Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 283

Search results for: symmetric key cryptography

283 Cryptosystems in Asymmetric Cryptography for Securing Data on Cloud at Various Critical Levels

Authors: Sartaj Singh, Amar Singh, Ashok Sharma, Sandeep Kaur


With upcoming threats in a digital world, we need to work continuously in the area of security in all aspects, from hardware to software as well as data modelling. The rise in social media activities and hunger for data by various entities leads to cybercrime and more attack on the privacy and security of persons. Cryptography has always been employed to avoid access to important data by using many processes. Symmetric key and asymmetric key cryptography have been used for keeping data secrets at rest as well in transmission mode. Various cryptosystems have evolved from time to time to make the data more secure. In this research article, we are studying various cryptosystems in asymmetric cryptography and their application with usefulness, and much emphasis is given to Elliptic curve cryptography involving algebraic mathematics.

Keywords: cryptography, symmetric key cryptography, asymmetric key cryptography

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282 The Permutation of Symmetric Triangular Equilateral Group in the Cryptography of Private and Public Key

Authors: Fola John Adeyeye


In this paper, we propose a cryptosystem private and public key base on symmetric group Pn and validates its theoretical formulation. This proposed system benefits from the algebraic properties of Pn such as noncommutative high logical, computational speed and high flexibility in selecting key which makes the discrete permutation multiplier logic (DPML) resist to attack by any algorithm such as Pohlig-Hellman. One of the advantages of this scheme is that it explore all the possible triangular symmetries. Against these properties, the only disadvantage is that the law of permutation multiplicity only allow an operation from left to right. Many other cryptosystems can be transformed into their symmetric group.

Keywords: cryptosystem, private and public key, DPML, symmetric group Pn

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281 Some Classes of Lorentzian Alpha-Sasakian Manifolds with Respect to Quarter-Symmetric Metric Connection

Authors: Santu Dey, Arindam Bhattacharyya


The object of the present paper is to study a quarter-symmetric metric connection in a Lorentzian α-Sasakian manifold. We study some curvature properties of Lorentzian α-Sasakian manifold with respect to quarter-symmetric metric connection. We investigate quasi-projectively at, Φ-symmetric, Φ-projectively at Lorentzian α-Sasakian manifolds with respect to quarter-symmetric metric connection. We also discuss Lorentzian α-Sasakian manifold admitting quartersymmetric metric connection satisfying P.S = 0, where P denote the projective curvature tensor with respect to quarter-symmetric metric connection.

Keywords: quarter-symmetric metric connection, Lorentzian alpha-Sasakian manifold, quasi-projectively flat Lorentzian alpha-Sasakian manifold, phi-symmetric manifold

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280 A Variant of a Double Structure-Preserving QR Algorithm for Symmetric and Hamiltonian Matrices

Authors: Ahmed Salam, Haithem Benkahla


Recently, an efficient backward-stable algorithm for computing eigenvalues and vectors of a symmetric and Hamiltonian matrix has been proposed. The method preserves the symmetric and Hamiltonian structures of the original matrix, during the whole process. In this paper, we revisit the method. We derive a way for implementing the reduction of the matrix to the appropriate condensed form. Then, we construct a novel version of the implicit QR-algorithm for computing the eigenvalues and vectors.

Keywords: block implicit QR algorithm, preservation of a double structure, QR algorithm, symmetric and Hamiltonian structures

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279 On Projective Invariants of Spherically Symmetric Finsler Spaces in Rn

Authors: Nasrin Sadeghzadeh


In this paper we study projective invariants of spherically symmetric Finsler metrics in Rn. We find the necessary and sufficient conditions for the metrics to be Douglas and Generalized Douglas-Weyl (GDW) types. Also we show that two classes of GDW and Douglas spherically symmetric Finsler metrics coincide.

