Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 76

Search results for: Trayambak Tiwari

76 Mind-Wandering and Attention: Evidence from Behavioral and Subjective Perspective

Authors: Riya Mishra, Trayambak Tiwari, Anju Lata Singh, I. L. Singh, Tara Singh

Abstract:

Decrement in vigilance task performance echoes impediment in effortful attention; here attention fluctuated in the realm of external and internal milieu of a person. To examine this fluctuation across time period, we employed two experiments of vigilance task with variation in thought probing rate, which was embedded in the task. The thought probe varies in terms of <2 minute per thought probe and <4 minute per thought probe during vigilance task. A 2x4 repeated measure factorial design was used. 15 individuals participated in this study with an age range of 20-26 years. It was found that thought probing rate has a negative trend with vigilance task performance whereas the subjective measures of mind-wandering have a positive relation with thought probe rate.

Keywords: criterion response, mental status, mind-wandering, thought probe, vigilance

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
75 Exploring Relationship between Attention and Consciousness

Authors: Aarushi Agarwal, Tara Singh, Anju Lata Singh, Trayambak Tiwari, Indramani Lal Singh

Abstract:

The existing interdependent relationship between attention and consciousness has been put to debate since long. To testify the nature, dual-task paradigm has been used to simultaneously manipulate awareness and attention. With central discrimination task which is attentional demanding, participants also perform simple discrimination task in the periphery in near absence of attention. Individual-based analysis of performance accuracy in single and dual condition showed and above chance level performance i.e. more than 80%. In order to widen the understanding of extent of discrimination carried in near absence of attention, natural image and its geometric equivalent shape were presented in the periphery; synthetic objects accounted to lower level of performance than natural objects in dual condition. The gaze plot and heatmap indicate that peripheral performance do not necessarily involve saccade every time, verifying the discrimination in the periphery was in near absence of attention. Thus our studies show an interdependent nature of attention and awareness.

Keywords: attention, awareness, dual task paradigm, natural and geometric images

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
74 Parallel Processing in near Absence of Attention: A Study Using Dual-Task Paradigm

Authors: Aarushi Agarwal, Tara Singh, I.L Singh, Anju Lata Singh, Trayambak Tiwari

Abstract:

Simple discrimination in near absence of attention has been widely observed. Dual-task studies with natural scenes studies have been claimed as being preattentive in nature that facilitated categorization simultaneously with the attentional demanding task. So in this study, multiple images at the periphery are presented, initiating parallel processing in near absence of attention. For the central demanding task rotated letters were presented in both conditions, while in periphery natural and animal images were presented. To understand the breakpoint of ability to perform in near absence of attention one, two and three peripheral images were presented simultaneously with central task and subjects had to respond when all belong to the same category. Individual participant performance did not show a significant difference in both conditions central and peripheral task when the single peripheral image was shown. In case of two images high-level parallel processing could take place with little attentional resources. The eye tracking results supports the evidence as no major saccade was made in a large number of trials. Three image presentations proved to be a breaking point of the capacities to perform outside attentional assistance as participants showed a confused eye gaze pattern which failed to make the natural and animal image discriminations. Thus, we can conclude attention and awareness being independent mechanisms having limited capacities.

Keywords: attention, dual task pardigm, parallel processing, break point, saccade

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
73 Solid Dosages Form Tablet: A Summary on the Article by Shashank Tiwari

Authors: Shashank Tiwari

Abstract:

The most common method of drug delivery is the oral solid dosage form, of which tablets and capsules are predominant. The tablet is more widely accepted and used compared to capsules for a number of reasons, such as cost/price, tamper resistance, ease of handling and packaging, ease of identification, and manufacturing efficiency. Over the past several years, the issue of tamper resistance has resulted in the conversion of most over-the-counter (OTC) drugs from capsules to predominantly all tablets.

