Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2968

Search results for: attention

2968 Benefits of Therapeutic Climbing on Multiple Components of Attention in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Children

Authors: Elaheh Hosseini, Otmar Bock, Monika Thomas

Abstract:

The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of climbing therapy on the components of attention of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Forty children with ADHD were assigned to either an intervention group or a control group. The exercise group participated in a climbing therapy program for ten weeks, whereas no intervention was administered to the control group. All two groups were then assessed with the same battery of attention tests used in our earlier study. We found that compared to the ‘intervention’ group, performance was higher in the ‘control’ group on tests of sustained, divided and distributed attention, on all four tests. The intervention group showed a significant improvement in components of attention after ten weeks. From this we conclude that climbing therapy can improve the attention of children with ADHD and can be considered as a promising intervention and a standalone treatment for children with ADHD.

Keywords: ADHD, climbing therapy, distributed attention, divided attention, selective attention, sustained attention

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2967 Exploring Relationship between Attention and Consciousness

Authors: Aarushi Agarwal, Tara Singh, Anju Lata Singh, Trayambak Tiwari, Indramani Lal Singh

Abstract:

The existing interdependent relationship between attention and consciousness has been put to debate since long. To testify the nature, dual-task paradigm has been used to simultaneously manipulate awareness and attention. With central discrimination task which is attentional demanding, participants also perform simple discrimination task in the periphery in near absence of attention. Individual-based analysis of performance accuracy in single and dual condition showed and above chance level performance i.e. more than 80%. In order to widen the understanding of extent of discrimination carried in near absence of attention, natural image and its geometric equivalent shape were presented in the periphery; synthetic objects accounted to lower level of performance than natural objects in dual condition. The gaze plot and heatmap indicate that peripheral performance do not necessarily involve saccade every time, verifying the discrimination in the periphery was in near absence of attention. Thus our studies show an interdependent nature of attention and awareness.

Keywords: attention, awareness, dual task paradigm, natural and geometric images

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2966 Attention Problems among Adolescents: Examining Educational Environments

Authors: Zhidong Zhang, Zhi-Chao Zhang, Georgianna Duarte

Abstract:

This study investigated the attention problems with the instrument of Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). Two thousand eight hundred and ninety-four adolescents were surveyed by using a stratified sampling method. We examined the relationships between relevant background variables and attention problems. Multiple regression models were applied to analyze the data. Relevant variables such as sports activities, hobbies, age, grade and the number of close friends were included in this study as predictive variables. The analysis results indicated that educational environments and extracurricular activities are important factors which influence students’ attention problems.

Keywords: adolescents, ASEBA, attention problems, educational environments, stratified sampling

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
2965 Investigating the Effect of the Pedagogical Agent on Visual Attention in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Students

Authors: Nasrin Mohammadhasani, Rosa Angela Fabio

Abstract:

The attention to relevance information is the key element for learning. Otherwise, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) students have a fuzzy visual pattern that prevents them to attention and remember learning subject. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that the presence of a pedagogical agent can effectively support ADHD learner's attention and learning outcomes in a multimedia learning environment. The learning environment was integrated with a pedagogical agent, named Koosha as a social peer. This study employed a pretest and posttest experimental design with control group. The statistical population was 30 boys students, age 10-11 with ADHD that randomly assigned to learn with/without an agent in well designed environment for mathematic. The results suggested that experimental and control groups show a significant difference in time when they participated and mathematics achievement. According to this research, using the pedagogical agent can enhance learning of ADHD students by gaining and guiding their attention to relevance information part on display, so it can be considered as asocial cue that provides theme cognitive supports.

Keywords: attention, computer assisted instruction, multimedia learning environment, pedagogical agent

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
2964 Affirming Students’ Attention and Perceptions on Prezi Presentation via Eye Tracking System

Authors: Mona Masood, Norshazlina Shaik Othman

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate graduate students’ visual attention and perceptions of a Prezi presentation. Ten post-graduate master students were presented with a Prezi presentation at the Centre for Instructional Technology and Multimedia, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). The eye movement indicators such as dwell time, average fixation on the areas of interests, heat maps and focus maps were abstracted to indicate the students’ visual attention. Descriptive statistics was employed to analyze the students’ perception of the Prezi presentation in terms of text, slide design, images, layout and overall presentation. The result revealed that the students paid more attention to the text followed by the images and sub heading presented through the Prezi presentation.

