Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3898

Search results for: attention

3898 Benefits of Therapeutic Climbing on Multiple Components of Attention in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Children

Authors: Elaheh Hosseini, Otmar Bock, Monika Thomas


The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of climbing therapy on the components of attention of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Forty children with ADHD were assigned to either an intervention group or a control group. The exercise group participated in a climbing therapy program for ten weeks, whereas no intervention was administered to the control group. All two groups were then assessed with the same battery of attention tests used in our earlier study. We found that compared to the ‘intervention’ group, performance was higher in the ‘control’ group on tests of sustained, divided and distributed attention, on all four tests. The intervention group showed a significant improvement in components of attention after ten weeks. From this we conclude that climbing therapy can improve the attention of children with ADHD and can be considered as a promising intervention and a standalone treatment for children with ADHD.

Keywords: ADHD, climbing therapy, distributed attention, divided attention, selective attention, sustained attention

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3897 Investigating the Relationship and Interaction between Auditory Processing Disorder and Auditory Attention

Authors: Amirreza Razzaghipour Sorkhab


The exploration of the connection between cognition and Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) holds significant value. Individuals with APD experience challenges in processing auditory information through the central auditory nervous system's varied pathways. Understanding the importance of auditory attention in individuals with APD, as well as the primary diagnostic tools such as language and auditory attention tests, highlights the critical need for assessing their auditory attention abilities. While not all children with Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) show deficits in auditory attention, there are often deficiencies in cognitive and attentional performance. The link between various types of attention deficits and APD suggests impairments in sustained and divided auditory attention. Research into the origins of APD should also encompass higher-level processes, such as auditory attention. It is evident that investigating the interaction between APD and auditory and cognitive functions holds significant value. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that APD tests may be influenced by cognitive factors, but despite signs of auditory attention interaction with auditory processing skills and the influence of cognitive factors on tests for this disorder, auditory attention measures are not typically included in APD diagnostic protocols. Therefore, incorporating attention assessment tests into the battery of tests for individuals with auditory processing disorder will be beneficial for obtaining useful insights into their attentional abilities.

Keywords: auditory processing disorder, auditory attention, central auditory processing disorder, top-down pathway

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3896 Exploring Relationship between Attention and Consciousness

Authors: Aarushi Agarwal, Tara Singh, Anju Lata Singh, Trayambak Tiwari, Indramani Lal Singh


The existing interdependent relationship between attention and consciousness has been put to debate since long. To testify the nature, dual-task paradigm has been used to simultaneously manipulate awareness and attention. With central discrimination task which is attentional demanding, participants also perform simple discrimination task in the periphery in near absence of attention. Individual-based analysis of performance accuracy in single and dual condition showed and above chance level performance i.e. more than 80%. In order to widen the understanding of extent of discrimination carried in near absence of attention, natural image and its geometric equivalent shape were presented in the periphery; synthetic objects accounted to lower level of performance than natural objects in dual condition. The gaze plot and heatmap indicate that peripheral performance do not necessarily involve saccade every time, verifying the discrimination in the periphery was in near absence of attention. Thus our studies show an interdependent nature of attention and awareness.

Keywords: attention, awareness, dual task paradigm, natural and geometric images

Procedia PDF Downloads 437
3895 Attention Problems among Adolescents: Examining Educational Environments

Authors: Zhidong Zhang, Zhi-Chao Zhang, Georgianna Duarte


This study investigated the attention problems with the instrument of Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). Two thousand eight hundred and ninety-four adolescents were surveyed by using a stratified sampling method. We examined the relationships between relevant background variables and attention problems. Multiple regression models were applied to analyze the data. Relevant variables such as sports activities, hobbies, age, grade and the number of close friends were included in this study as predictive variables. The analysis results indicated that educational environments and extracurricular activities are important factors which influence students’ attention problems.

