Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 952

Search results for: Jasbir Singh Gill

952 Task Scheduling on Parallel System Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Jasbir Singh Gill, Baljit Singh

Abstract:

Scheduling and mapping the application task graph on multiprocessor parallel systems is considered as the most crucial and critical NP-complete problem. Many genetic algorithms have been proposed to solve such problems. In this paper, two genetic approach based algorithms have been designed and developed with or without task duplication. The proposed algorithms work on two fitness functions. The first fitness i.e. task fitness is used to minimize the total finish time of the schedule (schedule length) while the second fitness function i.e. process fitness is concerned with allocating the tasks to the available highly efficient processor from the list of available processors (load balance). Proposed genetic-based algorithms have been experimentally implemented and evaluated with other state-of-art popular and widely used algorithms.

Keywords: parallel computing, task scheduling, task duplication, genetic algorithm

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951 Investigation Acute Toxicity and Bioaccumulation Mineral Mercury in Rutilus frisii Kutum

Authors: A. Gharaei, R. Karami

Abstract:

Rutilus frisii Kutum was exposed to various concentrations of mercuric chloride in water to determine its acute toxicity and bioaccumulation. We carried out ten treatments with three replicates and one control for each of the chemicals using the static O. E. C. D. method in 55-liter-tanks each containing 14 fingerlings. During the experiments, the average pH was recorded as 7.8, total hardness was measured to be 255 mg/l, the average water temperature was 27±1 degrees centigrade and dissolved oxygen was 7.2 mg/l. Mean LC50 values of Hgcl2 for juvenile R. frisii kutum with mean weight 1±0.2 gr were 0.102 and 0.86 mgHg/l at 24h and 96h, respectively. The bioaccumulation values during 24h in tissue, kidney, and gill were 1.55, 16.1, and 22.7 mgHg/l, respectively. So, these values during 96h were 2.8, 16.8, and 26.65 mgHg/l, respectively. The bioconcentration factors in tissue, kidney, and gill during 24h were 14.75, 153.39, and 216.11 and so during 96h were 33.8, 198.1, and 313.5 times. These results show that bioaccumulation was highest in the gill and then kidney and tissue, respectively. This study suggested that between mercury concentrations of water with bioaccumulation in tissue more than kidney and gill.

Keywords: HgCl2, LC5096h, bioaccumulation, Rutilus frisii Kutum, Caspian Sea

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950 Acute Toxic Effects of Zn(SO4) on Gill and Liver Tissues of Fresh Water Catfish Clarias batrachus (L.)

Authors: Muneesh Kumar, Rajesh Kumar, Sangeeta Devi

Abstract:

Heavy metals are a major problem because they are toxic and tend to accumulate in living organisms. This study was carried out with the aims of studying on histopathology of Zn(SO4) toxicity on gill and liver tissues of catfish (Clarias batrachus) within the period of 96 h. Totally, 140 fishes with mean weight 50±10 g were stocked in 12 aquariums with capacity of 200 L water and divided in to 3 trails including control, 4 ppm and 8 ppm of Zn with 3 replicates. Tissue samples were fixed by bouin’s solution and sectioned in 7 μm based on histological regular method and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) method for microscopic study within the period of 96 h. Results showed some damaged such as hyperplasia, telangiectasis and edema, necrosis of second filaments, jerky movement, aneurism, hyperemia and fusion of second filaments in gills; and cell atrophy, necrosis, fatty degeneration, hyperemia and bile stagnation at different treatments in comparison with control. Gill and liver tissue damages were severed with the increase of Zn concentration and days. Therefore, Zn had acute toxicity effects on gill and liver tissues in Catfish at 5 and 10 ppm concentrations.

Keywords: gill, liver, histopathology, zinc, Clarias batrachus

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949 Effect of Process Parameters on Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints Using Factorial Design

Authors: Gurjinder Singh, Ankur Gill, Amardeep Singh Kang

Abstract:

In the present work an effort has been made to study the influence of the welding parameters on tensile strength of friction stir welding of aluminum. Three process parameters tool rotation speed, welding speed, and shoulder diameter were selected for the study. Two level factorial design of eight runs was selected for conducting the experiments. The mathematical model was developed from the data obtained. The significance of coefficients and adequacy of developed models were tested by ‘t’ test and ‘F’ test respectively. The effects of process parameters on mechanical properties have been represented in the form of graphs for better understanding.

