Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 261

Search results for: organisation

261 IT/IS Organisation Design in the Digital Age: A Literature Review

Authors: Dominik Krimpmann

Abstract:

Information technology and information systems are currently at a tipping point. The digital age fundamentally transforms a large number of industries in the ways they work. Lines between business and technology blur. Researchers have acknowledged that this is the time in which the IT/IS organisation needs to re-strategise itself. In this paper, the author provides a structured review of the IS and organisation design literature addressing the question of how the digital age changes the design categories of an IT/IS organisation design. The findings show that most papers just analyse single aspects of either IT/IS relevant information or generic organisation design elements but miss a holistic ‘big-picture’ onto an IT/IS organisation design. This paper creates a holistic IT/IS organisation design framework bringing together the IS research strand, the digital strand and the generic organisation design strand. The research identified four IT/IS organisation design categories (strategy, structure, processes and people) and discusses the importance of two additional categories (sourcing and governance). The authors findings point to a first anchor point from which further research needs to be conducted to develop a holistic IT/IS organisation design framework.

Keywords: IT/IS strategy, IT/IS organisation design, digital age, organisational effectiveness, literature review

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260 An Empirical Study Comparing Industry Segments as Regards Organisation Management in Open Innovation - Based on a Questionnaire of the Pharmaceutical Industry and IT Component Industry Segment

Authors: Fumihiko Isada, Yuriko Isada

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The aim of this research is to clarify the difference by industry segment or product characteristics as regards organisation management for an open innovation to raise R&D performance. In particular, the trait of the pharmaceutical industry is defined in comparison with IT component industry segment. In considering open innovation, both inter-organisational relation and the management in an organisation are important issues. As methodology, a questionnaire was conducted. In conclusion, suitable organisation management according to the difference in industry segment or product characteristics became clear.

Keywords: empirical study, industry segment, open innovation, product-development organisation pattern

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259 Dilemmas of HRM in a Project-Oriented Organisation

Authors: Katarzyna Piwowar-Sulej

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The functioning of a project-oriented organisation creates new and different, from the traditional ones, conditions for human resources management. In the analysed case HRM is primarily characterized by a double-track nature – on the one hand within the framework of permanent structures (departments) and, on the other, within the area of particular projects. The purpose of the article is to present the dilemmas associated with the development of selected HRM areas in project-oriented organisations. Theoretical discussion was supplemented by the results of empirical research.

Keywords: human resources management, tracks of HRM, project, project-oriented organisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
258 Social Responsibility in the Theory of Organisation Management

Authors: Patricia Crentsil, Alvina Oriekhova

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The aim of the study is to determine social responsibility in the theory of organisation management. The main objectives are to examine the link between accountability,transparency, and ethical onorganisation management. The study seeks to answer questions that have received inadequate attention in social responsibility literature. Specifically, how accountability, transparency of policy, and ethical aspect enhanced organisation management? The target population of the study comprises of Deans and Head of Departments of Public Universities and Technical Universities in Ghana. The study used purposive sampling technique to select the Public Universities and technical universities in Ghana and adopted simple random Technique to select 300 participants from all Technical Universities in Ghana and 500 participants from all Traditional Universities in Ghana. The sample size will be 260 using confidence level = 95%, Margin of Error = 5%. The study used both primary and secondary data. The study adopted exploratory design to address the research questions. Results indicated thataccountability, transparency, and ethical have a positive significant link with organisation management. The study suggested that management can motivate an organization to act in a socially responsible manner.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, organisation management, organisation management theory, social responsibility

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257 Strategic Maintenance Management of Built Facilities in an Organisation

Authors: Anita D. Adamu, Winston M. W. Shakantu

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Maintenance management is no longer a stand-alone activity. It has now assumed a strategic position in many organisations that have recognised its importance in achieving primary goals and a key aspect of effective management of facilities. This paper aims at providing an understanding of the role and function of strategic management in creating and sustaining an effective maintenance management system in an organisation. The background provides an articulated concept and principles of strategic management. The theoretical concepts paved way for a conceptual framework for which strategic management can be integrated into the maintenance management system of an organisation to improve effectiveness in the maintenance of facilities.