Keywords: adolescents, ASEBA, attention problems, educational environments, stratified sampling

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
3894 Investigating the Effect of the Pedagogical Agent on Visual Attention in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Students

Authors: Nasrin Mohammadhasani, Rosa Angela Fabio


The attention to relevance information is the key element for learning. Otherwise, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) students have a fuzzy visual pattern that prevents them to attention and remember learning subject. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that the presence of a pedagogical agent can effectively support ADHD learner's attention and learning outcomes in a multimedia learning environment. The learning environment was integrated with a pedagogical agent, named Koosha as a social peer. This study employed a pretest and posttest experimental design with control group. The statistical population was 30 boys students, age 10-11 with ADHD that randomly assigned to learn with/without an agent in well designed environment for mathematic. The results suggested that experimental and control groups show a significant difference in time when they participated and mathematics achievement. According to this research, using the pedagogical agent can enhance learning of ADHD students by gaining and guiding their attention to relevance information part on display, so it can be considered as asocial cue that provides theme cognitive supports.

Keywords: attention, computer assisted instruction, multimedia learning environment, pedagogical agent

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
3893 Affirming Students’ Attention and Perceptions on Prezi Presentation via Eye Tracking System

Authors: Mona Masood, Norshazlina Shaik Othman


The purpose of this study was to investigate graduate students’ visual attention and perceptions of a Prezi presentation. Ten post-graduate master students were presented with a Prezi presentation at the Centre for Instructional Technology and Multimedia, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). The eye movement indicators such as dwell time, average fixation on the areas of interests, heat maps and focus maps were abstracted to indicate the students’ visual attention. Descriptive statistics was employed to analyze the students’ perception of the Prezi presentation in terms of text, slide design, images, layout and overall presentation. The result revealed that the students paid more attention to the text followed by the images and sub heading presented through the Prezi presentation.

Keywords: eye tracking, Prezi, visual attention, visual perception

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
3892 An Experiment Research on the Effect of Brain-Break in the Classroom on Elementary School Students’ Selective Attention

Authors: Hui Liu, Xiaozan Wang, Jiarong Zhong, Ziming Shao


Introduction: Related research shows that students don’t concentrate on teacher’s speaking in the classroom. The d2 attention test is a time-limited test about selective attention. The d2 attention test can be used to evaluate individual selective attention. Purpose: To use the d2 attention test tool to measure the difference between the attention level of the experimental class and the control class before and after Brain-Break and to explore the effect of Brain-Break in the classroom on students' selective attention. Methods: According to the principle of no difference in pre-test data, two classes in the fourth- grade of Shenzhen Longhua Central Primary School were selected. After 20 minutes of class in the third class in the morning and the third class in the afternoon, about 3-minute Brain-Break intervention was performed in the experimental class for 10 weeks. The normal class in the control class did not intervene. Before and after the experiment, the d2 attention test tool was used to test the attention level of the two-class students. The paired sample t-test and independent sample t-test in SPSS 23.0 was used to test the change in the attention level of the two-class classes around 10 weeks. This article only presents results with significant differences. Results: The independent sample t-test results showed that after ten-week of Brain-Break, the missed errors (E1 t = -2.165 p = 0.042), concentration performance (CP t = 1.866 p = 0.05), and the degree of omissions (Epercent t = -2.375 p = 0.029) in experimental class showed significant differences compared with control class. The students’ error level decreased and the concentration increased. Conclusions: Adding Brain-Break interventions in the classroom can effectively improve the attention level of fourth-grade primary school students to a certain extent, especially can improve the concentration of attention and decrease the error rate in the tasks. The new sport's learning model is worth promoting

Keywords: cultural class, micromotor, attention, D2 test

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3891 Local Government Digital Attention and Green Technology Innovation: Analysis Based on Spatial Durbin Model

Authors: Xin Wang, Chaoqun Ma, Zheng Yao


Although green technology innovation faces new opportunities and challenges in the digital era, its theoretical research remains limited. Drawing on the attention-based view, this study employs the spatial Durbin model to investigate the impact of local government digital attention and digital industrial agglomeration on green technology innovation across 30 Chinese provinces from 2011 to 2021, as well as the spatial spillover effects present. The results suggest that both government digital attention and digital industrial agglomeration positively influence green technology innovation in local and neighboring provinces, with digital industrial agglomeration exhibiting a positive moderating effect on this direct local and indirect spatial spillover relationship. The findings of this study provide a new theoretical perspective for green technology innovation research and hold valuable implications for the advancement of the attention-based view and green technology innovation.

