Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Search results for: Camellia sinensis

39 Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Bacterial Properties of Camellia sinensis, Tea Plant

Authors: Rini Jarial, Puranjan Mishra, Lakhveer Singh, Sveta Thakur, A. W. Zularisam, Mimi Sakinah

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to assess the biological properties of Camellia sinensis and to identify its functional compounds. The methanolic leaves-extract (MLE) of commercial green tea (Camellia sinensis) was assessed for anti-bacterial activities by measuring inhibition zones against a panel of pathogenic bacterial strains using agar diffusion method. The flavonoid (5.0 to 8.0 mg/ml) and protein content (10 to 15 mg/ml) of the MLE were recorded. MLE at a concentration of 25 μg/ml showed marked anti-bacterial activity against all bacterial strains (11-30 mm zone of inhibition) and was maximum against Staphylococcus aureus (30 mm). The MLE of Camellia sinensis had the best MIC values of 2.25 and 0.56 mg/ml against S. aureus and Enterobacter sp., respectively. The MLE also possessed good anti-lipolytic activity (65%) against a Porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) and cholesterol oxidase inhibition (79%). The present study provided strong experimental evidences that the MLE of Camellia sinensis is not only a potent source of natural anti-oxidants and anti-bacterial activity but also possesses efficient cholesterol degradation and anti-lipolytic activities that might be beneficial in the body weight management.

Keywords: anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial activity, anti-lipolytic activity, Camellia sinensis, phyto-chemicals

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38 Evaluation Of In Vitro Antioxidant Potential of Camellia Sinensis Leaves Extract

Authors: Jirathan Pongchababnapa

Abstract:

Polyphenols are the most common antioxidant found in plants and are efficient in capturing oxidative free radicals. Antioxidants are substances found in medicinal plants which may have a protective role to play in certain conditions such as heart disease, stroke and some cancers. By relying on these benefits, we have traced out the presence of antioxidant in Camellia sinensis leaves extract. This study aims to evaluate flavonoids content in C. sinensisextract and investigate antioxidant activities by using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging capacity assay. The total flavonoid content of C. Sinensis extract was determined and expressed as quercetin equivalents (QE)/g measured by the aluminum chloride colorimetric method. The results showed that the IC₅₀ of C. Sinensis leaves extract were 40.90 μg/mL ± 0.755 and32.96 μg/mL ± 0.679 for DPPH and ABTS, respectively. C. Sinensis extract at increasing concentration showed antioxidant activities as a concentration dependent manner. In the DPPH assay, vitamin C was used as a positive control, whereas Trolox was used as a positive control in the ABTS assay. In conclusion, C. Sinensis extract consisted of a high amount of flavonoids content which possesses potent antioxidant activity. However, further investigation on the identification of pure compound of this plant and molecular antioxidant assays are still required.

Keywords: ABTS assay, antioxidant, camellia sinensis, DPPH assay, total flavonoid content

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37 Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis of Methanolic Extract of Camellia sinensis Linn. Leaves

Authors: Babar Ali, Mohammad Rashid, Showkat Rasool Mir, Mohammad Ali, Saiba Shams

Abstract:

Background: The plant Camellia sinensis (Theaceae) is an evergreen shrub indigenous to Assam (India) and parts of China and Japan. Traditional Chinese medicine has recommended green tea for headaches, body aches and pains, digestion, enhancement of immune defense, detoxification, as an energizer and to prolong life. The leaves have more than 700 chemical constituents, among which flavanoids, amino acids, vitamins (C, E, K), caffeine and polysaccharides. Adulteration and substitution may affect the quality of formulation containing tea leaves. Standardization of medicinal preparation is essential for further therapeutic results and for global acceptance. Hence, chromatographic fingerprint profiles were carried out for establishing the standards. Materials and methods: TLC studies for methanolic extracts of the leaves of Camellia sinensis were carried out in a new developed solvent system, Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid (7:3:1). TLC plates were dried in air, visualized in UV at wavelengths 254 nm and 366 nm and photographed. Results: Results provide valuable clue regarding their polarity and selection of solvents for separation of phytochemicals. Fingerprinting of methanolic extract of Camellia sinensis leaves revealed the presence of various phytochemicals in UV at 254 nm and 366 nm. Conclusion: Fingerprint profile is quite helpful in setting up of standards and thus to keep a check on intentional/unintentional adulteration. TLC offers major advantages over other conventional chromatographic techniques such as unsurpassed flexibility (esp. stationary and mobile phase), choice of detection wavelength, user friendly, rapid and cost effective.

Keywords: Cammelia sinensis Linn., standardization, methanolic extract, thin layer chromatography

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36 A Literature Review: The Anti-Obesity Effect of Epigallocathecin-3-Gallate of Camellia sinensis (Green Tea) Extraction as a Potential Adjuvant Therapy for Management Obesity

Authors: Nunuy Nuraeni, Vera Amalia Lestari, Atri Laranova, Viena Nissa Mien Fadhillah, Mutia, Muhammad Ikhlas Abdian Putra

Abstract:

Introduction: Obesity is a common disease with high prevalence especially in developing countries including Indonesia. The obesitygenic lifestyle such as excessive intake of food, sedentary lifestyle is the major environmental etiologies of obesity. Obesity is also as one of burden disease with high morbidity due to its complication, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. The objective of this literature review is to know how the Epigallocathecin-3-Gallate of Green tea or Camellia sinensis effect as anti-obesity agent and reduce the complication of obesity. Material and Methods: This study based on the secondary data analysis complemented by primary data collection from several journal and textbook. We identified the effect of Epigallocathecin-3-Gallate of Green tea or Camellia sinensis as adjuvant therapy for management obesity and to prevent the complications of obesity. Results: Based on the result, Green tea or Camellia sinensis contain Epigallocathecin-3-Gallate (EGCG) that has anti-obesity effect such as induce apoptosis, inhibit adipogenesis, increasing lipolytic activity, increasing fat oxidation and thermogenesis. Discussion: EGCG are naturally distributed in green tea, that contains a biological activity that has a potential effect to treat obesity. Conclusion: EGCG are capable to treat obesity. By consuming EGCG can prevent obesity in normal health person and prevent complication in patient with obesity.

