Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7586

Search results for: packet transmission rate

7586 Research on ARQ Transmission Technique in Mars Detection Telecommunications System

Authors: Zhongfei Cai, Hui He, Changsheng Li


This paper studied in the automatic repeat request (ARQ) transmission technique in Mars detection telecommunications system. An ARQ method applied to proximity-1 space link protocol was proposed by this paper. In order to ensure the efficiency of data reliable transmission, this ARQ method combined these different ARQ maneuvers characteristics. Considering the Mars detection communication environments, this paper analyzed the characteristics of the saturation throughput rate, packet dropping probability, average delay and energy efficiency with different ARQ algorithms. Combined thus results with the theories of ARQ transmission technique, an ARQ transmission project in Mars detection telecommunications system was established. The simulation results showed that this algorithm had excellent saturation throughput rate and energy efficiency with low complexity.

Keywords: ARQ, mars, CCSDS, proximity-1, deepspace

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7585 Avoiding Packet Drop for Improved through Put in the Multi-Hop Wireless N/W

Authors: Manish Kumar Rajak, Sanjay Gupta


Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are infrastructure less and intercommunicate using single-hop and multi-hop paths. Network based congestion avoidance which involves managing the queues in the network devices is an integral part of any network. QoS: A set of service requirements that are met by the network while transferring a packet stream from a source to a destination. Especially in MANETs, packet loss results in increased overheads. This paper presents a new algorithm to avoid congestion using one or more queue on nodes and corresponding flow rate decided in advance for each node. When any node attains an initial value of queue then it sends this status to its downstream nodes which in turn uses the pre-decided flow rate of packet transfer to its upstream nodes. The flow rate on each node is adjusted according to the status received from its upstream nodes. This proposed algorithm uses the existing infrastructure to inform to other nodes about its current queue status.

Keywords: mesh networks, MANET, packet count, threshold, throughput

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7584 Multi-Level Clustering Based Congestion Control Protocol for Cyber Physical Systems

Authors: Manpreet Kaur, Amita Rani, Sanjay Kumar


The Internet of Things (IoT), a cyber-physical paradigm, allows a large number of devices to connect and send the sensory data in the network simultaneously. This tremendous amount of data generated leads to very high network load consequently resulting in network congestion. It further amounts to frequent loss of useful information and depletion of significant amount of nodes’ energy. Therefore, there is a need to control congestion in IoT so as to prolong network lifetime and improve the quality of service (QoS). Hence, we propose a two-level clustering based routing algorithm considering congestion score and packet priority metrics that focus on minimizing the network congestion. In the proposed Priority based Congestion Control (PBCC) protocol the sensor nodes in IoT network form clusters that reduces the amount of traffic and the nodes are prioritized to emphasize important data. Simultaneously, a congestion score determines the occurrence of congestion at a particular node. The proposed protocol outperforms the existing Packet Discard Network Clustering (PDNC) protocol in terms of buffer size, packet transmission range, network region and number of nodes, under various simulation scenarios.

Keywords: internet of things, cyber-physical systems, congestion control, priority, transmission rate

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7583 An Enhanced Hybrid Backoff Technique for Minimizing the Occurrence of Collision in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: N. Sabiyath Fatima, R. K. Shanmugasundaram


In Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETS), every node performs both as transmitter and receiver. The existing backoff models do not exactly forecast the performance of the wireless network. Also, the existing models experience elevated packet collisions. Every time a collision happens, the station’s contention window (CW) is doubled till it arrives at the utmost value. The main objective of this paper is to diminish collision by means of contention window Multiplicative Increase Decrease Backoff (CWMIDB) scheme. The intention of rising CW is to shrink the collision possibility by distributing the traffic into an outsized point in time. Within wireless Ad hoc networks, the CWMIDB algorithm dynamically controls the contention window of the nodes experiencing collisions. During packet communication, the backoff counter is evenly selected from the given choice of [0, CW-1]. At this point, CW is recognized as contention window and its significance lies on the amount of unsuccessful transmission that had happened for the packet. On the initial transmission endeavour, CW is put to least amount value (C min), if transmission effort fails, subsequently the value gets doubled, and once more the value is set to least amount on victorious broadcast. CWMIDB is simulated inside NS2 environment and its performance is compared with Binary Exponential Backoff Algorithm. The simulation results show improvement in transmission probability compared to that of the existing backoff algorithm.

