Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: polytetrafluoroethylene

13 Studies on Corrosion Resistant Composite Coating for Metallic Surfaces

Authors: Navneetinder Singh, Harprabhjot Singh, Harpreet Singh, Supreet Singh


Many materials are known to mankind that is widely used for synthesis of corrosion resistant hydrophobic coatings. In the current work, novel hydrophobic composite was synthesized by mixing polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and 20 weight% ceria particles followed by sintering. This composite had same hydrophobic behavior as PTFE. Moreover, composite showed better scratch resistance than virgin PTFE. Pits of plasma sprayed Ni₃Al coating were exploited to hold PTFE composite on the substrate as Superni-75 alloy surface through sintering process. Plasma sprayed surface showed good adhesion with the composite coating during scratch test. Potentiodynamic corrosion test showed 100 fold decreases in corrosion rate of coated sample this may be attributed to inert and hydrophobic nature of PTFE and ceria.

Keywords: polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE, ceria, coating, corrosion

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12 Design and Development of an Expanded Polytetrafluoroethylene Valved Conduit with Sinus of Valsalva

Authors: Munirah Ismail, Joon Hock Yeo


Babies born with Tetralogy of Fallot, a congenital heart defect, are required to undergo reconstruction surgery to create a valved conduit. As the child matures, the partially reconstructed pulmonary conduit increases in diameter, while the size of the reconstructed valve remains the same. As a result, follow up surgery is required to replace the undersized valve. Thus, in this project, we evaluated the in-vitro performance of a bi-leaflet valve design in terms of percentage regurgitation with increasing artery (conduit) diameters. Results revealed percentage regurgitations ranging from 13% to 34% for conduits tested. It was observed that percentage of regurgitation increased exponentially with increasing diameters. While the amount of regurgitation may seem severe, it is deemed acceptable, and this valve could potentially reduce the frequency of re-operation in the lifetime of pediatric patients.

Keywords: pulmonary heart valve, tetralogy of fallot, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene valve, pediatric heart valve replacement

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11 A Comparative Study Mechanical Properties of Polytetrafluoroethylene Materials Synthesized by Non-Conventional and Conventional Techniques

Authors: H. Lahlali F. El Haouzi, A.M.Al-Baradi, I. El Aboudi, M. El Azhari, A. Mdarhri


Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a high performance thermoplastic polymer with exceptional physical and chemical properties, such as a high melting temperature, high thermal stability, and very good chemical resistance. Nevertheless, manufacturing PTFE is problematic due to its high melt viscosity (10 12 Pa.s). In practice, it is by now well established that this property presents a serious problem when the classical methods are used to synthesized the dense PTFE materials in particularly hot pressing, high temperature extrusion. In this framework, we use here a new process namely spark plasma sintering (SPS) to elaborate PTFE samples from the micro metric particles powder. It consists in applying simultaneous electric current and pressure directly on the sample powder. By controlling the processing parameters of this technique, a series of PTFE samples are easy obtained and associated to remarkably short time as is reported in an early work. Our central goal in the present study is to understand how the non conventional SPS affects the mechanical properties at room temperature. For this end, a second commercially series of PTFE synthesized by using the extrusion method is investigated. The first data according to the tensile mechanical properties are found to be superior for the first set samples (SPS). However, this trend is not observed for the results obtained from the compression testing. The observed macro-behaviors are correlated to some physical properties of the two series of samples such as their crystallinity or density. Upon a close examination of these properties, we believe the SPS technique can be seen as a promising way to elaborate the polymer having high molecular mass without compromising their mechanical properties.

Keywords: PTFE, extrusion, Spark Plasma Sintering, physical properties, mechanical behavior

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10 Study of a Developed Model Describing a Vacuum Membrane Distillation Unit Coupled to Solar Energy

Authors: Fatma Khaled, Khaoula Hidouri, Bechir Chaouachi


Desalination using solar energy coupled with membrane techniques such as vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) is considered as an interesting alternative for the production of pure water. During this work, a developed model of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) hollow fiber membrane module of a VMD unit of seawater was carried out. This simulation leads to establishing a comparison between the effects of two different equations of the vaporization latent heat on the membrane surface temperature and on the unit productivity. Besides, in order to study the effect of putting membrane modules in series on the outlet fluid temperature and on the productivity of the process, a simulation was executed.