Keywords: eye tracking, Prezi, visual attention, visual perception

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2963 An Experiment Research on the Effect of Brain-Break in the Classroom on Elementary School Students’ Selective Attention

Authors: Hui Liu, Xiaozan Wang, Jiarong Zhong, Ziming Shao

Abstract:

Introduction: Related research shows that students don’t concentrate on teacher’s speaking in the classroom. The d2 attention test is a time-limited test about selective attention. The d2 attention test can be used to evaluate individual selective attention. Purpose: To use the d2 attention test tool to measure the difference between the attention level of the experimental class and the control class before and after Brain-Break and to explore the effect of Brain-Break in the classroom on students' selective attention. Methods: According to the principle of no difference in pre-test data, two classes in the fourth- grade of Shenzhen Longhua Central Primary School were selected. After 20 minutes of class in the third class in the morning and the third class in the afternoon, about 3-minute Brain-Break intervention was performed in the experimental class for 10 weeks. The normal class in the control class did not intervene. Before and after the experiment, the d2 attention test tool was used to test the attention level of the two-class students. The paired sample t-test and independent sample t-test in SPSS 23.0 was used to test the change in the attention level of the two-class classes around 10 weeks. This article only presents results with significant differences. Results: The independent sample t-test results showed that after ten-week of Brain-Break, the missed errors (E1 t = -2.165 p = 0.042), concentration performance (CP t = 1.866 p = 0.05), and the degree of omissions (Epercent t = -2.375 p = 0.029) in experimental class showed significant differences compared with control class. The students’ error level decreased and the concentration increased. Conclusions: Adding Brain-Break interventions in the classroom can effectively improve the attention level of fourth-grade primary school students to a certain extent, especially can improve the concentration of attention and decrease the error rate in the tasks. The new sport's learning model is worth promoting

Keywords: cultural class, micromotor, attention, D2 test

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2962 Would Intra-Individual Variability in Attention to Be the Indicator of Impending the Senior Adults at Risk of Cognitive Decline: Evidence from Attention Network Test(ANT)

Authors: Hanna Lu, Sandra S. M. Chan, Linda C. W. Lam

Abstract:

Objectives: Intra-individual variability (IIV) has been considered as a biomarker of healthy ageing. However, the composite role of IIV in attention, as an impending indicator for neurocognitive disorders warrants further exploration. This study aims to investigate the IIV, as well as their relationships with attention network functions in adults with neurocognitive disorders (NCD). Methods: 36adults with NCD due to Alzheimer’s disease(NCD-AD), 31adults with NCD due to vascular disease (NCD-vascular), and 137 healthy controls were recruited. Intraindividual standard deviations (iSD) and intraindividual coefficient of variation of reaction time (ICV-RT) were used to evaluate the IIV. Results: NCD groups showed greater IIV (iSD: F= 11.803, p < 0.001; ICV-RT:F= 9.07, p < 0.001). In ROC analyses, the indices of IIV could differentiateNCD-AD (iSD: AUC value = 0.687, p= 0.001; ICV-RT: AUC value = 0.677, p= 0.001) and NCD-vascular (iSD: AUC value = 0.631, p= 0.023;ICV-RT: AUC value = 0.615, p= 0.045) from healthy controls. Moreover, the processing speed could distinguish NCD-AD from NCD-vascular (AUC value = 0.647, p= 0.040). Discussion: Intra-individual variability in attention provides a stable measure of cognitive performance, and seems to help distinguish the senior adults with different cognitive status.

Keywords: intra-individual variability, attention network, neurocognitive disorders, ageing

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2961 Attentional Differences in Musical Recall and Improvisation

Authors: Krzysztof T. Piotrowski

Abstract:

The main goal of the research was to investigate differences in attention in two kinds of musical performance - recall and improvisation. Musical recall is a sample of convergent production that requires intensively focused attention. Inversely, musical improvisation is a divergent task and probably requires a different way of attentional control. The study was designed in dual task paradigm. Participants were to remember a simple melody and then recall or improvise, simultaneously performing the spatial attentional test on computer screen. The result shows that improvising participants find spatial goals in more disperse way. The conclusion is that musical improvisation requires extensification of attention to occur.

Keywords: attention, creativity, divergent task, musical improvisation

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2960 Implication of Attention Deficit and Task Avoidance on the Mathematics Performance of Pupils with Intellectual Disabilities

Authors: Matthew Bamidele Ojuawo

Abstract:

To some parents, task avoidance implies the time when argument ensues between parents and their children in order to get certain things done correctly without being forced. However, some children avoid certain task because of the fears that it is too hard or cannot be done without parental help. Laziness plays a role in task avoidance when children do not want to do something because they do not feel like it is easy enough or if they just want their parent help them get it over with more quickly. Children with attention deficit disorder more often have difficulties with social skills, such as social interaction and forming and maintaining friendships. The focus of this study is how task avoidance and attention deficit have effect on the mathematics performance of pupils in the lower basic classroom. Mathematics performance of pupils with learning disabilities has been seriously low due to avoidance of task and attention deficit posed as carried out in the previous researches, but the research has not been carried out in the lower basic classroom in Oyo, Oyo state, Nigeria.