Keywords: spherically symmetric finsler metrics in Rn, finsler metrics, douglas metric, generalized Douglas-Weyl (GDW) metric

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278 SA-SPKC: Secure and Efficient Aggregation Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Stateful Public Key Cryptography

Authors: Merad Boudia Omar Rafik, Feham Mohammed


Data aggregation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) provides a great reduction of energy consumption. The limited resources of sensor nodes make the choice of an encryption algorithm very important for providing security for data aggregation. Asymmetric cryptography involves large ciphertexts and heavy computations but solves, on the other hand, the problem of key distribution of symmetric one. The latter provides smaller ciphertexts and speed computations. Also, the recent researches have shown that achieving the end-to-end confidentiality and the end-to-end integrity at the same is a challenging task. In this paper, we propose (SA-SPKC), a novel security protocol which addresses both security services for WSNs, and where only the base station can verify the individual data and identify the malicious node. Our scheme is based on stateful public key encryption (StPKE). The latter combines the best features of both kinds of encryption along with state in order to reduce the computation overhead. Our analysis

Keywords: secure data aggregation, wireless sensor networks, elliptic curve cryptography, homomorphic encryption

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277 Cryptography and Cryptosystem a Panacea to Security Risk in Wireless Networking

Authors: Modesta E. Ezema, Chikwendu V. Alabekee, Victoria N. Ishiwu, Ifeyinwa NwosuArize, Chinedu I. Nwoye


The advent of wireless networking in computing technology cannot be overemphasized, it opened up easy accessibility to information resources, networking made easier and brought internet accessibility to our doorsteps, but despite all these, some mishap came in with it that is causing mayhem in today ‘s overall information security. The cyber criminals will always compromise the integrity of a message that is not encrypted or that is encrypted with a weak algorithm.In other to correct the mayhem, this study focuses on cryptosystem and cryptography. This ensures end to end crypt messaging. The study of various cryptographic algorithms, as well as the techniques and applications of the cryptography for efficiency, were all considered in the work., present and future applications of cryptography were dealt with as well as Quantum Cryptography was exposed as the current and the future area in the development of cryptography. An empirical study was conducted to collect data from network users.

Keywords: algorithm, cryptography, cryptosystem, network

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276 A Proposed Mechanism for Skewing Symmetric Distributions

Authors: M. T. Alodat


In this paper, we propose a mechanism for skewing any symmetric distribution. The new distribution is called the deflation-inflation distribution (DID). We discuss some statistical properties of the DID such moments, stochastic representation, log-concavity. Also we fit the distribution to real data and we compare it to normal distribution and Azzlaini's skew normal distribution. Numerical results show that the DID fits the the tree ring data better than the other two distributions.

Keywords: normal distribution, moments, Fisher information, symmetric distributions

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275 Symmetric Key Encryption Algorithm Using Indian Traditional Musical Scale for Information Security

Authors: Aishwarya Talapuru, Sri Silpa Padmanabhuni, B. Jyoshna


Cryptography helps in preventing threats to information security by providing various algorithms. This study introduces a new symmetric key encryption algorithm for information security which is linked with the "raagas" which means Indian traditional scale and pattern of music notes. This algorithm takes the plain text as input and starts its encryption process. The algorithm then randomly selects a raaga from the list of raagas that is assumed to be present with both sender and the receiver. The plain text is associated with the thus selected raaga and an intermediate cipher-text is formed as the algorithm converts the plain text characters into other characters, depending upon the rules of the algorithm. This intermediate code or cipher text is arranged in various patterns in three different rounds of encryption performed. The total number of rounds in the algorithm is equal to the multiples of 3. To be more specific, the outcome or output of the sequence of first three rounds is again passed as the input to this sequence of rounds recursively, till the total number of rounds of encryption is performed. The raaga selected by the algorithm and the number of rounds performed will be specified at an arbitrary location in the key, in addition to important information regarding the rounds of encryption, embedded in the key which is known by the sender and interpreted only by the receiver, thereby making the algorithm hack proof. The key can be constructed of any number of bits without any restriction to the size. A software application is also developed to demonstrate this process of encryption, which dynamically takes the plain text as input and readily generates the cipher text as output. Therefore, this algorithm stands as one of the strongest tools for information security.