Keywords: vacuum membrane distillation, membrane module, membrane temperature, productivity

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9 PTFE Capillary-Based DNA Amplification within an Oscillatory Thermal Cycling Device

Authors: Jyh J. Chen, Fu H. Yang, Ming H. Liao


This study describes a capillary-based device integrated with the heating and cooling modules for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The device consists of the reaction polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) capillary, the aluminum blocks, and is equipped with two cartridge heaters, a thermoelectric (TE) cooler, a fan, and some thermocouples for temperature control. The cartridge heaters are placed into the heating blocks and maintained at two different temperatures to achieve the denaturation and the extension step. Some thermocouples inserted into the capillary are used to obtain the transient temperature profiles of the reaction sample during thermal cycles. A 483-bp DNA template is amplified successfully in the designed system and the traditional thermal cycler. This work should be interesting to persons involved in the high-temperature based reactions and genomics or cell analysis.

Keywords: polymerase chain reaction, thermal cycles, capillary, TE cooler

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8 Hierarchical Surface Inspired by Lotus-Leaf for Electrical Generators from Waterdrop

Authors: Jaewook Ha, Jin-beak Kim, Seongmin Kim


In order to solve global warming and climate change issues, increased efforts have been devoted towards clean and sustainable energy sources as well as new energy generating devices. Nanogenerator is a device that converts mechanical/thermal energy as produced by small-scale physical change into electricity. Here we propose that nature-leaf surface could be used for preparation of a triboelectric nanogenerator. The nature-leaf surface consists of polydimethylsiloxane microscale pillars and polytetrafluoroethylene nanoparticles. Interaction between the nature-leaf surface and water was studied and the electrical outputs from the motion of single water drop were measured. A 40-μL water drop can generate a peak voltage of 1 V and a peak current of 0.7 μA. This nanogenerator might be used to drive electric devices in the outdoor environments in a sustainable manner.

Keywords: hierarchical surface, lotus-leaf, electrical generator, waterdrop

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7 Ion Beam Sputtering Deposition of Inorganic-Fluoropolymer Nano-Coatings for Real-Life Applications

Authors: M. Valentini, D. Melisi, M. A. Nitti, R A. Picca, M. C. Sportelli, E. Bonerba, G. Casamassima, N. Cioffi, L. Sabbatini, G. Tantillo, A. Valentini


In recent years antimicrobial coatings are receiving increasing attention due to their high demand in medical applications as well as in healthcare and hygiene. Research and technology are constantly involved to develop advanced finishing which can provide bacteriostatic growth without compromising the other typical properties of a textile as durability and non-toxicity, just to cite a few. Here we report on the antimicrobial coatings obtained, at room temperature and without the use of solvents, by means of the ion beam co-sputtering technique of an Ag target and a polytetrafluoroethylene one. In particular, such method allows to conjugate the well-known antimicrobial action of silver with the anti-stain and water-repellent properties of the fluoropolymer. Moreover, different Ag nanoparticle loadings (φ) were prepared by tuning the material deposition conditions achieving a fine control on film thickness and their antimicrobial/anti-stain properties.

Keywords: antimicrobial, ion beam sputtering, nanocoatings, anti-stain

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6 Separation of Composites for Recycling: Measurement of Electrostatic Charge of Carbon and Glass Fiber Particles

