Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: Jasmine Arielle C. Yap

22 Effect of Burdock Root Extract Concentration on Physiochemical Property of Coated Jasmine Rice by Using Top-Spay Fluidized Bed Coating Technique

Authors: Donludee Jaisut, Norihisa Kato, Thanutchaporn Kumrungsee, Kiyoshi Kawai, Somkiat Prachayawarakorn, Patchalee Tungtrakul

Abstract:

Jasmine Rice is a principle food of Thai people. However, glycemic index of jasmine rice is in high level, risk of type II diabetes after consuming. Burdock root is a good source of non-starch polysaccharides such as inulin. Inulin acts as prebiotic and helps reduce blood-sugar level. The purpose of this research was to reduce digestion rate of jasmine rice by coating burdock root extract on rice surface, using top-spay fluidized bed coating technique. Coating experiments were performed by spraying burdock root solution onto Jasmine rice kernels (Khao Dawk Mali-105; KDML), which had an initial moisture content of 11.6% wet basis, suspended in the fluidized bed. The experimental conditions were: solution spray rates of 31.7 mL/min, atomization pressure of 1.5 bar, spray time of 10 min, time of drying after spraying of 30 s, superficial air velocity of 3.2 m/s and drying temperatures of 60°C. The coated rice quality was evaluated in terms of the moisture content, texture, whiteness and digestion rate. The results showed that initial and final moisture contents of samples were the same in concentration 8% (v/v) and 10% (v/v). The texture was insignificantly changed from that of uncoated sample. The whiteness values were varied on concentration of burdock root extract. Coated samples were slower digested.

Keywords: burdock root, digestion, drying, rice

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21 An Investigation of the Use of Visible Spectrophotometric Analysis of Lead in an Herbal Tea Supplement

Authors: Salve Alessandria Alcantara, John Armand E. Aquino, Ma. Veronica Aranda, Nikki Francine Balde, Angeli Therese F. Cruz, Elise Danielle Garcia, Antonie Kyna Lim, Divina Gracia Lucero, Nikolai Thadeus Mappatao, Maylan N. Ocat, Jamille Dyanne L. Pajarillo, Jane Mierial A. Pesigan, Grace Kristin Viva, Jasmine Arielle C. Yap, Kathleen Michelle T. Yu, Joanna J. Orejola, Joanna V. Toralba

Abstract:

Lead is a neurotoxic metallic element that is slowly accumulated in bones and tissues especially if present in products taken in a regular basis such as herbal tea supplements. Although sensitive analytical instruments are already available, the USP limit test for lead is still widely used. However, because of its serious shortcomings, Lang Lang and his colleagues developed a spectrophotometric method for determination of lead in all types of samples. This method was the one adapted in this study. The actual procedure performed was divided into three parts: digestion, extraction and analysis. For digestion, HNO3 and CH3COOH were used. Afterwards, masking agents, 0.003% and 0.001% dithizone in CHCl3 were added and used for the extraction. For the analysis, standard addition method and colorimetry were performed. This was done in triplicates under two conditions. The 1st condition, using 25µg/mL of standard, resulted to very low absorbances with an r2 of 0.551. This led to the use of a higher concentration, 1mg/mL, for condition 2. Precipitation of lead cyanide was observed and the absorbance readings were relatively higher but between 0.15-0.25, resulting to a very low r2 of 0.429. LOQ and LOD were not computed due to the limitations of the Milton-Roy Spectrophotometer. The method performed has a shorter digestion time, and used less but more accessible reagents. However, the optimum ratio of dithizone-lead complex must be observed in order to obtain reliable results while exploring other concentration of standards.

Keywords: herbal tea supplement, lead-dithizone complex, standard addition, visible spectroscopy

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20 Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Nine Genotypes of Thai Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Authors: Pitchaon Maisuthisakul, Ladawan Changchub

Abstract:

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a staple diet in Thailand. Rice cultivation is traditional occupation of Thailand which passed down through generations. The 1 Rai 1 san project is new agricultural theory according to sufficient economy using green technology without using chemical substances. This study was conducted to evaluate total phenolics using HPLC and colorimetric methods including total anthocyanin content of Thai rice extracting by simulated gastric and intestinal condition and to estimate antioxidant capacity using DPPH and thiocyanate methods. Color and visible spectrum of rice grains were also investigated. Rice grains were classified into three groups according to their color appearance. The light brown grain genotypes are Sin Lek, Jasmine 105, Lao Tek and Hawm Ubon. The red group is Sang Yod and Red Jasmine. Genotypes Kum, Hawm Kanya and Hawm Nil are black rice grains. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside was found in only black rice genotypes, whereas chlorogenic acid was found in all rice grains. The black rice had higher phenolic content than red and light brown samples. Phenolic acids constitute a small portion of phenolic compounds after digestion in human and contribute to the antioxidant activity of Thai rice grains. Anthocyanin contents of all rice extracts ranged from 45.9 to 442.1 mg CGE/kg. All rice extracts showed the antioxidant efficiency lower than ferulic acid. Genotype Kum and Hawm nil exhibited the ability of antioxidant efficiency higher than α-tocopherol. Interestingly, the visible spectrum of only black rice genotypes showed the maximum peak at 530-540 nm. The results suggest that consumption of black rice gives more health benefits of grain to consumer.