Keywords: local government digital attention, digital industrial agglomeration, green technology innovation, attention-based view

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3890 Would Intra-Individual Variability in Attention to Be the Indicator of Impending the Senior Adults at Risk of Cognitive Decline: Evidence from Attention Network Test(ANT)

Authors: Hanna Lu, Sandra S. M. Chan, Linda C. W. Lam


Objectives: Intra-individual variability (IIV) has been considered as a biomarker of healthy ageing. However, the composite role of IIV in attention, as an impending indicator for neurocognitive disorders warrants further exploration. This study aims to investigate the IIV, as well as their relationships with attention network functions in adults with neurocognitive disorders (NCD). Methods: 36adults with NCD due to Alzheimer’s disease(NCD-AD), 31adults with NCD due to vascular disease (NCD-vascular), and 137 healthy controls were recruited. Intraindividual standard deviations (iSD) and intraindividual coefficient of variation of reaction time (ICV-RT) were used to evaluate the IIV. Results: NCD groups showed greater IIV (iSD: F= 11.803, p < 0.001; ICV-RT:F= 9.07, p < 0.001). In ROC analyses, the indices of IIV could differentiateNCD-AD (iSD: AUC value = 0.687, p= 0.001; ICV-RT: AUC value = 0.677, p= 0.001) and NCD-vascular (iSD: AUC value = 0.631, p= 0.023;ICV-RT: AUC value = 0.615, p= 0.045) from healthy controls. Moreover, the processing speed could distinguish NCD-AD from NCD-vascular (AUC value = 0.647, p= 0.040). Discussion: Intra-individual variability in attention provides a stable measure of cognitive performance, and seems to help distinguish the senior adults with different cognitive status.

Keywords: intra-individual variability, attention network, neurocognitive disorders, ageing

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
3889 Attentional Differences in Musical Recall and Improvisation

Authors: Krzysztof T. Piotrowski


The main goal of the research was to investigate differences in attention in two kinds of musical performance - recall and improvisation. Musical recall is a sample of convergent production that requires intensively focused attention. Inversely, musical improvisation is a divergent task and probably requires a different way of attentional control. The study was designed in dual task paradigm. Participants were to remember a simple melody and then recall or improvise, simultaneously performing the spatial attentional test on computer screen. The result shows that improvising participants find spatial goals in more disperse way. The conclusion is that musical improvisation requires extensification of attention to occur.

Keywords: attention, creativity, divergent task, musical improvisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
3888 Explainable Graph Attention Networks

Authors: David Pham, Yongfeng Zhang


Graphs are an important structure for data storage and computation. Recent years have seen the success of deep learning on graphs such as Graph Neural Networks (GNN) on various data mining and machine learning tasks. However, most of the deep learning models on graphs cannot easily explain their predictions and are thus often labelled as “black boxes.” For example, Graph Attention Network (GAT) is a frequently used GNN architecture, which adopts an attention mechanism to carefully select the neighborhood nodes for message passing and aggregation. However, it is difficult to explain why certain neighbors are selected while others are not and how the selected neighbors contribute to the final classification result. In this paper, we present a graph learning model called Explainable Graph Attention Network (XGAT), which integrates graph attention modeling and explainability. We use a single model to target both the accuracy and explainability of problem spaces and show that in the context of graph attention modeling, we can design a unified neighborhood selection strategy that selects appropriate neighbor nodes for both better accuracy and enhanced explainability. To justify this, we conduct extensive experiments to better understand the behavior of our model under different conditions and show an increase in both accuracy and explainability.

Keywords: explainable AI, graph attention network, graph neural network, node classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
3887 Implication of Attention Deficit and Task Avoidance on the Mathematics Performance of Pupils with Intellectual Disabilities

Authors: Matthew Bamidele Ojuawo


To some parents, task avoidance implies the time when argument ensues between parents and their children in order to get certain things done correctly without being forced. However, some children avoid certain task because of the fears that it is too hard or cannot be done without parental help. Laziness plays a role in task avoidance when children do not want to do something because they do not feel like it is easy enough or if they just want their parent help them get it over with more quickly. Children with attention deficit disorder more often have difficulties with social skills, such as social interaction and forming and maintaining friendships. The focus of this study is how task avoidance and attention deficit have effect on the mathematics performance of pupils in the lower basic classroom. Mathematics performance of pupils with learning disabilities has been seriously low due to avoidance of task and attention deficit posed as carried out in the previous researches, but the research has not been carried out in the lower basic classroom in Oyo, Oyo state, Nigeria.