Keywords: adjuvant therapy, anti-obesity effect, complication, epigallocathecin-3-gallate, obesity

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35 Antimicrobial Activity of Some Alimentary and Medicinal Plants

Authors: Akrpoum Souad, Lalaoui Korrichi

Abstract:

Vicia faba L.,Vaccinium macrocarpon, Punica granatum, Lavandula officinalis, Artemisia absinthium, Linum capitatum and Camellia sinensis were frequently used in our alimentation. In this study, we have tested the antimicrobial activity of their ethanolic and methanolic extracts on some pathogen bacteria, then their ability to in vivo inhibit the growth of Strepcoccus pneumonia. The phytochemical screening has given the composition of the most active extracts. According to the obtained results, the ethanolic extract of Lavendula. officinalis and A absinthium has shown an inhibition of all the tested strains of becteria3. The ethanolic extract of L. officinalis has given the highest activity against S. pneumoniae, followed by the methanolic extract of C. sinensis 1, 2 and P. granatum. The phytochemical screening showed that the most active extracts contained mainly naturels compounds.

Keywords: plants, extracts, antimicrobial activity, streptococcus pneumoniae, phytochemical screening

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34 Evaluation of Hypolipidemic Effect of Leaf Essential Oil of Citrus sinensis in Alloxan- Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Omolola Soji-Omoniwa, Babasoji Omoniwa

Abstract:

The hypolipidemic effect of leaf essential oil of Citrus sinensis in alloxan–induced diabetic rats was evaluated. Forty albino rats (150–200 g) were randomly selected into 4 groups of 10 rats each, representing Normal Control, Diabetic Control, Diabetic treated with 14.2 mg/kg body weight Metformin and Diabetic treated with 110 mg/kg body weight leaf essential oil of Citrus sinensis. Diabetes was induced in the animals by intraperitoneal administration of single dose alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg body weight). The leaf essential oil of Citrus sinensis was administered every other day to the Diabetic rats for a period of 15 days. The effects of leaf essential oil on High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), Trigylcerides and Cholesterol were evaluated. A significant reduction (p <0.05) in LDL, Triglycerides and cholesterol levels and a significant increase (p<0 .05) in HDL was observed. Leaf essential oil of Citrus sinensis possesses hypolipidemic properties.

Keywords: Citrus sinensis, Diabetes mellitus, hypolipidemic, leaf essential oil

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33 Molecular Cloning and Identification of a Double WAP Domain–Containing Protein 3 Gene from Chinese Mitten Crab Eriocheir sinensis

Authors: Fengmei Li, Li Xu, Guoliang Xia

Abstract:

Whey acidic proteins (WAP) domain-containing proteins in crustacean are involved in innate immune response against microbial invasion. In the present study, a novel double WAP domain (DWD)-containing protein gene 3 was identified from Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis (designated EsDWD3) by expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis and PCR techniques. The full-length cDNA of EsDWD3 was of 1223 bp, consisting of a 5′-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 74 bp, a 3′ UTR of 727 bp with a polyadenylation signal sequence AATAAA and a polyA tail, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 423 bp. The ORF encoded a polypeptide of 140 amino acids with a signal peptide of 22 amino acids. The deduced protein sequence EsDWD3 showed 96.4 % amino acid similar to other reported EsDWD1 from E. sinensis, and phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that EsDWD3 had closer relationships with the reported two double WAP domain-containing proteins of E. sinensis species.

Keywords: Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, cloning, double WAP domain-containing protein

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32 Evaluation of Polyphenolics Compounds in Cold Brewed Indian Tea

Authors: Chandrima Das, Sirshendu Chatterjee

Abstract:

Tea (Camellia sinensis) is known as nature's low calorie wonder drink. Since ancient times hot consumptions of tea is very much popular. We have observed that many heat sensitive secondary metabolites which get destroyed on heating, moreover by people, who are permanently live at higher altitude or the members of high altitude expedition team, are deprived of various tea brewing facilities like electricity, fuel, etc. and the hence cold decoction of tea might be a good alternative. In this backdrop present study aims at the analysis of antioxidants like polyphenols, flavonoids and free radical scavenging activity as well as the l-theanine concentration of different types of cold brewed teas like black, green, white and oolong and compared with its hot decoction. Further, we also analysed in details about the bioactive components by using HPLC followed by green synthesis of nanoparticles. The study highlighted that the difference between the concentration of antioxidant in cold and hot brewed tea is insignificant and hence intake of cold decoction will be beneficial to health.