Keywords: friction stir welding, aluminium alloy, mathematical model, welding speed

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948 Morphological Studies of the Gills of the Red Swamp Freshwater Crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Crustacea: Decapoda: Cambarids) (Girard 1852) from the River Nile and Its Branches in Egypt

Authors: Mohamed M. A. Abumandour

Abstract:

The red swamp freshwater crayfish breathe through three types of feather-like trichobranchiate gills; podobranchiae, arthrobranchiae and pleurobranchiae. All gills have the same general structure and appearance; plume-like with single broad setiferous, and single axis. The gill consists of axis with numerous finger-like filaments, having three morphological types; round, pointed and somewhat hooked shaped. The direction of filaments vary according their position; in middle region were nearly perpendicular to gill axis while in the apex were nearly parallel to axis. There were characteristic system of gill spines on; central axis (two types were distinguishable by presence of socket), basal plate, setobranch (long non-branched and short multidenticulate) and on the bilobed epipodal plate. There are four shape of spinated-like distal region of setobranch seta; two pointed processes (longitudinal arrangement and irregular arranged) and two broad processes (transverse triangular and multidenticulate). The bilobed epipodal plate devoid from any filaments and extended from outer side of podobranchiae as triangular basal part then extended between the gills as cord-like middle part then pass under the gill to lies against the thoracic body wall. By SEM, the apical part of bilobed epipodal plate have serrated free border and corrugated surface while the middle part have none serrated free border. There are two methods of gill cleaning mechanism in crayfish; passive and active method. The passive method occurred by; setae of setobranch, branchiostegite, bilobed epipodal plate, setiferous arthrodial lamellae and reversing the respiratory water through a narrow spaced branchial chamber.

Keywords: crayfis, gill spines, setobranch, gill setae, cleaning mechanisms

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947 Fish Species Composition and Distribution of a Semi-Oxbow Lake in North Central Nigeria

Authors: Adeyemi, Samuel Olusegun

Abstract:

The paper reports on the result of experimental gill net assessment of the fishery of Gbedikere Lake in Kogi State between October 2006 and September 2008. Three stations A-C were sampled. Twelve species from ten families were represented in the experimental gill-net catches. These composed of families Protopteridae, Mormyridae, Clariidae, Mochokidae, Cichlidae, Cyprinidae, Malapteruridae, Osteoglossidae, Gymnarchidae, and Citharinidae. The Cichlids dominated the catches. This is made up of Oreochromis niloticus (17.90%), and Tilapia zilli (13.01%). These combined to make up 30.91% of the total number of fish caught. Also, the Cichlids formed 30.91% of the total catch by weight followed Heterotis niloticus (15.56%), Clarias gariepinus (13.16%), Gmynarchus niloticus (8.78%), Heterobranchus bidorsalis (7.14%), Synodontis nigrita (6.69%), Mormyrus rume (5.68%), Citharinus citharus (3.91%), Labeo senegalensis (2.93%), and Protopterus annectens (2.74%), respectively.

Keywords: experimental gill net, species diversity, abundance, distribution, Oxbow Lake and yield

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946 Exposure of Pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus Gill Tissue to a High Stocking Density: An Ion Regulatory and Microscopy Study

Authors: Wiolene Montanari Nordi, Debora Botequio Moretti, Mariana Caroline Pontin, Jessica Pampolini, Raul Machado-Neto

Abstract:

Gills are organs responsible for respiration and osmoregulation between the fish internal environment and water. Under stress conditions, oxidative response and gill plasticity to attempt to increase gas exchange area are noteworthy, compromising the physiological processes and therefore fish health. Colostrum is a dietary source of nutrients, immunoglobulin, antioxidant and bioactive molecules, essential for immunological protection and development of the gastrointestinal epithelium. The hypothesis of this work is that antioxidant factors present in the colostrum, unprecedentedly tested in gills, can minimize or reduce the alteration of its epithelium structure of juvenile pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) subjected to high stocking density. The histological changes in the gills architecture were characterized by the frequency, incidence and severity of the tissue alteration and ionic status. Juvenile (50 kg fish/m3) were fed with pelleted diets containing 0, 10, 20 or 30% of lyophilized bovine colostrum (LBC) inclusion and at 30 experimental days, gill and blood samples were collected in eight fish per treatment. The study revealed differences in the type, frequency and severity (histological alterations index – HAI) of tissue alterations among the treatments, however, no distinct differences in the incidence of alteration (mean alteration value – MAV) were observed. The main histological changes in gill were elevation of the lamellar epithelium, excessive cell proliferation of the filament and lamellar epithelium causing total or partial melting of the lamella, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of lamellar and filament epithelium, uncontrolled thickening of filament and lamellar tissues, mucous and chloride cells presence in the lamella, aneurysms, vascular congestion and presence of parasites. The MAV obtained per treatment were 2.0, 2.5, 1.8 and 2.5 to fish fed diets containing 0, 10, 20 and 30% of LBC inclusion, respectively, classifying the incidence of gill alterations as slightly to moderate. The severity of alteration of individual fish of treatment 0, 10 and 20% LBC ranged values from 5 to 40 (HAI average of 20.1, 17.5 and 17.6, respectively, P > 0.05), and differs from 30% LBC, that ranged from 6 to 129 (HAI mean of 77.2, P < 0.05). The HAI value in the treatments 0, 10 and 20% LBC reveals gill tissue with injuries classified from slightly to moderate, while in 30% LBC moderate to severe, consequence of the onset of necrosis in the tissue of two fish that compromises the normal functioning of the organ. In relation to frequency of gill alterations, evaluated according to absence of alterations (0) to highly frequent (+++), histological alterations were observed in all evaluated fish, with a trend of higher frequency in 0% LBC. The concentration of Na+, Cl-, K+ and Ca2+ did not changed in all treatments (P > 0.05), indicating similar capacity of ion exchange. The concentrations of bovine colostrum used in diets of present study did not impair the alterations observed in the gills of juvenile pacu.