Keywords: capsule, drug delivery, dosages, solid, tablet

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
72 Thermal Analysis of Photovoltaic Integrated Greenhouse Solar Dryer

Authors: Sumit Tiwari, Rohit Tripathi, G. N. Tiwari

Abstract:

Present study focused on the utilization of solar energy by the help of photovoltaic greenhouse solar dryer under forced mode. A single slope photovoltaic greenhouse solar dryer has been proposed and thermal modelling has been developed. Various parameters have been calculated by thermal modelling such as greenhouse room temperature, cell temperature, crop temperature and air temperature at exit of greenhouse. Further cell efficiency, thermal efficiency, and overall thermal efficiency have been calculated for a typical day of May and November. It was found that system can generate equivalent thermal energy up to 7.65 kW and 6.66 kW per day for clear day of May and November respectively.

Keywords: characteristics curve, photovoltaic, thermal modelling, thermal efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
71 Performance of Partially Covered N Number of Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) - Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) Series Connected Water Heating System

Authors: Rohit Tripathi, Sumit Tiwari, G. N. Tiwari

Abstract:

In present study, an approach is adopted where photovoltaic thermal flat plate collector is integrated with compound parabolic concentrator. Analytical expression of temperature dependent electrical efficiency of N number of partially covered Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) - Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) water collector connected in series has been derived with the help of basic thermal energy balance equations. Analysis has been carried for winter weather condition at Delhi location, India. Energy and exergy performance of N - partially covered Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) - Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) Water collector system has been compared for two cases: (i) 25% area of water collector covered by PV module, (ii) 75% area of water collector covered by PV module. It is observed that case (i) has been best suited for thermal performance and case (ii) for electrical energy as well as overall exergy.

Keywords: compound parabolic concentrator, energy, photovoltaic thermal, temperature dependent electrical efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
70 Lattice Dynamics of (ND4Br)x(KBr)1-x Mixed Crystals

Authors: Alpana Tiwari, N. K. Gaur

Abstract:

We have incorporated the translational rotational (TR) coupling effects in the framework of three body force shell model (TSM) to develop an extended TSM (ETSM). The dynamical matrix of ETSM has been applied to compute the phonon frequencies of orientationally disordered mixed crystal (ND4Br)x(KBr)1-x in (q00), (qq0) and (qqq) symmetry directions for compositions 0.10≤x≤0.50 at T=300K.These frequencies are plotted as a function of wave vector k. An unusual acoustic mode softening is found along symmetry directions (q00) and (qq0) as a result of translation-rotation coupling.

Keywords: orientational glass, phonons, TR-coupling, lattice dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
69 Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys: A Review

Authors: S. K. Tiwari, Dinesh Kumar Shukla, R. Chandra

Abstract:

Friction stir welding is a solid state joining process. High strength aluminum alloys are widely used in aircraft and marine industries. Generally, the mechanical properties of fusion-welded aluminum joints are poor. As friction stir welding occurs in the solid state, no solidification structures are created thereby eliminating the brittle and eutectic phases common in fusion welding of high strength aluminum alloys. In this review, the process parameters, microstructural evolution and effect of friction stir welding on the properties of weld specific to aluminum alloys have been discussed.

Keywords: aluminum alloys, friction stir welding (FSW), microstructure, Properties.

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
68 Optimal Design of Polymer Based Piezoelectric Actuator with Varying Thickness and Length Ratios

Authors: Vineet Tiwari, R. K. Dwivedi, Geetika Srivastava

Abstract:

Piezoelectric cantilevers are exploited for their use in sensors and actuators. In this study, a unimorph cantilever beam is considered as a study element with a piezoelectric polymer Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) layer bonded to a substrate layer. The different substrates like polysilicon, stainless steel and silicon nitride are tried for the study. An effort has been made to optimize and study the effect of the various parameters of the device in order to achieve maximum tip deflection. The variation of the tip displacement of the cantilever with respect to the length ratio of the nonpiezoelectric layer to the piezoelectric layer has been studied. The electric response of this unimorph cantilever beam is simulated with the help of finite element analysis software COMSOL Multiphysics.