Keywords: antioxidants, flavanoid, polyphenols, HPLC, nanoparticles

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31 Effect of Leaf Essential Oil of Citrus sinensis at Different Harvest Time on Some Liver and Kidney Function Indices of Diabetic Rats

Authors: O. Soji-Omoniwa, N. O. Muhammad, L. A. Usman, B. P. Omoniwa

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the leaf essential oil of C. sinensis harvested at 7.00a.m and 4.00p.m on some Liver and Kidney function indices of diabetic rats as well as investigate the effect of time of harvest on the observed effect. Experimental animals were divided into 4 groups (A, B, C and D). Diabetes mellitus was induced in all animals, except the normal control group (Group A), by injecting 150mg/kg body weight of alloxan monohydrate intraperitoneally. Group A received distilled water while group B (diabetic control group) was not treated. Group C and D were treated with leaf essential oil of C. sinensis harvested at 7.00 a.m and 4.00 p.m respectively at a dose of 110 mg/kg body weight every other day for 15 days. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Alanine Transaminase (ALT) and Aspartate Transaminase (AST) activity was evaluated in the serum, Liver and Kidney of studied animals. Total and Direct Bilirubin level, Total Protein and Globulin, Creatinine and Urea level were also evaluated. Result showed that creatinine and urea, serum ALP, AST and ALT levels was significantly reduced (p < 0.05), while the levels of total Protein and Globulin increased significantly (p < 0.05) for the treated animals compared to the diabetic control group. In conclusion, the leaf essential oil of Citrus sinensis ameliorated the impaired renal and liver function; however, the time of harvest of the leaf does not significantly affect its ameliorative effect.

Keywords: C. sinensis, function indices, harvest time, leaf essential oil.

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30 Somatic Hybridization of between Citrus and Murraya paniculata Cells Applied by Electro-Fusion

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin

Abstract:

Protoplasts isolated from embryogenic callus of Citrus sinensis were electrically used with mesophyll protoplasts isolated from seedless Citrus relatives. Hybrid of somatic embryos plantlets was obtained after 7 months of culture. Somatic hybrid plants were regenerated into normal seedlings and successfully transferred to soil after strictly acclimatization in the glass pot. The somatic hybrid plants were obtained by screening on the basis of chromosomes count. The number of chromosome of root tip counting revealed plantlets tetraploids (2n = 4x = 36) and the other were diploids (2n = 2x = 18) morphologically resembling the mesophyll parent. This somatic hybrid will be utilized as a possible pollen parent for improving the Citrus sinensis. A complete protoplast-to-plant system of somatic hybrid was developed for Citrus sinensis and Citrus relatives which could facilitate the transfer of nuclear and cytoplasmic genes from this species into cultivated Citrus through protoplast fusion.

Keywords: chromosome, Murraya paniculata, protoplast fusion, somatic hybrid, tetrapoliod

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29 An Invertebrate-Type Lysozyme from Chinese Mitten Crab Eriocheir Sinensis: Cloning and Characterization

Authors: Fengmei Li, Li Xu, Guoliang Xia

Abstract:

Lysozyme is a catalytic enzyme that performs bacterial cell lysis by cleaving the β-1,4-glycosidic bond between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine of peptidoglycan in cell walls. In the present study, an invertebrate-type (i-type) lysozyme gene was cloned from Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis (designated as EsLysozyme) based on PCR-based rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technology. The full-length cDNA of EsLysozyme was of 831 bp. SMART and SIGNALP 3.0 program analysis revealed that EsLysozyme contained a signal peptide and a destabilase domain. The five amino acid residues (Tyr63, Trp64, Tyr91, His110, Pro114) and the conserved motif GSLSCG(P/Y)FQI and CL(E/L/R/H)C(I/M)C in i-type lysozymes were also found in EsLysozyme. The high similarity of EsLysozyme with L. vannamei lysozymes and phylogenetic analysis suggested that EsLysozyme should be a new member of i-type lysozyme family.

Keywords: i-type lysozyme, Eriocheir sinensis, cloning, characterization

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28 Performance of an Improved Fluidized System for Processing Green Tea

Authors: Nickson Kipng’etich Lang’at, Thomas Thoruwa, John Abraham, John Wanyoko

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Green tea is made from the top two leaves and buds of a shrub, Camellia sinensis, of the family Theaceae and the order Theales. The green tea leaves are picked and immediately sent to be dried or steamed to prevent fermentation. Fluid bed drying technique is a common drying method used in drying green tea because of its ease in design and construction and fluidization of fine tea particles. Major problems in this method are significant loss of chemical content of the leaf and green appearance of tea, retention of high moisture content in the leaves and bed channeling and defluidization. The energy associated with the drying technology has been shown to be a vital factor in determining the quality of green tea. As part of the implementation, prototype dryer was built that facilitated sequence of operations involving steaming, cooling, pre-drying and final drying. The major findings of the project were in terms of quality characteristics of tea leaves and energy consumption during processing. The optimal design achieved a moisture content of 4.2 ± 0.84%. With the optimum drying temperature of 100 ºC, the specific energy consumption was 1697.8 kj.Kg-1 and evaporation rate of 4.272 x 10-4 Kg.m-2.s-1. The energy consumption in a fluidized system can be further reduced by focusing on energy saving designs.

Keywords: evaporation rate, fluid bed dryer, maceration, specific energy consumption

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27 Microbial Bioagent Triggered Biochemical Response in Tea (Camellia sinensis) Inducing Resistance against Grey Blight Disease and Yield Enhancement

Authors: Popy Bora, L. C. Bora, A. Bhattacharya, Sehnaz S. Ahmed

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Microbial bioagents, viz., Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis, and Trichoderma viride were assessed for their ability to suppress grey blight caused by Pestalotiopsis theae, a major disease of tea crop in Assam. The expression of defense-related phytochemicals due to the application of these bioagents was also evaluated. The individual bioagents, as well as their combinations, were screened for their bioefficacy against P. theae in vitro using nutrient agar (NA) as basal medium. The treatment comprising a combination of the three bioagents, P. fluorescens, B. subtilis, and T. viride showed significantly the highest inhibition against the pathogen. Bioformulation of effective bioagent combinations was further evaluated under field condition, where significantly highest reduction of grey blight (90.30%), as well as the highest increase in the green leaf yield (10.52q/ha), was recorded due to application of the bioformulation containing the three bioagents. The application of the three bioformulation also recorded an enhanced level of caffeine (4.15%) and polyphenols (22.87%). A significant increase in the enzymatic activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase were recorded in the plants treated with the microbial bioformulation of the three bioagents. The present investigation indicates the role of microbial agents in suppressing disease, inducing plant defense response, as well as improving the quality of tea.