Keywords: task avoidance, parents, children with attention deficit, mathematics

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3886 Studying the Spatial Aspects of Visual Attention Processing in Global Precedence Paradigm

Authors: Shreya Borthakur, Aastha Vartak


This behavioral experiment aimed to investigate the global precedence phenomenon in a South Asian sample and its correlation with mobile screen time. The global precedence effect refers to the tendency to process overall structure before attending to specific details. Participants completed attention tasks involving global and local stimuli with varying consistencies. The results showed a tendency towards local precedence, but no significant differences in reaction times were found between consistency levels or attention conditions. However, the correlation analysis revealed that participants with higher screen time exhibited a stronger negative correlation with local attention, suggesting that excessive screen usage may impact perceptual organization. Further research is needed to explore this relationship and understand the influence of screen time on cognitive processing.

Keywords: global precedence, visual attention, perceptual organization, screen time, cognition

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3885 The Role of Executive Attention and Literacy on Consumer Memory

Authors: Fereshteh Nazeri Bahadori


In today's competitive environment, any company that aims to operate in a market, whether industrial or consumer markets, must know that it cannot address all the tastes and demands of customers at once and serve them all. The study of consumer memory is considered an important subject in marketing research, and many companies have conducted studies on this subject and the factors affecting it due to its importance. Therefore, the current study tries to investigate the relationship between consumers' attention, literacy, and memory. Memory has a very close relationship with learning. Memory is the collection of all the information that we have understood and stored. One of the important subjects in consumer behavior is information processing by the consumer. One of the important factors in information processing is the mental involvement of the consumer, which has attracted a lot of attention in the past two decades. Since consumers are the turning point of all marketing activities, successful marketing begins with understanding why and how consumers behave. Therefore, in the current study, the role of executive attention and literacy on consumers' memory has been investigated. The results showed that executive attention and literacy would play a significant role in the long-term and short-term memory of consumers.

Keywords: literacy, consumer memory, executive attention, psychology of consumer behavior

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3884 Information Processing and Visual Attention: An Eye Tracking Study on Nutrition Labels

Authors: Rosa Hendijani, Amir Ghadimi Herfeh


Nutrition labels are diet-related health policies. They help individuals improve food-choice decisions and reduce intake of calories and unhealthy food elements, like cholesterol. However, many individuals do not pay attention to nutrition labels or fail to appropriately understand them. According to the literature, thinking and cognitive styles can have significant effects on attention to nutrition labels. According to the author's knowledge, the effect of global/local processing on attention to nutrition labels have not been previously studied. Global/local processing encourages individuals to attend to the whole/specific parts of an object and can have a significant impact on people's visual attention. In this study, this effect was examined with an experimental design using the eye-tracking technique. The research hypothesis was that individuals with local processing would pay more attention to nutrition labels, including nutrition tables and traffic lights. An experiment was designed with two conditions: global and local information processing. Forty participants were randomly assigned to either global or local conditions, and their processing style was manipulated accordingly. Results supported the hypothesis for nutrition tables but not for traffic lights.

Keywords: eye-tracking, nutrition labelling, global/local information processing, individual differences

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3883 Video-Based System for Support of Robot-Enhanced Gait Rehabilitation of Stroke Patients

Authors: Matjaž Divjak, Simon Zelič, Aleš Holobar


We present a dedicated video-based monitoring system for quantification of patient’s attention to visual feedback during robot assisted gait rehabilitation. Two different approaches for eye gaze and head pose tracking are tested and compared. Several metrics for assessment of patient’s attention are also presented. Experimental results with healthy volunteers demonstrate that unobtrusive video-based gaze tracking during the robot-assisted gait rehabilitation is possible and is sufficiently robust for quantification of patient’s attention and assessment of compliance with the rehabilitation therapy.