Authors: J. Thirunavukkarasu, M. Poulet, T. Turner, S. Pickering


Composite waste from manufacturing can consist of different fiber materials, including blends of different fiber. Commercially, the recycling of composite waste is currently limited to carbon fiber waste and recycling glass fiber waste is currently not economically viable due to the low cost of virgin glass fiber and the reduced mechanical properties of the recovered fibers. For this reason, the recycling of hybrid fiber materials, where carbon fiber is combined with a proportion of glass fiber, cannot be processed economically. Therefore, a separation method is required to remove the glass fiber materials during the recycling process. An electrostatic separation method is chosen for this work because of the significant difference between carbon and glass fiber electrical properties. In this study, an experimental rig has been developed to measure the electrostatic charge achievable as the materials are passed through a tube. A range of particle lengths (80-100 µm, 6 mm and 12 mm), surface state conditions (0%SA, 2%SA and 6%SA), and several tube wall materials have been studied. A polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tube and recycled without sizing agent was identified as the most suitable parameters for the electrical separation method. It was also found that shorter fiber lengths helped to encourage particle flow and attain higher charge values. These findings can be used to develop a separation process to enable the cost-effective recycling of hybrid fiber composite waste.

Keywords: electrostatic charging, hybrid fiber composites, recycling, short fiber composites

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5 Thermophilic Anaerobic Granular Membrane Distillation Bioreactor for Wastewater Reuse

Authors: Duong Cong Chinh, Shiao-Shing Chen, Le Quang Huy


Membrane distillation (MD) is actually claimed to be a cost-effective separation process when waste heat, alternative energy sources, or wastewater are used. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that a thermophilic anaerobic granular bioreactor is integrated with membrane distillation (ThAnMDB) was investigated. In this study, the laboratory scale anaerobic bioreactor (1.2 litter) was set-up. The bioreactor was maintained at temperature 55 ± 2°C, hydraulic retention time = 0.5 days, organic loading rates of 7 and 10 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) m³/day. Side-stream direct contact membrane distillation with the polytetrafluoroethylene membrane area was 150 cm². The temperature of the distillate was kept at 25°C. Results show that distillate flux was 19.6 LMH (Liters per square meter per hour) on the first day and gradually decreased to 6.9 LMH after 10 days, and the membrane was not wet. Notably, by directly using the heat from the thermophilic anaerobic for MD separation process, all distilled water from wastewater was reuse as fresh water (electrical conductivity < 120 µs/cm). The ThAnMDB system showed its high pollutant removal performance: chemical oxygen demand (COD) from 99.6 to 99.9%, NH₄⁺ from 60 to 95%, and PO₄³⁻ complete removal. In addition, methane yield was from 0.28 to 0.34 lit CH₄/gram COD removal (80 – 97% of the theoretical) demonstrated that the ThAnMDB system was quite stable. The achievement of the ThAnMDB is not only in removing pollutants and reusing wastewater but also in absolutely unnecessarily adding alkaline to the anaerobic bioreactor system.

Keywords: high rate anaerobic digestion, membrane distillation, thermophilic anaerobic, wastewater reuse

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4 Tribological Behavior of PTFE Composites Used for Guide Rings of Hydraulic Actuating Cylinders under Oil-Lubricated Condition

Authors: Trabelsi Mohamed, Kharrat Mohamed, Dammak Maher


Guide rings play an important role in the performance and durability of hydraulic actuating cylinders. In service, guide rings surfaces are subjected to friction and wear against steel counterface. A good mastery of these phenomena is required for the improvement of the energy safeguard and the durability of the actuating cylinder. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) polymer is extensively used in guide rings thanks to its low coefficient of friction, its good resistance to solvents as well as its high temperature stability. In this study, friction and wear behavior of two PTFE composites filled with bronze and bronze plus MoS2 were evaluated under oil-lubricated condition, aiming as guide rings for hydraulic actuating cylinder. Wear tests of the PTFE composite specimen sliding against steel ball were conducted using reciprocating linear tribometer. The wear mechanisms of the composites under the same sliding condition were discussed, based on Scanning Electron Microscopy examination of the worn composite surface and the optical micrographs of the steel counter surface. As for the results, comparative friction behaviors of the PTFE composites and lower friction coefficients were recorded under oil lubricated condition. The wear behavior was considerably improved to compare with this in dry sliding, while the oil adsorbed layer limited the transfer of the PTFE to the steel counter face during the sliding test.