Keywords: rice, phenolic, antioxidant, anthocyanin

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19 The Impact of Plants on Relaxation of Patients in Hospitals, Case Study: District 6th, Tehran

Authors: Hashem Hashemnejad, Abbas Yazdanfar, Mahzad Mohandes Tarighi, Denial Sadighi

Abstract:

One of the factors that can have a positive influence on the mental health is the presence of trees and flowers. Research shows that even a glance at nature can evoke positive feelings in the person and reduce his tension and stress. According to the historical, cultural, religious, and individual background in each geographical district, the relaxing or spiritual impact of certain kinds of flowers can be evaluated. In this paper, using a questionnaire, the amount of relaxing impact of prevalent trees and flowers of the district on the patients was examined. The results showed that cedar and pomegranate trees and jasmine and rose in flowers, respectively, relax the patients.

Keywords: plants, patients, mental health, relaxing

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18 Empirical Research to Improve Performances of Paddy Columnar Dryer

Authors: Duong Thi Hong, Nguyen Van Hung, Martin Gummert

Abstract:

Good practices of mechanical drying can reduce losses of grain quality. Recently, with demands of higher capacity for paddy drying in the Mekong River Delta of Vietnam, columnar dryers have been introduced rapidly in this area. To improve the technology, this study was conducted to investigate and optimize the parameters for drying Jasmine paddy using an empirical cross-flow columnar dryer. The optimum parameters were resulted in air flow rate and drying temperature that are 1-1.5 m³ s-¹ t-¹ of paddy and 40-42°C, respectively. The investigation also addressed a solution of reversing drying air to achieve the uniformity of grain temperature and quality. Results of this study should be significant for developments of grain drying, contributing to reduce post harvest losses

Keywords: paddy drying, columnar dryer, air flow rate, drying temperature

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17 Social Media as a Distribution Channel for Thailand’s Rice Berry Product

Authors: Phutthiwat Waiyawuththanapoom, Wannapong Waiyawuththanapoom, Pimploi Tirastittam

Abstract:

Nowadays, it is a globalization era which social media plays an important role to the lifestyle as an information source, tools to connect people together and etc. This research is object to find out about the significant level of the social media as a distribution channel to the agriculture product of Thailand. In this research, the agriculture product is the Rice Berry which is the cross-bred unmilled rice producing dark violet grain, is a combination of Hom Nin Rice and Thai Jasmine/ Fragrant Rice 105. Rice Berry has a very high nutrition and nice aroma so the product is in the growth stage of the product cycle. The problem for the Rice Berry product in Thailand is the production and the distribution channel. This study is to confirm that the social media is another option as the distribution channel for the product which is not a mass production product. This will be the role model for the other niche market product to select the distribution channel.

Keywords: distribution, social media, rice berry, distribution channel

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16 Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Malaysian Multi-Ethnic Discrimination Scale

Authors: Chua Bee Seok, Shamsul Amri Baharuddin, Ferlis Bahari, Jasmine Adela Mutang, Lailawati Madlan, Rosnah Ismail, Asong Joseph

Abstract:

Malaysia is a country famously known for its multiple unique cultural and ethnic diversities. Despite the diversity of culture, customs and beliefs, respectively, Malaysia still be able to stand as a harmonious country. However, if there is an attitude of stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination among ethnic, it may seriously affect the solidarity between people in Malaysia. Thus, this study focuses on constructing a scale measuring the Malaysian experience, strategy and effect of ethnic discrimination. To develop a quantitative measure on ethnic discrimination directed against Malaysian, a three-step process is proposed: Exploratory factor analysis, validity analysis, and internal consistency reliability analysis. Results, limitations, and implications of the study are discussed.

Keywords: test development, Malaysian multi-ethnic discrimination scale, exploratory factor analysis, validity, multi-ethnic, reliability, psychometrics

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15 Evaluation of Bagh Printing Motifs and Processes of Madhya Pradesh: From Past to Contemporary

Authors: Kaveri Dutta, Ratna Sharma

Abstract:

Indian traditional textile is a synthesis of various cultures. Art and crafts of a country showcases the rich cultural and artistic history of that nation. Prehistorically Indian handicrafts were basically made for day to day use; the yearning for aesthetic application soon saw the development of flooding designs and motifs. Similarly, Bagh print a traditional hand block Print with natural colours an Indian handicraft practiced in Bagh, Madhya Pradesh(India). Bagh print has its roots in Sindh, which is now a part of Pakistan. The present form of Bagh printing actually started in 1962 when the craftsmen migrated from Manavar to the neighboring town of Bagh situated in Madhya Pradesh and hence Bagh has always been associated with this printing style. Bagh printing basically involved blocks that are carved onto motifs that represent flora such as Jasmine, Mushroom leheriya and so on. There are some prints that were inspired by the jaali work that embellished the Taj Mahal and various other forts. Inspiration is also drawn from the landscapes and geometrical figures. The motifs evoke various moods in the serenity of the prints and that is the catchy element of Bagh prints. The development in this traditional textile is as essential as in another field. Nowadays fashion trends are fragile and innovative changes over existing fashion field in the short span is the demand of times. We must make efforts to preserve this cultural heritage of arts and crafts and this is done either by documenting the various ancient traditions or by making a blend of it. Since this craft is well known over the world, but the need is to document the original motif, fabric, technology and colors used in contemporary fashion. Hence keeping above points in mind this study on bagh print textiles of Madhya Pradesh work has been formulated. The information incorporated in the paper was based on secondary data taken from relevant books, journals, museum visit and articles. Besides for the demographic details and working profile of the artisans dealt with printing, an interview schedule was carried out in three regions of Madhya Pradesh. This work of art was expressed in Cotton fabric. For this study selected traditional motifs for Bang printing was used. Some of the popular traditional Bagh motifs are Jasmine, Mushroom leheriya, geometrical figures and jaali work. The Bagh printed cotton fabrics were developed into a range of men’s ethic wear in combination with embroideries from Rajasthan. Products developed were bandhgala jackets, kurtas, serwani and dupattas. From the present study, it can be observed that the embellished traditional Bang printed range of ethnic men’s wear resulted in the fresh and colourful pattern. The embroidered Bagh printed cotton fabric also created a huge change in a positive way among artisans of the three regions.

Keywords: art and craft of Madhya Pradesh, evolution of printing in India, history of Bagh printing, sources of inspiration

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14 Revision of Arthroplasty in Rheumatoid and Osteoarthritis: Methotrexate and Radiographic Lucency in RA Patients

Authors: Mike T. Wei, Douglas N. Mintz, Lisa A. Mandl, Arielle W. Fein, Jayme C. Burket, Yuo-Yu Lee, Wei-Ti Huang, Vivian P. Bykerk, Mark P. Figgie, Edward F. Di Carlo, Bruce N. Cronstein, Susan M. Goodman

Abstract:

Background/Purpose: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients have excellent total hip arthroplasty (THA) survival, and methotrexate (MTX), an anti-inflammatory disease modifying drug which may affect bone reabsorption, may play a role. The purpose of this study is to determine the diagnosis leading to revision THA (rTHA) in RA patients and to assess the association of radiographic lucency with MTX use. Methods: All patients with validated diagnosis of RA in the institution’s THA registry undergoing rTHA from May 2007 - February 2011 were eligible. Diagnosis leading to rTHA and medication use was determined by chart review. Osteolysis was evaluated on available radiographs by measuring maximum lucency in each Gruen zone. Differences within RA patients with/without MTX in osteolysis, demographics, and medications were assessed with chi-squared, Fisher's exact tests or Mann-Whitney U tests as appropriate. The error rate for multiple comparisons of lucency in the different Gruen zones was corrected via false discovery rate methods. A secondary analysis was performed to determine differences in diagnoses leading to revision between RA and matched OA controls (2:1 match by sex age +/- 5 years). OA exclusion criteria included presence of rheumatic diseases, use of MTX, and lack of records. Results: 51 RA rTHA were identified and compared with 103 OA. Mean age for RA was 57.7 v 59.4 years for OA (p = 0.240). 82.4% RA were female v 83.5% OA (p = 0.859). RA had lower BMI than OA (25.5 v 28.2; p = 0.166). There was no difference in diagnosis leading to rTHA, including infection (RA 3.9 v OA 6.8%; p = 0.719) or dislocation (RA 23.5 v OA 23.3%; p = 0.975). There was no significant difference in the length of time the implant was in before revision: RA 11.0 v OA 8.8 years (p = 0.060). Among RA with/without MTX, there was no difference in use of biologics (30.0 v 43.3%, p = 0.283), steroids (47.6 v 50.0%, p = 0.867) or bisphosphonates (23.8 v 33.3%, p = 0.543). There was no difference in rTHA diagnosis with/without MTX, including loosening (52.4 v 56.7%, p = 0.762). There was no significant difference in lucencies with MTX use in any Gruen zone. Patients with MTX had femoral stem subsidence of 3.7mm v no subsidence without MTX (p = 0.006). Conclusion: There was no difference in the diagnosis leading to rTHR in RA and OA, although RA trended longer prior to rTHA. In this small retrospective study, there were no significant differences associated with MTX exposure or radiographic lucency among RA patients. The significance of subsidence is not clear. Further study of arthroplasty survival in RA patients is warranted.

Keywords: hip arthroplasty, methotrexate, revision arthroplasty, rheumatoid arthritis

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13 The Hurricane 'Bump': Measuring the Effects of Hurricanes on Wages in Southern Louisiana

Authors: Jasmine Latiolais

Abstract:

Much of the disaster-related literature finds a positive relationship between the impact of a natural disaster and the growth of wages. Panel datasets are often used to explore these effects. However, natural disasters do not impact a single variable in the economy. Rather, natural disasters affect all facets of the economy, simultaneously, upon impact. It is difficult to control for all factors that would be influenced by the impact of a natural disaster, which can lead to lead to omitted variable bias in those studies employing panel datasets. To address this issue of omitted variable bias, an interrupted time series analysis is used to test the short-run relationship between the impact of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on parish wage levels in Southern Louisiana, inherently controlling for economic conditions. This study provides evidence that natural disasters do increase wages in the very short term (one quarter following the impact of the hurricane) but that these results are not seen in the longer term and are not robust. In addition, the significance of the coefficients changes depending on the parish. Overall, this study finds that previous literature on this topic may not be robust when considered through a time-series lens.