Keywords: actuators, cantilever, piezoelectric, sensors, PVDF

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
67 Assessing the Impact of Social Media on Tourism Industry: Setting Proposition for State Government of India

Authors: Utkrash Sarkar, Vineet Tiwari, Shailendra Singh

Abstract:

The development of social media has brought about a tremendous change in the marketing scenario for every industry. It has become a new hybrid element of the promotional mix in the marketing segment. This paper tries to show some light on the fact that in today’s scenario social media is a platform that everyone should take in consideration for any type of marketing campaign. In this paper, we have formulated a questionnaire, and through it, we have tried to gather information from the respondents that how social media is influencing their decision when they choose their travel destinations for tourism purpose, does it help in creating any awareness about places which they don’t have an idea? As a result, guiding the state government and providing them with a marketing strategy that how they can use social media in a better manner so that they could help increase their revenue and can make people aware about the places of the state which the target audience can plan to go for their next vacation.

Keywords: social media, marketing, information, decision making

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
66 Invention of Novel Technique of Process Scale Up by Using Solid Dosage Form

Authors: Shashank Tiwari, S. P. Mahapatra

Abstract:

The aim of this technique is to reduce the steps of process scales up, save time & cost of the industries. This technique will minimise the steps of process scale up. The new steps are, Novel Lab Scale, Novel Lab Scale Trials, Novel Trial Batches, Novel Exhibit Batches, Novel Validation Batches. In these steps, it is not divided to validation batches in three parts but the data of trials batches, Exhibit Batches and Validation batches are use and compile for production and used for validation. It also increases the batch size of the trial, exhibit batches. The new size of trials batches is not less than fifty Thousand, the exhibit batches increase up to two lack and the validation batches up to five lack. After preparing the batches all their data & drugs use for stability & maintain the validation record and compile data for the technology transfer in production department for preparing the marketed size batches.

Keywords: batches, technique, preparation, scale up, validation

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
65 RFID Based Student Attendance System

Authors: Aniket Tiwari, Ameya London

Abstract:

Web-based student attendance management system is required to assist the faculty and the lecturer for the time-consuming process. For this purpose, GSM/GPRS (Global System for Mobile Communication/General Packet Radio Service) based student’s attendance management system using RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) is a much convenient method to take the attendance. Student is provided with the RFID tags. When student comes near to the reader, it will sense the respective student and update attendance. The whole process is controlled using the microcontroller. The main advantage of this system is that it reduced the complexity comparison to student attendance system using RF technology. This system requires only one microcontroller for the operation, it is real time process. This paper reviews some of these monitoring systems and proposes a GPRS based student attendance system. The system can be easily accessed by the lecturers via the web and most importantly, the reports can be generated in real-time processing, thus, provides valuable information about the students’ commitments in attending the classes.

Keywords: RFID reader, RFID tags, student, attendance

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
64 Commercial Surrogacy and Rights of the Children Born

Authors: Neha Tiwari

Abstract:

Rights are prerequisite for individuals to pursue their aims and enrich themselves. Laski has said rights are, ‘conditions of social life without which no man can seek himself at his best.’ However with superior technology, rights of many individuals are at stake as well. One such sufferer is the babies born out of the practice of commercial surrogacy. Commercial surrogacy has emerged as the most viable option for the childless couples. The practice has garnered lot of debate in both academia and media. Some argue for a complete ban and some for strict rules and regulation. Most of the time the debate is regarding the rights of the surrogate, something which we cannot ignore. Equally important are the rights of the children born out of such arrangements. However, not much attention is being paid to them. Recently, a controversy emerged when a surrogate gave birth to twins. One of the babies, Gammy born with down syndrome was left behind by the couple. Gammy could die because his poor Thai surrogate mother may not be able to pay for his treatment. Even if he survives, he will never know his twin sister as her identity would never be disclosed. This is just one of many such cases where the future of such babies is being played with. If the rights of these children are not taken care of many of them will have to bear the brunt of society's ignorance and perhaps live with a scar which won't heal in their lifetime.