Keywords: facilities, maintenance management, organisations, strategic management

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256 Solving One of the Variants of Necktie Paradox for Business Proposals

Authors: Natarajan Vijayarangan, Viswanath Kumar Ganesan, G. Kumudhavalli

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This abstract figures out an uncertainty problem pertaining to evaluating business proposals or concept notes in an organisation. Let us consider business proposal evaluation process (BPEP) for execution of corporate research cum business projects in the organisation. Assume that two concept notes X and Y of BPEP are approved: one of them is a full-fledged type (100% financial approval given by the organisation) - X and other one is a conditional type (a partial financial approval given by the organisation) - Y. Then a penalty criteria has been introduced during the process. At the end of annual appraisal, if both of them complete as per the goals and objectives committed or figured out at the time of concept note submission, then both will get an incentive of $N from the organisation. If one of them doesn't fulfill the goals and objectives at the year-end appraisal, then d% reduction or cut will be levied on the project budget for the next year. If X fulfills the goals and objectives and Y doesn't , then X gets a gain of d% on Y's previous year budget and Y gets a loss of d% from the previous year budget for the next year. And vice-versa. Further, an incentive of $N will be given to those who gains. This process is a part of Necktie paradox and inherits an uncertainty principle on X or Y getting more than $N even if X or Y performs well.Solving the above problem and generalizing on finitely many concept notes will be a challenging task.

Keywords: concept notes, necktie paradox, annual appraisal, project budget and gain or loss

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255 An Evaluation of Rational Approach to Management by Objectives in Construction Contracting Organisation

Authors: Zakir H. Shaik, Punam L. Vartak

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Management By Objectives (MBO) is a management technique in which objectives of an organisation are conveyed to the employees to establish the individual goals. These objectives and goals are then monitored and assessed jointly by management and the employee time to time. This tool can be used for planning, monitoring as well as for performance appraisal. The success of an organisation is largely dependent on its’s Vision. Thus, it is of paramount importance to achieve the realm of vision through a mission which is well crafted within the organisation to address the objectives. The success of the mission depends upon how realistic and action oriented philosophical approach, an organisation caters to; and how the individual goals are set to track and meet the objectives. Thus, focused and passionate efforts of the team, assigned for the mission, are an absolute obligation for achieving the vision of any organisation. Any construction site is generally a controlled disorder having huge investments, resources and logistics involved. The Construction progression is time-consuming with many isolated as well as interconnected activities. Traditional MBO approach can be unsuccessful if planning and control is non-realistic and inflexible. Moreover, the Construction Industry is far behind understanding these concepts. It is important to address the employee engagement in defining and creating awareness to achieve the targets. Besides, current economic environment and competitive world demands refined management tools to achieve profit, growth and survival of the business. Therefore, the necessity of rational MBO becomes vital part towards the success of an organisation. This paper details about the philosophical assumptions to develop the grounded theory in lieu of achieving objectives through RATIONAL MBO approach in Construction Contracting Organisations. The goals and objectives of the Construction Contracting Organisations can be achieved efficiently by adopting this RATIONAL MBO approach, as those are based on realistic, logical and balanced assumptions.

Keywords: growth, leadership, management by objectives, Management By Objectives (MBO), profit, rational

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254 Review of Assessment of Integrated Information System (IIS) in Organisation

Authors: Mariya Salihu Ingawa, Sani Suleiman Isah

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The assessment of Integrated Information System (IIS) in organisation is an important initiative to enable the Information System (IS) managers, as well as top management to understand the success status of their investment in IS integration efforts. However, without a proper assessment, an organisation will not know its IIS status, which may affect their judgment on what action should be taken onwards. Current research on IIS assessment is lacking and those related literature on IIS assessment focus more on assessing the technical aspect of IIS. It is argued that assessing technical aspect alone is inadequate since organisational and strategic aspects in IIS should also be considered. Current methods, techniques and tools used by vendors for IIS assessment also are lack of comprehensive measures to fully assess the Integrated Information System in term of technical, organisational and strategic domains. The purpose of this study is to establish critical success factors for measuring success of an Integrated Information System. These factors are used as the basis for constructing an approach to comprehensively assess IIS in an organisation. A comprehensive list of success factors for IIS assessment, established from literature, was initially presented. An expert surveys using both manual and online methods were conducted to verify the factors. Based on the factors, an instrument for IIS assessment was constructed. The results from a case study indicate that through comprehensive assessment approach, not only the level of success been known, but also reveals the contributing factors. This research contributes to the field of Information Systems specifically in the area of Integrated Information System assessment.