Keywords: economic recovery, local economies, local wage growth, natural disasters

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12 Recycling Motivations and Barriers in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia

Authors: Jasmine Adela Mutang, Rosnah Ismail, Chua Bee Seok, Ferlis Bahari, Lailawati Madlan, Walton Wider, Rickless Das

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Waste projection is increasing and most landfills in Malaysia are running out of space. Due to that, waste management is now becoming a major challenge. The most sustainable solution is by practicing sustainable practices such as recycling. Since 1993 the government has launched several recycling campaigns and implemented the National Recycling Policy. However, public participation is still very low. Only 10.5% of solid waste was recycled up to now which is far below than of in developed countries. Nevertheless the government is optimistic that the target of 22% recycling by 2020 will be achieved if there is a positive flow pattern in sustainable practices in particular recycling behavior among Malaysian. Understanding public motivations towards recycling domestic waste are important to improve current recycling rate. Thus this study attempts to identify what are the possible motivations and hindrances for the public to recycle. Open-ended questions format were administered to 484 people in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Two specific questions we asked to explore their general determinants and barriers in practicing recycling: “What motivates you to recycle?” and “What are the barriers you encountered in doing recycling activities?” Thematic analysis was conducted on the open-ended questions in which themes were created with the raw comments. It was found that the underlying recycling motivations are awareness’ towards the environment, benefits to the society and individual, and social influence. Non participations are influence by attitudes, commitment, facilities, knowledge, inconvenience, and enforcement.

Keywords: recycling motivation, recycling barrier, sustainable, household waste

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11 Studying the Relationship Between Washback Effects of IELTS Test on Iranian Language Teachers, Teaching Strategies and Candidates

Authors: Afsaneh Jasmine Majidi

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Language testing is an important part of language teaching experience and language learning process as it presents assessment strategies for teachers to evaluate the efficiency of teaching and for learners to examine their outcomes. However, language testing is demanding and challenging because it should provide the opportunity for proper and objective decision. In addition to all the efforts test designers put to design valid and reliable tests, there are some other determining factors which are even more complex and complicated. These factors affect the educational system, individuals, and society, and the impact of the tests vary according to the scope of the test. Seemingly, the impact of a simple classroom assessment is not the same as that of high stake tests such as International English Language Testing System (IELTS). As the importance of the test increases, it affects wider domain. Accordingly, the impacts of high stake tests are reflected not only in teaching, learning strategies but also in society. Testing experts use the term ‘washback’ or ‘impact’ to define the different effects of a test on teaching, learning, and community. This paper first looks at the theoretical background of ‘washback’ and ‘impact’ in language testing by reviewing of relevant literature in the field and then investigates washback effects of IELTS test of on Iranian IELTS teachers and students. The study found significant relationship between the washback effect of IELTS test and teaching strategies of Iranian IELTS teachers as well as performance of Iranian IELTS candidates and their community.

Keywords: high stake tests, IELTS, Iranian Candidates, language testing, test impact, washback

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10 Molecular Epidemiology of Circulating Adenovirus Types in Acute Conjunctivitis Cases in Chandigarh, North India

Authors: Mini P. Singh, Jagat Ram, Archit Kumar, Tripti Rungta, Jasmine Khurana, Amit Gupta, R. K. Ratho

Abstract:

Introduction: Human adenovirus is the most common agent involved in viral conjunctivitis. The clinical manifestations vary with different serotypes. The identification of the circulating strains followed by phylogenetic analysis can be helpful in understanding the origin and transmission of the disease. The present study aimed to carry out molecular epidemiology of the adenovirus types in the patients with conjunctivitis presenting to the eye centre of a tertiary care hospital in North India. Materials and Methods: The conjunctival swabs were collected from 23 suspected adenoviral conjunctivitis patients between April-August, 2014 and transported in viral transport media. The samples were subjected to nested PCR targeting hexon gene of human adenovirus. The band size of 956bp was eluted and 8 representative positive samples were subjected to sequencing. The sequences were analyzed by using CLUSTALX2.1 and MEGA 5.1 software. Results: The male: female ratio was found to be 3.6:1. The mean age of presenting patients was 43.95 years (+17.2). Approximately 52.1% (12/23) of patients presented with bilateral involvement while 47.8% (11/23) with unilateral involvement of the eye. Human adenovirus DNA could be detected in 65.2% (15/23) of the patients. The phylogenetic analysis revealed presence of serotype 8 in 7 patients and serotype 4 in one patient. The serotype 8 sequences showed 99-100% identity with Tunisian, Indian and Japanese strains. The adenovirus serotype 4 strains had 100% identity with strains from Tunisia, China and USA. Conclusion: Human adenovirus was found be an important etiological agent for conjunctivitis in our set up. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the predominant circulating strains in our epidemic keratoconjunctivitis were serotypes 8 and 4.