Keywords: cipher text, cryptography, plaintext, raaga

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274 Material Failure Process Simulation by Improved Finite Elements with Embedded Discontinuities

Authors: Gelacio Juárez-Luna, Gustavo Ayala, Jaime Retama-Velasco


This paper shows the advantages of the material failure process simulation by improve finite elements with embedded discontinuities, using a new definition of traction vector, dependent on the discontinuity length and the angle. Particularly, two families of this kind of elements are compared: kinematically optimal symmetric and statically and kinematically optimal non-symmetric. The constitutive model to describe the behavior of the material in the symmetric formulation is a traction-displacement jump relationship equipped with softening after reaching the failure surface. To show the validity of this symmetric formulation, representative numerical examples illustrating the performance of the proposed formulation are presented. It is shown that the non-symmetric family may over or underestimate the energy required to create a discontinuity, as this effect is related with the total length of the discontinuity, fact that is not noticed when the discontinuity path is a straight line.

Keywords: variational formulation, strong discontinuity, embedded discontinuities, strain localization

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273 A Study on Ideals and Prime Ideals of Sub-Distributive Semirings and Its Applications to Symmetric Fuzzy Numbers

Authors: Rosy Joseph


From an algebraic point of view, Semirings provide the most natural generalization of group theory and ring theory. In the absence of additive inverse in a semiring, one had to impose a weaker condition on the semiring, i.e., the additive cancellative law to study interesting structural properties. In many practical situations, fuzzy numbers are used to model imprecise observations derived from uncertain measurements or linguistic assessments. In this connection, a special class of fuzzy numbers whose shape is symmetric with respect to a vertical line called the symmetric fuzzy numbers i.e., for α ∈ (0, 1] the α − cuts will have a constant mid-point and the upper end of the interval will be a non-increasing function of α, the lower end will be the image of this function, is suitable. Based on this description, arithmetic operations and a ranking technique to order the symmetric fuzzy numbers were dealt with in detail. Wherein it was observed that the structure of the class of symmetric fuzzy numbers forms a commutative semigroup with cancellative property. Also, it forms a multiplicative monoid satisfying sub-distributive property.In this paper, we introduce the algebraic structure, sub-distributive semiring and discuss its various properties viz., ideals and prime ideals of sub-distributive semiring, sub-distributive ring of difference etc. in detail. Symmetric fuzzy numbers are visualized as an illustration.

Keywords: semirings, subdistributive ring of difference, subdistributive semiring, symmetric fuzzy numbers

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272 BigCrypt: A Probable Approach of Big Data Encryption to Protect Personal and Business Privacy

Authors: Abdullah Al Mamun, Talal Alkharobi


As data size is growing up, people are became more familiar to store big amount of secret information into cloud storage. Companies are always required to need transfer massive business files from one end to another. We are going to lose privacy if we transmit it as it is and continuing same scenario repeatedly without securing the communication mechanism means proper encryption. Although asymmetric key encryption solves the main problem of symmetric key encryption but it can only encrypt limited size of data which is inapplicable for large data encryption. In this paper we propose a probable approach of pretty good privacy for encrypt big data using both symmetric and asymmetric keys. Our goal is to achieve encrypt huge collection information and transmit it through a secure communication channel for committing the business and personal privacy. To justify our method an experimental dataset from three different platform is provided. We would like to show that our approach is working for massive size of various data efficiently and reliably.

Keywords: big data, cloud computing, cryptography, hadoop, public key

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271 Digital Watermarking Based on Visual Cryptography and Histogram

Authors: R. Rama Kishore, Sunesh


Nowadays, robust and secure watermarking algorithm and its optimization have been need of the hour. A watermarking algorithm is presented to achieve the copy right protection of the owner based on visual cryptography, histogram shape property and entropy. In this, both host image and watermark are preprocessed. Host image is preprocessed by using Butterworth filter, and watermark is with visual cryptography. Applying visual cryptography on water mark generates two shares. One share is used for embedding the watermark, and the other one is used for solving any dispute with the aid of trusted authority. Usage of histogram shape makes the process more robust against geometric and signal processing attacks. The combination of visual cryptography, Butterworth filter, histogram, and entropy can make the algorithm more robust, imperceptible, and copy right protection of the owner.