Keywords: PTFE, composite, bronze, MoS2, friction, wear, oil-lubrication

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3 Evaluation of Human Amnion Hemocompatibility as a Substitute for Vessels

Authors: Ghasem Yazdanpanah, Mona Kakavand, Hassan Niknejad


Objectives: An important issue in tissue engineering (TE) is hemocompatibility. The current engineered vessels are seriously at risk of thrombus formation and stenosis. Amnion (AM) is the innermost layer of fetal membranes that consists of epithelial and mesenchymal sides. It has the advantages of low immunogenicity, anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties as well as good mechanical properties. We recently introduced the amnion as a natural biomaterial for tissue engineering. In this study, we have evaluated hemocompatibility of amnion as potential biomaterial for tissue engineering. Materials and Methods: Amnions were derived from placentas of elective caesarean deliveries which were in the gestational ages 36 to 38 weeks. Extracted amnions were washed by cold PBS to remove blood remnants. Blood samples were obtained from healthy adult volunteers who had not previously taken anti-coagulants. The blood samples were maintained in sterile tubes containing sodium citrate. Plasma or platelet rich plasma (PRP) were collected by blood sample centrifuging at 600 g for 10 min. Hemocompatibility of the AM samples (n=7) were evaluated by measuring of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), hemolysis, and platelet aggregation tests. P-selectin was also assessed by ELISA. Both epithelial and mesenchymal sides of amnion were evaluated. Glass slide and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) samples were defined as control. Results: In comparison with glass as control (13.3 ± 0.7 s), prothrombin time was increased significantly while each side of amnion was in contact with plasma (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in PT between epithelial and mesenchymal surfaces (17.4 ± 0.7 s vs. 15.8 ± 0.7 s, respectively). However, aPPT was not significantly changed after incubation of plasma with amnion epithelial and mesenchymal surfaces or glass (28.61 ± 1.39 s, 31.4 ± 2.66 s, glass, 30.76 ± 2.53 s, respectively, p>0.05). Amnion surfaces, ePTFE and glass samples have less hemolysis induction than water considerably (p<0.001), in which no differences were detected. Platelet aggregation measurements showed that platelets were less stimulated by the amnion epithelial and mesenchymal sides, in comparison with ePTFE and glass. In addition, reduction in amount of p-selectin, as platelet activation factor, after incubation of samples with PRP indicated that amnion has less stimulatory effects on platelets than ePTFE and glass. Conclusion: Amnion as a natural biomaterial has the potential to be used in tissue engineering. Our results suggest that amnion has appropriate hemocompatibility to be employed as a vascular substitute.

Keywords: amnion, hemocompatibility, tissue engineering, biomaterial

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2 Source-Detector Trajectory Optimization for Target-Based C-Arm Cone Beam Computed Tomography

Authors: S. Hatamikia, A. Biguri, H. Furtado, G. Kronreif, J. Kettenbach, W. Birkfellner


Nowadays, three dimensional Cone Beam CT (CBCT) has turned into a widespread clinical routine imaging modality for interventional radiology. In conventional CBCT, a circular sourcedetector trajectory is used to acquire a high number of 2D projections in order to reconstruct a 3D volume. However, the accumulated radiation dose due to the repetitive use of CBCT needed for the intraoperative procedure as well as daily pretreatment patient alignment for radiotherapy has become a concern. It is of great importance for both health care providers and patients to decrease the amount of radiation dose required for these interventional images. Thus, it is desirable to find some optimized source-detector trajectories with the reduced number of projections which could therefore lead to dose reduction. In this study we investigate some source-detector trajectories with the optimal arbitrary orientation in the way to maximize performance of the reconstructed image at particular regions of interest. To achieve this approach, we developed a box phantom consisting several small target polytetrafluoroethylene spheres at regular distances through the entire phantom. Each of these spheres serves as a target inside a particular region of interest. We use the 3D Point Spread Function (PSF) as a measure to evaluate the performance of the reconstructed image. We measured the spatial variance in terms of Full-Width-Half-Maximum (FWHM) of the local PSFs each related to a particular target. The lower value of FWHM shows the better spatial resolution of reconstruction results at the target area. One important feature of interventional radiology is that we have very well-known imaging targets as a prior knowledge of patient anatomy (e.g. preoperative CT) is usually available for interventional imaging. Therefore, we use a CT scan from the box phantom as the prior knowledge and consider that as the digital phantom in our simulations to find the optimal trajectory for a specific target. Based on the simulation phase we have the optimal trajectory which can be then applied on the device in real situation. We consider a Philips Allura FD20 Xper C-arm geometry to perform the simulations and real data acquisition. Our experimental results based on both simulation and real data show our proposed optimization scheme has the capacity to find optimized trajectories with minimal number of projections in order to localize the targets. Our results show the proposed optimized trajectories are able to localize the targets as good as a standard circular trajectory while using just 1/3 number of projections. Conclusion: We demonstrate that applying a minimal dedicated set of projections with optimized orientations is sufficient to localize targets, may minimize radiation.