Keywords: histological alterations of gill tissue, ionic status, lyophilized bovine colostrum, optical microscopy

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945 Morphological Processing of Punjabi Text for Sentiment Analysis of Farmer Suicides

Authors: Jaspreet Singh, Gurvinder Singh, Prabhsimran Singh, Rajinder Singh, Prithvipal Singh, Karanjeet Singh Kahlon, Ravinder Singh Sawhney

Abstract:

Morphological evaluation of Indian languages is one of the burgeoning fields in the area of Natural Language Processing (NLP). The evaluation of a language is an eminent task in the era of information retrieval and text mining. The extraction and classification of knowledge from text can be exploited for sentiment analysis and morphological evaluation. This study coalesce morphological evaluation and sentiment analysis for the task of classification of farmer suicide cases reported in Punjab state of India. The pre-processing of Punjabi text involves morphological evaluation and normalization of Punjabi word tokens followed by the training of proposed model using deep learning classification on Punjabi language text extracted from online Punjabi news reports. The class-wise accuracies of sentiment prediction for four negatively oriented classes of farmer suicide cases are 93.85%, 88.53%, 83.3%, and 95.45% respectively. The overall accuracy of sentiment classification obtained using proposed framework on 275 Punjabi text documents is found to be 90.29%.

Keywords: deep neural network, farmer suicides, morphological processing, punjabi text, sentiment analysis

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944 Ferroelectricity in Nano-Composite Films of Sodium Nitrite: Starch Prepared by Drop Cast Technique

Authors: Navneet Dabra, Baljinder Kaur, Lakhbir Singh, V. Annapu Reddy, R. Nath, Dae-Yong Jeong, Jasbir S. Hundal

Abstract:

Nano-composite films of sodium nitrite (NaNO2): Starch with different proportions of NaNO2 and Starch have been prepared by drop cast technique. The ferroelectric hysteresis loops (P-V) have been traced using modified Sawyar-Tower circuit. The films containing equal proportions of NaNO2 and Starch exhibit optimized ferroelectric properties. The stability of the remanent polarization, Pr in the optimized nano-composite films exhibit improved stability over the pure NaNO2 films. The Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has been employed to investigate the surface morphology. AFM images clearly reveal the nano sized particles of NaNO2 dispersed in starch with small value of surface roughness.

Keywords: ferroelectricity, nano-composite films, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), nano composite film

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943 Tissue-Specific Distribution of Cytochrome P450 1A1 and 3A in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Authors: Viktoriia Burkina, Vladimir Zlabek, Galia Zamaratskaia

Abstract:

Cytochromes P450 (CYP) are important family of enzymes in Phase I metabolism. Environmental pollutants often act as inducers of the gene expression and activities CYP1A1 and CYP3A-like isoforms in fish. The activities are generally measured in the fish liver or gills, and less is known about tissue distribution of expression. In present study, the CYP1A1 and CYP3A-like activities were measured in rainbow trout liver, gill, intestine, heart, brain and gonads. The activities of CYP1A1 and CYP3A-like proteins were estimated as the rates of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation (EROD) and benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin-O-debenzyloxylation (BFCOD), respectively. The CYP1A1 and CYP3A-like activities were detectable in all investigated fish tissues, with the highest activity in hepatic tissue followed by heart > brain > gill > intestine > gonads. To confirm the presence of CYP1A1 in different tissues, EROD activity was measured in presence of the selective inhibitors ellipticine (CYP1A1), ketoconazole (CYP3A), 8-methoxypsoralen (human CYP2A) and diallyl sulphide (CYP2E1). It was found that ellipticine, ketoconazole and 8-methoxypsoralen inhibited hepatic EROD activity by 88-98%. Ellipticine inhibited gill, intestine, and gonad EROD activity by 50%. In conclusion, EROD and BFCOD activities were detected in rainbow trout liver, gill, intestine, heart, brain and gonads. Further studies are needed to fully identify all CYP450 isoforms responsible for these activities. Acknowledgement: The study was financially supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic - projects „CENAKVA “(No. CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0024), “CENAKVA Center Development “(No. CZ.1.05/2.1.00/19.0380), “CENAKVA II “(No. LO1205 under the NPU I program), and "Development of USB - International mobility (No. CZ.02.2.69/0.0/0.0/16_027/0008364).

