Three Young’s modulus (EL, ER, ET) and six Poisson ratios (μLR, μLT, μRL, μRT, μTL, μTR) were determined from compression test using bi-axial extensometer at constant moisture content (12 %). Three shear modulus were determined using ultrasound. Six shear wave velocities propagating along the principal axes of anisotropy were measured using EPOCH 650 ultrasonic flaw detector with 1 MHz transverse transducers. The properties of the samples tested were significantly affected by heat treatment by different degree. As a result, softer treatments yielded some amount of increase in Young modulus and shear modulus values, but increase of time and temperature resulted in significant decrease for both values. Poisson ratios seemed insensitive to heat treatment.

Keywords: cedar wood, elastic constants, heat treatment, ultrasound

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10553 Effect of Post Hardening on PVD Coated Tools

Authors: Manjinder Bajwa, Mahipal Singh, Ashish Tulli


In the research, the effect of varying cutting parameters, design parameters and heat treatment processes were studied on the cutting performance (Tool life) of a PVD coated tool. Thus, in a quest for these phenomenon comparison, a single coated tool and a multicoated tool were analyzed after suitable heat treatment process. TNMG shaped insert with single coating of TiCN and multi-coating of TiAlN/TiN were developed on tungsten carbide substrate. These coated inserts were then successfully annealed and normalized for a temperature of 350°C for 30 minutes and their cutting performance was evaluated as per the flank wear obtained after turning of mild steel. The results showed that heat treatment had a suitable impact on the tool life of the coated insert and also led to increase in the micro-hardness of the tool coatings and decrease in the wear rate.

Keywords: PVD coatings, flank wear, micro-hardness, annealing, normalizing

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10552 Effect of Heat Treatment on Columnar Grain Growth and Goss Texture on Surface in Grain-Oriented Electrical Steels

Authors: Jungkyun Na, Jaesang Lee, Yang Mo Koo


In this study to find a replacement for expensive secondary recrystallization in GO electrical steel production, effect of heat treatment on the formation of columnar grain and Goss texture is investigated. The composition of the sample is Fe-2.0Si-0.2C. This process involves repeating of cold rolling and decarburization as a replacement for secondary recrystallization. By cold-rolling shear band is made and Goss grain grows from shear band by decarburization. By doing another cold rolling, some Goss texture is newly formed from the shear band, and some Goss texture is retained in microbands. To determine whether additional heat treatment with H2 atmosphere is needed on decarburization process for growth of Goss texture, comparing between decarburization and heat treatment with H2 atmosphere is performed. Also, to find optimum condition for heat treatment, heat treatment with various time and temperature is performed. It was found that increase in the number of cold rolling and heat treatment increases Goss texture. Both high Goss texture and good columnar structure is achieved at 900℃, and this temperature is within a+r phase region. Heat treatment at a temperature higher than a+r phase region caused carbon diffusion and this made layer with Goss grain decrease.

Keywords: electrical steel, Goss texture, columnar structure, normal grain growth

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10551 Effect of Post Treatment Temperature on Ni-20Cr Wire Arc Spray Coating to Thermal Resistance

Authors: Ken Ninez Nurpramesti Prinindya, Yuli Setiyorini


Crown enclosure high temperature flares damaged and reduced dimensions crown. Generally crown on EHTF could have a life time up to twenty years. Therefore, this study aims to increase the value of thermal resistance with the effect post treatment on NiCr coated arc spray method. The variation of post treatment temperature, was at 650°C, 750°C, and 850°C. Morphology on the surface and the adhesion strength was analyzed by SEM-EDX, Surface Roughness and Pull - off test. XRD testing was conducted to determine the contained in NiCr coated. Thermal stability of NiCr coated was tested by DSC-TGA. The most optimal results was owned by NiCr coating with post treated at 850°C. It has good thermal stability until 1000°C because of Cr2O3 formation in coated specimen. The higher temperature of post treatment coating was showed better result on porosity and roughness surface value.