Keywords: backoff, contention window, CWMIDB, MANET

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7582 An Improved Transmission Scheme in Cooperative Communication System

Authors: Seung-Jun Yu, Young-Min Ko, Hyoung-Kyu Song


Recently developed cooperative diversity scheme enables a terminal to get transmit diversity through the support of other terminals. However, most of the introduced cooperative schemes have a common fault of decreased transmission rate because the destination should receive the decodable compositions of symbols from the source and the relay. In order to achieve high data rate, we propose a cooperative scheme that employs hierarchical modulation. This scheme is free from the rate loss and allows seamless cooperative communication.

Keywords: cooperative communication, hierarchical modulation, high data rate, transmission scheme

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7581 Relay Node Selection Algorithm for Cooperative Communications in Wireless Networks

Authors: Sunmyeng Kim


IEEE 802.11a/b/g standards support multiple transmission rates. Even though the use of multiple transmission rates increase the WLAN capacity, this feature leads to the performance anomaly problem. Cooperative communication was introduced to relieve the performance anomaly problem. Data packets are delivered to the destination much faster through a relay node with high rate than through direct transmission to the destination at low rate. In the legacy cooperative protocols, a source node chooses a relay node only based on the transmission rate. Therefore, they are not so feasible in multi-flow environments since they do not consider the effect of other flows. To alleviate the effect, we propose a new relay node selection algorithm based on the transmission rate and channel contention level. Performance evaluation is conducted using simulation, and shows that the proposed protocol significantly outperforms the previous protocol in terms of throughput and delay.

Keywords: cooperative communications, MAC protocol, relay node, WLAN

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7580 Changing Arbitrary Data Transmission Period by Using Bluetooth Module on Gas Sensor Node of Arduino Board

Authors: Hiesik Kim, Yong-Beom Kim, Jaheon Gu


Internet of Things (IoT) applications are widely serviced and spread worldwide. Local wireless data transmission technique must be developed to rate up with some technique. Bluetooth wireless data communication is wireless technique is technique made by Special Inter Group (SIG) using the frequency range 2.4 GHz, and it is exploiting Frequency Hopping to avoid collision with a different device. To implement experiment, equipment for experiment transmitting measured data is made by using Arduino as open source hardware, gas sensor, and Bluetooth module and algorithm controlling transmission rate is demonstrated. Experiment controlling transmission rate also is progressed by developing Android application receiving measured data, and controlling this rate is available at the experiment result. It is important that in the future, improvement for communication algorithm be needed because a few error occurs when data is transferred or received.

Keywords: Arduino, Bluetooth, gas sensor, IoT, transmission

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7579 An Improved Cooperative Communication Scheme for IoT System

Authors: Eui-Hak Lee, Jae-Hyun Ro, Hyoung-Kyu Song


In internet of things (IoT) system, the communication scheme with reliability and low power is required to connect a terminal. Cooperative communication can achieve reliability and lower power than multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system. Cooperative communication increases the reliability with low power, but decreases a throughput. It has a weak point that the communication throughput is decreased. In this paper, a novel scheme is proposed to increase the communication throughput. The novel scheme is a transmission structure that increases transmission rate. And a decoding scheme according to the novel transmission structure is proposed. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme increases the throughput without bit error rate (BER) performance degradation.