Keywords: babies, commercial surrogacy, rights, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
63 Experimental Study of Semitransparent and Opaque Photovoltaic Modules with and without Air Duct

Authors: Sanjay Agrawal, Trapti Varshney, G. N. Tiwari

Abstract:

In this paper, thermal modeling has been developed for photovoltaic PV modules, namely; Case A: semitransparent PV module without duct, Case B: semitransparent PV module with duct, Case C: opaque PV module without duct, Case D: opaque PV module with duct for Delhi, India climatic condition. MATLAB 7.0 software has been used to solve mathematical models of the proposed system. For validation of proposed system, the experimental study has also been carried out for all above four cases, and then comparative analysis of all different type of PV module has been presented. The hybrid PVT module air collectors presented in this study are self sustaining the system and can be used for the electricity generation in remote areas where access of electricity is not economical due to high transmission and distribution losses. It has been found that overall annual thermal energy and exergy gain of semitransparent PV module is higher by 11.6% and7.32% in summer condition and 16.39% and 18% in winter condition respectively as compared to opaque PV module considering same area (0.61 m2) of PV module.

Keywords: semitransparent PV module, overall exergy, overall thermal energy, opaque

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
62 Promoting Biofuels in India: Assessing Land Use Shifts Using Econometric Acreage Response Models

Authors: Y. Bhatt, N. Ghosh, N. Tiwari

Abstract:

Acreage response function are modeled taking account of expected harvest prices, weather related variables and other non-price variables allowing for partial adjustment possibility. At the outset, based on the literature on price expectation formation, we explored suitable formulations for estimating the farmer’s expected prices. Assuming that farmers form expectations rationally, the prices of food and biofuel crops are modeled using time-series methods for possible ARCH/GARCH effects to account for volatility. The prices projected on the basis of the models are then inserted to proxy for the expected prices in the acreage response functions. Food crop acreages in different growing states are found sensitive to their prices relative to those of one or more of the biofuel crops considered. The required percentage improvement in food crop yields is worked to offset the acreage loss.

Keywords: acreage response function, biofuel, food security, sustainable development

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
61 Optical Repeater Assisted Visible Light Device-to-Device Communications

Authors: Samrat Vikramaditya Tiwari, Atul Sewaiwar, Yeon-Ho Chung

Abstract:

Device-to-device (D2D) communication is considered a promising technique to provide wireless peer-to-peer communication services. Due to increasing demand on mobile services, available spectrum for radio frequency (RF) based communications becomes scarce. Recently, visible light communications (VLC) has evolved as a high speed wireless data transmission technology for indoor environments with abundant available bandwidth. In this paper, a novel VLC based D2D communication that provides wireless peer-to-peer communication is proposed. Potential low operating power devices for an efficient D2D communication over increasing distance of separation between devices is analyzed. Optical repeaters (OR) are also proposed to enhance the performance in an environment where direct D2D communications yield degraded performance. Simulation results show that VLC plays an important role in providing efficient D2D communication up to a distance of 1 m between devices. It is also found that the OR significantly improves the coverage distance up to 3.5 m.

Keywords: visible light communication, light emitting diode, device-to-device, optical repeater

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
60 Multi-Disciplinary Optimisation Methodology for Aircraft Load Prediction

Authors: Sudhir Kumar Tiwari

Abstract:

The paper demonstrates a methodology that can be used at an early design stage of any conventional aircraft. This research activity assesses the feasibility derivation of methodology for aircraft loads estimation during the various phases of design for a transport category aircraft by utilizing potential of using commercial finite element analysis software, which may drive significant time saving. Early Design phase have limited data and quick changing configuration results in handling of large number of load cases. It is useful to idealize the aircraft as a connection of beams, which can be very accurately modelled using finite element analysis (beam elements). This research explores the correct approach towards idealizing an aircraft using beam elements. FEM Techniques like inertia relief were studied for implementation during course of work. The correct boundary condition technique envisaged for generation of shear force, bending moment and torque diagrams for the aircraft. The possible applications of this approach are the aircraft design process, which have been investigated.