Keywords: task avoidance, parents, children with attention deficit, mathematics

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2959 Information Processing and Visual Attention: An Eye Tracking Study on Nutrition Labels

Authors: Rosa Hendijani, Amir Ghadimi Herfeh

Abstract:

Nutrition labels are diet-related health policies. They help individuals improve food-choice decisions and reduce intake of calories and unhealthy food elements, like cholesterol. However, many individuals do not pay attention to nutrition labels or fail to appropriately understand them. According to the literature, thinking and cognitive styles can have significant effects on attention to nutrition labels. According to the author's knowledge, the effect of global/local processing on attention to nutrition labels have not been previously studied. Global/local processing encourages individuals to attend to the whole/specific parts of an object and can have a significant impact on people's visual attention. In this study, this effect was examined with an experimental design using the eye-tracking technique. The research hypothesis was that individuals with local processing would pay more attention to nutrition labels, including nutrition tables and traffic lights. An experiment was designed with two conditions: global and local information processing. Forty participants were randomly assigned to either global or local conditions, and their processing style was manipulated accordingly. Results supported the hypothesis for nutrition tables but not for traffic lights.

Keywords: eye-tracking, nutrition labelling, global/local information processing, individual differences

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2958 Video-Based System for Support of Robot-Enhanced Gait Rehabilitation of Stroke Patients

Authors: Matjaž Divjak, Simon Zelič, Aleš Holobar

Abstract:

We present a dedicated video-based monitoring system for quantification of patient’s attention to visual feedback during robot assisted gait rehabilitation. Two different approaches for eye gaze and head pose tracking are tested and compared. Several metrics for assessment of patient’s attention are also presented. Experimental results with healthy volunteers demonstrate that unobtrusive video-based gaze tracking during the robot-assisted gait rehabilitation is possible and is sufficiently robust for quantification of patient’s attention and assessment of compliance with the rehabilitation therapy.

Keywords: video-based attention monitoring, gaze estimation, stroke rehabilitation, user compliance

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2957 Identification of EEG Attention Level Using Empirical Mode Decompositions for BCI Applications

Authors: Chia-Ju Peng, Shih-Jui Chen

Abstract:

This paper proposes a method to discriminate electroencephalogram (EEG) signals between different concentration states using empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Brain-computer interface (BCI), also called brain-machine interface, is a direct communication pathway between the brain and an external device without the inherent pathway such as the peripheral nervous system or skeletal muscles. Attention level is a common index as a control signal of BCI systems. The EEG signals acquired from people paying attention or in relaxation, respectively, are decomposed into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMF) by EMD. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis is then applied to each IMF to obtain the frequency spectrums. By observing power spectrums of IMFs, the proposed method has the better identification of EEG attention level than the original EEG signals between different concentration states. The band power of IMF3 is the most obvious especially in β wave, which corresponds to fully awake and generally alert. The signal processing method and results of this experiment paves a new way for BCI robotic system using the attention-level control strategy. The integrated signal processing method reveals appropriate information for discrimination of the attention and relaxation, contributing to a more enhanced BCI performance.

Keywords: biomedical engineering, brain computer interface, electroencephalography, rehabilitation

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2956 The Role of College Teachers’ in Identifying Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Students

Authors: Hargunjeet Shergill, Palwinder Singh

Abstract:

The present paper analyzes the lack of teachers' awareness and knowledge regarding the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in the college students. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder causes individuals to consistently display extreme inattention, impulsivity and in many cases hyperactivity as a result of the physiological differences of the brain. Teachers have a formative influence on their students and can play a key role in identifying and supporting students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Despite the pervasiveness and salience of this disorder, educators at college continue to labor under a number of misconceptions about the nature of ADHD. In order to fulfill this important role, it is imperative for teachers to have explicit knowledge about this disorder. ADHD in college students remains the most under-recognized and undertreated mental health condition. The overall aim of this study is to investigate teachers’ knowledge and misconceptions of ADHD with a particular focus on recognition, assessment and management of ADHD in adult college students. It designed to assess the college teachers' knowledge, opinions, and experience related to the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and by maintaining open lines of communication with the students and understanding some key elements that can affect students’ overall growth and ability. The discussion focuses on the value of the role of teachers and their relationship with each college student dealing with ADHD.