Keywords: cooperative communication, IoT, STBC, transmission rate

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7578 Performance Analysis and Energy Consumption of Routing Protocol in Manet Using Grid Topology

Authors: Vivek Kumar Singh, Tripti Singh


An ad hoc wireless network consists of mobile networks which creates an underlying architecture for communication without the help of traditional fixed-position routers. Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) is a routing protocol used for Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET). Nevertheless, the architecture must maintain communication routes although the hosts are mobile and they have limited transmission range. There are different protocols for handling the routing in the mobile environment. Routing protocols used in fixed infrastructure networks cannot be efficiently used for mobile ad-hoc networks, so that MANET requires different protocols. This paper presents the performance analysis of the routing protocols used various parameter-patterns with Two-ray model.

Keywords: AODV, packet transmission rate, pause time, ZRP, QualNet 6.1

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7577 Data Rate Based Grouping Scheme for Cooperative Communications in Wireless LANs

Authors: Sunmyeng Kim


IEEE 802.11a/b/g standards provide multiple transmission rates, which can be changed dynamically according to the channel condition.Cooperative communications we reintroduced to improve the overallperformance of wireless LANs with the help of relay nodes with higher transmission rates. The cooperative communications are based on the fact that the transmission is much faster when sending data packets to a destination node through a relay node with higher transmission rate, rather than sending data directly to the destination node at low transmission rate. To apply the cooperative communications in wireless LAN, several MAC protocols have been proposed. Some of them can result in collisions among relay nodes in a dense network. In order to solve this problem, we propose a new protocol. Relay nodes are grouped based on their transmission rates. And then, relay nodes only in the highest group try to get channel access. Performance evaluation is conducted using simulation, and shows that the proposed protocol significantly outperforms the previous protocol in terms of throughput and collision probability.

Keywords: cooperative communications, MAC protocol, relay node, WLAN

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7576 A Packet Loss Probability Estimation Filter Using Most Recent Finite Traffic Measurements

Authors: Pyung Soo Kim, Eung Hyuk Lee, Mun Suck Jang


A packet loss probability (PLP) estimation filter with finite memory structure is proposed to estimate the packet rate mean and variance of the input traffic process in real-time while removing undesired system and measurement noises. The proposed PLP estimation filter is developed under a weighted least square criterion using only the finite traffic measurements on the most recent window. The proposed PLP estimation filter is shown to have several inherent properties such as unbiasedness, deadbeat, robustness. A guideline for choosing appropriate window length is described since it can affect significantly the estimation performance. Using computer simulations, the proposed PLP estimation filter is shown to be superior to the Kalman filter for the temporarily uncertain system. One possible explanation for this is that the proposed PLP estimation filter can have greater convergence time of a filtered estimate as the window length M decreases.

Keywords: packet loss probability estimation, finite memory filter, infinite memory filter, Kalman filter

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7575 Improved Performance Scheme for Joint Transmission in Downlink Coordinated Multi-Point Transmission

Authors: Young-Su Ryu, Su-Hyun Jung, Myoung-Jin Kim, Hyoung-Kyu Song


In this paper, improved performance scheme for joint transmission is proposed in downlink (DL) coordinated multi-point(CoMP) in case of constraint transmission power. This scheme is that serving transmission point (TP) request a joint transmission to inter-TP and selects one pre-coding technique according to channel state information(CSI) from user equipment(UE). The simulation results show that the bit error rate(BER) and throughput performances of the proposed scheme provide high spectral efficiency and reliable data at the cell edge.