Keywords: multi-disciplinary optimization, aircraft load, finite element analysis, stick model

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
59 Performance of Photovoltaic Thermal Greenhouse Dryer in Composite Climate of India

Authors: G. N. Tiwari, Shyam

Abstract:

Photovoltaic thermal (PVT) roof type greenhouse dryer installed above the wind tower of SODHA BERS COMPLEX, Varanasi has been analyzed for all types of weather conditions. The product to be dried has been kept at three different trays. The upper tray receives energy from the PV cover while the bottom tray receives thermal energy from the hot air of the wind tower. The annual energy estimation has been done for the all types of weather condition of composite climate of northern India. It has been found that maximum energy saving is observed for c type of weather condition whereas minimum energy saving is observed for a type of weather condition. The energy saving on overall thermal energy basis and exergy basis are 1206.8 kWh and 360 kWh respectively for c type of weather condition. The energy saving from all types of weather condition are found to be 3175.3 kWh and 957.6 kWh on overall thermal energy and overall exergy basis respectively.

Keywords: exergy, greenhouse, photovoltaic thermal, solar dryer

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
58 Investigations into Effect of Neural Network Predictive Control of UPFC for Improving Transient Stability Performance of Multimachine Power System

Authors: Sheela Tiwari, R. Naresh, R. Jha

Abstract:

The paper presents an investigation into the effect of neural network predictive control of UPFC on the transient stability performance of a multi-machine power system. The proposed controller consists of a neural network model of the test system. This model is used to predict the future control inputs using the damped Gauss-Newton method which employs ‘backtracking’ as the line search method for step selection. The benchmark 2 area, 4 machine system that mimics the behavior of large power systems is taken as the test system for the study and is subjected to three phase short circuit faults at different locations over a wide range of operating conditions. The simulation results clearly establish the robustness of the proposed controller to the fault location, an increase in the critical clearing time for the circuit breakers and an improved damping of the power oscillations as compared to the conventional PI controller.

Keywords: identification, neural networks, predictive control, transient stability, UPFC

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
57 Productivity and Profitability of Field Pea as Influenced by Different Levels of Fertility and Bio-Fertilizers under Irrigated Condition

Authors: Akhilesh Mishra, Geeta Rai, Arvind Srivastava, Nalini Tiwari

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted during two consecutive Rabi seasons of 2007 and 2008 to study the economics of different bio-fertilizer’s inoculations in fieldpea (cv. Jai) at Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur (India). Results indicated that the seed inoculation with Rhizobium + PSB + PGPR improved all the growth; yield attributes and yields of field pea. Fresh and dry weight plant-1, nodules number and dry weight plant-1 were found significantly maximum. Number of grains pod-1, number and weight of pods plant-1 at maturity attributed significantly in increasing the grain yield as well as net return. On pooled basis, maximum net income (Rs.22169 ha-1) was obtained with the use of Rhizobium + PSB + PGPR which was improved by a margin of Rs.1502 (6.77%), 2972 (13.40%), 2672 (12.05%), 5212 (23.51%), 6176 (27.85%), 4666 (21.04%) and 8842/ha (39.88%) over the inoculation of PSB + PGPR, Rhizobium + PGPR, Rhizobium + PSB, PGPR, PSB, Rhizobium and control, respectively. Thus, it can be recommended that to earn the maximum net profit from dwarf field pea, seed should be inoculated with Rhizobium + PSB + PGPR.