Keywords: Arc spray process, NiCr wire, post-treatment coating, high temperature-corrosion resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
10550 Heat Treatment on Malaysian Hardwood Timbers: The Effect of Heat Exposure at Different Levels of Temperature on Bending Strength Properties

Authors: Nur Ilya Farhana Md Noh, Zakiah Ahmad


Heat treatment on timbers is a process of applying heat to modify and equip the timbers with new improvised characteristics. It is environmental friendly compared to the common practice of treating timber by chemical preservatives. Malaysian hardwood timbers; Pauh Kijang and Kapur in green condition were heat treated at 150°C, 170°C, 190°C and 210°C in a specially design electronic furnace in one hour duration. The objectives were to determine the effect of heat treatment on bending strength properties of heat treated Pauh Kijang and Kapur in term of Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) and Modulus of Rupture (MOR) and to examine the significance changes at each temperature levels applied. Untreated samples for each species were used as a control sample. The results indicated that the bending strength properties for both species of timbers were affected by the heat exposure. Both MOE and MOR values for heat treated Pauh Kijang were increased when subjected to the specified temperature levels except at 210°C. The values were dropped compared to the control sample and sample treated at 190°C. Heat treated Kapur shows the same pattern of increment on its MOE and MOR values after exposure to heat at three temperature levels used and the values dropped at 210°C. However, differ to Pauh Kijang, even though there were decrement occurred at 210°C but the value is still higher compared to the control sample. The increments of MOE and MOR values are an indicator that heat treatment had successfully improvised the bending strength properties of these two species of hardwood timber. As the good strength of Malaysian timbers used as structural material is limited in numbers and expensive, heat treating timber with low strength properties is an alternative way to overcome this issue. Heat treatment is an alternative method need to be explored and made available in Malaysia as this country is still practicing chemical preservative treatment on the timbers.

Keywords: bending strength, hardwood timber, heat treatment, modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR)

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10549 Influence of Sodium Acetate on Electroless Ni-P Deposits and Effect of Heat Treatment on Corrosion Behavior

Authors: Y. El Kaissi, M. Allam, A. Koulou, M. Galai, M. Ebn Touhami


The aim of our work is to develop an industrial bath of nickel alloy deposit on mild steel. The optimization of the operating parameters made it possible to obtain a stable Ni-P alloy deposition formulation. To understand the reaction mechanism of the deposition process, a kinetic study was performed by cyclic voltammetry and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The coatings obtained have a very high corrosion resistance in a very aggressive acid medium which increases with the heat treatment.

Keywords: cyclic voltammetry, EIS, electroless Ni–P coating, heat treatment, potentiodynamic polarization

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10548 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Boron-Containing AZ91D Mg Alloys

Authors: Ji Chan Kim, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha


Effect of boron addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ91D Mg alloy was investigated in this study. Through calculation of phase equilibria, carried out by using FactSage® and FTLite database, solution treatment temperature was decided as 420 °C where supersaturated solid solution can be obtained. Solid solution treatment was conducted at 420 °C for 24 hrs followed by hot rolling at 420 °C and the total reduction was about 60%. Recrystallization heat treatment was followed at 420 °C for 6 hrs to obtain equiaxed microstructure. After recrystallization treatment, aging heat treatment was conducted at temperature of 200 °C for time intervals from 1 min to 200 hrs and hardness of each condition was measured by micro-Vickers method. Peak hardness was observed after 20 hrs. Tensile tests were also conducted on the specimens aged for various time intervals and the results were compared with hardness.

Keywords: AZ91D Mg alloy, boron, heat treatment, microstructure, mechanical properties, hardness

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10547 Characterising the Effects of Heat Treatment on 3CR12 and AISI 316 Stainless Steels

Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Stephen A. Akinlabi


This paper reports on the effects of heat treatment on 3CR12 and AISI 316 stainless steel grades. Heat treatment was conducted on the steel grades and cooled using two different media; air and water in order to study the effect of each medium on the evolving properties of the samples. The heat treated samples were characterized through the evolving microstructure and hardness. It was found that there was a significant grain size reduction in both the heat treated stainless steel specimens compared to the parent materials. The finer grain sizes were achieved as a result of impediment to growth of one phase by the other. The Vickers micro-hardness values of the heat treated samples were higher compared to the parent materials due to the fact that each of the steel grades had a proportion of martensitic structures in their microstructures.

Keywords: austenite, ferrite, grain size, hardness, martensite, microstructure and stainless steel

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