Keywords: digital watermarking, visual cryptography, histogram, butter worth filter

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270 Limiting Fracture Stress of Composite Ceramics with Symmetric Triangle Eutectic

Authors: Jian Zheng, Jinfeng Yu, Xinhua Ni


The limiting fracture stress predicting model of composite ceramics with symmetric triangle eutectic was established based on its special microscopic structure. The symmetric triangle eutectic is consisted of matrix, the strong constraint inter-phase and reinforced fiber inclusions which are 120 degrees uniform symmetrical distribution. Considering the conditions of the rupture of the cohesive bond between matrix and fibers in eutectic and the stress concentration effect at the fiber end, the intrinsic fracture stress of eutectic was obtained. Based on the biggest micro-damage strain in eutectic, defining the load function, the macro-damage fracture stress of symmetric triangle eutectic was determined by boundary conditions. Introducing the conception of critical zone, the theoretical limiting fracture stress forecasting model of composite ceramics was got, and the stress was related to the fiber size and fiber volume fraction in eutectic. The calculated results agreed with the experimental results in the literature.

Keywords: symmetric triangle eutectic, composite ceramics, limiting stress, intrinsic fracture stress

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269 Search for APN Permutations in Rings ℤ_2×ℤ_2^k

Authors: Daniel Panario, Daniel Santana de Freitas, Brett Stevens


Almost Perfect Nonlinear (APN) permutations with optimal resistance against differential cryptanalysis can be found in several domains. The permutation used in the standard for symmetric cryptography (the AES), for example, is based on a special kind of inversion in GF(28). Although very close to APN (2-uniform), this permutation still contains one number 4 in its differential spectrum, which means that, rigorously, it must be classified as 4-uniform. This fact motivates the search for fully APN permutations in other domains of definition. The extremely high complexity associated to this kind of problem precludes an exhaustive search for an APN permutation with 256 elements to be performed without the support of a suitable mathematical structure. On the other hand, in principle, there is nothing to indicate which mathematically structured domains can effectively help the search, and it is necessary to test several domains. In this work, the search for APN permutations in rings ℤ2×ℤ2k is investigated. After a full, exhaustive search with k=2 and k=3, all possible APN permutations in those rings were recorded, together with their differential profiles. Some very promising heuristics in these cases were collected so that, when used as a basis to prune backtracking for the same search in ℤ2×ℤ8 (search space with size 16! ≅244), just a few tenths of a second were enough to produce an APN permutation in a single CPU. Those heuristics were empirically extrapolated so that they could be applied to a backtracking search for APNs over ℤ2×ℤ16 (search space with size 32! ≅2117). The best permutations found in this search were further refined through Simulated Annealing, with a definition of neighbors suitable to this domain. The best result produced with this scheme was a 3-uniform permutation over ℤ2×ℤ16 with only 24 values equal to 3 in the differential spectrum (all the other 968 values were less than or equal 2, as it should be the case for an APN permutation). Although far from being fully APN, this result is technically better than a 4-uniform permutation and demanded only a few seconds in a single CPU. This is a strong indication that the use of mathematically structured domains, like the rings described in this work, together with heuristics based on smaller cases, can lead to dramatic cuts in the computational resources involved in the complexity of the search for APN permutations in extremely large domains.

Keywords: APN permutations, heuristic searches, symmetric cryptography, S-box design

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268 Evolutionary Methods in Cryptography

Authors: Wafa Slaibi Alsharafat


Genetic algorithms (GA) are random algorithms as random numbers that are generated during the operation of the algorithm determine what happens. This means that if GA is applied twice to optimize exactly the same problem it might produces two different answers. In this project, we propose an evolutionary algorithm and Genetic Algorithm (GA) to be implemented in symmetric encryption and decryption. Here, user's message and user secret information (key) which represent plain text to be transferred into cipher text.

Keywords: GA, encryption, decryption, crossover

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267 Non-Differentiable Mond-Weir Type Symmetric Duality under Generalized Invexity

Authors: Jai Prakash Verma, Khushboo Verma


In the present paper, a pair of Mond-Weir type non-differentiable multiobjective second-order programming problems, involving two kernel functions, where each of the objective functions contains support function, is formulated. We prove weak, strong and converse duality theorem for the second-order symmetric dual programs under η-pseudoinvexity conditions.