Keywords: integrated information system, expert surveys, organisation, assessment

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253 Terrorism: A Threat in Constant Evolution Still Misunderstood

Authors: M. J. Gazapo Lapayese

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It is a well-established fact that terrorism is one of the foremost threats to present-day international security. The creation of tools or mechanisms for confronting it in an effective and efficient manner will only be possible by way of an objective assessment of the phenomenon. In order to achieve this, this paper has the following three main objectives: Firstly, setting out to find the reasons that have prevented the establishment of a universally accepted definition of terrorism, and consequently trying to outline the main features defining the face of the terrorist threat in order to discover the fundamental goals of what is now a serious blight on world society. Secondly, trying to explain the differences between a terrorist movement and a terrorist organisation, and the reasons for which a terrorist movement can be led to transform itself into an organisation. After analysing these motivations and the characteristics of a terrorist organisation, an example of the latter will be succinctly analysed to help the reader understand the ideas expressed. Lastly, discovering and exposing the factors that can lead to the appearance of terrorist tendencies, and discussing the most efficient and effective responses that can be given to this global security threat.

Keywords: responses, resilience, security, terrorism

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
252 Psychopathic Manager Behavior and the Employee Workplace Deviance: The Mediating Role of Revenge Motive, the Moderating Roles of Core Self-Evaluations and Attitude Importance

Authors: Sinem Bulkan

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This study introduces the construct of psychopathic manager behaviour and aims for the development of psychopathic manager behaviour (Psycho-Man B) measure. The study also aims for the understanding of the relationship between psychopathic manager behaviour and workplace deviance while investigating the mediating role of a revenge motive and the moderating roles of the core self-evaluations and the attitude importance. Data were collected from 519 employees from a wide variety of jobs and industries who currently work for or previously worked for a manager in a collectivist culture, Turkey. Psycho-Man B Measure was developed resulting in five dimensions as opposed to the proposed ten dimensions. Simple linear and hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to test the hypotheses. The results of simple linear regression analyses showed that psychopathic manager behaviour was positively significantly related to supervisor-directed and organisation-directed deviance. Revenge motive towards the manager partially mediated the relationship between psychopathic manager behaviour and supervisor-directed deviance. Similarly, revenge motive towards the organisation partially mediated the relationship between psychopathic manager behaviour and organisation-directed deviance. Furthermore, no support was found for the expected moderating role of core self-evaluations in the revenge motive towards the manager-supervisor-directed deviance and revenge motive towards the organisation-organisation-directed deviance relationships. Attitude importance moderated the relationship between revenge motive towards the manager and supervisor-directed deviance; revenge motive towards the organisation and organisation-directed deviance. Moderated-mediation hypotheses were not supported for core self-evaluations but were supported for the attitude importance. Additional analyses for sub-dimensions were conducted to further examine the hypotheses. Demographic variables were examined through independent samples t-tests, and one way ANOVA. Finally, findings are discussed; limitations, suggestions and implications are presented. The major contribution of this study is that ‘psychopathic manager behaviour’ construct was introduced to the literature and a scale for the reliable identification of psychopathic manager behaviour was developed in to evaluate managers’ level of sub-clinical psychopathy in the workforce. The study introduced that employees engage in different forms of supervisor-directed deviance and organisation-directed deviance depending on the level of the emotions and personal goals. Supervisor-directed deviant behaviours and organisation-directed deviant behaviours became distinct in a way as impulsive and premeditated, active or passive, direct and indirect actions. Accordingly, it is important for organisations to notice that employees’ level of affective state and attitude importance for psychopathic manager behaviours predetermine the certain type of employee deviant behaviours.

Keywords: attitude importance, core self evaluations, psychopathic manager behaviour, revenge motive, workplace deviance

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251 An Investigation on Organisation Cyber Resilience

Authors: Arniyati Ahmad, Christopher Johnson, Timothy Storer

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Cyber exercises used to assess the preparedness of a community against cyber crises, technology failures and critical information infrastructure (CII) incidents. The cyber exercises also called cyber crisis exercise or cyber drill, involved partnerships or collaboration of public and private agencies from several sectors. This study investigates organisation cyber resilience (OCR) of participation sectors in cyber exercise called X Maya in Malaysia. This study used a principal based cyber resilience survey called C-Suite Executive checklist developed by World Economic Forum in 2012. To ensure suitability of the survey to investigate the OCR, the reliability test was conducted on C-Suite Executive checklist items. The research further investigates the differences of OCR in ten Critical National Infrastructure Information (CNII) sectors participated in the cyber exercise. The One Way ANOVA test result showed a statistically significant difference of OCR among ten CNII sectors participated in the cyber exercise.