Keywords: CBCT, C-arm, reconstruction, trajectory optimization

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1 Wideband Performance Analysis of C-FDTD Based Algorithms in the Discretization Impoverishment of a Curved Surface

Authors: Lucas L. L. Fortes, Sandro T. M. Gonçalves


In this work, it is analyzed the wideband performance with the mesh discretization impoverishment of the Conformal Finite Difference Time-Domain (C-FDTD) approaches developed by Raj Mittra, Supriyo Dey and Wenhua Yu for the Finite Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method. These approaches are a simple and efficient way to optimize the scattering simulation of curved surfaces for Dielectric and Perfect Electric Conducting (PEC) structures in the FDTD method, since curved surfaces require dense meshes to reduce the error introduced due to the surface staircasing. Defined, on this work, as D-FDTD-Diel and D-FDTD-PEC, these approaches are well-known in the literature, but the improvement upon their application is not quantified broadly regarding wide frequency bands and poorly discretized meshes. Both approaches bring improvement of the accuracy of the simulation without requiring dense meshes, also making it possible to explore poorly discretized meshes which bring a reduction in simulation time and the computational expense while retaining a desired accuracy. However, their applications present limitations regarding the mesh impoverishment and the frequency range desired. Therefore, the goal of this work is to explore the approaches regarding both the wideband and mesh impoverishment performance to bring a wider insight over these aspects in FDTD applications. The D-FDTD-Diel approach consists in modifying the electric field update in the cells intersected by the dielectric surface, taking into account the amount of dielectric material within the mesh cells edges. By taking into account the intersections, the D-FDTD-Diel provides accuracy improvement at the cost of computational preprocessing, which is a fair trade-off, since the update modification is quite simple. Likewise, the D-FDTD-PEC approach consists in modifying the magnetic field update, taking into account the PEC curved surface intersections within the mesh cells and, considering a PEC structure in vacuum, the air portion that fills the intersected cells when updating the magnetic fields values. Also likewise to D-FDTD-Diel, the D-FDTD-PEC provides a better accuracy at the cost of computational preprocessing, although with a drawback of having to meet stability criterion requirements. The algorithms are formulated and applied to a PEC and a dielectric spherical scattering surface with meshes presenting different levels of discretization, with Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) as the dielectric, being a very common material in coaxial cables and connectors for radiofrequency (RF) and wideband application. The accuracy of the algorithms is quantified, showing the approaches wideband performance drop along with the mesh impoverishment. The benefits in computational efficiency, simulation time and accuracy are also shown and discussed, according to the frequency range desired, showing that poorly discretized mesh FDTD simulations can be exploited more efficiently, retaining the desired accuracy. The results obtained provided a broader insight over the limitations in the application of the C-FDTD approaches in poorly discretized and wide frequency band simulations for Dielectric and PEC curved surfaces, which are not clearly defined or detailed in the literature and are, therefore, a novelty. These approaches are also expected to be applied in the modeling of curved RF components for wideband and high-speed communication devices in future works.

Keywords: accuracy, computational efficiency, finite difference time-domain, mesh impoverishment

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