Keywords: video-based attention monitoring, gaze estimation, stroke rehabilitation, user compliance

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3882 Identification of EEG Attention Level Using Empirical Mode Decompositions for BCI Applications

Authors: Chia-Ju Peng, Shih-Jui Chen


This paper proposes a method to discriminate electroencephalogram (EEG) signals between different concentration states using empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Brain-computer interface (BCI), also called brain-machine interface, is a direct communication pathway between the brain and an external device without the inherent pathway such as the peripheral nervous system or skeletal muscles. Attention level is a common index as a control signal of BCI systems. The EEG signals acquired from people paying attention or in relaxation, respectively, are decomposed into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMF) by EMD. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis is then applied to each IMF to obtain the frequency spectrums. By observing power spectrums of IMFs, the proposed method has the better identification of EEG attention level than the original EEG signals between different concentration states. The band power of IMF3 is the most obvious especially in β wave, which corresponds to fully awake and generally alert. The signal processing method and results of this experiment paves a new way for BCI robotic system using the attention-level control strategy. The integrated signal processing method reveals appropriate information for discrimination of the attention and relaxation, contributing to a more enhanced BCI performance.

Keywords: biomedical engineering, brain computer interface, electroencephalography, rehabilitation

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3881 The Role of College Teachers’ in Identifying Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Students

Authors: Hargunjeet Shergill, Palwinder Singh


The present paper analyzes the lack of teachers' awareness and knowledge regarding the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in the college students. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder causes individuals to consistently display extreme inattention, impulsivity and in many cases hyperactivity as a result of the physiological differences of the brain. Teachers have a formative influence on their students and can play a key role in identifying and supporting students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Despite the pervasiveness and salience of this disorder, educators at college continue to labor under a number of misconceptions about the nature of ADHD. In order to fulfill this important role, it is imperative for teachers to have explicit knowledge about this disorder. ADHD in college students remains the most under-recognized and undertreated mental health condition. The overall aim of this study is to investigate teachers’ knowledge and misconceptions of ADHD with a particular focus on recognition, assessment and management of ADHD in adult college students. It designed to assess the college teachers' knowledge, opinions, and experience related to the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and by maintaining open lines of communication with the students and understanding some key elements that can affect students’ overall growth and ability. The discussion focuses on the value of the role of teachers and their relationship with each college student dealing with ADHD.

Keywords: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, development of ADHD, diagnostic criteria, role of teachers

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3880 Selective Attention as a Search for the Deceased during the Mourning Process

Authors: Sonia Sirtoli Färber


Objective: This study aims to investigate selective attention in the process of mourning, as a normal reaction to loss. Method: In order to develop this research, we used a systematic bibliographic review, following the process of investigation, cataloging, careful evaluation and synthesis of the documentation, associated with the method of thanatological hemenutics proposed by Elisabeth Kübler-Ross. Conclusion: After a significant loss, especially the death of a loved one or family member, it is normal for the mourner, motivated by absence, to have a false perception of the presence of the deceased. This phenomenon happens whenever the mourner is in the middle of the crowd, because his selective attention causes him to perceive physical characteristics, tone of voice, or feel fragrance of the perfume that the deceased possessed. Details characterizing the dead are perceived by the mourner because he seeks the presence in the absence.

Keywords: Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, mourning, selective attention, thanatology

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3879 The Attentional Focus Impact on the Decision Making in Three-Game Situations in Tennis

Authors: Marina Tsetseli, Eleni Zetou, Maria Michalopoulou, Nikos Vernadakis


Game performance, besides the accuracy and the quality skills execution, depends heavily on where the athletes will focus their attention while performing a skill. The purpose of the present study was to examine and compare the effect of internal and external focus of attention instructions on the decision making in tennis at players 8-9 years old (M=8.4, SD=0.49). The participants (N=40) were divided into two groups and followed an intervention training program that lasted 4 weeks; first group (N=20) under internal focus of attention instructions and the second group (N=20) under external focus of attention instructions. Three measurements took place (pre-test, post-test, and retention test) in which the participants were video recorded while playing matches in real scoring conditions. GPAI (Game Performance Assessment Instrument) was used to evaluate decision making in three game situations; service, return of the service, baseline game. ANOVA repeated measures (2 groups x 3 measurements) revealed a significant interaction between groups and measurements. Specifically, the data analysis showed superiority of the group that was instructed to focus externally. The high scores of the external attention group were maintained at the same level at the third measurement as well, which indicates that the impact was concerning not only performance but also learning. Thus, cues that lead to an external focus of attention enhance the decision-making skill and therefore the game performance of the young tennis players.