Keywords: critical information infrastructure, cyber resilience, organisation cyber resilience, reliability test

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
250 Disability Discrimination in Nigeria Employment Market: A Case Study of Nigeria Airspace Management Agency

Authors: Okupe Temitope Oluwaseun

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Purpose: The paper determines the existing position of attitudes to disability in a Nigerian organisation. It further assessed the progress that has been made in relation to employment matters as an indication of the Nigerian employment market. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses an investigative study which adopted survey research-based approach involving a Nigerian Management Agency. Findings: The paper finds that, although there have been some steps forward, not much has been done with regard to disability equality in the Nigerian employment market. Lack of education, lack of implementing and enforcing the law, inadequate awareness process and international culture have contributed to the current situation. International culture, in particular, is one of the major attributes to lack of disability equality. For example, in the rural areas, the majority of people believe that disability is a form of witchcraft. This paper argues that these traditions, attitudes, and beliefs make it difficult for an organisation to recruit people with disability. Practical Implications: This paper provides a deeper understanding of how organisations can address attitudes to disability within the workplace in Nigeria. The research findings give a fresher perspective on some of the issues associated with disability in this country. This increased understanding has potential to improve the education and training of staff in this area. Originality/value: A paper which human resources managers in Nigerian organisation and the rest of the world can reflect upon in order to assess their own organisation attitudes to the employment of staff with a disability.

Keywords: disability, international culture, Nigeria, attitudes

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249 Exploring the Relationship between Organisational Identity and Value Systems: Reflecting on the Values-Crafting Process in a Multi-National Organisation within the Entertainment Industry

Authors: Dieter Veldsman, Theo Heyns Veldsman

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The knowledge economy demands an organisation that is flexible, adaptable and able to navigate the ever-changing environment. This fast-paced environment has however resulted in an organizational landscape that battles to engage employees, retain top talent and create meaningful work for its members. In the knowledge economy, the concept of organizational identity has become an important consideration as organisations aim to create a compelling and inviting narrative for all stakeholders across the business value chain. Values are often seen as the behavioural framework that informs organisational culture, yet often values are perceived to be inauthentic and misaligned with the true character or identity of the organisation and how it is perceived by different role players. This paper focuses on exploring the relationship between organisational identity and value systems by focusing on a case study within a multi-national organisation within South Africa. The paper evaluates the implementation of mixed methods OD approach that gathered collaborative inputs of more than 4500 employees who participated in crafting the newly established values system post a retrenchment process. The paper will evaluate the relationship between the newly crafted value system and the identity of the organisation as described by various internal and external stakeholders in order to explore potential alignment, dissonance and key insights into understanding the relationship between organisational identity and values. The case study will be reported from the perspective of an OD consultant who supported the transformation process over a period of 8 months and aims to provide key insights into values and identity alignment within knowledge economy organisations. From a practical perspective, the paper provides insights into how values are created, perceived and lived within organisations and the impact on employee engagement and culture.

Keywords: culture, organisational development, organisational identity, values

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248 Opportunity Development and Entrepreneurial Process

Authors: Abosede Mosunmola Odeseye

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The sustainability of nations’ economies today have proven to be unrealistic in a constantly changing world without appropriate accordance to entrepreneurship role and its processes. This role has therefore proven to be a product of the available and discoverable opportunities by an individual/organisation in any pattern – innovation, discovery, diffusion, imitation amidst possible challenges. In light of these, this paper examined the relationship between opportunity development and entrepreneurial processes as well as the factors determining individual’s opportunity development and the success of entrepreneurial processes. Systematic review method was adopted for selecting relevant academic materials. The theoretical base of this paper was anchored on Schumpeter’s entrepreneurial innovation model and Drucker and Stevenson’s opportunity-based entrepreneurship theory. Based on the reviewed literature, it was discovered that rough business idea “opportunity” in any form – techniques/product encounter various obstacles to achieve its development, acceptability and sustainability. In essence, the findings revealed that the birth of every opportunity is as a result of the individual/organisation and environmental factors to be able to scale through the whole process successfully. Due to the outcome of this paper, it was recommended that the organisations/government should endeavour to create an enabling environment for a rough business idea to come to life amidst the hurdles of the entrepreneurial process.