Keywords: non-differentiable multiobjective programming, second-order symmetric duality, efficiency, support function, eta-pseudoinvexity

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266 A New Block Cipher for Resource-Constrained Internet of Things Devices

Authors: Muhammad Rana, Quazi Mamun, Rafiqul Islam


In the Internet of Things (IoT), many devices are connected and accumulate a sheer amount of data. These Internet-driven raw data need to be transferred securely to the end-users via dependable networks. Consequently, the challenges of IoT security in various IoT domains are paramount. Cryptography is being applied to secure the networks for authentication, confidentiality, data integrity and access control. However, due to the resource constraint properties of IoT devices, the conventional cipher may not be suitable in all IoT networks. This paper designs a robust and effective lightweight cipher to secure the IoT environment and meet the resource-constrained nature of IoT devices. We also propose a symmetric and block-cipher based lightweight cryptographic algorithm. The proposed algorithm increases the complexity of the block cipher, maintaining the lowest computational requirements possible. The proposed algorithm efficiently constructs the key register updating technique, reduces the number of encryption rounds, and adds a new layer between the encryption and decryption processes.

Keywords: internet of things, cryptography block cipher, S-box, key management, security, network

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265 VANETs: Security Challenges and Future Directions

Authors: Jared Oluoch


Connected vehicles are equipped with wireless sensors that aid in Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) communication. These vehicles will in the near future provide road safety, improve transport efficiency, and reduce traffic congestion. One of the challenges for connected vehicles is how to ensure that information sent across the network is secure. If security of the network is not guaranteed, several attacks can occur, thereby compromising the robustness, reliability, and efficiency of the network. This paper discusses existing security mechanisms and unique properties of connected vehicles. The methodology employed in this work is exploratory. The paper reviews existing security solutions for connected vehicles. More concretely, it discusses various cryptographic mechanisms available, and suggests areas of improvement. The study proposes a combination of symmetric key encryption and public key cryptography to improve security. The study further proposes message aggregation as a technique to overcome message redundancy. This paper offers a comprehensive overview of connected vehicles technology, its applications, its security mechanisms, open challenges, and potential areas of future research.

Keywords: VANET, connected vehicles, 802.11p, WAVE, DSRC, trust, security, cryptography

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264 Flexural Analysis of Symmetric Laminated Composite Timoshenko Beams under Harmonic Forces: An Analytical Solution

Authors: Mohammed Ali Hjaji, A.K. El-Senussi, Said H. Eshtewi


The flexural dynamic response of symmetric laminated composite beams subjected to general transverse harmonic forces is investigated. The dynamic equations of motion and associated boundary conditions based on the first order shear deformation are derived through the use of Hamilton’s principle. The influences of shear deformation, rotary inertia, Poisson’s ratio and fibre orientation are incorporated in the present formulation. The resulting governing flexural equations for symmetric composite Timoshenko beams are exactly solved and the closed form solutions for steady state flexural response are then obtained for cantilever and simply supported boundary conditions. The applicability of the analytical closed-form solution is demonstrated via several examples with various transverse harmonic loads and symmetric cross-ply and angle-ply laminates. Results based on the present solution are assessed and validated against other well established finite element solutions and exact solutions available in the literature.

Keywords: analytical solution, flexural response, harmonic forces, symmetric laminated beams, steady state response

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263 Cryptography Based Authentication Methods

Authors: Mohammad A. Alia, Abdelfatah Aref Tamimi, Omaima N. A. Al-Allaf


This paper reviews a comparison study on the most common used authentication methods. Some of these methods are actually based on cryptography. In this study, we show the main cryptographic services. Also, this study presents a specific discussion about authentication service, since the authentication service is classified into several categorizes according to their methods. However, this study gives more about the real life example for each of the authentication methods. It talks about the simplest authentication methods as well about the available biometric authentication methods such as voice, iris, fingerprint, and face authentication.