Keywords: BFCOD, EROD, fish, phase I metabolism, selective inhibitors

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942 Ferroelectricity in Fused Potassium Nitrate-Polymer Composite Films

Authors: Navneet Dabra, Baljinder Kaur, Lakhbir Singh, V. Annapu Reddy, R. Nath, Dae-Yong Jeong, Jasbir S. Hundal

Abstract:

The ferroelectric properties of fused potassium nitrate (KNO3)- polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite films have been investigated. The composite films of KNO3-PVA have been prepared by solvant cast technique and then fused over the brass substrate. The ferroelectric hysteresis loops (P-E) have been obtained at room temperature using modified Sawyer-Tower circuit. Percentage of back switching and differential dielectric constant has been derived from P-V loops. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies confirm the formation of ferroelectric phase (phase III) in these composite films. The AFM and FE-SEM studies have been used to study the surface morphology of these composite films. The values of remanemt polarization, coercive field, back switching, crystallite size, lattice parameters, and surface roughness have been estimated and correlated.

Keywords: ferroelectric polymer composite, remanemt polarization, back switching, crystallite size, lattice parameters and surface roughness

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941 A Review on the Studies on Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Aluminum and Magnesium Alloys Welded by Friction Stir Welding

Authors: Sukhdeep Singh Gill, Gurbhinder Singh Brar

Abstract:

In recent years, friction stir welding (FSW) has attracted the main attention of the concerned researcher especially in case of joining of nonferrous alloys like aluminum and magnesium due to its unmatchable properties with respect to other welding techniques. Friction stir welding is a solid state welding process which is most suitable for the welding of nonferrous alloys, especially aluminum and magnesium alloys. Aluminum and magnesium alloys are widely used for structural applications of all types of automobiles due to their superior mechanical properties with their low density. This paper deals with the critical review of the different properties (like tensile strength, microhardness, impact strength, corrosion resistance, and metallurgical investigation on SEM) obtained by the FSW of aluminum and magnesium alloys. After a critical review of the existing published literature on concerned topics, all the properties of welding joins are compared in the tabulated manner to optimize the selection of materials and FSW parameters according to mechanical and tribological properties. Different tool designs used for the FSW process are also thoroughly studied, and the influence of the design of the tool used in FSW on the different properties has also been incorporated in this paper. It has been observed from the existing published literature that FSW is the most effective and practical technique for joining the non ferrous alloys especially aluminum and magnesium alloys, and among the different FSW tools, left hand threaded tri-flute (LHTTF) tool is best for the welding of non ferrous alloys like aluminum and magnesium alloys which gives the superior mechanical properties to welding joint.

Keywords: aluminum, friction stir welding, magnesium, structural applications, tool design

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940 Histopathological Effects of Trichodiniasis in Farmed Freshwater Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, in West of Iran

Authors: Zahra Khoshnood, Reza Khoshnood

Abstract:

The aim of present study was to monitor the presence of Trichodina sp. in Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss collected from various fish farms in the western provinces of Iran during January, 2013- January, 2014. Out of 675 sampled fish 335, (49.16%) were infested with Trichodina. The highest prevalence was observed in the spring and winter followed by autumn and summer. In general, the intensity of infection was low except in cases where outbreaks of Trichodiniasis endangered the survival of fish in some ponds. In light infestation Trichodina is usually present on gills, fins and skin of apparently healthy fish. Clinical signs of Trichodiniasis only appear on fish with heavy infections and cases of moderate ones that are usually exposed to one or more stress factors including, rough handling during transportation from ponds, overcrowdness, malnutrition, high of free ammonia and low of oxygen concentration. Clinical signs of Trichodiniasis in sampled fish were sluggish movement, loss of appetite, black coloration, necrosis and ulcer on different parts of the body, detached scales and excessive accumulation of mucous in gill pouches. The most obvious histopathological changes in diseased fish were sloughing of the epidermal layer, aggregation of leucocytes and melanine-carrying cells (between the dermis and hypodermis) and proliferative changes including hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the epithelial lining cells of gill filaments which resulted in fusion of secondary lamellae. Control of Trichodiniasis, has been achieved by formalin bath treatment at a concentration of 250 ppm for one hour.

Keywords: gill, histopathology, rainbow trout, Trichodina

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939 Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete Mixed with Fly Ash

Authors: Abhinandan Singh Gill, Gurbir Kaur Jawanda

Abstract:

Since the introduction of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) in Japan during the late 1980’s, acceptance and usage of this concrete in the construction industry has been steadily gaining momentum. In the United States, the usage of SCC has been spearheaded by the precast concrete industry. Good SCC must possess the following key fresh properties: filling ability, passing ability, and resistance to segregation. Self-compacting concrete is one of 'the most revolutionary developments' in concrete research; this concrete is able to flow and to fill the most restocked places of the form work without vibration. There are several methods for testing its properties. In the fresh state: the most frequently used are slump flow test, L box and V-funnel. This work presents properties of self-compacting concrete, mixed with fly ash. The test results for acceptance characteristics of self-compacting concrete such as slump flow; V-funnel and L-Box are presented. Further, the compressive strength at the ages of 7, 28 days was also determined and results are included here.