Keywords: entrepreneurial process, entrepreneurship, opportunity, opportunity development, organisation, sustainability

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247 The Impact of Demographic Profile on Strategic HRM Practices and its Challenges Faced by HR Managers in IT Firm, India: An Empirical Study

Authors: P. Saravanan, A. Vasumathi

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Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) plays a vital role in formulating the policies and strategies for the company, in order to fulfill the employee’s requirement and to perform the job efficiently within the organisation. Human Resource Management (HRM) functions helps in attracting and motivating the talented workforce for the organisation and by increasing the performance of an individual, will result in achieving the defined goals and objectives for the company. HRM function plays an important role in managing the workers within organisation through a formal communication channel. Since HR functions acts as a mediatory role in between the employee as well as the employers within the organisation that helps in improving the efficacy and skills of the individuals employed within the company. HR manager acts as a change agent, enabling and driving the change management program with respect to business HR functions and its future requirements of the company. Due to change in the business environment, the focus of HR manager is shifting from administrative/personal functions in to a strategic business HR function. HR managers plays a strategic role in managing various HR functions such as recruitment and selection, human resource information system, manpower planning, performance management, conflict management, employee engagement, compensation management, policy formation and retention strategies followed within the industry. Major challenges faced by HR managers at work place are managing the level of engagement for the talented resources within the organisation, reducing the conflicts at workplace, mapping the talented resources through succession planning process, building the effective appraisal process and performance management system and mapping the compensation based on the skills and experience possed by the employee within the company. The authors conducted a study for the sample size of 75 HR managers from an Indian IT company through systematic sampling method. This study identifies that the female employees are facing lesser conflict than the male employees against their managers within the organisation and also the study determines the impact of demographic profile on strategic HRM practices and its challenges faced by HR managers in IT firm, India.

Keywords: strategic human resource management, change agent, employee engagement, performance management, succession planning and conflict management

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246 Case Study: 3000acres Facilitating Urban Agriculture in Melbourne, Australia

Authors: Philippa Anne French

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This paper presents a case study of 3000acres, a for-purpose organisation established in 2013 to improve the health of Melbournians by enabling them to grow more of their own food. Over the past four years, the organisation has encountered a number of barriers, both obvious and less obvious, which discourage communities from beginning their own food-growing projects. These include soil contamination, planning policies, public perception and access to land. 3000acres has been working to remove these barriers if possible, or otherwise to find ways around them. Strategies have included the use of removable planter boxes on temporarily vacant land, separating the site soil from above-ground garden beds, writing planning exemptions, developing relationships with land management authorities and recording both the quantitative and qualitative products of food gardens in Melbourne. While creating change in policy and legal requirements will be a gradual process, discernable progress has been made in the attitudes of land management authorities and the establishment of new food gardens is becoming easier. Over the past four years, 3000acres has supported the establishment of 14 food gardens in and around Melbourne, including public community gardens, fenced community gardens and urban farms supplying food to a food relief organisation.

Keywords: case study, community gardens, land access, land contamination, urban agriculture

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
245 Corporate Governance and Corporate Social Responsibility: Research on the Interconnection of Both Concepts and Its Impact on Non-Profit Organizations