Keywords: rhizobium, phosphorus solubilizing bacteria, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, field pea

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
56 Phase Transition in Iron Storage Protein Ferritin

Authors: Navneet Kaur, S. D. Tiwari

Abstract:

Ferritin is a protein which present in the blood of mammals. It maintains the need of iron inside the body. It has an antiferromagnetic iron core, 7-8 nm in size, which is encapsulated inside a protein cage. The thickness of this protein shell is about 2-3 nm. This protein shell reduces the interaction among particles and make ferritin a model superparamagnet. The major composition of ferritin core is mineral ferrihydrite. The molecular formula of ferritin core is (FeOOH)8[FeOOPO3H2]. In this study, we discuss the phase transition of ferritin. We characterized ferritin using x-ray diffractometer, transmission electron micrograph, thermogravimetric analyzer and vibrating sample magnetometer. It is found that ferritin core is amorphous in nature with average particle size of 8 nm. The thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis curves shows mass loss at different temperatures. We heated ferritin at these temperatures. It is found that ferritin core starts decomposing after 390^o C. At 1020^o C, the ferritin core is finally converted to alpha phase of iron oxide. Magnetization behavior of final sample clearly shows the iron oxyhydroxide core is completely converted to alpha iron oxide.

Keywords: Antiferromagnetic, Ferritin, Phase, Superparamagnetic

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
55 Energy Matrices of Partially Covered Photovoltaic Thermal Flat Plate Water Collectors

Authors: Shyam, G. N. Tiwari

Abstract:

Energy matrices of flate plate water collectors partially covered by PV module have been estimated in the present study. Photovoltaic thermal (PVT) water collector assembly is consisting of 5 water collectors having 2 m^2 area which are partially covered by photovoltaic module at its lower portion (inlet) and connected in series. The annual overall thermal energy and exergy are computed by using climatic data of New Delhi provided by Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) Pune, India. The Energy payback time on overall thermal and exergy basis are found to be 1.6 years and 17.8 years respectively. For 25 years of life time of system the energy production factor and life cycle conversion efficiency are estimated to be 15.8 and 0.04 respectively on overall thermal energy basis whereas for the same life time the energy production factor and life cycle conversion efficiency on exergy basis are obtained as 1.4 and 0.001.

Keywords: overall thermal energy, exergy, energy payback time, PVT water collectors

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
54 Landslide Hazard Zonation and Risk Studies Using Multi-Criteria Decision-Making and Slope Stability Analysis

Authors: Ankit Tyagi, Reet Kamal Tiwari, Naveen James

Abstract:

In India, landslides are the most frequently occurring disaster in the regions of the Himalayas and the Western Ghats. The steep slopes and land use in these areas are quite apprehensive. In the recent past, many landslide hazard zonation (LHZ) works have been carried out in the Himalayas. However, the preparation of LHZ maps considering temporal factors such as seismic ground shaking, seismic amplification at surface level, and rainfall are limited. Hence this study presents a comprehensive use of the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) method in landslide risk assessment. In this research, we conducted both geospatial and geotechnical analysis to minimize the danger of landslides. Geospatial analysis is performed using high-resolution satellite data to produce landslide causative factors which were given weightage using the MCDM method. The geotechnical analysis includes a slope stability check, which was done to determine the potential landslide slope. The landslide risk map can provide useful information which helps people to understand the risk of living in an area.

Keywords: landslide hazard zonation, PHA, AHP, GIS

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
53 Effect of Incorporation of Seaweed Extract in Gelatin Based Film on Physic-Chemical and Bioactive Properties of Film

Authors: Shekhar U. Kadam, S. K. Pankaj, Brijesh K. Tiwari, P. J. Cullen, Colm P. O’Donnell

Abstract:

Brown seaweed L. hyperborea is a rich source of phenolic compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of incorporation of L. hyperborea extract to bovine gelatin film on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of film. Films with fraction of 25% by weight of bovine gelatin sample were cast with addition of glycerol as a plasticizer. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the films showed higher levels with addition of seaweed extract. Also film appearance properties such as film thickness, color and light transparency were evaluated. Film appearance was slightly modified whereas microstructure of films showed rough patches at 50% level of extract in the film. Hydrophilicity and glass transition temperature of the films also increased with increased level of seaweed extract. It was found that seaweed extract can be incorporated within gelatin and casein for development of biofunctional films.