Keywords: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, development of ADHD, diagnostic criteria, role of teachers

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2955 Selective Attention as a Search for the Deceased during the Mourning Process

Authors: Sonia Sirtoli Färber

Abstract:

Objective: This study aims to investigate selective attention in the process of mourning, as a normal reaction to loss. Method: In order to develop this research, we used a systematic bibliographic review, following the process of investigation, cataloging, careful evaluation and synthesis of the documentation, associated with the method of thanatological hemenutics proposed by Elisabeth Kübler-Ross. Conclusion: After a significant loss, especially the death of a loved one or family member, it is normal for the mourner, motivated by absence, to have a false perception of the presence of the deceased. This phenomenon happens whenever the mourner is in the middle of the crowd, because his selective attention causes him to perceive physical characteristics, tone of voice, or feel fragrance of the perfume that the deceased possessed. Details characterizing the dead are perceived by the mourner because he seeks the presence in the absence.

Keywords: Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, mourning, selective attention, thanatology

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2954 The Attentional Focus Impact on the Decision Making in Three-Game Situations in Tennis

Authors: Marina Tsetseli, Eleni Zetou, Maria Michalopoulou, Nikos Vernadakis

Abstract:

Game performance, besides the accuracy and the quality skills execution, depends heavily on where the athletes will focus their attention while performing a skill. The purpose of the present study was to examine and compare the effect of internal and external focus of attention instructions on the decision making in tennis at players 8-9 years old (M=8.4, SD=0.49). The participants (N=40) were divided into two groups and followed an intervention training program that lasted 4 weeks; first group (N=20) under internal focus of attention instructions and the second group (N=20) under external focus of attention instructions. Three measurements took place (pre-test, post-test, and retention test) in which the participants were video recorded while playing matches in real scoring conditions. GPAI (Game Performance Assessment Instrument) was used to evaluate decision making in three game situations; service, return of the service, baseline game. ANOVA repeated measures (2 groups x 3 measurements) revealed a significant interaction between groups and measurements. Specifically, the data analysis showed superiority of the group that was instructed to focus externally. The high scores of the external attention group were maintained at the same level at the third measurement as well, which indicates that the impact was concerning not only performance but also learning. Thus, cues that lead to an external focus of attention enhance the decision-making skill and therefore the game performance of the young tennis players.

Keywords: decision making, evaluation, focus of attention, game performance, tennis

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2953 Attention-Aware Group-Wise Correlation-Interlaced Stereo Network

Authors: Darshan Iyer

Abstract:

We propose an end-to-end deep learning-based stereo network for disparity estimation called attention-aware group-wise correlation-interlaced network. Our contributions include an improved attention-aware feature extraction network, cost volume based on a combination of groupwise correlation and interlaced features, and a light residual dense network for disparity refinement. We performed extensive comparative analysis using SceneFlow, KITTI 2012, and KITTI 2015 datasets, and found significant improvement of up to 9.3% in end-point-error (EPE) with respect to state-of-the-art with values of 0.682 on SceneFlow, 0.561 on KITTI 2015, and 0.477 on KITTI 2012.

Keywords: attention mechanism, convolution neural networks, deep learning, stereo disparity estimation

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2952 Assessment of an ICA-Based Method for Detecting the Effect of Attention in the Auditory Late Response

Authors: Siavash Mirahmadizoghi, Steven Bell, David Simpson

Abstract:

In this work a new independent component analysis (ICA) based method for noise reduction in evoked potentials is evaluated on for auditory late responses (ALR) captured with a 63-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) from 10 normal-hearing subjects. The performance of the new method is compared with a single channel alternative in terms of signal to noise ratio (SNR), the number of channels with an SNR above an empirically derived statistical critical value and an estimate of the effect of attention on the major components in the ALR waveform. The results show that the multichannel signal processing method can significantly enhance the quality of the ALR signal and also detect the effect of the attention on the ALR better than the single channel alternative.