Authors: Helene Eller

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The aim of non-profit organizations (NPO) is to provide services and goods for its clientele, with profit being a minor objective. By having this definition as the basic purpose of doing business, it is obvious that the goal of an organisation is to serve several bottom lines and not only the financial one. This approach is underpinned by the non-distribution constraint which means that NPO are allowed to make profits to a certain extent, but not to distribute them. The advantage is that there are no single shareholders who might have an interest in the prosperity of the organisation: there is no pie to divide. The gained profits remain within the organisation and will be reinvested in purposeful projects. Good governance is mandatory to support the aim of NPOs. Looking for a measure of good governance the principals of corporate governance (CG) will come in mind. The purpose of CG is direction and control, and in the field of NPO, CG is enlarged to consider the relationship to all important stakeholders who have an impact on the organisation. The recognition of more relevant parties than the shareholder is the link to corporate social responsibility (CSR). It supports a broader view of the bottom line: It is no longer enough to know how profits are used but rather how they are made. Besides, CSR addresses the responsibility of organisations for their impact on society. When transferring the concept of CSR to the non-profit area it will become obvious that CSR with its distinctive features will match the aims of NPOs. As a consequence, NPOs who apply CG apply also CSR to a certain extent. The research is designed as a comprehensive theoretical and empirical analysis. First, the investigation focuses on the theoretical basis of both concepts. Second, the similarities and differences are outlined and as a result the interconnection of both concepts will show up. The contribution of this research is manifold: The interconnection of both concepts when applied to NPOs has not got any attention in science yet. CSR and governance as integrated concept provides a lot of advantages for NPOs compared to for-profit organisations which are in a steady justification to show the impact they might have on the society. NPOs, however, integrate economic and social aspects as starting point. For NPOs CG is not a mere concept of compliance but rather an enhanced concept integrating a lot of aspects of CSR. There is no “either-nor” between the concepts for NPOs.

Keywords: business ethics, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, non-profit organisations

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244 The Nigeria Police Force: Human Resources Management Issues and the Community Policing Policy Transfer

Authors: Aminu Musa Audu

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This paper examines the human resources management issues of the Nigeria Police and how it is impacting the community policing policy transfer. Nigeria Police Force is the organisation in the country with the constitutional responsibility of maintaining law and order. The high level of crime and other forms of insecurity called for the introduction of ‘police-community partnership’ strategy in 2003. The trend of events has suggested that the effort is not yielding result, partly because the police in Nigeria are facing human resources management challenges. For instance, the prospective candidates for the police jobs are usually not vetted a situation which provides the possibility of recruiting persons of low academic background and questionable character, or even criminal records. Moreover, the existing training, development infrastructure and other logistics for the job of policing are not in good condition. Consequently, the implementation of the ‘community policing’ policy for crime prevention and control in Nigeria stands to suffer setbacks. Adopting qualitative methods and with focus groups discussions and individual in-depth interviews for data collections, the findings from the views and perspectives of the participants were suggestive of poor handlings of human resources management of the Nigeria police organisation and with negative effect on the implementation of community policing policy. The paper therefore recommends that a total overhaul of the human resources component of the police organisation is necessary in the community policing policy transfer process for crime prevention and control in Nigeria.

Keywords: Nigeria Police Force, community policing policy transfer, human resources management, police-community partnership

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243 A Case Study on Evaluating and Selecting Soil /Pipeline Interaction Analysis Software for the Oil and Gas Industry

Authors: Abdinasir Mohamed, Ashraf El-Hamalawi, Steven Yeomans, Matthew Frost, Andy Connell

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The evaluation and selection of appropriate software solutions to meet with an organisation’s inherent business requirements can be a problematic software engineering process that if done incorrectly can have a significant, costly and adverse effect on the business and its processes. The aim of this paper is to show the process and evaluation criteria followed to select the right engineering solution for the identified business requirement. The research adopted an action research method within an organisation in the oil and gas industry, which required a solution suitable for conducting stress analysis for soil-pipeline interaction analysis (SPIA). Through the use of the presented software selection and evaluation approach, to capture and measure key requirements, it was possible to determine a suitable software for the organisation. This paper investigates methodologies for selecting software packages, software evaluation techniques, and software evaluation criteria in evaluating software packages before providing an explanation of the developed methodology adopted. The key findings of the study are: (1) that there is a need to create a framework for software selection methodologies, (2) there are no universal selection criteria in the engineering industry, and (3) there is a need to validate the findings by creating an application based on the evaluation technique and evaluation criteria for selecting software packages for the engineering industry. The findings of the study are offered to support organisations in the oil and gas sector improve software selection methodologies for SPIA.