Keywords: decision making, evaluation, focus of attention, game performance, tennis

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3878 Assessment of an ICA-Based Method for Detecting the Effect of Attention in the Auditory Late Response

Authors: Siavash Mirahmadizoghi, Steven Bell, David Simpson


In this work a new independent component analysis (ICA) based method for noise reduction in evoked potentials is evaluated on for auditory late responses (ALR) captured with a 63-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) from 10 normal-hearing subjects. The performance of the new method is compared with a single channel alternative in terms of signal to noise ratio (SNR), the number of channels with an SNR above an empirically derived statistical critical value and an estimate of the effect of attention on the major components in the ALR waveform. The results show that the multichannel signal processing method can significantly enhance the quality of the ALR signal and also detect the effect of the attention on the ALR better than the single channel alternative.

Keywords: auditory late response (ALR), attention, EEG, independent component analysis (ICA), multichannel signal processing

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3877 The Knowledge and Beliefs Concerning Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Held by Parents of Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mohaned G. Abed


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is considered one of the most frequently diagnosed psychiatric childhood disorders. It has an effect on 3–5% of school-aged children, and brings about difficulties in academic and social interaction. This study explored the knowledge and beliefs of parents in Saudi Arabia about children with ADHD. The Knowledge about Attention Deficit Disorder Questionnaire (KADD-Q) was administered to a sample of parents, followed by interviews with a subset of the total respondents. The results indicated that the parents knew more about the characteristics of ADHD than they knew about its related causes and treatment. Overall, the findings indicated that these parents had some knowledge about general characteristics of ADHD, but they had little understanding of causes and possible interventions. These results suggest an important need for more formal parents training regarding all aspects of ADHD in school age children.

Keywords: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, childhood disorders, school-aged children, difficulties in academic, social interaction

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3876 Exploring the Interplay of Attention, Awareness, and Control: A Comprehensive Investigation

Authors: Venkateswar Pujari


This study tries to investigate the complex interplay between control, awareness, and attention in human cognitive processes. The fundamental elements of cognitive functioning that play a significant role in influencing perception, decision-making, and behavior are attention, awareness, and control. Understanding how they interact can help us better understand how our minds work and may even increase our understanding of cognitive science and its therapeutic applications. The study uses an empirical methodology to examine the relationships between attention, awareness, and control by integrating different experimental paradigms and neuropsychological tests. To ensure the generalizability of findings, a wide sample of participants is chosen, including people with various cognitive profiles and ages. The study is structured into four primary parts, each of which focuses on one component of how attention, awareness, and control interact: 1. Evaluation of Attentional Capacity and Selectivity: In this stage, participants complete established attention tests, including the Stroop task and visual search tasks. 2. Evaluation of Awareness Degrees: In the second stage, participants' degrees of conscious and unconscious awareness are assessed using perceptual awareness tasks such as masked priming and binocular rivalry tasks. 3. Investigation of Cognitive Control Mechanisms: In the third phase, reaction inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and working memory capacity are investigated using exercises like the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the Go/No-Go paradigm. 4. Results Integration and Analysis: Data from all phases are integrated and analyzed in the final phase. To investigate potential links and prediction correlations between attention, awareness, and control, correlational and regression analyses are carried out. The study's conclusions shed light on the intricate relationships that exist between control, awareness, and attention throughout cognitive function. The findings may have consequences for cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and clinical psychology by providing new understandings of cognitive dysfunctions linked to deficiencies in attention, awareness, and control systems.