Keywords: auditory late response (ALR), attention, EEG, independent component analysis (ICA), multichannel signal processing

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2951 The Dangers of Attentional Inertia in the Driving Task

Authors: Catherine Thompson, Maryam Jalali, Peter Hills

Abstract:

The allocation of visual attention is critical when driving and anything that limits attention will have a detrimental impact on safety. Engaging in a secondary task reduces the amount of attention directed to the road because drivers allocate resources towards this task, leaving fewer resources to process driving-relevant information. Yet the dangers associated with a secondary task do not end when the driver returns their attention to the road. Instead, the attentional settings adopted to complete a secondary task may persist to the road, affecting attention, and therefore affecting driver performance. This 'attentional inertia' effect was investigated in the current work. Forty drivers searched for hazards in driving video clips while their eye-movements were recorded. At varying intervals they were instructed to attend to a secondary task displayed on a tablet situated to their left-hand side. The secondary task consisted of three separate computer games that induced horizontal, vertical, and random eye movements. Visual search and hazard detection in the driving clips were compared across the three conditions of the secondary task. Results showed that the layout of information in the secondary task, and therefore the allocation of attention in this task, had an impact on subsequent search in the driving clips. Vertically presented information reduced the wide horizontal spread of search usually associated with accurate driving and had a negative influence on the detection of hazards. The findings show the additional dangers of engaging in a secondary task while driving. The attentional inertia effect has significant implications for semi-autonomous and autonomous vehicles in which drivers have greater opportunity to direct their attention away from the driving task.

Keywords: attention, eye-movements, hazard perception, visual search

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2950 Measuring How Brightness Mediates Auditory Salience

Authors: Baptiste Bouvier

Abstract:

While we are constantly flooded with stimuli in daily life, attention allows us to select the ones we specifically process and ignore the others. Some salient stimuli may sometimes pass this filter independently of our will, in a "bottom-up" way. The role of the acoustic properties of the timbre of a sound on its salience, i.e., its ability to capture the attention of a listener, is still not well understood. We implemented a paradigm called the "additional singleton paradigm", in which participants have to discriminate targets according to their duration. This task is perturbed (higher error rates and longer response times) by the presence of an irrelevant additional sound, of which we can manipulate a feature of our choice at equal loudness. This allows us to highlight the influence of the timbre features of a sound stimulus on its salience at equal loudness. We have shown that a stimulus that is brighter than the others but not louder leads to an attentional capture phenomenon in this framework. This work opens the door to the study of the influence of any timbre feature on salience.

Keywords: attention, audition, bottom-up attention, psychoacoustics, salience, timbre

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2949 The Joint Attention Training as Early Occupational Therapy Intervention in Children with Autism

Authors: Sumeyye Belhan, Sema Gul Turk, Esma Ozkan, Mahmut Yaran

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of joint attention training on communication skills and visual perception skills in autistic children. Eight children between 4 and six years of age participated in the study. Sociodemographic information form, Social Communication Questionnaire, Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) and Motor-Free Visual Perception Test 4 (MVPT-4) were applied to the participants before intervention and after the intervention. Joint attention training was given three times a week for six weeks in total 18 sessions. Four of the children with autism who participate in the study (50%) were male, four (50%) were female and the mean age was 5,25±0,70. The Social Communication Scale score for children with autism was 13.62 ± 3.73 before the joint attention training and 11.37 ± 4.10 after the training. It was observed that social communication skills improved, but this improvement was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Pre-education autistic children's Autism Behavioral Control score was 55,37 ± 9,94, whereas it was 40,12 ± 15,57 after training. There was a statistically significant improvement in sensory, relationship building, body and object use, language skills, social and self-care skills of autistic children in the autistic behavior checklist subscale after joint attention training (p < 0.05). MVPT 4 score before intervention in children with autism was 14.62 ± 6.65; and 19,50 ± 5,18 after the intervention. There was a statistically significant increase in visual perceptual skills without a motor in children with autism after the intervention (p < 0.05). This abstract is the pilot study of the joint attention training involving planned long-term (12 weeks) and more autistic children. A greater number of autistic children for longer period suggest that joint attention training will also lead to statistically significant improvements in social communication skills. It is thought that the joint attention training that is applied for a longer period in early childhood occupational therapy in children with autism will be beneficial for social communication, self-care skills and visual perception skills of autistic children.

Keywords: autism, joint attention, social communication, visual perception

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2948 Effects of External and Internal Focus of Attention in Motor Learning of Children with Cerebral Palsy

Authors: Morteza Pourazar, Fatemeh Mirakhori, Fazlolah Bagherzadeh, Rasool Hemayattalab

Abstract:

The purpose of study was to examine the effects of external and internal focus of attention in the motor learning of children with cerebral palsy. The study involved 30 boys (7 to 12 years old) with CP type 1 who practiced throwing beanbags. The participants were randomly assigned to the internal focus, external focus, and control groups, and performed six blocks of 10-trial with attentional focus reminders during a practice phase and no reminders during retention and transfer tests. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures on the last factor was used. The results show that significant main effects were found for time and group. However, the interaction of time and group was not significant. Retention scores were significantly higher for the external focus group. The external focus group performed better than other groups; however, the internal focus and control groups’ performance did not differ. The study concluded that motor skills in Spastic Hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy (SHCP) children could be enhanced by external attention.