Keywords: software evaluation, end user programs, soil pipeline analysis, software selection

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242 Organisational Change: The Impact on Employees and Organisational Development

Authors: Maureen Royce, Joshi Jariwala, Sally Kah

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Change is inevitable, but the change process is progressive. Organisational change is the process in which an organisation changes strategies, operational methods, systems, culture, and structure to affect something different in the organisation. This process can be continuous or developed over a period and driven by internal and external factors. Organisational change is essential if organisations are to survive in dynamic and uncertain environments. However, evidence from research shows that many change initiatives fail, leading to severe consequences for organisations and their resources. The complex models of third sector organisations, i.e., social enterprise, compounds the levels of change in these organisations. Interestingly, innovation is associated with a change in social enterprises due to the hybridity of product and service development. Furthermore, the creation of social intervention has offered a new process and outcomes to the lifecycle of change. Therefore, different forms of organisational innovation are developed, i.e., total, evolutionary, expansionary, and developmental, which affect the interventions of social enterprises. This raises both theoretical and business concerns on how the competing hybrid nature of social enterprises change, how change is managed, and the impact on these organisations. These perspectives present critical questions for further investigation. In this study, we investigate the impact of organisational change on employees and organisational development at DaDaFest –a disability arts organisation with a social focus based in Liverpool. The three main objectives are to explore the drivers of change and the implementation process; to examine the impact of organisational change on employees and; to identify barriers to organisation change and development. To address the preceding research objectives, qualitative research design is adopted using semi-structured interviews. Data is analysed using a six-step thematic analysis framework, which enables the study to develop themes depicting the impact of change on employees and organisational development. This study presents theoretical and practical contributions for academics and practitioners. The knowledge contributions encapsulate the evolution of change and the change cycle in a social enterprise. However, practical implications provide critical insights into the change management process and the impact of change on employees and organisational development.

Keywords: organisational change, change management, organisational change system, social enterprise

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241 A Framework for Information Quality in Accounting Information Systems Adoption

Authors: Wongsim Manirath

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In order to implement AIS adoption successfully, it is important to consider the quality of information management and understand Information Quality (IQ) factors influencing AIS adoption. This research aims to explore ways of managing AIS adoption to investigate the adoption of accounting information systems within organisations. The study has led to the development of a framework for understanding the AIS adoption process in an organisation. This research used qualitative, interpretive evidence. This framework was developed from case studies and by collecting qualitative data (interviews). This research has conducted 10 case studies to study how IQ is managed through the accounting information system adoption process. A special focus is placed on determining how organisation size influences the information quality practices. The finding is especially useful to SMEs as many SMEs have the desire to grow bigger. By better dealing with IQ issues, there could be a successful future.

Keywords: data quality, information quality, accounting information system, information management

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240 Employee Engagement

Authors: Jai Bakliya, Palak Dhamecha

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Today customer satisfaction is given utmost priority be it any industry. But when it comes to hospitality industry this applies even more as they come in direct contact with customers while providing them services. Employee engagement is new concept adopted by Human Resource Department which impacts customer satisfactions. To satisfy your customers, it is necessary to see that the employees in the organisation are satisfied and engaged enough in their work that they meet the company’s expectations and contribute in the process of achieving company’s goals and objectives. After all employees is human capital of the organisation. Employee engagement has become a top business priority for every organisation. In this fast moving economy, business leaders know that having a potential and high-performing human resource is important for growth and survival. They recognize that a highly engaged manpower can increase innovation, productivity, and performance, while reducing costs related to retention and hiring in highly competitive talent markets. But while most executives see a clear need to improve employee engagement, many have yet to develop tangible ways to measure and tackle this goal. Employee Engagement is an approach which is applied to establish an emotional connection between an employee and the organisation which ensures the employee’s commitment towards his work which affects the productivity and overall performance of the organisation. The study was conducted in hospitality industry. A popular branded hotel was chosen as a sample unit. Data were collected, both qualitative and quantitative from respondents. It is found that employee engagement level of the organisation (Hotel) is quite low. This means that employees are not emotionally connected with the organisation which may in turn, affect performance of the employees it is important to note that in hospitality industry individual employee’s performance specifically in terms of emotional engagement is critical and, therefore, a low engagement level may contribute to low organisation performance. An attempt to this study was made to identify employee engagement level. Another objective to take this study was to explore the factors impeding employee engagement and to explore employee engagement facilitation. While in the hospitality industry where people tend to work for as long as 16 to 18 hours concepts like employee engagement is essential. Because employees get tired of their routine job and in case where job rotation cannot be done employee engagement acts as a solution. The study was conducted at Trident Hotel, Udaipur. It was conducted on the sample size of 30 in-house employees from 6 different departments. The various departments were: Accounts and General, Front Office, Food & Beverage Service, Housekeeping, Food & Beverage Production and Engineering. It was conducted with the help of research instrument. The research instrument was Questionnaire. Data collection source was primary source. Trident Udaipur is one of the busiest hotels in Udaipur. The occupancy rate of the guest over there is nearly 80%. Due the high occupancy rate employees or staff of the hotel used to remain very busy and occupied all the time in their work. They worked for their remuneration only. As a result, they do not have any encouragement for their work nor they are interested in going an extra mile for the organisation. The study result shows working environment factors including recognition and appreciation, opinions of the employee, counselling, feedback from superiors, treatment of managers and respect from the organisation are capable of increasing employee engagement level in the hotel. The above study result encouraged us to explore the factors contributed to low employee engagement. It is being found that factors such as recognition and appreciation, feedback from supervisors, opinion of the employee, counselling, feedback from supervisors, treatment from managers has contributed negatively to employee engagement level. Probable reasons for the low contribution are number of employees gave the negative feedback in accordance to the factors stated above of the organisation. It seems that the structure of organisation itself is responsible for the low contribution of employee engagement. The scope of this study is limited to trident hotel situated in the Udaipur. The limitation of the study was that that the results or findings were only based on the responses of respondents of Trident, Udaipur. And so the recommendations were also applicable in Trident, Udaipur and not to all the like organisations across the country. Through the data collected was further analysed, interpreted and concluded. On the basis of the findings, suggestions were provided to the hotel for improvisation.