Keywords: conjunctivitis, human adenovirus, molecular epidemiology, phylogenetics

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9 Development and Validation of Employee Trust Scale: Factor Structure, Reliability and Validity

Authors: Chua Bee Seok, Getrude Cosmas, Jasmine Adela Mutang, Shazia Iqbal Hashmi

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The aims of this study were to determine the factor structure and psychometric properties (i.e., reliability and convergent validity) of the employees trust scale, a newly created instrument by the researchers. The employees trust scale initially contained 82 items to measure employee’s trust toward their supervisors. A sample of 818 (343 females, 449 males) employees were selected randomly from public and private organization sectors in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Their ages ranged from 19 to 67 years old with the mean of 34.55 years old. Their average tenure with their current employer was 11.2 years (s.d. = 7.5 years). The respondents were asked to complete the employees trust scale, as well as a managerial trust questionnaire from Mishra. The exploratory factor analysis on employee’s trust toward their supervisor’s extracted three factors, labeled 'trustworthiness' (32 items), 'position status' (11 items) and 'relationship' (6 items) which accounted for 62.49% of the total variance. Trustworthiness factors were re-categorized into three sub factors: competency (11 items), benevolence (8 items) and integrity (13 items). All factors and sub factors of the scales demonstrated clear reliability with internal consistency of Cronbach’s Alpha above 0.85. The convergent validity of the Scale was supported by an expected pattern of correlations (positive and significant correlation) between the score of all factors and sub factors of the scale and the score on the managerial trust questionnaire which measured the same construct. The convergent validity of employees trust scale was further supported by the significant and positive inter correlation between the factors and sub factors of the scale. The results suggest that the employees trust scale is a reliable and valid measure. However, further studies need to be carried out in other groups of sample as to further validate the Scale.

Keywords: employees trust scale, psychometric properties, trustworthiness, position status, relationship

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8 Adaptation of Research Methodology in a Culture: A Reflection from Bangladesh

Authors: Umme Habiba Jasmine, Mzikazi Nduna

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Due to the dearth of exploratory research in Bangladesh on parenting practices and transmission thereof, there is a lack of information on culture-sensitive methodology in studying this topic. This paper aims to share some methodological reflections from the research field, which will address this knowledge gap. Eleven dyads of biological mothers and maternal grandmothers of school-going children constituted the sample, and a female fieldworker conducted one-to-one, semi-structured, in-depth interviews with them. The participants were recruited through purposive sampling through a representative of a cooperative society in Mirpur area in Bangladesh. Four dyads of the sample outside that eleven dyads were discarded because of the unavailability of the other participant of the dyads or unsuitability for an in-depth interview. The sample recruitment strategy of approaching mothers without their known reference body had to be discarded because of existing social insecurity in Dhaka city. To meet the cultural demand of the research field the researcher had to change in the research plan and comply with the cultural tradition of mutual entertainment with food while conducting interviews which helped in engaging in positive interaction. Also, the researcher had to compromise the strict confidentiality to a collectivistic sense of confidentiality of the in-depth interview sessions. This study suggests future researchers to investigate Bangladeshi traditional practices and accommodate the applicable ones in their research plan for qualitative studies, especially the Bengali tradition of hospitality and shared confidentiality for building rapport and for proper access to the targeted information and research participants. Sample recruitment should always accompany a well-accepted reference person in the targeted research field.

Keywords: confidentiality, culture-sensitive, ethics, parenting practices, sampling

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7 A Systematic Review on Measuring the Physical Activity Level and Pattern in Persons with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Authors: Kuni Vergauwen, Ivan P. J. Huijnen, Astrid Depuydt, Jasmine Van Regenmortel, Mira Meeus

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A lower activity level and imbalanced activity pattern are frequently observed in persons with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) / myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) due to debilitating fatigue and post-exertional malaise (PEM). Identification of measurement instruments to evaluate the activity level and pattern is therefore important. The objective is to identify measurement instruments suited to evaluate the activity level and/or pattern in patients with CFS/ME and review their psychometric properties. A systematic literature search was performed in the electronic databases PubMed and Web of Science until 12 October 2016. Articles including relevant measurement instruments were identified and included for further analysis. The psychometric properties of relevant measurement instruments were extracted from the included articles and rated based on the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. The review was performed and reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. A total of 49 articles and 15 unique measurement instruments were found, but only three instruments were evaluated in patients with CFS/ME: the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome-Activity Questionnaire (CFS-AQ), Activity Pattern Interview (API) and International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF), three self-report instruments measuring the physical activity level. The IPAQ-SF, CFS-AQ and API are all equally capable of evaluating the physical activity level, but none of the three measurement instruments are optimal to use. No studies about the psychometric properties of activity monitors in patients with CFS/ME were found, although they are often used as the gold standard to measure the physical activity pattern. More research is needed to evaluate the psychometric properties of existing instruments, including the use of activity monitors.