Keywords: compressive strength, fly ash, self-compacting concrete, slump flow test, super plasticizer

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938 Studies on Corrosion Resistant Composite Coating for Metallic Surfaces

Authors: Navneetinder Singh, Harprabhjot Singh, Harpreet Singh, Supreet Singh

Abstract:

Many materials are known to mankind that is widely used for synthesis of corrosion resistant hydrophobic coatings. In the current work, novel hydrophobic composite was synthesized by mixing polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and 20 weight% ceria particles followed by sintering. This composite had same hydrophobic behavior as PTFE. Moreover, composite showed better scratch resistance than virgin PTFE. Pits of plasma sprayed Ni₃Al coating were exploited to hold PTFE composite on the substrate as Superni-75 alloy surface through sintering process. Plasma sprayed surface showed good adhesion with the composite coating during scratch test. Potentiodynamic corrosion test showed 100 fold decreases in corrosion rate of coated sample this may be attributed to inert and hydrophobic nature of PTFE and ceria.

Keywords: polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE, ceria, coating, corrosion

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937 Influence of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of TIG Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints

Authors: Gurmeet Singh Cheema, Navjotinder Singh, Gurjinder Singh, Amardeep Singh

Abstract:

Aluminium and its alloys play have excellent corrosion resistant properties, ease of fabrication and high specific strength to weight ratio. In this investigation an attempt has been made to study the effect of different post weld heat treatment methods on the mechanical and metallurgical properties of TIG welded joints of the commercial aluminium alloy. Three different methods of post weld heat treatments are, solution heat treatment, artificial aged and combination of solution heat treatment and artificial aging are given to TIG welded aluminium joints. Mechanical and metallurgical properties of as welded and post weld treated joints of the aluminium alloys was examined.

Keywords: aluminium alloys, TIG welding, post weld heat treatment

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936 Performance Analysis of VoIP Coders for Different Modulations Under Pervasive Environment

Authors: Jasbinder Singh, Harjit Pal Singh, S. A. Khan

Abstract:

The work, in this paper, presents the comparison of encoded speech signals by different VoIP narrow-band and wide-band codecs for different modulation schemes. The simulation results indicate that codec has an impact on the speech quality and also effected by modulation schemes.

Keywords: VoIP, coders, modulations, BER, MOS

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935 Wear Behavior of Grey Cast Iron Coated with Al2O3-13TiO2 and Ni20Cr Using Detonation Spray Process

Authors: Harjot Singh Gill, Neelkanth Grover, Jwala Parshad Singla

Abstract:

The main aim of this research work is to present the effect of coating on two different grades of grey cast iron using detonation spray method. Ni20Cr and Al2O3-13TiO2 powders were sprayed using detonation gun onto GI250 and GIHC substrates and the results as well as coating surface morphology of the coating is studied by XRD and SEM/EDAX analysis. The wear resistance of Ni20Cr and Al2O3-13TiO2 has been investigated on pin-on-disc tribometer using ASTM G99 standards. Cumulative wear rate and coefficient of friction (µ) were calculated under three normal load of 30N, 40N, 50N at constant sliding velocity of 1m/s. Worn out surfaces were analyzed by SEM/EDAX. The results show significant resistance to wear with Al2O3-13TiO2 coating as compared to Ni20Cr and bare substrates. SEM/EDAX analysis and cumulative wear loss bar charts clearly explain the wear behavior of coated as well as bare sample of GI250 and GIHC.

Keywords: detonation spray, grey cast iron, wear rate, coefficient of friction

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934 Biogeochemical Study of Polycuclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Its Physiological Response in Mudskippre (B. dussumieri) along the North western Coasts of the Persian Gulf

Authors: Ali Mashinchian Moradi, Mahmood Sinaei

Abstract:

Study on the biomarkers to assess health status of marine ecosystems has an important value in biomonitoring of marine environment. Accordingly, accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment, water and tissues (liver and gill) of mudskipper (Boleophthalmus dussmieri) and some physiological responses like lysosomal membrane change in haemocytes and the Glutathione-S Transferase (GST) activity in the liver were measured in mudskippers. Samples were collected from five sites along the noth western cost of the Persian Gulf. PAHs concentration was measured by HPLC method. The activity of GST enzyme was analysed by spectrophotometric method. Total PAH concentration in coastal seawater, sediments, liver and gill tissues ranged between 0.80-18.34 ug/L, 113.550-3384.34 ng/g dw, 3.99-46.64 ng/g dw and 3.11-17.This study showed that PAH concentrations in this region are not higher than available standards. The findings revile that lysosomal membrane destabilization and liver GST activities are highly sensitive to PAHs in mudskipper, B. dussumieri. Sediment PAH concentrations were strongly correlated with biomarkers, indicating PAHs were biologically available to fish. Thus, mudskipper perceived to be good sentinel organism for PAH pollution biomonitoring.