Keywords: enzymatic activity, grey blight, microbial bioagents, Pestalotiopsis theae, phytochemicals, plant defense, tea

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26 Effect of Different Levels of Dried Citrus Sinensis Peel on Blood Parameters of Broilers

Authors: Abbas Ebrahimi, Zohreh Pourhossein, Nariman Miraalami

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The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of dried citrus sinensis peel (DCSP) on the blood parameters of broilers. Four hundred Ross 308 strain day old broiler in a completely randomized design with five treatments (four replicates per treatment and each replicate had 20 chicks) were categorized. Each treatment used either regulatory diet including 1.5% and 3% DCSP in the base diet and in two periods of 1st to 21st day and 1st to 42nd day and base diet without any additive for six weeks. Data analysis was performed using SAS software and mean comparison was conducted by Duncan method. The results determined that using different level of DCSP has significant effects on blood plasma parameters (P<0.05). Cholesterol, glucose, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL) at the rearing period was significantly influenced by experimental treatments (P<0.05). However, uric acid, alkaline phosphatase and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was not affected by experimental treatments (P>0.05). The lowest rate of blood cholesterol was concerned to the treatment which was used 3% DCSP 1st to 42nd day and the highest mean of blood cholesterol were concerned to the control treatment. The lowest rate of blood triglyceride was concerned to the treatment which was used 3% DCSP 1st to 42nd day and the highest mean of blood triglyceride were concerned to the control treatment. The lowest rate of blood alkaline phosphatase was concerned to the treatment which was used 3% DCSP 1st to 42nd day and the highest mean of blood alkaline phosphatase were concerned to the treatment which was used 3% DCSP 1st to 21st day.

Keywords: blood parameters, broilers, dried citrus sinensis peel, regulatory diet

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25 Exploring Simple Sequence Repeats within Conserved microRNA Precursors Identified from Tea Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) Database

Authors: Anjan Hazra, Nirjhar Dasgupta, Chandan Sengupta, Sauren Das

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Tea (Camellia sinensis) has received substantial attention from the scientific world time to time, not only for its commercial importance, but also for its demand to the health-conscious people across the world for its extensive use as potential sources of antioxidant supplement. These health-benefit traits primarily rely on some regulatory networks of different metabolic pathways. Development of microsatellite markers from the conserved genomic regions is being worthwhile for studying the genetic diversity of closely related species or self-pollinated species. Although several SSR markers have been reported, in tea the trait-specific Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) are yet to be identified, which can be used for marker assisted breeding technique. MicroRNAs are endogenous, noncoding, short RNAs directly involved in regulating gene expressions at the post-transcriptional level. It has been found that diversity in miRNA gene interferes the formation of its characteristic hair pin structure and the subsequent function. In the present study, the precursors of small regulatory RNAs (microRNAs) has been fished out from tea Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) database. Furthermore, the simple sequence repeat motifs within the putative miRNA precursor genes are also identified in order to experimentally validate their existence and function. It is already known that genic-SSR markers are very adept and breeder-friendly source for genetic diversity analysis. So, the potential outcome of this in-silico study would provide some novel clues in understanding the miRNA-triggered polymorphic genic expression controlling specific metabolic pathways, accountable for tea quality.

Keywords: micro RNA, simple sequence repeats, tea quality, trait specific marker

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24 Isolation and Characterization of Endophytic Bacteria Associated with Root-Nodules of Medicago sativa in Al-Ahasa Region

Authors: Ashraf Y. Z. Khalifa, Mohammed A. Almalki

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Medicago sativa (Alfalfa) is an important forage crop legume worldwide including Saudia Arabia due to its high nutritive value. Soil bacteria exist in root or root-nodules of Medicago sativa in either symbiotic relationships or in associations. The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterize endophytic bacteria that live in association with non-nodulated roots of Medicago sativa growing in Al-Ahsaa region, Saudia Arabia. Several bacterial strains were isolated from sterilized roots of Medicago sativa. Strains were characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequences, phylogenetic relationships analysis, morphological and biochemical characteristics. The strains utilized 50% (10 out of 20) of the different chemical substrates contained in the API20E strip. In general, many strains had the ability to ferment/oxidise all the carbohydrate tested except for rhamnose and the polyol carbohydrate, inositol. Comparative sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA gene indicated that the strains were closely related to the genus Bacillus. Furthermore, the growth parameters of Vigna sinensis were enhanced upon single-inoculation of the isolated strains, compared to the uninoculated control plants. The results highlighted that the root-nodules of Medicago sativa harbor non-nodulating bacterial strains that could have significant agricultural applications.