Keywords: chronic fatigue syndrome, data collection, physical activity, psychometrics

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6 Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Potential of Aqueous Extract of Jasminum humile Leaves in Nicotinamide/Streptozotocin induced Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) Rat

Authors: Parminder Nain, Jaspreet kaur, Vipin Saini, Sunil Sharma

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Jasminum humile commonly known as yellow Jasmine or Pili chameli, is a medicinal plant used in Ayurveda for treating various diseases, one of which is diabetes mellitus. The current study aimed to establish the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of aqueous extract of Jasminum humile leaves (AEJHL) in nicotinamide/streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats. Phytochemical screening, HPLC analysis, and acute toxicity study of AEJHL were carried out. Male albino wistar rats (n=42) were divided into seven equal groups. Rats with moderate diabetes having hyperglycemia (blood glucose 250-400 mg/dl) were taken for the experiment. Various concentrations of aqueous extract of Jasminum humile leaves (50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.), and glibenclamide (1mg/kg, p.o.) were orally administered to diabetic rats for 45 days. The effect of AEJHL on blood glucose, plasma insulin and biochemical parameters such as hemoglobin, total protein, serum creatinine, serum urea, alkaline phosphate, Glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), as well as total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were also studied. The antioxidant effect of AEJHL was determined by analyzing hepatic and renal antioxidant markers, like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced Glutathione (GSH), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in diabetic rats. After 45-days oral administration of aqueous extract of Jasminum humile leaves significantly (p<0.05) reduced blood sugar and increase plasma insulin level and also reverse all above biochemical parameters and antioxidant enzyme level at dose dependent manner. These findings provide in vivo evidence that the aqueous extract of Jasminum humile leaves possess significant antidiabetic and antioxidant potential in nicotinamide/streptozotocin-induced type-2 diabetes mellitus in rats.

Keywords: antidiabetic, antioxidant, jasminum humile, nicotinamide/streptozotocin, type-2 diabetic

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5 An Assessment of Digital Platforms, Student Online Learning, Teaching Pedagogies, Research and Training at Kenya College of Accounting University

Authors: Jasmine Renner, Alice Njuguna

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The booming technological revolution is driving a change in the mode of delivery systems especially for e-learning and distance learning in higher education. The report and findings of the study; an assessment of digital platforms, student online learning, teaching pedagogies, research and training at Kenya College of Accounting University (hereinafter 'KCA') was undertaken as a joint collaboration project between the Carnegie African Diaspora Fellowship and input from the staff, students and faculty at KCA University. The participants in this assessment/research met for selected days during a six-week period during which, one-one consultations, surveys, questionnaires, foci groups, training, and seminars were conducted to ascertain 'online learning and teaching, curriculum development, research and training at KCA.' The project was organized into an eight-week project workflow with each week culminating in project activities designed to assess digital online teaching and learning at KCA. The project also included the training of distance learning instructors at KCA and the evaluation of KCA’s distance platforms and programs. Additionally, through a curriculum audit and redesign, the project sought to enhance the curriculum development activities related to of distance learning at KCA. The findings of this assessment/research represent the systematic deliberate process of gathering, analyzing and using data collected from DL students, DL staff and lecturers and a librarian personnel in charge of online learning resources and access at KCA. We engaged in one-on-one interviews and discussions with staff, students, and faculty and collated the findings to inform practices that are effective in the ongoing design and development of eLearning earning at KCA University. Overall findings of the project led to the following recommendations. First, there is a need to address infrastructural challenges that led to poor internet connectivity for online learning, training needs and content development for faculty and staff. Second, there is a need to manage cultural impediments within KCA; for example fears of vital change from one platform to another for effectiveness and Institutional goodwill as a vital promise of effective online learning. Third, at a practical and short-term level, the following recommendations based on systematic findings of the research conducted were as follows: there is a need for the following to be adopted at KCA University to promote the effective adoption of online learning: a) an eLearning compatible faculty lab, b) revision of policy to include an eLearn strategy or strategic management, c) faculty and staff recognitions engaged in the process of training for the adoption and implementation of eLearning and d) adequate website resources on eLearning. The report and findings represent a comprehensive approach to a systematic assessment of online teaching and learning, research and training at KCA.

Keywords: e-learning, digital platforms, student online learning, online teaching pedagogies

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4 Oligarchic Transitions within the Tunisian Autocratic Authoritarian System and the Struggle for Democratic Transformation: Before and beyond the 2010 Jasmine Revolution

Authors: M. Moncef Khaddar

Abstract:

This paper focuses mainly on a contextualized understanding of ‘autocratic authoritarianism’ in Tunisia without approaching its peculiarities in reference to the ideal type of capitalist-liberal democracy but rather analysing it as a Tunisian ‘civilian dictatorship’. This is reminiscent, to some extent, of the French ‘colonial authoritarianism’ in parallel with the legacy of the traditional formal monarchic absolutism. The Tunisian autocratic political system is here construed as a state manufactured nationalist-populist authoritarianism associated with a de facto presidential single party, two successive autocratic presidents and their subservient autocratic elites who ruled with an iron fist the de-colonialized ‘liberated nation’ that came to be subjected to a large scale oppression and domination under the new Tunisian Republic. The diachronic survey of Tunisia’s autocratic authoritarian system covers the early years of autocracy, under the first autocratic president Bourguiba, 1957-1987, as well as the different stages of its consolidation into a police-security state under the second autocratic president, Ben Ali, 1987-2011. Comparing the policies of authoritarian regimes, within what is identified synchronically as a bi-cephalous autocratic system, entails an in-depth study of the two autocrats, who ruled Tunisia for more than half a century, as modern adaptable autocrats. This is further supported by an exploration of the ruling authoritarian autocratic elites who played a decisive role in shaping the undemocratic state-society relations, under the 1st and 2nd President, and left an indelible mark, structurally and ideologically, on Tunisian polity. Emphasis is also put on the members of the governmental and state-party institutions and apparatuses that kept circulating and recycling from one authoritarian regime to another, and from the first ‘founding’ autocrat to his putschist successor who consolidated authoritarian stability, political continuity and autocratic governance. The reconfiguration of Tunisian political life, in the post-autocratic era, since 2011 will be analysed. This will be scrutinized, especially in light of the unexpected return of many high-profile figures and old guards of the autocratic authoritarian apparatchiks. How and why were, these public figures, from an autocratic era, able to return in a supposedly post-revolutionary moment? Finally, while some continue to celebrate the putative exceptional success of ‘democratic transition’ in Tunisia, within a context of ‘unfinished revolution’, others remain perplexed in the face of a creeping ‘oligarchic transition’ to a ‘hybrid regime’, characterized rather by elites’ reformist tradition than a bottom-up genuine democratic ‘change’. This latter is far from answering the 2010 ordinary people’s ‘uprisings’ and ‘aspirations, for ‘Dignity, Liberty and Social Justice’.

Keywords: authoritarianism, autocracy, democratization, democracy, populism, transition, Tunisia

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3 The Resource-Base View of Organization and Innovation: Recognition of Significant Relationship in an Organization

Authors: Francis Deinmodei W. Poazi, Jasmine O. Tamunosiki-Amadi, Maurice Fems

Abstract:

In recent times the resource-based view (RBV) of strategic management has recorded a sizeable attention yet there has not been a considerable scholarly and managerial discourse, debate and attention. As a result, this paper gives special bit of critical reasoning as well as top-notch analyses and relationship between RBV and organizational innovation. The study examines those salient aspects of RBV that basically have the will power in ensuring the organization's capacity to go for innovative capability. In achieving such fit and standpoint, the paper joins other relevant academic discourse and empirical evidence. To this end, a reasonable amount of contributions in setting the ground running for future empirical researches would have been provided. More so, the study is guided and built on the following strength and significance: Firstly, RBV sees resources as heterogeneity which forms a strong point of strength and allows organisations to gain competitive advantage. In order words, competitive advantage can be achieved or delivered to the organization when resources are distinctively utilized in a valuable manner more than the envisaged competitors of the organization. Secondly, RBV is significantly influential in determining the real resources that are available in the organization with a view to locate capabilities within in order to attract more profitability into the organization when applied. Thus, there will be more sustainable growth and success in the ever competitive and emerging market. Thus, to have succinct description of the basic methodologies, the study adopts both qualitative as well as quantitative approach with a view to have a broad samples of opinion in establishing and identifying key and strategic organizational resources to enable managers of resources to gain a competitive advantage as well as generating a sustainable increase and growth in profit. Furthermore, a comparative approach and analysis was used to examine the performance of RBV within the organization. Thus, the following are some of the findings of the study: it is clear that there is a nexus between RBV and growth of competitively viable organizations. More so, in most parts, organizations have heterogeneous resources domiciled in their organizations but not all organizations as it was specifically and intelligently adopting the tenets of RBV to strengthen heterogeneity of resources which allows organisations to gain competitive advantage. Other findings of this study reveal that of managerial perception of RBV with respect to application and transformation of resources to achieve a profitable end. It is against this backdrop, the importance of RBV cannot be overemphasized; the study is strongly convinced and think that RBV view is one focal and distinct approach that is focused on internal to outside strategy which engenders sourcing or generating resources internally as well as having the quest to apply such internally sourced resources diligently to increase or gain competitive advantage.