Keywords: CoMP, joint transmission, minimum mean square error, zero-forcing, zero-forcing dirty paper coding

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7574 Enhancing Throughput for Wireless Multihop Networks

Authors: K. Kalaiarasan, B. Pandeeswari, A. Arockia John Francis


Wireless, Multi-hop networks consist of one or more intermediate nodes along the path that receive and forward packets via wireless links. The backpressure algorithm provides throughput optimal routing and scheduling decisions for multi-hop networks with dynamic traffic. Xpress, a cross-layer backpressure architecture was designed to reach the capacity of wireless multi-hop networks and it provides well coordination between layers of network by turning a mesh network into a wireless switch. Transmission over the network is scheduled using a throughput-optimal backpressure algorithm. But this architecture operates much below their capacity due to out-of-order packet delivery and variable packet size. In this paper, we present Xpress-T, a throughput optimal backpressure architecture with TCP support designed to reach maximum throughput of wireless multi-hop networks. Xpress-T operates at the IP layer, and therefore any transport protocol, including TCP, can run on top of Xpress-T. The proposed design not only avoids bottlenecks but also handles out-of-order packet delivery and variable packet size, optimally load-balances traffic across them when needed, improving fairness among competing flows. Our simulation results shows that Xpress-T gives 65% more throughput than Xpress.

Keywords: backpressure scheduling and routing, TCP, congestion control, wireless multihop network

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7573 Performance Evaluation of an Efficient Asynchronous Protocol for WDM Ring MANs

Authors: Baziana Peristera


The idea of the asynchronous transmission in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) ring MANs is studied in this paper. Especially, we present an efficient access technique to coordinate the collisions-free transmission of the variable sizes of IP traffic in WDM ring core networks. Each node is equipped with a tunable transmitter and a tunable receiver. In this way, all the wavelengths are exploited for both transmission and reception. In order to evaluate the performance measures of average throughput, queuing delay and packet dropping probability at the buffers, a simulation model that assumes symmetric access rights among the nodes is developed based on Poisson statistics. Extensive numerical results show that the proposed protocol achieves apart from high bandwidth exploitation for a wide range of offered load, fairness of queuing delay and dropping events among the different packets size categories.

Keywords: asynchronous transmission, collision avoidance, wavelength division multiplexing, WDM

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7572 Signaling Using Phase Shifting in Wi-Fi Backscatter System

Authors: Chang-Bin Ha, Young-Min Ko, Seongjoo Lee, Hyoung-Kyu Song


In this paper, the signaling scheme using phase shifting is proposed for the improved performance of the Wi-Fi backscatter system. Because the communication in the Wi-Fi backscatter system is based on on-off modulation and impedance modulation by unit of packet, the data rate is very low compared to the conventional wireless systems. Also, because the Wi-Fi backscatter system is based on the RF-powered device, the achievement of high reliability is difficult. In order to increase the low data rate, the proposed scheme transmits information of multiple bits during one packet period. Also, in order to increase the reliability, the proposed scheme shifts the phase of signal in according to the transmitting information. The simulation result shows that the proposed scheme has the improved throughput performance.

Keywords: phase shifting, RF-powered device, Wi-Fi backscatter system, IoT

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7571 Multi-Focus Image Fusion Using SFM and Wavelet Packet

Authors: Somkait Udomhunsakul


In this paper, a multi-focus image fusion method using Spatial Frequency Measurements (SFM) and Wavelet Packet was proposed. The proposed fusion approach, firstly, the two fused images were transformed and decomposed into sixteen subbands using Wavelet packet. Next, each subband was partitioned into sub-blocks and each block was identified the clearer regions by using the Spatial Frequency Measurement (SFM). Finally, the recovered fused image was reconstructed by performing the Inverse Wavelet Transform. From the experimental results, it was found that the proposed method outperformed the traditional SFM based methods in terms of objective and subjective assessments.

Keywords: multi-focus image fusion, wavelet packet, spatial frequency measurement

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7570 Performance Analysis of Multichannel OCDMA-FSO Network under Different Pervasive Conditions

Authors: Saru Arora, Anurag Sharma, Harsukhpreet Singh


To meet the growing need of high data rate and bandwidth, various efforts has been made nowadays for the efficient communication systems. Optical Code Division Multiple Access over Free space optics communication system seems an effective role for providing transmission at high data rate with low bit error rate and low amount of multiple access interference. This paper demonstrates the OCDMA over FSO communication system up to the range of 7000 m at a data rate of 5 Gbps. Initially, the 8 user OCDMA-FSO system is simulated and pseudo orthogonal codes are used for encoding. Also, the simulative analysis of various performance parameters like power and core effective area that are having an effect on the Bit error rate (BER) of the system is carried out. The simulative analysis reveals that the length of the transmission is limited by the multi-access interference (MAI) effect which arises when the number of users increases in the system.