Keywords: Medicago sativa, endophytic bacteria, Pisum sativum, Vigna sinensis

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23 Assessing the Impacts of Frugivorous Birds on Dispersal and Recruitment of Invasive Phytolacca Americana in an Urban Landscape

Authors: Ning Li, Yaner Yan, Yajun Qiao, Shu-qing An

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Although seed dispersal is considered to be a key process determining the spatial structure and spread of invasive plant populations, few studies have explicitly addressed the link between dispersal vector behaviour, and seedling recruitment to gain insight into the process of exotic species invasion within a urban landscape. The present study tests the effects of native bird species on the dispersal and recruitment of invasive Phytolacca Americana in an urban garden. We found the invasive population of American pokeweed attracted both generalist species and specialist species to forage and disperse its seeds, with generalists Pycnonotus sinensis and Urocissa erythrorhyncha being by far the most important dispersers. Seedling numbers of P. Americana was strongly affected by perching behavior of bird dispersers. Moreover, two main disperser species, P. sinensis and U. erythrorhyncha govern a high quality dispersal service for P. Americana. Our results highlight the ability of invasive P. americana to recruit seed dispersal agents in urban habitats. However, if the newly recruited species could use the seedling safe site for perching shelter, the invasive plants will get a high regenerate rate in the invasive new habitats thus enhancing their invasive ability.

Keywords: frugivorous birds, phytolacca americana, seed dispersal, urban landscape

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22 Studies on Irrigation and Nutrient Interactions in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck)

Authors: S. M. Jogdand, D. D. Jagtap, N. R. Dalal

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Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) is one of the most important commercially cultivated fruit crop in India. It stands on second position amongst citrus group after mandarin. Irrigation and fertigation are vital importance of sweet orange orchard and considered to be the most critical cultural operations. The soil acts as the reservoir of water and applied nutrients, the interaction between irrigation and fertigation leads to the ultimate quality and production of fruits. The increasing cost of fertilizers and scarcity of irrigation water forced the farmers for optimum use of irrigation and nutrients. The experiment was conducted with object to find out irrigation and nutrient interaction in sweet orange to optimize the use of both the factors. The experiment was conducted in medium to deep soil. The irrigation level I3,drip irrigation at 90% ER (effective rainfall) and fertigation level F3 80% RDF (recommended dose of fertilizer) recorded significantly maximum plant height, plant spread, canopy volume, number of fruits, weight of fruit, fruit yield kg/plant and t/ha followed by F2 , fertigation with 70% RDF. The interaction effect of irrigation and fertigation on growth was also significant and the maximum plant height, E-W spread, N-S spread, canopy volume, highest number of fruits, weight of fruit and yield kg/plant and t/ha was recorded in T9 i.e. I3F3 drip irrigation at 90% ER and fertigation with 80% of RDF followed by I3F2 drip irrigation at 90% ER and fertigation with 70% of RDF.

Keywords: sweet orange, fertigation, irrigation, interactions

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21 Effects of Essential Oils on the Intestinal Microflora of Termite (Heterotermes indicola)

Authors: Ayesha Aihetasham, Najma Arshad, Sobia Khan

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Damage causes by subterranean termites are of major concern today. Termites majorly treated with pesticides resulted in several problems related to health and environment. For this reason, plant-derived natural products specifically essential oils have been evaluated in order to control termites. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antitermitic potential of six essential oils on Heterotermes indicola subterranean termite. No-choice bioassay was used to assess the termiticidal action of essential oils. Further, gut from each set of treated termite group was extracted and analyzed for reduction in number of protozoa and bacteria by protozoal count method using haemocytometer and viable bacterial plate count (dilution method) respectively. In no-choice bioassay it was found that Foeniculum vulgare oil causes high degree of mortality 90 % average mortality at 10 mg oil concentration (10mg/0.42g weight of filter paper). Least mortality appeared to be due to Citrus sinensis oil (43.33 % average mortality at 10 mg/0.42g). The highest activity verified to be of Foeniculum vulgare followed by Eruca sativa, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Peganum harmala, Syzygium cumini and Citrus sinensis. The essential oil which caused maximum reduction in number of protozoa was P. harmala followed by T. foenum-graecum and E. sativa. In case of bacterial count E. sativa oil indicated maximum decrease in bacterial number (6.4×10⁹ CFU/ml). It is concluded that F. vulgare, E. sativa and P. harmala essential oils are highly effective against H. indicola termite and its gut microflora.

Keywords: bacterial count, essential oils, Heterotermes indicola, protozoal count

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20 Effect of Tree Age on Fruit Quality of Different Cultivars of Sweet Orange

Authors: Muhammad Imran, Faheem Khadija, Zahoor Hussain, Raheel Anwar, M. Nawaz Khan, M. Raza Salik

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Amongst citrus species, sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) occupies a dominant position in the orange producing countries in the world. Sweet orange is widely consumed both as fresh fruit as well as juice and its global demand is attributed due to higher vitamin C and antioxidants. Fruit quality is most important for the external appearance and marketability of sweet orange fruit, especially for fresh consumption. There are so many factors affecting fruit quality, tree age is the most important one, but remains unexplored so far. The present study, we investigated the role of tree age on fruit quality of different cultivars of sweet oranges. The difference between fruit quality of 5-year young and 15-year old trees was discussed in the current study. In case of fruit weight, maximum fruit weight (238g) was recorded in 15-year old sweet orange cv. Sallustiana cultivar while minimum fruit weight (142g) was recorded in 5-year young tree of Succari sweet orange fruit. The results of the fruit diameter showed that the maximum fruit diameter (77.142mm) was recorded in 15-year old Sallustiana orange but the minimum fruit diameter (66.046mm) was observed in 5-year young tree of sweet orange cv. Succari. The minimum value of rind thickness (4.142mm) was noted in 15-year old tree of cv. Red blood. On the other hand maximum value of rind thickness was observed in 5-year young tree of cv. Sallustiana. The data regarding total soluble solids (TSS), acidity (TA), TSS/TA, juice content, rind, flavedo thickness, pH and fruit diameter have also been discussed.