Keywords: Laminaria hyperborea, ultrasound, seaweed extract, bovine gelatin film, antioxidant, phenolic compounds

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
52 Allura Red, Sunset Yellow and Amaranth Azo Dyes for Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in 0.5 H₂SO₄ Solutions

Authors: Ashish Kumar Singh, Preeti Tiwari, Shubham Srivastava, Rajiv Prakash, Herman Terryn, Gopal Ji

Abstract:

Corrosion inhibition potential of azo dyes namely Allura red (AR), Sunset Yellow (SY) and Amaranth (AN) have been investigated in 0.5 M H2SO4 solutions by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Tafel polarization curves, linear polarization curves, open circuit potential (ocp) curves, UV-Visible spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Amaranth dye is found to provide highest corrosion inhibition (90 %) against mild steel corrosion in sulfuric acid solutions among all the tested dyes; while SY and AR dye shows 80% and 78% corrosion inhibition efficiency respectively. The electrochemical measurements and surface morphology analysis reveal that molecular adsorption of dyes at metal acid interface is accountable for inhibition of mild steel corrosion in H2SO4 solutions. The adsorption behavior of dyes has been investigated by various isotherms models, which verifies that it is in accordance with Langmuir isotherm.

Keywords: mild steel, Azo dye, EIS, Langmuir isotherm

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
51 Effect of Orientation of the Wall Window on Energy Saving under Clear Sky Conditions

Authors: Madhu Sudan, G. N. Tiwari

Abstract:

In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyze the effect of wall window orientation on Daylight Illuminance Ratio (DIR) and energy saving in a building known as “SODHA BERS COMPLEX (SBC)” at Varanasi, UP, India. The building has been designed incorporating all passive concepts for thermal comfort as well daylighting concepts to maximize the use of natural daylighting for the occupants in the day to day activities. The annual average DIR and the energy saving has been estimated by using the DIR model for wall window with different orientations under clear sky condition. It has been found that for south oriented window the energy saving per square meter is more compared to the other orientations due to the higher level of solar insolation for the south window in northern hemisphere whereas energy saving potential is minimum for north oriented wall window. The energy saving potential was 26%, 81% and 51% higher for east, south and west oriented window in comparison to north oriented window. The average annual DIR has same trends of variation as the annual energy saving and it is maximum for south oriented window and minimum for north oriented window.

Keywords: clear sky, daylight factor, energy saving, wall window

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
50 Synthesis and Magnetic Properties of Six-Lines Ferrihydrite Nanoparticles

Authors: Chandni Rani, S. D. Tiwari

Abstract:

Ferrihydrite is one of the distinct minerals in the family of oxides, hydroxides and oxyhydroxides of iron. It is a nanocrystalline material. It occurs naturally in different sediments, soil systems and also found in the core of ferritin, an iron storage protien. This material can also be synthesized by suitable chemical methods in laboratories. This is known as less crystalline Iron (III) Oxyhydroxide. Due to its poor crystallinity, there are very broad peaks in x-ray diffraction. Depending on the number of peaks in x-ray diffraction pattern, it is classified as two lines and six lines ferrihydrite. The average crystallite size for these two forms is found to be about 2nm to 5nm. The exact crystal structure of this system is still under debate. Out of these two forms, the six lines ferrihydrite is more ordered in comparison to two lines ferrihydrite. The magnetic behavior of two lines ferrihydrite nanoparticles is somewhat well studied. But the magnetic behavior of six lines ferrihydrite nanoparticles could not attract the attention of researchers much. This motivated us to work on the magnetic properties of six lines ferrihydrite nanoparticles. In this work, we present synthesis, structural characterization and magnetic behavior of 5 nm six lines ferrihydrite nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope are used for structural characterization of this system. Magnetization measurements are performed to fit the data at different temperatures. Then the effect of magnetic moment distribution is also found. All these observations are discussed in detail.