Keywords: FSO, PSO, bit error rate (BER), opti system simulation, multiple access interference (MAI), q-factor

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7569 Analysis of Interleaving Scheme for Narrowband VoIP System under Pervasive Environment

Authors: Monica Sharma, Harjit Pal Singh, Jasbinder Singh, Manju Bala


In Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) system, the speech signal is degraded when passed through the network layers. The speech signal is processed through the best effort policy based IP network, which leads to the network degradations including delay, packet loss and jitter. The packet loss is the major issue of the degradation in the VoIP signal quality; even a single lost packet may generate audible distortion in the decoded speech signal. In addition to these network degradations, the quality of the speech signal is also affected by the environmental noises and coder distortions. The signal quality of the VoIP system is improved through the interleaving technique. The performance of the system is evaluated for various types of noises at different network conditions. The performance of the enhanced VoIP signal is evaluated using perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ) measurement for narrow band signal.

Keywords: VoIP, interleaving, packet loss, packet size, background noise

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7568 Airy Wave Packet for a Particle in a Time-Dependant Linear Potential

Authors: M. Berrehail, F. Benamira


We study the quantum motion of a particle in the presence of a time- dependent linear potential using an operator invariant that is quadratic in p and linear in q within the framework of the Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant, The special invariant operator proposed in this work is demonstrated to be an Hermitian operator which has an Airy wave packet as its Eigenfunction

Keywords: airy wave packet, ivariant, time-dependent linear potential, unitary transformation

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7567 IEEE802.15.4e Based Scheduling Mechanisms and Systems for Industrial Internet of Things

Authors: Ho-Ting Wu, Kai-Wei Ke, Bo-Yu Huang, Liang-Lin Yan, Chun-Ting Lin


With the advances in advanced technology, wireless sensor network (WSN) has become one of the most promising candidates to implement the wireless industrial internet of things (IIOT) architecture. However, the legacy IEEE 802.15.4 based WSN technology such as Zigbee system cannot meet the stringent QoS requirement of low powered, real-time, and highly reliable transmission imposed by the IIOT environment. Recently, the IEEE society developed IEEE 802.15.4e Time Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) access mode to serve this purpose. Furthermore, the IETF 6TiSCH working group has proposed standards to integrate IEEE 802.15.4e with IPv6 protocol smoothly to form a complete protocol stack for IIOT. In this work, we develop key network technologies for IEEE 802.15.4e based wireless IIoT architecture, focusing on practical design and system implementation. We realize the OpenWSN-based wireless IIOT system. The system architecture is divided into three main parts: web server, network manager, and sensor nodes. The web server provides user interface, allowing the user to view the status of sensor nodes and instruct sensor nodes to follow commands via user-friendly browser. The network manager is responsible for the establishment, maintenance, and management of scheduling and topology information. It executes centralized scheduling algorithm, sends the scheduling table to each node, as well as manages the sensing tasks of each device. Sensor nodes complete the assigned tasks and sends the sensed data. Furthermore, to prevent scheduling error due to packet loss, a schedule inspection mechanism is implemented to verify the correctness of the schedule table. In addition, when network topology changes, the system will act to generate a new schedule table based on the changed topology for ensuring the proper operation of the system. To enhance the system performance of such system, we further propose dynamic bandwidth allocation and distributed scheduling mechanisms. The developed distributed scheduling mechanism enables each individual sensor node to build, maintain and manage the dedicated link bandwidth with its parent and children nodes based on locally observed information by exchanging the Add/Delete commands via two processes. The first process, termed as the schedule initialization process, allows each sensor node pair to identify the available idle slots to allocate the basic dedicated transmission bandwidth. The second process, termed as the schedule adjustment process, enables each sensor node pair to adjust their allocated bandwidth dynamically according to the measured traffic loading. Such technology can sufficiently satisfy the dynamic bandwidth requirement in the frequently changing environments. Last but not least, we propose a packet retransmission scheme to enhance the system performance of the centralized scheduling algorithm when the packet delivery rate (PDR) is low. We propose a multi-frame retransmission mechanism to allow every single network node to resend each packet for at least the predefined number of times. The multi frame architecture is built according to the number of layers of the network topology. Performance results via simulation reveal that such retransmission scheme is able to provide sufficient high transmission reliability while maintaining low packet transmission latency. Therefore, the QoS requirement of IIoT can be achieved.