Keywords: attention, awareness, control, cognitive functioning, neuropsychological assessment

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3875 The Dangers of Attentional Inertia in the Driving Task

Authors: Catherine Thompson, Maryam Jalali, Peter Hills


The allocation of visual attention is critical when driving and anything that limits attention will have a detrimental impact on safety. Engaging in a secondary task reduces the amount of attention directed to the road because drivers allocate resources towards this task, leaving fewer resources to process driving-relevant information. Yet the dangers associated with a secondary task do not end when the driver returns their attention to the road. Instead, the attentional settings adopted to complete a secondary task may persist to the road, affecting attention, and therefore affecting driver performance. This 'attentional inertia' effect was investigated in the current work. Forty drivers searched for hazards in driving video clips while their eye-movements were recorded. At varying intervals they were instructed to attend to a secondary task displayed on a tablet situated to their left-hand side. The secondary task consisted of three separate computer games that induced horizontal, vertical, and random eye movements. Visual search and hazard detection in the driving clips were compared across the three conditions of the secondary task. Results showed that the layout of information in the secondary task, and therefore the allocation of attention in this task, had an impact on subsequent search in the driving clips. Vertically presented information reduced the wide horizontal spread of search usually associated with accurate driving and had a negative influence on the detection of hazards. The findings show the additional dangers of engaging in a secondary task while driving. The attentional inertia effect has significant implications for semi-autonomous and autonomous vehicles in which drivers have greater opportunity to direct their attention away from the driving task.

Keywords: attention, eye-movements, hazard perception, visual search

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3874 Measuring How Brightness Mediates Auditory Salience

Authors: Baptiste Bouvier


While we are constantly flooded with stimuli in daily life, attention allows us to select the ones we specifically process and ignore the others. Some salient stimuli may sometimes pass this filter independently of our will, in a "bottom-up" way. The role of the acoustic properties of the timbre of a sound on its salience, i.e., its ability to capture the attention of a listener, is still not well understood. We implemented a paradigm called the "additional singleton paradigm", in which participants have to discriminate targets according to their duration. This task is perturbed (higher error rates and longer response times) by the presence of an irrelevant additional sound, of which we can manipulate a feature of our choice at equal loudness. This allows us to highlight the influence of the timbre features of a sound stimulus on its salience at equal loudness. We have shown that a stimulus that is brighter than the others but not louder leads to an attentional capture phenomenon in this framework. This work opens the door to the study of the influence of any timbre feature on salience.

Keywords: attention, audition, bottom-up attention, psychoacoustics, salience, timbre

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3873 Effects of External and Internal Focus of Attention in Motor Learning of Children with Cerebral Palsy

Authors: Morteza Pourazar, Fatemeh Mirakhori, Fazlolah Bagherzadeh, Rasool Hemayattalab


The purpose of study was to examine the effects of external and internal focus of attention in the motor learning of children with cerebral palsy. The study involved 30 boys (7 to 12 years old) with CP type 1 who practiced throwing beanbags. The participants were randomly assigned to the internal focus, external focus, and control groups, and performed six blocks of 10-trial with attentional focus reminders during a practice phase and no reminders during retention and transfer tests. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures on the last factor was used. The results show that significant main effects were found for time and group. However, the interaction of time and group was not significant. Retention scores were significantly higher for the external focus group. The external focus group performed better than other groups; however, the internal focus and control groups’ performance did not differ. The study concluded that motor skills in Spastic Hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy (SHCP) children could be enhanced by external attention.

Keywords: cerebral palsy, external attention, internal attention, throwing task

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3872 The Role of Emotion in Attention Allocation

Authors: Michaela Porubanova


In this exploratory study to examine the effects of emotional significance on change detection using the flicker paradigm, three different categories of scenes were randomly presented (neutral, positive and negative) in three different blocks. We hypothesized that because of the different effects on attention, performance in change detection tasks differs for scenes with different effective values. We found the greatest accuracy of change detection was for changes occurring in positive and negative scenes (compared with neutral scenes). Secondly and most importantly, changes in negative scenes (and also positive scenes, though not with statistical significance) were detected faster than changes in neutral scenes. Interestingly, women were less accurate than men in detecting changes in emotionally significant scenes (both negative and positive), i.e., women detected fewer changes in emotional scenes in the time limit of 40s. But on the other hand, women were quicker to detect changes in positive and negative images than men. The study makes important contributions to the area of the role of emotions on information processing. The role of emotion in attention will be discussed.