Keywords: age, cultivars, fruit, quality, sweet orange (Citrus Sinensis L. Osbeck)

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19 Survey of Some Important Nepalese and Russian Anti-Diabetic Herbs

Authors: Ram Prasad Baral, Vinogradov Dmitriy Valerievich, Rameshwar Adhikari

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Diabetes has posed a great threat to the human health worldwide, both in developed and developing countries. The disease has basically rooted from the dramatically changed way of living of the present day human civilization as our living has deviated from what the nature has adapted us for. In this context, due to availability of wide range of climatic condition and hence the wide spectrum of biodiversity, Nepal is blessed with a valuable reservoir of medicinal herbs. These assets have been utilized and developed practices in traditional medicines and Ayurvedic way of treatment over several thousand years in the region. It has been established since ancient times that each and every plant has a specific medicinal value. There are many plants’ products which have been utilized in Ayurvedic medicine for the effective treatment of diabetes. The medicaments are less expensive and pose practically no side effects. In this work, we report a general survey of anti-diabetic properties of some medicinal herbs with pronounced effects and their applications. The plants covered in this study originate from far western region of Nepal and include Ficus racemosa, Momordica charantia, Azadirachta indica, Helieteres isora, Saraca asoca, Ichnocarpus frutescens, Tinospora sinensis, Commiphora mukul, Coccinia grandis, and Hippophae salicifolia.

Keywords: Ficus racemosa, Momordica charantia, Azadirachta indica, Helieteres isora, Saraca asoca, Ichnocarpus frutescens, Tinospora sinensis, Commiphora mukul, Coccinia grandis, Hippophae salicifolia

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18 Effect of High Dose of Black Tea Extract on Physiological Parameters of Mother and Pups in Experimental Albino Rats

Authors: Avijit Dey, Antony Gomes, Subir Chandra Dasgupta

Abstract:

Tea (Camellia sinensis) is the most popular beverages in the world and is ranked second after the water. Tea has been considered as a health promoting beverage since ancient times due to its health-promoting activity. Recently, immunomodulatory, anti-arthritic, antioxidant, anticancer and cardioprotective activity of tea has been established. Very few studies have demonstrated the effect of high dose of black tea on health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of low & high dose of Black Tea Extract (BTE) on the different physiological parameters of mother and pups during prenatal and postnatal developmental period in the experimental rodent. BTE was orally administered in LD (50mg BTE/kg/day) and HD (100mg BTE/kg/day) except control groups of rats (n=6/group) throughout the prenatal (day 0-21) and postnatal (day 21-42) periods. During prenatal period (0, 7th, 14th, 20th days) body weight, urinary calcium, magnesium, urea and creatinine was measured. In postnatal period physical (0, 10th, 21th days) parameters of pups like body weight, cranial length, cranial diameter, neck width, tail length, craniosacral length of pups were analyzed. Liver and lungs from pups and kidney spleen, etc. from mothers were collected on day 42 for histopathological studies. The comparative urine strip and morphology of RBC was also analyzed by SEM from mothers of different groups on day 42. The level of cytokines like IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on day 0, day 20 and day 42. The body weight of LD and HD mothers were also significantly (P<0.05) less than control mothers at 20th day of pregnancy and there was also significant changes in urinary calcium, urea, creatinine. The bio morphometric analysis of pups showed significant alteration (P<0.05) in HD groups relative to control. Some histological alterations were also observed in pups and mothers. Comparative urine strip analysis and morphology of RBC showed significant changes in treated groups. LD and HD treated mothers showed an increase in proinflammatory cytokines like IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and decrease in anti-inflammatory cytokine-like IL-10 on day 20 compared to PC mothers. This study clearly indicated that high dose of BTE possesses detrimental effect on pregnant mother and the pup. Further studies are in progress to elucidate the molecular mechanism of actions. This project work has been sponsored by National Tea Research Foundation vide Project Sanction No.: 17 (305)/2013/4423 dated 11th March, 2014. All experimental protocols described in the study were approved by animal ethics committee.

Keywords: black tea extract, pregnancy, prenatal and postnatal development, inflammation

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17 Salinity Response of Some Cowpea Genotypes in Germination of Periods

Authors: Meryem Aydin, Serdar Karadas, Ercan Ceyhan

Abstract:

The research was conducted to determine effects of salt concentrations on emergence of cowpea genotypes. Trials were performed during the year of 2014 on the laboratory of Agricultural Faculty, Selcuk University. Emergency trial was set up according to “Randomized Plots Design” by two factors and four replications with three replications. Samandag, Akkiz-86, Karnikara and Sarigobek cowpea genotypes have been used as trial material in this study. Effects of the five doses of salt concentrations (control, 30 mM, 60 mM, 90 mM and 120 mM) on the ratio of emergency, speed of emergency, average time for emergency, index of sensibility were evaluated. Responses of the cowpea genotypes for salt concentrations were found different. Comparing to the control, all of the investigated characteristics on the cowpea genotypes showed significant reduction by depending on the increasing salt application. According to the effects of salt application, the cowpea genotypes Samandag and Karnikara were the most tolerant in respect to index of sensibility while the Sarigobek genotypes was the most sensitive.