Keywords: IEEE 802.15.4e, industrial internet of things (IIOT), scheduling mechanisms, wireless sensor networks (WSN)

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7566 A Study on Using Network Coding for Packet Transmissions in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Rei-Heng Cheng, Wen-Pinn Fang


A wireless sensor network (WSN) is composed by a large number of sensors and one or a few base stations, where the sensor is responsible for detecting specific event information, which is sent back to the base station(s). However, how to save electricity consumption to extend the network lifetime is a problem that cannot be ignored in the wireless sensor networks. Since the sensor network is used to monitor a region or specific events, how the information can be reliably sent back to the base station is surly important. Network coding technique is often used to enhance the reliability of the network transmission. When a node needs to send out M data packets, it encodes these data with redundant data and sends out totally M + R packets. If the receiver can get any M packets out from these M + R packets, it can decode and get the original M data packets. To transmit redundant packets will certainly result in the excess energy consumption. This paper will explore relationship between the quality of wireless transmission and the number of redundant packets. Hopefully, each sensor can overhear the nearby transmissions, learn the wireless transmission quality around it, and dynamically determine the number of redundant packets used in network coding.

Keywords: energy consumption, network coding, transmission reliability, wireless sensor networks

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7565 Resource Allocation Scheme For IEEE802.16 Networks

Authors: Elmabruk Laias


IEEE Standard 802.16 provides QoS (Quality of Service) for the applications such as Voice over IP, video streaming and high bandwidth file transfer. With the ability of broadband wireless access of an IEEE 802.16 system, a WiMAX TDD frame contains one downlink subframe and one uplink subframe. The capacity allocated to each subframe is a system parameter that should be determined based on the expected traffic conditions. a proper resource allocation scheme for packet transmissions is imperatively needed. In this paper, we present a new resource allocation scheme, called additional bandwidth yielding (ABY), to improve transmission efficiency of an IEEE 802.16-based network. Our proposed scheme can be adopted along with the existing scheduling algorithms and the multi-priority scheme without any change. The experimental results show that by using our ABY, the packet queuing delay could be significantly improved, especially for the service flows of higher-priority classes.

Keywords: IEEE 802.16, WiMAX, OFDMA, resource allocation, uplink-downlink mapping

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7564 A Secure Routing Algorithm for ‎Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Seyed Mahdi Jameii


Underwater wireless sensor networks have been attracting the interest of many ‎researchers lately, and the past three decades have beheld the rapid progress of ‎underwater acoustic communication. One of the major problems in underwater wireless ‎sensor networks is how to transfer data from the moving node to the base stations and ‎choose the optimized route for data transmission. Secure routing in underwater ‎wireless sensor network (UWCNs) is necessary for packet delivery. Some routing ‎protocols are proposed for underwater wireless sensor networks. However, a few ‎researches have been done on secure routing in underwater sensor networks. In this ‎article, a secure routing protocol is provided to resist against wormhole and sybil ‎attacks. The results indicated acceptable performance in terms of increasing the packet ‎delivery ratio with regards to the attacks, increasing network lifetime by creating ‎balance in the network energy consumption, high detection rates against the attacks, ‎and low-end to end delay.‎