Keywords: PAHs, biomarker, mudskipper, Persian Gulf

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933 Snails and Fish as Pollution Biomarkers in Lake Manzala and Laboratory B: Lake Manzala Fish

Authors: Hanaa M. M. El-Khayat, Hanan S. Gaber, Hoda Abdel-Hamid, Kadria M. A. Mahmoud, Hoda M. A. Abu Taleb

Abstract:

This work aimed to examine Oreochromis niloticus fish from Lake Manzala in Port Said, Dakahlya and Damietta governorates, Egypt, as a bio-indicator for the lake water pollution through recording alterations in their hematological, physiological, and histopathological parameters. All fish samples showed a significant increase in levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine and glutathione-S-transferase (GST); only Dakahlya samples showed a significant increase (p<0.01) in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level and most Dakahlya and Damietta samples showed reversed albumin and globulin ratio and a significant increase in γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level. Port-Said and Damietta samples showed a significant decrease of hemoglobin (Hb) while Dakahlya samples showed a significant decrease in white blood cell (WBC) count. Histopathological investigation for different fish organs showed that Port-Said and Dakahlya samples were more altered than Damietta. The muscle and gill followed by intestine were the most affected organs. The muscle sections showed severe edema, neoplasia, necrotic change, fat vacuoles and splitting of muscle fiber. The gill sections showed dilated blood vessels of the filaments, curling of gill lamellae, severe hyperplasia, edema and blood vessels congestion of filaments. The intestine sections revealed degeneration, atrophy, dilation in blood vessels and necrotic changes in sub-mucosa and mucosa with edema in between. The recorded significant alterations, in most of the physiological and histological parameters in O. niloticus samples from Lake Manzala, were alarming for water pollution impacts on lake fish community, which constitutes the main diet and the main source of income for the people inhabiting these areas, and were threatening their public health and economy. Also, results evaluate the use of O. niloticus fish as important bio-indicator for their habitat stressors.

Keywords: Lake Manzala, Oreochromis niloticus fish, water pollution, physiological, hematological and histopathological parameters

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932 Mind-Wandering and Attention: Evidence from Behavioral and Subjective Perspective

Authors: Riya Mishra, Trayambak Tiwari, Anju Lata Singh, I. L. Singh, Tara Singh

Abstract:

Decrement in vigilance task performance echoes impediment in effortful attention; here attention fluctuated in the realm of external and internal milieu of a person. To examine this fluctuation across time period, we employed two experiments of vigilance task with variation in thought probing rate, which was embedded in the task. The thought probe varies in terms of <2 minute per thought probe and <4 minute per thought probe during vigilance task. A 2x4 repeated measure factorial design was used. 15 individuals participated in this study with an age range of 20-26 years. It was found that thought probing rate has a negative trend with vigilance task performance whereas the subjective measures of mind-wandering have a positive relation with thought probe rate.

Keywords: criterion response, mental status, mind-wandering, thought probe, vigilance

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931 Characterisation and in vitro Corrosion Resistance of Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite and Hydroxyapatite: Silicon Oxide Coatings on 316L SS

Authors: Gurpreet Singh, Hazoor Singh, Buta Singh Sidhu

Abstract:

In the current investigation plasma spray technique was used for depositing hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA – silicon oxide (SiO2) coatings on 316L SS substrate. In HA-SiO2 coating, 20 wt% SiO2 was mixed with HA. The feedstock and coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses. The corrosion resistance of the uncoated, HA coated and HA + 20 wt% SiO2 coated 316L SS was investigated by electrochemical corrosion testing in simulated human body fluid (Ringer’s solution). The influence of SiO2 (20 wt%) on corrosion resistance was determined. After the corrosion testing, the samples were analyzed by XRD and SEM/EDX analyses. The addition of SiO2 reduces the crystallinity of the coating. The corrosion resistance of the 316L SS was found to increase after the deposition of the HA + 20 wt% SiO2 and HA coatings.