Keywords: cerebral palsy, external attention, internal attention, throwing task

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2947 The Role of Emotion in Attention Allocation

Authors: Michaela Porubanova

Abstract:

In this exploratory study to examine the effects of emotional significance on change detection using the flicker paradigm, three different categories of scenes were randomly presented (neutral, positive and negative) in three different blocks. We hypothesized that because of the different effects on attention, performance in change detection tasks differs for scenes with different effective values. We found the greatest accuracy of change detection was for changes occurring in positive and negative scenes (compared with neutral scenes). Secondly and most importantly, changes in negative scenes (and also positive scenes, though not with statistical significance) were detected faster than changes in neutral scenes. Interestingly, women were less accurate than men in detecting changes in emotionally significant scenes (both negative and positive), i.e., women detected fewer changes in emotional scenes in the time limit of 40s. But on the other hand, women were quicker to detect changes in positive and negative images than men. The study makes important contributions to the area of the role of emotions on information processing. The role of emotion in attention will be discussed.

Keywords: attention, emotion, flicker task, IAPS

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2946 An Assessment of Electrical Activities of Students' Brains toward Teacher’s Specific Emotions

Authors: Hakan Aydogan, Fatih Bozkurt, Huseyin Coskun

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In this study, the signal of brain electrical activities of the sixteen students selected from the Department of Electrical and Energy at Usak University have been recorded during a lecturer performed happiness emotions for the first group and anger emotions for the second group in different time while the groups were in the classroom separately. The attention and meditation data extracted from the recorded signals have been analyzed and evaluated toward the teacher’s specific emotion states simultaneously. Attention levels of students who are under influence of happiness emotions of the lecturer have a positive trend and attention levels of students who are under influence of anger emotions of the lecturer have a negative trend. The meditation or mental relaxation levels of students who are under influence of happiness emotions of the lecturer are 34.3% higher comparing with the mental relaxation levels of students who are under influence of anger emotions of the lecturer.

Keywords: brainwave, attention, meditation, education

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2945 Attention and Creative Problem-Solving: Cognitive Differences between Adults with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Authors: Lindsey Carruthers, Alexandra Willis, Rory MacLean

Abstract:

Introduction: It has been proposed that distractibility, a key diagnostic criterion of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), may be associated with higher creativity levels in some individuals. Anecdotal and empirical evidence has shown that ADHD is therefore beneficial to creative problem-solving, and the generation of new ideas and products. Previous studies have only used one or two measures of attention, which is insufficient given that it is a complex cognitive process. The current study aimed to determine in which ways performance on creative problem-solving tasks and a range of attention tests may be related, and if performance differs between adults with and without ADHD. Methods: 150 adults, 47 males and 103 females (mean age=28.81 years, S.D.=12.05 years), were tested at Edinburgh Napier University. Of this set, 50 participants had ADHD, and 100 did not, forming the control group. Each participant completed seven attention tasks, assessing focussed, sustained, selective, and divided attention. Creative problem-solving was measured using divergent thinking tasks, which require multiple original solutions for one given problem. Two types of divergent thinking task were used: verbal (requires written responses) and figural (requires drawn responses). Each task is scored for idea originality, with higher scores indicating more creative responses. Correlational analyses were used to explore relationships between attention and creative problem-solving, and t-tests were used to study the between group differences. Results: The control group scored higher on originality for figural divergent thinking (t(148)= 3.187, p< .01), whereas the ADHD group had more original ideas for the verbal divergent thinking task (t(148)= -2.490, p < .05). Within the control group, figural divergent thinking scores were significantly related to both selective (r= -.295 to -.285, p < .01) and divided attention (r= .206 to .290, p < .05). Alternatively, within the ADHD group, both selective (r= -.390 to -.356, p < .05) and divided (r= .328 to .347, p < .05) attention are related to verbal divergent thinking. Conclusions: Selective and divided attention are both related to divergent thinking, however the performance patterns are different between each group, which may point to cognitive variance in the processing of these problems and how they are managed. The creative differences previously found between those with and without ADHD may be dependent on task type, which to the author’s knowledge, has not been distinguished previously. It appears that ADHD does not specifically lead to higher creativity, but may provide explanation for creative differences when compared to those without the disorder.