Keywords: nanoparticles, magnetism, superparamagnetism, magnetic anisotropy

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
49 Biodiesel Is an Alternative Fuel for CI Engines

Authors: Sanat Kumar, Rahul Kumar Tiwari

Abstract:

At this time when society is becoming increasingly aware of the declining reserves of fossil, it has become apparent that biodiesel is destined to make a substantial contribution to the future energy demands of the domestic and industrial economies. In this regard, the significance of biodiesel is technically and commercially viable alternative to fossil-diesel. There are different potential feed stocks for biodiesel production. This paper analyses the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of biodiesel from different feed stocks. Biodiesel fuel is considered as offering many benefits like reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and many harmful pollutants (PM, HC, CO etc.). This paper critically reviews the effect of injection timing on combustion and emission characteristics. An attempt has been carried out to discuss the effect of biodiesel in terms of combustion, emission and performance based up on composition and properties. The results of the study show that different chemical composition leads to variation in its combustion, performance and emission characteristics. Biodiesel produced from different aspired feed stocks reduces the pollutant emission and resistive to oxidation but exhibit poor atomization. As a conclusion many research needs to be carried out to understand the relationship between the types of biodiesel feed stock, performance conclusion and emission.

Keywords: atomization, biodiesel, greenhouse gas, oxidation

Procedia PDF Downloads 450
48 Pharmaceutical Scale up for Solid Dosage Forms

Authors: A. Shashank Tiwari, S. P. Mahapatra

Abstract:

Scale-up is defined as the process of increasing batch size. Scale-up of a process viewed as a procedure for applying the same process to different output volumes. There is a subtle difference between these two definitions: batch size enlargement does not always translate into a size increase of the processing volume. In mixing applications, scale-up is indeed concerned with increasing the linear dimensions from the laboratory to the plant size. On the other hand, processes exist (e.g., tableting) where the term ‘scale-up’ simply means enlarging the output by increasing the speed. To complete the picture, one should point out special procedures where an increase of the scale is counterproductive and ‘scale-down’ is required to improve the quality of the product. In moving from Research and Development (R&D) to production scale, it is sometimes essential to have an intermediate batch scale. This is achieved at the so-called pilot scale, which is defined as the manufacturing of drug product by a procedure fully representative of and simulating that used for full manufacturing scale. This scale also makes it possible to produce enough products for clinical testing and to manufacture samples for marketing. However, inserting an intermediate step between R&D and production scales does not, in itself, guarantee a smooth transition. A well-defined process may generate a perfect product both in the laboratory and the pilot plant and then fail quality assurance tests in production.

Keywords: scale up, research, size, batch

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
47 Effect of Substrate Temperature on Structure and Properties of Sputtered Transparent Conducting Film of La-Doped BaSnO₃

Authors: Alok Tiwari, Ming Show Wong

Abstract:

Lanthanum (La) doped Barium Tin Oxide (BaSnO₃) film is an excellent alternative for expensive Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs) film such as Indium Tin Oxide (ITO). However single crystal film of La-doped BaSnO₃ has been reported with a good amount of conductivity and transparency but in order to improve its reachability, it is important to grow doped BaSO₃ films on an inexpensive substrate. La-doped BaSnO₃ thin films have been grown on quartz substrate by Radio Frequency (RF) sputtering at a different substrate temperature (from 200⁰C to 750⁰C). The thickness of the film measured was varying from 360nm to 380nm with varying substrate temperature. Structure, optical and electrical properties have been studied. The carrier concentration is seen to be decreasing as we enhance the substrate temperature while mobility found to be increased up to 9.3 cm²/V-S. At low substrate temperature resistivity found was lower (< 3x10⁻³ ohm-cm) while sudden enhancement was seen as substrate temperature raises and the trend continues further with increasing substrate temperature. Optical transmittance is getting better with higher substrate temperature from 70% at 200⁰C to > 80% at 750⁰C. Overall, understanding of changes in microstructure, electrical and optical properties of a thin film by varying substrate temperature has been reported successfully.

Keywords: conductivity, perovskite, mobility, TCO film

Procedia PDF Downloads 53