Keywords: HA, SiO2, corrosion, Ringer’s solution, 316L SS

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930 Reduction of Wear via Hardfacing of Rotavator Blades

Authors: Gurjinder Singh Randhawa, Jonny Garg, Sukhraj Singh, Gurmeet Singh Cheema

Abstract:

A major problem related to the use of rotavator is wear of rotavator blades due to abrasion by soil hard particles, as it seriously affects tillage quality and agricultural production economy. The objective of this study was to increase the wear resistance by covering the rotavator blades with two different hard facing electrodes. These blades are generally produced from low carbon or low alloy steel. During the field work i.e. preparing land for the cultivation these blades are subjected to severe wear conditions. Comparative wear tests on a regular rotavator blade and two kinds of hardfacing with electrodes were conducted in the field. These two different hardfacing electrodes, which are designated HARD ALLOY-400 and HARD ALLOY-650, were used for hardfacing. The wear rate in the field tests was found to be significantly different statistically. When the cost is taken into consideration; HARD ALLOY-650 and HARD ALLOY-400 have been found to be the best hardfacing electrodes.

Keywords: hardfacing, rotavator blades, hard alloy-400, abrasive wear

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929 Effect of Ultrasonic Vibration on the Dilution, Mechanical, and Metallurgical Properties in Cladding of 308 on Mild Steel

Authors: Sandeep Singh Sandhu, Karanvir Singh Ghuman, Parminder Singh Saini

Abstract:

The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of ultrasonic vibration on the cladding of the AISI 308 on the mild steel plates using the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW). Ultrasonic vibrations were applied to molten austenitic stainless steel during the welding process. Due to acoustically induced cavitations and streaming there is a complete mixture of the clad metal and the base metal. It was revealed that cladding of AISI 308 over mild steel along with ultrasonic vibrations result in uniform and finer grain structures. The effect of the vibration on the dilution, mechanical properties and metallographic studies were also studied. It was found that the welding done using the ultrasonic vibration has the less dilution and CVN value for the vibrated sample was also high.

Keywords: surfacing, ultrasonic vibrations, mechanical properties, shielded metal arc welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
928 Bioeconomic Modelling for Barramundi (Lates calcarifer) in Queensland: Implications for Recreational Fishing Following Recent Gill Netting Closures

Authors: Sabiha S. Marine, Nicole Flint, John Rolfe

Abstract:

The Queensland state government introduced commercial gill net fishing closures in Cairns, Mackay, and Rockhampton in November 2015 to increase the recreational fishing opportunities, nature-based tourism, and economic benefits in these three regional areas. This management change is likely to improve the potential for more desirable stock structures through natural recruitment. Barramundi (Lates calcarifer) is one of the popular target fish for recreational and commercial fishers in Northern Australia. This investigation examines the effects of reduced commercial fishing from both biological and economic perspectives, particularly on the local Barramundi population of the Fitzroy River in Rockhampton, the largest river catchment flowing to the eastern coast of Australia. Data on different parameters of biological and economic aspects have been collated from secondary sources for analysis through a system simulation approach to identify the effectiveness of the commercial netting closures on recreational fishing effort, especially for the Barramundi population. The results have the potential to explain certain consequences of the netting closures in Queensland, which could serve to inform future fisheries management decisions. The study output as a whole will help in the better management of fisheries resources by evaluating recreational fishing opportunities in Queensland, where the potential for increases in recreation is high.

Keywords: Barramundi, bioeconomic model, fishery management, recreational fishing

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927 Exploring Relationship between Attention and Consciousness

Authors: Aarushi Agarwal, Tara Singh, Anju Lata Singh, Trayambak Tiwari, Indramani Lal Singh

Abstract:

The existing interdependent relationship between attention and consciousness has been put to debate since long. To testify the nature, dual-task paradigm has been used to simultaneously manipulate awareness and attention. With central discrimination task which is attentional demanding, participants also perform simple discrimination task in the periphery in near absence of attention. Individual-based analysis of performance accuracy in single and dual condition showed and above chance level performance i.e. more than 80%. In order to widen the understanding of extent of discrimination carried in near absence of attention, natural image and its geometric equivalent shape were presented in the periphery; synthetic objects accounted to lower level of performance than natural objects in dual condition. The gaze plot and heatmap indicate that peripheral performance do not necessarily involve saccade every time, verifying the discrimination in the periphery was in near absence of attention. Thus our studies show an interdependent nature of attention and awareness.

Keywords: attention, awareness, dual task paradigm, natural and geometric images

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926 Ingenious Use of Hypo Sludge in M25 Concrete

Authors: Abhinandan Singh Gill

Abstract:

Paper mill sludge is one of the major economic and environmental problems for paper and board industry, million tonnes quantity of sludge is produced in the world. It is essential to dispose these wastes safely without affecting health of human being, environment, fertile land; sources of water bodies, economy as it adversely affect the strength, durability and other properties of building materials based on them. Moreover, in developing countries like India where there is low availability of non-renewable resources and large need of building material like cement therefore it is essential to develop eco-efficient utilization of paper sludge. Primarily in functional terms paper sludge comprises of cellulose fibers, calcium carbonate, china clay, low silica, residual chemical bonds with water. The material is sticky and full of moisture content which is hard to dry. The manufacturing of paper usually produce loads of solid waste. These paper fibers are recycled in paper mills to limited number of times till they become weak to produce high quality paper. Thereafter, these left out small and weak pieces called as low quality paper fibers are detached out to become paper sludge. The material is by-product of de-inking and re-pulping of paper. This hypo sludge includes all kinds of inks, dyes, coating etc inscribed on the paper. This paper presents an overview of the published work on the use of hypo sludge in M25 concrete formulations as a supplementary cementitious material exploring its properties such as compressive strength, splitting and parameters like modulus of elasticity, density, applications and most importantly investigation of low cost concrete by using hypo sludge are presented.