Keywords: attacks, routing, security, underwater wireless sensor networks

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7563 Analysis of the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Parameters to Achive Lower Packet Loss Rates

Authors: Imen Bouazzi


The IEEE-802.15.4 standard utilizes the CSMA-CA mechanism to control nodes access to the shared wireless communication medium. It is becoming the popular choice for various applications of surveillance and control used in wireless sensor network (WSN). The benefit of this standard is evaluated regarding of the packet loss probability who depends on the configuration of IEEE 802.15.4 MAC parameters and the traffic load. Our exigency is to evaluate the effects of various configurable MAC parameters on the performance of beaconless IEEE 802.15.4 networks under different traffic loads, static values of IEEE 802.15.4 MAC parameters (macMinBE, macMaxCSMABackoffs, and macMaxFrame Retries) will be evaluated. To performance analysis, we use ns-2[2] network simulator.

Keywords: WSN, packet loss, CSMA/CA, IEEE-802.15.4

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7562 Coding of RMAC and Its Theoretical and Simulation-Based Performance Comparison with SMAC

Authors: Hamida Qumber Ali, Waseem Muhammad Arain, Shama Siddiqui, Sayeed Ghani


We present an implementing of RMAC in TinyOS 1.x. RMAC is a cross layer and Duty-cycle MAC protocols that was proposed to provide energy efficient transmission services for wireless sensor networks. The protocol has a unique and efficient packet transmission scheduling mechanism that enables it to overcome delivery latency and overcome traffic congestion. Design details and implementation challenges are divulged. Experiments are conducted to show the correctness of our implementation with numerous assumptions. Simulations are performed to compare the performance of RMAC and SMAC. Our results show that RMAC outperforms SMAC in energy efficiency and delay.

Keywords: MAC protocol, performance, RMAC, wireless sensor networks

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7561 A Cooperative Space-Time Transmission Scheme Based On Symbol Combinations

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon


This paper proposes a cooperative Alamouti space time transmission scheme with low relay complexity for the cooperative communication systems. In the proposed scheme, the source node combines the data symbols to construct the Alamouti-coded form at the destination node, while the conventional scheme performs the corresponding operations at the relay nodes. In simulation results, it is shown that the proposed scheme achieves the second order cooperative diversity while maintaining the same bit error rate (BER) performance as that of the conventional scheme.

Keywords: Space-time transmission, cooperative communication system, MIMO.

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7560 Performance Study of ZigBee-Based Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Afif Saleh Abugharsa


The IEEE 802.15.4 standard is designed for low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPAN) with focus on enabling wireless sensor networks. It aims to give a low data rate, low power consumption, and low cost wireless networking on the device-level communication. The objective of this study is to investigate the performance of IEEE 802.15.4 based networks using simulation tool. In this project the network simulator 2 NS2 was used to several performance measures of wireless sensor networks. Three scenarios were considered, multi hop network with a single coordinator, star topology, and an ad hoc on demand distance vector AODV. Results such as packet delivery ratio, hop delay, and number of collisions are obtained from these scenarios.

Keywords: ZigBee, wireless sensor networks, IEEE 802.15.4, low power, low data rate

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7559 A Long Range Wide Area Network-Based Smart Pest Monitoring System

Authors: Yun-Chung Yu, Yan-Wen Wang, Min-Sheng Liao, Joe-Air Jiang, Yuen-Chung Lee