Keywords: cowpea, Vigna sinensis, emergence, salt tolerant

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16 Physicochemical Analysis of Soxhlet Extracted Oils from Selected Northern Nigerian Seeds

Authors: Abdulhamid Abubakar, Sani Ibrahim, Fakai I. Musa

Abstract:

The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential use of the selected seed oils. The oil was extracted using Soxhlet apparatus and the physicochemical characteristics of the oil determined using standard methods. The following results were obtained for the physicochemical parameters analysed: for Egusi seed oil, Oil yield 53.20%, Saponification value 178.03±1.25 mgKOH/g, iodine value 49.10±0.32 g I2/100 g, acid value 4.30±0.86 mgKOH/g, and Peroxide value 5.80±0.27 meq/kg were obtained. For Pawpaw seed oil, Oil yield 40.10%, Saponification value 24.13±3.93 mgKOH/g, iodine value 24.87±0.19 g I2/100g, acid value 9.46±0.40 mgKOH/g, and Peroxide value 3.12±1.22 meq/kg were obtained. For Sweet orange seed oil, oil yield 43.10%, Saponification value 106.30±2.37 mgKOH/g, Iodine value 37.08±0.04 g I2/100g, acid value 7.59±0.77 mgKOH/g, and Peroxide value 2.21±0.46 meq/kg were obtained. From the obtained values of the determined parameters, the oils can be extracted from the three selected seeds in commercial quantities and that the egusi and sweet orange seed oils may be utilized in the industrial soap production.

Keywords: Carica papaya, Citrus sinensis, physicochemical, iodine value, peroxide value

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15 Micro/Nano-Sized Emulsions Exhibit Antifungal Activity against Cucumber Downy Mildew

Authors: Kai-Fen Tu, Jenn-Wen Huang, Yao-Tung Lin

Abstract:

Cucumber is a major economic crop in the world. The global production of cucumber in 2017 was more than 71 million tonnes. Nonetheless, downy mildew, caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis, is a devastating and common disease on cucumber in around 80 countries and causes severe economic losses. The long-term usage of fungicide also leads to the occurrence of fungicide resistance and decreases host resistance. In this study, six types of oil (neem oil, moringa oil, soybean oil, cinnamon oil, clove oil, and camellia oil) were selected to synthesize micro/nano-sized emulsions, and the disease control efficacy of micro/nano-sized emulsions were evaluated. Moreover, oil concentrations (0.125% - 1%) and droplet size of emulsion were studied. Results showed cinnamon-type emulsion had the best efficacy among these oils. The disease control efficacy of these emulsions increased as the oil concentration increased. Both disease incidence and disease severity were measured by detached leaf and pot experiment, respectively. For the droplet size effect, results showed that the 114 nm of droplet size synthesized by 0.25% cinnamon oil emulsion had the lowest disease incidence (6.67%) and lowest disease severity (33.33%). The release of zoospore was inhibited (5.33%), and the sporangia germination was damaged. These results suggest that cinnamon oil emulsion will be a valuable and environmentally friendly alternative to control cucumber downy mildew. The economic loss caused by plant disease could also be reduced.

Keywords: downy mildew, emulsion, oil droplet size, plant protectant

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14 Developing Mathematical Relationships to Evaluate the Amount of Added Ease to the Basic Pattern of Weft Knitting Fabrics and Its Fitting to the Upper Part of Egyptian Women's Bodies

Authors: Hebatullah Ali Abdel-Aleem Abdel-Hamid, Camellia Mousa Mohamed Elzean

Abstract:

Knitted garments recently became a key component in wardrobes of the Egyptian woman. Many Egyptian women depend on garments made of knitted fabrics in their outer appearance because of its specific properties including flexibility. Through observation and application, it was noticed that knitwear blocks that used for knitted fabrics somehow does not fit the figures of the Egyptian women. Moreover, the pattern makers are usually confused and unable to choose the suitable blocks for different knitting fabrics taking into consideration its physical and mechanical properties. This study seeks to develop mathematical relationships for evaluation of the amount of added- or subtracted ease to Aldrich’s basic fitting blocks for some weft knitting fabrics and its fitting to the upper part of Egyptian women's bodies. To achieve this goal, 12 samples were used to evaluate fitting of Aldrich’s Basic Fitting Block to the upper part of Egyptian women's bodies. The samples were evaluated before and after alterations, through wear trials on the standard mannequins of size 48 and 56, and judged by experienced assessors using fit evaluation scale. The data obtained were statistically analyzed to identify the efficiency of the adjustments. The Aldrich’s Basic Fitting Block was selected because his method is known internationally and easy to use.

Keywords: Aldrich basic fitting block, clothing industry, knitted fabrics, pattern construction

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
13 Phytoplankton of the Atlantic Ocean, off Lagos, Nigeria

Authors: Ikenna Charles Onyema, Tolut Prince Bako

Abstract:

A study was carried out in the Atlantic Ocean off the Lighthouse Beach, Lagos. There were monthly and spatial variations in physical and chemical characteristics of the neritic ocean (August - December, 2014). Mean and standard deviation values for air temperature were 27. 67, ± 2.98 °C, water temperature (28.37 ± 1.88), pH (7.85 ± 0.17), conductivity (44738.75 ± 6262.76 µS/cm), total dissolved solids (29236.71 ± 4273.30 mg/L), salinity (27.11 ± 3.91 ‰), alkalinity (126.99 ± 42.81 mg/L) and chloride (15056. 67 ± 2165.78 mg/L). Higher estimates were recorded in the dry than wet months for these characteristics. On the other hand, reducing values were recorded for acidity (2.34 ± 0.63 mg/L), total hardness (4711.98 ± 691.50 mg/L), phosphate (1.1 ± 0.78 mg/L), sulphate (2601.99 ± 447.04 mg/L) and nitrate (0.12 ± 0.06 mg/L). Values for total suspended solids and biological oxygen demand values were low (<1mg/L). Twenty-one species of phytoplankton were recorded. Diatoms recorded 80.92% and were the dominant group. Hemidiscus cuneiformis, Coscinodiscus centralis, Coscinodiscus lineatus, Coscinodiscus radiatus and Oscillatoria limosa were more frequently occurring species. Biddulphia sinensis and four species of Ceratium, were representatives of the dry season. The dry season also recorded comparatively higher individuals of phytoplankton than the wet season. Spirogyra sp. (green algae) appeared only in the wet season. Species abundance (N) was highest in December at Station 1 (13.15%) (dry season) and lowest in August (wet season) at Station 3 (2.96%). The physico-chemical factors and phytoplankton reflected a tropical unpolluted neritic oceanic environment.