Keywords: concrete, sludge waste, hypo sludge, supplementary cementitious material

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925 Studies of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of Proteosomal Gene Complex and Their Association with HBV Infection Risk in India

Authors: Jasbir Singh, Devender Kumar, Davender Redhu, Surender Kumar, Vandana Bhardwaj

Abstract:

Single Nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of proteosomal gene complex is involved in the pathogenesis of hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection. Some of such proteosomal gene complex are large multifunctional proteins (LMP) and antigen associated transporters that help in antigen presentation. Both are involved in intracellular processing and presentation of viral antigens in association with Major Histocompatability Complex (MHC) Class I molecules. A total of hundred each of hepatitis B virus infected and control samples from northern India were studied. Genomic DNA was extracted from all studied samples and PCR-RFLP method was used for genotyping at different positions of LMP genes. Genotypes at a given position were inferred from the pattern of bands and genotype frequencies and haplotype frequencies were also calculated. Homozygous SNP {A>C} was observed at codon 145 of LMP7 gene and having a protective role against HBV as there was statistically significant high distribution of this SNP among controls than cases. Heterozygous SNP {A>C} was observed at codon 145 of LMP7 gene and made individuals more susceptible to HBV infection as there was statistically significant high distribution of this SNP among cases than control. SNP {T>C} was observed at codon 60 of LMP2 gene but statistically significant differences were not observed among controls and cases. For codon 145 of LMP7 and codon 60 of LMP2 genes, four haplotypes were constructed. Haplotype I (LMP2 ‘C’ and LMP7 ‘A’) made individuals carrying it more susceptible to HBV infection as there was statistically significant high distribution of this haplotype among cases than control. Haplotype II (LMP2 ‘C’ and LMP7 ‘C’) made individuals carrying it more immune to HBV infection as there was statistically significant high distribution of this haplotype among control than cases. Thus it can be concluded that homozygous SNP {A>C} at codon 145 of LMP7 and Haplotype II (LMP2 ‘C’ and LMP7 ‘C’) has a protective role against HBV infection whereas heterozygous SNP {A>C} at codon 145 of LMP7 and Haplotype I (LMP2 ‘C’ and LMP7 ‘A’) made individuals more susceptible to HBV infection.

Keywords: Hepatitis B Virus, single nucleotide polymorphism, low molecular weight proteins, transporters associated with antigen presentation

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924 Error Analysis of Wavelet-Based Image Steganograhy Scheme

Authors: Geeta Kasana, Kulbir Singh, Satvinder Singh

Abstract:

In this paper, a steganographic scheme for digital images using Integer Wavelet Transform (IWT) is proposed. The cover image is decomposed into wavelet sub bands using IWT. Each of the subband is divided into blocks of equal size and secret data is embedded into the largest and smallest pixel values of each block of the subband. Visual quality of stego images is acceptable as PSNR between cover image and stego is above 40 dB, imperceptibility is maintained. Experimental results show better tradeoff between capacity and visual perceptivity compared to the existing algorithms. Maximum possible error analysis is evaluated for each of the wavelet subbands of an image.

Keywords: DWT, IWT, MSE, PSNR

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
923 Investigation of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Dissimilar Aluminium Alloys

Authors: Gurpreet Singh, Hazoor Singh, Kulbir Singh Sandhu

Abstract:

Friction Stir Welding Process emerged as promising solid-state welding and eliminates various welding defects like cracks and porosity in joining of dissimilar aluminum alloys. In the present research, Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is carried out on dissimilar aluminum alloys 2000 series and 6000 series this combination of alloys are highly used in automobile and aerospace industry due to their good strength to weight ratio, mechanical, and corrosion properties. The joints characterized by applying various destructive and non-destructive tests. Three critical welding parameters were considered i.e. Tool Rotation speed, Transverse speed, and Tool Geometry. The effective range of tool rotation speed from 1200-1800 rpm and transverse speed from 60-240 mm/min and tool geometry was studied. The two-different difficult to weld alloys were successfully welded. All the samples showed different microstructure with different set of welding parameters. It has been revealed with microstructure scans that grain refinement plays a crucial role in mechanical properties.

Keywords: aluminum alloys, friction stir welding, mechanical properties, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 132