Keywords: information security, cryptography, system access control, authentication, network security

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262 Secure E-Pay System Using Steganography and Visual Cryptography

Authors: K. Suganya Devi, P. Srinivasan, M. P. Vaishnave, G. Arutperumjothi


Today’s internet world is highly prone to various online attacks, of which the most harmful attack is phishing. The attackers host the fake websites which are very similar and look alike. We propose an image based authentication using steganography and visual cryptography to prevent phishing. This paper presents a secure steganographic technique for true color (RGB) images and uses Discrete Cosine Transform to compress the images. The proposed method hides the secret data inside the cover image. The use of visual cryptography is to preserve the privacy of an image by decomposing the original image into two shares. Original image can be identified only when both qualified shares are simultaneously available. Individual share does not reveal the identity of the original image. Thus, the existence of the secret message is hard to be detected by the RS steganalysis.

Keywords: image security, random LSB, steganography, visual cryptography

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261 Digital Watermarking Using Fractional Transform and (k,n) Halftone Visual Cryptography (HVC)

Authors: R. Rama Kishore, Sunesh Malik


Development in the usage of internet for different purposes in recent times creates great threat for the copy right protection of the digital images. Digital watermarking is the best way to rescue from the said problem. This paper presents detailed review of the different watermarking techniques, latest trends in the field and categorized like spatial and transform domain, blind and non-blind methods, visible and non visible techniques etc. It also discusses the different optimization techniques used in the field of watermarking in order to improve the robustness and imperceptibility of the method. Different measures are discussed to evaluate the performance of the watermarking algorithm. At the end, this paper proposes a watermarking algorithm using (k.n) shares of halftone visual cryptography (HVC) instead of (2, 2) share cryptography. (k,n) shares visual cryptography improves the security of the watermark. As halftone is a method of reprographic, it helps in improving the visual quality of watermark image. The proposed method uses fractional transformation to improve the robustness of the copyright protection of the method.

Keywords: digital watermarking, fractional transform, halftone, visual cryptography

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260 A Watermarking Signature Scheme with Hidden Watermarks and Constraint Functions in the Symmetric Key Setting

Authors: Yanmin Zhao, Siu Ming Yiu


To claim the ownership for an executable program is a non-trivial task. An emerging direction is to add a watermark to the program such that the watermarked program preserves the original program’s functionality and removing the watermark would heavily destroy the functionality of the watermarked program. In this paper, the first watermarking signature scheme with the watermark and the constraint function hidden in the symmetric key setting is constructed. The scheme uses well-known techniques of lattice trapdoors and a lattice evaluation. The watermarking signature scheme is unforgeable under the Short Integer Solution (SIS) assumption and satisfies other security requirements such as the unremovability security property.

Keywords: short integer solution (SIS) problem, symmetric-key setting, watermarking schemes, watermarked signatures

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259 A Review Of Blended Wing Body And Slender Delta Wing Performance Utilizing Experimental Techniques And Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Abhiyan Paudel, Maheshwaran M Pillai


This paper deals with the optimization and comparison of slender delta wing and blended wing body. The objective is to study the difference between the two wing types and analyze the various aerodynamic characteristics of both of these types.The blended-wing body is an aircraft configuration that has the potential to be more efficient than conventional large transport aircraft configurations with the same capability. The purported advantages of the BWB approach are efficient high-lift wings and a wide airfoil-shaped body. Similarly, symmetric separation vortices over slender delta wing may become asymmetric as the angle of attack is increased beyond a certain value, causing asymmetric forces even at symmetric flight conditions. The transition of the vortex pattern from being symmetric to asymmetric over symmetric bodies under symmetric flow conditions is a fascinating fluid dynamics problem and of major importance for the performance and control of high-maneuverability flight vehicles that favor the use of slender bodies. With the use of Star CCM, we analyze both the fluid properties. The CL, CD and CM were investigated in steady state CFD of BWB at Mach 0.3 and through wind tunnel experiments on 1/6th model of BWB at Mach 0.1. From CFD analysis pressure variation, Mach number contours and turbulence area was observed.