Keywords: resource-based view, innovation, organisation, recognition significant relationship and theoretical perspective

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2 In Search of Innovation: Exploring the Dynamics of Innovation

Authors: Michal Lysek, Mike Danilovic, Jasmine Lihua Liu

Abstract:

HMS Industrial Networks AB has been recognized as one of the most innovative companies in the industrial communication industry worldwide. The creation of their Anybus innovation during the 1990s contributed considerably to the company’s success. From inception, HMS’ employees were innovating for the purpose of creating new business (the creation phase). After the Anybus innovation, they began the process of internationalization (the commercialization phase), which in turn led them to concentrate on cost reduction, product quality, delivery precision, operational efficiency, and increasing growth (the growth phase). As a result of this transformation, performing new radical innovations have become more complicated. The purpose of our research was to explore the dynamics of innovation at HMS from the aspect of key actors, activities, and events, over the three phases, in order to understand what led to the creation of their Anybus innovation, and why it has become increasingly challenging for HMS to create new radical innovations for the future. Our research methodology was based on a longitudinal, retrospective study from the inception of HMS in 1988 to 2014, a single case study inspired by the grounded theory approach. We conducted 47 interviews and collected 1 024 historical documents for our research. Our analysis has revealed that HMS’ success in creating the Anybus, and developing a successful business around the innovation, was based on three main capabilities – cultivating customer relations on different managerial and organizational levels, inspiring business relations, and balancing complementary human assets for the purpose of business creation. The success of HMS has turned the management’s attention away from past activities of key actors, of their behavior, and how they influenced and stimulated the creation of radical innovations. Nowadays, they are rhetorically focusing on creativity and innovation. All the while, their real actions put emphasis on growth, cost reduction, product quality, delivery precision, operational efficiency, and moneymaking. In the process of becoming an international company, HMS gradually refocused. In so doing they became profitable and successful, but they also forgot what made them innovative in the first place. Fortunately, HMS’ management has come to realize that this is the case and they are now in search of recapturing innovation once again. Our analysis indicates that HMS’ management is facing several barriers to innovation related path dependency and other lock-in phenomena. HMS’ management has been captured, trapped in their mindset and actions, by the success of the past. But now their future has to be secured, and they have come to realize that moneymaking is not everything. In recent years, HMS’ management have begun to search for innovation once more, in order to recapture their past capabilities for creating radical innovations. In order to unlock their managerial perceptions of customer needs and their counter-innovation driven activities and events, to utilize the full potential of their employees and capture the innovation opportunity for the future.

Keywords: barriers to innovation, dynamics of innovation, in search of excellence and innovation, radical innovation

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1 Design of Experiment for Optimizing Immunoassay Microarray Printing

Authors: Alex J. Summers, Jasmine P. Devadhasan, Douglas Montgomery, Brittany Fischer, Jian Gu, Frederic Zenhausern

Abstract:

Immunoassays have been utilized for several applications, including the detection of pathogens. Our laboratory is in the development of a tier 1 biothreat panel utilizing Vertical Flow Assay (VFA) technology for simultaneous detection of pathogens and toxins. One method of manufacturing VFA membranes is with non-contact piezoelectric dispensing, which provides advantages, such as low-volume and rapid dispensing without compromising the structural integrity of antibody or substrate. Challenges of this processinclude premature discontinuation of dispensing and misaligned spotting. Preliminary data revealed the Yp 11C7 mAb (11C7)reagent to exhibit a large angle of failure during printing which may have contributed to variable printing outputs. A Design of Experiment (DOE) was executed using this reagent to investigate the effects of hydrostatic pressure and reagent concentration on microarray printing outputs. A Nano-plotter 2.1 (GeSIM, Germany) was used for printing antibody reagents ontonitrocellulose membrane sheets in a clean room environment. A spotting plan was executed using Spot-Front-End software to dispense volumes of 11C7 reagent (20-50 droplets; 1.5-5 mg/mL) in a 6-test spot array at 50 target membrane locations. Hydrostatic pressure was controlled by raising the Pressure Compensation Vessel (PCV) above or lowering it below our current working level. It was hypothesized that raising or lowering the PCV 6 inches would be sufficient to cause either liquid accumulation at the tip or discontinue droplet formation. After aspirating 11C7 reagent, we tested this hypothesis under stroboscope.75% of the effective raised PCV height and of our hypothesized lowered PCV height were used. Humidity (55%) was maintained using an Airwin BO-CT1 humidifier. The number and quality of membranes was assessed after staining printed membranes with dye. The droplet angle of failure was recorded before and after printing to determine a “stroboscope score” for each run. The DOE set was analyzed using JMP software. Hydrostatic pressure and reagent concentration had a significant effect on the number of membranes output. As hydrostatic pressure was increased by raising the PCV 3.75 inches or decreased by lowering the PCV -4.5 inches, membrane output decreased. However, with the hydrostatic pressure closest to equilibrium, our current working level, membrane output, reached the 50-membrane target. As the reagent concentration increased from 1.5 to 5 mg/mL, the membrane output also increased. Reagent concentration likely effected the number of membrane output due to the associated dispensing volume needed to saturate the membranes. However, only hydrostatic pressure had a significant effect on stroboscope score, which could be due to discontinuation of dispensing, and thus the stroboscope check could not find a droplet to record. Our JMP predictive model had a high degree of agreement with our observed results. The JMP model predicted that dispensing the highest concentration of 11C7 at our current PCV working level would yield the highest number of quality membranes, which correlated with our results. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Chemical Biological Technologies Directorate (Contract # HDTRA1-16-C-0026) and the Advanced Technology International (Contract # MCDC-18-04-09-002) from the Department of Defense Chemical and Biological Defense program through the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).

Keywords: immunoassay, microarray, design of experiment, piezoelectric dispensing

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