This paper proposes to use a Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN) for a smart pest monitoring system which aims at the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) to improve the communication efficiency of the system. The oriental fruit fly is one of the main pests in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim. Different smart pest monitoring systems based on the Internet of Things (IoT) architecture have been developed to solve problems of employing manual measurement. These systems often use Octopus II, a communication module following the 2.4GHz IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee specification, as sensor nodes. The Octopus II is commonly used in low-power and short-distance communication. However, the energy consumption increase as the logical topology becomes more complicate to have enough coverage in the large area. By comparison, LoRaWAN follows the Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) specification, which targets the key requirements of the IoT technology, such as secure bi-directional communication, mobility, and localization services. The LoRaWAN network has advantages of long range communication, high stability, and low energy consumption. The 433MHz LoRaWAN model has two superiorities over the 2.4GHz ZigBee model: greater diffraction and less interference. In this paper, The Octopus II module is replaced by a LoRa model to increase the coverage of the monitoring system, improve the communication performance, and prolong the network lifetime. The performance of the LoRa-based system is compared with a ZigBee-based system using three indexes: the packet receiving rate, delay time, and energy consumption, and the experiments are done in different settings (e.g. distances and environmental conditions). In the distance experiment, a pest monitoring system using the two communication specifications is deployed in an area with various obstacles, such as buildings and living creatures, and the performance of employing the two communication specifications is examined. The experiment results show that the packet receiving the rate of the LoRa-based system is 96% , which is much higher than that of the ZigBee system when the distance between any two modules is about 500m. These results indicate the capability of a LoRaWAN-based monitoring system in long range transmission and ensure the stability of the system.

Keywords: LoRaWan, oriental fruit fly, IoT, Octopus II

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7558 Quantum Inspired Security on a Mobile Phone

Authors: Yu Qin, Wanjiaman Li


The widespread use of mobile electronic devices increases the complexities of mobile security. This thesis aims to provide a secure communication environment for smartphone users. Some research proves that the one-time pad is one of the securest encryption methods, and that the key distribution problem can be solved by using the QKD (quantum key distribution). The objective of this project is to design an Android APP (application) to exchange several random keys between mobile phones. Inspired by QKD, the developed APP uses the quick response (QR) code as a carrier to dispatch large amounts of one-time keys. After evaluating the performance of APP, it allows the mobile phone to capture and decode 1800 bytes of random data in 600ms. The continuous scanning mode of APP is designed to improve the overall transmission performance and user experience, and the maximum transmission rate of this mode is around 2200 bytes/s. The omnidirectional readability and error correction capability of QR code gives it a better real-life application, and the features of adequate storage capacity and quick response optimize overall transmission efficiency. The security of this APP is guaranteed since QR code is exchanged face-to-face, eliminating the risk of being eavesdropped. Also, the id of QR code is the only message that would be transmitted through the whole communication. The experimental results show this project can achieve superior transmission performance, and the correlation between the transmission rate of the system and several parameters, such as the QR code size, has been analyzed. In addition, some existing technologies and the main findings in the context of the project are summarized and critically compared in detail.

Keywords: one-time pad, QKD (quantum key distribution), QR code, application

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7557 Analysis of Joint Source Channel LDPC Coding for Correlated Sources Transmission over Noisy Channels

Authors: Marwa Ben Abdessalem, Amin Zribi, Ammar Bouallègue


In this paper, a Joint Source Channel coding scheme based on LDPC codes is investigated. We consider two concatenated LDPC codes, one allows to compress a correlated source and the second to protect it against channel degradations. The original information can be reconstructed at the receiver by a joint decoder, where the source decoder and the channel decoder run in parallel by transferring extrinsic information. We investigate the performance of the JSC LDPC code in terms of Bit-Error Rate (BER) in the case of transmission over an Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel, and for different source and channel rate parameters. We emphasize how JSC LDPC presents a performance tradeoff depending on the channel state and on the source correlation. We show that, the JSC LDPC is an efficient solution for a relatively low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) channel, especially with highly correlated sources. Finally, a source-channel rate optimization has to be applied to guarantee the best JSC LDPC system performance for a given channel.

Keywords: AWGN channel, belief propagation, joint source channel coding, LDPC codes

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