Keywords: ADHD, attention, creativity, problem-solving

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2944 Prevalence and Associated Factors of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Children Age 6 to 17 Years Old Living in Girja District, Oromia Regional State, Rural Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Hirbaye Mokona, Abebaw Gebeyehu, Aemro Zerihun

Abstract:

Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is serious public health problem affecting millions of children throughout the world. Method: A cross-sectional study conducted from May to June 2015 among children age 6 to 17 years living in rural area of Girja district. Multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used to select 1302 study participants. Disruptive Behavior Disorder rating scale was used to collect the data. Data were coded, entered and cleaned by Epi-Data version 3.1 and analyzed by SPSS version 20. Logistic regression analysis was used and Variables that have P-values less than 0.05 on multivariable logistic regression was considered as statistically significant. Results: Prevalence of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among children age 6 to 17 years was 7.3%. Being male [AOR=1.81, 95%CI: (1.13, 2.91)]; living with single parent [AOR=5.0, 95%CI: (2.35, 10.65)]; child birth order/rank [AOR=2.35, 95%CI: (1.30, 4.25)]; low family socio-economic status [AOR= 2.43, 95%CI: (1.29, 4.59)]; maternal alcohol/khat use during pregnancy [AOR=3.14, 95%CI: (1.37, 7.37)] and complication at delivery [AOR=3.56, 95%CI: (1.19, 10.64)] were more likely to develop Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Conclusion: In this study, the prevalence of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was similar with worldwide prevalence. Prevention and early management of its modifiable risk factors should be carryout alongside increasing community awareness.

Keywords: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, associated factors, children, prevalence

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2943 Attention and Memory in the Music Learning Process in Individuals with Visual Impairments

Authors: Lana Burmistrova

Abstract:

Introduction: The influence of visual impairments on several cognitive processes used in the music learning process is an increasingly important area in special education and cognitive musicology. Many children have several visual impairments due to the refractive errors and irreversible inhibitors. However, based on the compensatory neuroplasticity and functional reorganization, congenitally blind (CB) and early blind (EB) individuals use several areas of the occipital lobe to perceive and process auditory and tactile information. CB individuals have greater memory capacity, memory reliability, and less false memory mechanisms are used while executing several tasks, they have better working memory (WM) and short-term memory (STM). Blind individuals use several strategies while executing tactile and working memory n-back tasks: verbalization strategy (mental recall), tactile strategy (tactile recall) and combined strategies. Methods and design: The aim of the pilot study was to substantiate similar tendencies while executing attention, memory and combined auditory tasks in blind and sighted individuals constructed for this study, and to investigate attention, memory and combined mechanisms used in the music learning process. For this study eight (n=8) blind and eight (n=8) sighted individuals aged 13-20 were chosen. All respondents had more than five years music performance and music learning experience. In the attention task, all respondents had to identify pitch changes in tonal and randomized melodic pairs. The memory task was based on the mismatch negativity (MMN) proportion theory: 80 percent standard (not changed) and 20 percent deviant (changed) stimuli (sequences). Every sequence was named (na-na, ra-ra, za-za) and several items (pencil, spoon, tealight) were assigned for each sequence. Respondents had to recall the sequences, to associate them with the item and to detect possible changes. While executing the combined task, all respondents had to focus attention on the pitch changes and had to detect and describe these during the recall. Results and conclusion: The results support specific features in CB and EB, and similarities between late blind (LB) and sighted individuals. While executing attention and memory tasks, it was possible to observe the tendency in CB and EB by using more precise execution tactics and usage of more advanced periodic memory, while focusing on auditory and tactile stimuli. While executing memory and combined tasks, CB and EB individuals used passive working memory to recall standard sequences, active working memory to recall deviant sequences and combined strategies. Based on the observation results, assessment of blind respondents and recording specifics, following attention and memory correlations were identified: reflective attention and STM, reflective attention and periodic memory, auditory attention and WM, tactile attention and WM, auditory tactile attention and STM. The results and the summary of findings highlight the attention and memory features used in the music learning process in the context of blindness, and the tendency of the several attention and memory types correlated based on the task, strategy and individual features.