Keywords: attention, emotion, flicker task, IAPS

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3871 An Assessment of Electrical Activities of Students' Brains toward Teacher’s Specific Emotions

Authors: Hakan Aydogan, Fatih Bozkurt, Huseyin Coskun


In this study, the signal of brain electrical activities of the sixteen students selected from the Department of Electrical and Energy at Usak University have been recorded during a lecturer performed happiness emotions for the first group and anger emotions for the second group in different time while the groups were in the classroom separately. The attention and meditation data extracted from the recorded signals have been analyzed and evaluated toward the teacher’s specific emotion states simultaneously. Attention levels of students who are under influence of happiness emotions of the lecturer have a positive trend and attention levels of students who are under influence of anger emotions of the lecturer have a negative trend. The meditation or mental relaxation levels of students who are under influence of happiness emotions of the lecturer are 34.3% higher comparing with the mental relaxation levels of students who are under influence of anger emotions of the lecturer.

Keywords: brainwave, attention, meditation, education

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3870 Attention and Creative Problem-Solving: Cognitive Differences between Adults with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Authors: Lindsey Carruthers, Alexandra Willis, Rory MacLean


Introduction: It has been proposed that distractibility, a key diagnostic criterion of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), may be associated with higher creativity levels in some individuals. Anecdotal and empirical evidence has shown that ADHD is therefore beneficial to creative problem-solving, and the generation of new ideas and products. Previous studies have only used one or two measures of attention, which is insufficient given that it is a complex cognitive process. The current study aimed to determine in which ways performance on creative problem-solving tasks and a range of attention tests may be related, and if performance differs between adults with and without ADHD. Methods: 150 adults, 47 males and 103 females (mean age=28.81 years, S.D.=12.05 years), were tested at Edinburgh Napier University. Of this set, 50 participants had ADHD, and 100 did not, forming the control group. Each participant completed seven attention tasks, assessing focussed, sustained, selective, and divided attention. Creative problem-solving was measured using divergent thinking tasks, which require multiple original solutions for one given problem. Two types of divergent thinking task were used: verbal (requires written responses) and figural (requires drawn responses). Each task is scored for idea originality, with higher scores indicating more creative responses. Correlational analyses were used to explore relationships between attention and creative problem-solving, and t-tests were used to study the between group differences. Results: The control group scored higher on originality for figural divergent thinking (t(148)= 3.187, p< .01), whereas the ADHD group had more original ideas for the verbal divergent thinking task (t(148)= -2.490, p < .05). Within the control group, figural divergent thinking scores were significantly related to both selective (r= -.295 to -.285, p < .01) and divided attention (r= .206 to .290, p < .05). Alternatively, within the ADHD group, both selective (r= -.390 to -.356, p < .05) and divided (r= .328 to .347, p < .05) attention are related to verbal divergent thinking. Conclusions: Selective and divided attention are both related to divergent thinking, however the performance patterns are different between each group, which may point to cognitive variance in the processing of these problems and how they are managed. The creative differences previously found between those with and without ADHD may be dependent on task type, which to the author’s knowledge, has not been distinguished previously. It appears that ADHD does not specifically lead to higher creativity, but may provide explanation for creative differences when compared to those without the disorder.

Keywords: ADHD, attention, creativity, problem-solving

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3869 Framework for Global and Local Information Processing

Authors: Maged Fathy Fam Shinouda


Summary Nutrition labels are health guidelines for foods. They help people make better choices about their diet and reduce their intake of calories and unhealthy food ingredients like cholesterol. However, many people do not pay attention to or understand nutritional labeling properly. According to the literature, thinking and cognitive styles can have a significant impact on attention to food labels. To the author's knowledge, the impact of global/local processing on adherence to nutritional labeling has not been previously investigated. Global/local processing encourages people to focus their attention on whole/specific parts of an object and can have a significant impact on people's visual attention. In this study, this effect was investigated in an experimental design using an eye-tracking technique. The research hypothesis was that local practitioners would pay more attention to nutritional labels, including nutritional labels and traffic lights. An experiment was designed with two conditions: global and local information processing. Forty participants were randomly assigned to global or local conditions and their processing style was manipulated accordingly. The results supported the nutritional table hypothesis but not for traffic lights.

Keywords: eye-tracking, nutrition labeling, global/local information processing, differences data, information retrieval, natural language processing, text structuring

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