Keywords: Coefficient of Lift, Coefficient of Drag, CFD=Computational Fluid Dynamics, BWB=Blended Wing Body, slender delta wing

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258 1D Klein-Gordon Equation in an Infinite Square Well with PT Symmetry Boundary Conditions

Authors: Suleiman Bashir Adamu, Lawan Sani Taura


We study the role of boundary conditions via -symmetric quantum mechanics, where denotes parity operator and denotes time reversal operator. Using the one-dimensional Schrödinger Hamiltonian for a free particle in an infinite square well, we introduce symmetric boundary conditions. We find solutions of the 1D Klein-Gordon equation for a free particle in an infinite square well with Hermitian boundary and symmetry boundary conditions, where in both cases the energy eigenvalues and eigenfunction, respectively, are obtained.

Keywords: Eigenvalues, Eigenfunction, Hamiltonian, Klein- Gordon equation, PT-symmetric quantum mechanics

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257 Secure Optical Communication System Using Quantum Cryptography

Authors: Ehab AbdulRazzaq Hussein


Quantum cryptography (QC) is an emerging technology for secure key distribution with single-photon transmissions. In contrast to classical cryptographic schemes, the security of QC schemes is guaranteed by the fundamental laws of nature. Their security stems from the impossibility to distinguish non-orthogonal quantum states with certainty. A potential eavesdropper introduces errors in the transmissions, which can later be discovered by the legitimate participants of the communication. In this paper, the modeling approach is proposed for QC protocol BB84 using polarization coding. The single-photon system is assumed to be used in the designed models. Thus, Eve cannot use beam-splitting strategy to eavesdrop on the quantum channel transmission. The only eavesdropping strategy possible to Eve is the intercept/resend strategy. After quantum transmission of the QC protocol, the quantum bit error rate (QBER) is estimated and compared with a threshold value. If it is above this value the procedure must be stopped and performed later again.

Keywords: security, key distribution, cryptography, quantum protocols, Quantum Cryptography (QC), Quantum Key Distribution (QKD).

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256 Improved of Elliptic Curves Cryptography over a Ring

Authors: Abdelhakim Chillali, Abdelhamid Tadmori, Muhammed Ziane


In this article we will study the elliptic curve defined over the ring An and we define the mathematical operations of ECC, which provides a high security and advantage for wireless applications compared to other asymmetric key cryptosystem.

Keywords: elliptic curves, finite ring, cryptography, study

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255 Tamper Resistance Evaluation Tests with Noise Resources

Authors: Masaya Yoshikawa, Toshiya Asai, Ryoma Matsuhisa, Yusuke Nozaki, Kensaku Asahi


Recently, side-channel attacks, which estimate secret keys using side-channel information such as power consumption and compromising emanations of cryptography circuits embedded in hardware, have become a serious problem. In particular, electromagnetic analysis attacks against cryptographic circuits between information processing and electromagnetic fields, which are related to secret keys in cryptography circuits, are the most threatening side-channel attacks. Therefore, it is important to evaluate tamper resistance against electromagnetic analysis attacks for cryptography circuits. The present study performs basic examination of the tamper resistance of cryptography circuits using electromagnetic analysis attacks with noise resources.

Keywords: tamper resistance, cryptographic circuit, hardware security evaluation, noise resources

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254 Study of Anti-Symmetric Flexural Mode Propagation along Wedge Tip with a Crack

Authors: Manikanta Prasad Banda, Che Hua Yang


Anti-symmetric wave propagation along the particle motion of the wedge waves is known as anti-symmetric flexural (ASF) modes which travel along the wedge tips of the mid-plane apex with a small truncation. This paper investigates the characteristics of the ASF modes propagation with the wedge tip crack. The simulation and experimental results obtained by a three-dimensional (3-D) finite element model explained the contact acoustic non-linear (CAN) behavior in explicit dynamics in ABAQUS and the ultrasonic non-destructive testing (NDT) method is used for defect detection. The effect of various parameters on its high and low-level conversion modes are known for complex reflections and transmissions involved with direct reflections and transmissions. The results are used to predict the location of crack through complex transmission and reflection coefficients.

Keywords: ASF mode, crack detection, finite elements method, laser ultrasound technique, wedge waves

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