Keywords: sea, physico-chemistry, lighthouse beach, microalgae

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12 The Mechanism of Parabacteroides goldsteinii on Immune Modulation and Anti-Obsogenicity

Authors: Yu-Ling Tsai, Chih-Jung Chang, Chia-Chen Lu, Eric Wu, Chuan-Sheng Lin, Tzu-Lung Lin, Hsin-Chih Lai

Abstract:

It is urgent that novel anti-obesity measures that are safe, effective and widely available are developed for counteracting the rapidly growing obesity epidemics. In the present study, we show that a probiotic bacterium Parabacteroides goldsteinii screened through culture under the high molecular weight polysaccharides prepared from two iconic medicinal fungi, the Ganoderma lucidum and the Hirsutella sinensis, reduced body weight by ca. 20% in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. The bacterium also decreased intestinal permeability, metabolic endotoxemia, inflammation and insulin resistance. Notably, oral administration of live, but not high temperature-killed, P. goldsteinii to HFD fed mice considerably reduces weight gain and obesity-associated metabolic disorders. A three months feeding of the mice with P. goldsteinii did not show any aberrant side effects, indicating the safety of this bacterium. Transcriptome analysis indicated that P. goldsteinii enhances immunity in resting dendritic cells, but reduces inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced dendritic cells. On top, Naïve T-cells were skewed towards regulatory T-cells after encountering with dendritic cells (DCs) pretreated with P. goldsteinii. These results indicated P. goldsteinii showed anti-inflammatory effects and can work as a potential probiotic ameliorating obesogenicity and related metabolic syndromes.

Keywords: Parabacteroides goldsteinii, gut microbiome, obesity, immune modulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
11 Phytoplankton of the Atlantic Ocean off Lagos

Authors: Ikenna Charles Onyema, Prince Tolut Bako

Abstract:

A study was carried out in the Atlantic Ocean off the Lighthouse Beach, Lagos. There were monthly and spatial variations in physical and chemical characteristics of the neritic ocean (August-December, 2014). Mean and standard deviation values for air temperature were 27. 67, ± 2.98 oC, water temperature (28.37 ± 1.88), pH (7.85 ± 0.17), Conductivity (44738.75 ± 6262.76 µS/cm), Total dissolved solids (29236.71 ± 4273.30 mg/L), Salinity (27.11 ± 3.91 ‰), Alkalinity (126.99 ± 42.81 mg/L) and Chloride (15056. 67 ± 2165.78 mg/L). Higher estimates were recorded in the dry than wet months for these characteristics. On the other hand, reducing values were recorded for Acidity (2.34 ± 0.63 mg/L), Total hardness (4711.98 ± 691.50 mg/L), Phosphate (1.1 ± 0.78 mg/L), Sulphate (2601.99 ± 447.04 mg/L) and Nitrate (0.12 ± 0.06 mg/L). Values for Total suspended solids and Biological oxygen demand values were low ( < 1mg/L). Twenty-one species of phytoplankton were recorded. Diatoms recorded 80.92% and were the dominant group. Hemidiscus cuneiformis, Coscinodiscus centralis, Coscinodiscus lineatus, Coscinodiscus radiatus and Oscillatoria limosa were more frequently occurring species. Biddulphia sinensis and four species of Ceratium, were representatives of the dry season. The dry season also recorded comparatively higher individuals of phytoplankton than the wet season. Spirogyra sp. (green algae) appeared only in the wet season. Species abundance (N) was highest in December at Station 1 (13.15%) (dry season) and lowest in August (wet season) at Station 3 (2.96%). The physico-chemical factors and phytoplankton reflected a tropical unpolluted neritic oceanic environment.

Keywords: sea, physico-chemistry, micro-algae, lighthouse beach

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
10 Neural Correlates of Attention Bias to Threat during the Emotional Stroop Task in Schizophrenia

Authors: Camellia Al-Ibrahim, Jenny Yiend, Sukhwinder S. Shergill

Abstract:

Background: Attention bias to threat play a role in the development, maintenance, and exacerbation of delusional beliefs in schizophrenia in which patients emphasize the threatening characteristics of stimuli and prioritise them for processing. Cognitive control deficits arise when task-irrelevant emotional information elicits attentional bias and obstruct optimal performance. This study is investigating neural correlates of interference effect of linguistic threat and whether these effects are independent of delusional severity. Methods: Using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), neural correlates of interference effect of linguistic threat during the emotional Stroop task were investigated and compared patients with schizophrenia with high (N=17) and low (N=16) paranoid symptoms and healthy controls (N=20). Participants were instructed to identify the font colour of each word presented on the screen as quickly and accurately as possible. Stimuli types vary between threat-relevant, positive and neutral words. Results: Group differences in whole brain effects indicate decreased amygdala activity in patients with high paranoid symptoms compared with low paranoid patients and healthy controls. Regions of interest analysis (ROI) validated our results within the amygdala and investigated changes within the striatum showing a pattern of reduced activation within the clinical group compared to healthy controls. Delusional severity was associated with significant decreased neural activity in the striatum within the clinical group. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the emotional interference mediated by the amygdala and striatum may reduce responsiveness to threat-related stimuli in schizophrenia and that attenuation of fMRI Blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal within these areas might be influenced by the severity of delusional symptoms.

Keywords: attention bias, fMRI, Schizophrenia, Stroop

Procedia PDF Downloads 100