Keywords: attention, blindness, memory, music learning, strategy

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2942 Parallel Processing in near Absence of Attention: A Study Using Dual-Task Paradigm

Authors: Aarushi Agarwal, Tara Singh, I.L Singh, Anju Lata Singh, Trayambak Tiwari

Abstract:

Simple discrimination in near absence of attention has been widely observed. Dual-task studies with natural scenes studies have been claimed as being preattentive in nature that facilitated categorization simultaneously with the attentional demanding task. So in this study, multiple images at the periphery are presented, initiating parallel processing in near absence of attention. For the central demanding task rotated letters were presented in both conditions, while in periphery natural and animal images were presented. To understand the breakpoint of ability to perform in near absence of attention one, two and three peripheral images were presented simultaneously with central task and subjects had to respond when all belong to the same category. Individual participant performance did not show a significant difference in both conditions central and peripheral task when the single peripheral image was shown. In case of two images high-level parallel processing could take place with little attentional resources. The eye tracking results supports the evidence as no major saccade was made in a large number of trials. Three image presentations proved to be a breaking point of the capacities to perform outside attentional assistance as participants showed a confused eye gaze pattern which failed to make the natural and animal image discriminations. Thus, we can conclude attention and awareness being independent mechanisms having limited capacities.

Keywords: attention, dual task pardigm, parallel processing, break point, saccade

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2941 Electroencephalogram Study of Change Blindness in Mindful Subjects

Authors: Lea Lachaud, Aida Raoult, Marion Trousselard, Francois B. Vialatte

Abstract:

This paper addresses mindfulness from a psychological and neuroscientific perspective, by studying how it modulates attention. Being mindful defines a state characterized by 1-an attention directed to the subjective experience of present moment, 2-an unconditional acceptance of this experience, and 3-the rejection of systematic rationalization in favor of plain awareness. The aim of this study is to investigate whether perceptual salience filters are lowered in a ‘mindful’ condition by exploring the role of being mindful in focused visual attention. Over the past decade, mindfulness therapies have seen a surge in popularity. While the outcomes of these therapies have been widely discussed, the mechanisms whereby meditation affects the brain remain mostly unknown. To explore the role of mindfulness in focused visual attention, we conducted a change blindness experiment on 24 subjects, 12 of them being mindful according to the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI) scale. Our results suggest that mindful subjects are less affected by change blindness than non-mindful subjects. Furthermore, EEG measurements performed during the experiments may expose neural correlates specific to the mindful state on P300 evoked potentials. Finally, the analysis of both amplitude and latency caused by the perception of a change over 864 recordings may reveal biomarkers that are typical of this state. The paper concludes by discussing the implications of these results for further research.

Keywords: EEG, change blindness, mindfulness, p300, perception, visual attention

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2940 MhAGCN: Multi-Head Attention Graph Convolutional Network for Web Services Classification

Authors: Bing Li, Zhi Li, Yilong Yang

Abstract:

Web classification can promote the quality of service discovery and management in the service repository. It is widely used to locate developers desired services. Although traditional classification methods based on supervised learning models can achieve classification tasks, developers need to manually mark web services, and the quality of these tags may not be enough to establish an accurate classifier for service classification. With the doubling of the number of web services, the manual tagging method has become unrealistic. In recent years, the attention mechanism has made remarkable progress in the field of deep learning, and its huge potential has been fully demonstrated in various fields. This paper designs a multi-head attention graph convolutional network (MHAGCN) service classification method, which can assign different weights to the neighborhood nodes without complicated matrix operations or relying on understanding the entire graph structure. The framework combines the advantages of the attention mechanism and graph convolutional neural network. It can classify web services through automatic feature extraction. The comprehensive experimental results on a real dataset not only show the superior performance of the proposed model over the existing models but also demonstrate its potentially good interpretability for graph analysis.

Keywords: attention mechanism, graph convolutional network, interpretability, service classification, service discovery

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2939 The Interleaving Effect of Subject Matter and Perceptual Modality on Students’ Attention and Learning: A Portable EEG Study

Authors: Wen Chen

Abstract:

To investigate the interleaving effect of subject matter (mathematics vs. history) and perceptual modality (visual vs. auditory materials) on student’s attention and learning outcomes, the present study collected self-reported data on subjective cognitive load (SCL) and attention level, EEG data, and learning outcomes from micro-lectures. Eighty-one 7th grade students were randomly assigned to four learning conditions: blocked (by subject matter) micro-lectures with auditory textual information (B-A condition), blocked (by subject matter) micro-lectures with visual textual information (B-V condition), interleaved (by subject matter) micro-lectures with auditory textual information (I-A condition), and interleaved micro-lectures by both perceptual modality and subject matter (I-all condition). The results showed that although interleaved conditions may show advantages in certain indices, the I-all condition showed the best overall outcomes (best performance, low SCL, and high attention). This study suggests that interleaving by both subject matter and perceptual modality should be preferred in scheduling and planning classes.

Keywords: cognitive load, interleaving effect, micro-lectures, sustained attention

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