Keywords: human resource, employee engagement, research, study

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239 Role of International Organizations towards Good Governance: Recent Trends

Authors: E. Prema Shyam

Abstract:

The role of international organizations has contributed in various ways for the good governance in the world at large. Since the beginning of the 1990s international organizations, particularly those active in the areas of human rights, trade and economic etc., have embraced a 'good governance'. It is also pertinent to mention that the application of the concept of good governance to international organizations themselves and not exclusively to national or regional polities is a more recent phenomenon. Especially since the second half of the 1990s, a number of international organizations have carried out major governance reforms, assuming that their calls for governments to heed higher standards of good governance will be all the more credible provided that they develop a good governance standard for themselves. In addition to this number of organizations such as the United Nations (UN), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), European Union (EU), International Committee of the Red Cross and World Trade Organization (WTO). OECD has been specifically mobilized to fight corruption. The World Bank was the first international organization to address the issue of good governance when it attributed the African development crisis to a crisis of governance in a 1989 report. International organizations are often denounced for their lack of transparency and democracy. However, in the last few years, a number of them have pushed through impressive reforms aimed at enhancing good governance standards within their own organizations, especially in the light of their long-standing secrecy. This is a remnant of the traditional conception of international organizations, which renders them merely answerable to their Members. International organizations have already gone quite some way in the areas of good management and opening up to the public. However, as far as participatory governance is concerned, lot to be done for the larger interest of society. In this paper, an attempt has been made to focus the issues on international organisations with regard to good governance.

Keywords: good governance, World Trade Organisation, international organisation, governance reforms

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
238 Brachypodium: A Model Genus to Study Grass Genome Organisation at the Cytomolecular Level

Authors: R. Hasterok, A. Betekhtin, N. Borowska, A. Braszewska-Zalewska, E. Breda, K. Chwialkowska, R. Gorkiewicz, D. Idziak, J. Kwasniewska, M. Kwasniewski, D. Siwinska, A. Wiszynska, E. Wolny

Abstract:

In contrast to animals, the organisation of plant genomes at the cytomolecular level is still relatively poorly studied and understood. However, the Brachypodium genus in general and B. distachyon in particular represent exceptionally good model systems for such study. This is due not only to their highly desirable ‘model’ biological features, such as small nuclear genome, low chromosome number and complex phylogenetic relations, but also to the rapidly and continuously growing repertoire of experimental tools, such as large collections of accessions, WGS information, large insert (BAC) libraries of genomic DNA, etc. Advanced cytomolecular techniques, such as fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with evermore sophisticated probes, empowered by cutting-edge microscope and digital image acquisition and processing systems, offer unprecedented insight into chromatin organisation at various phases of the cell cycle. A good example is chromosome painting which uses pools of chromosome-specific BAC clones, and enables the tracking of individual chromosomes not only during cell division but also during interphase. This presentation outlines the present status of molecular cytogenetic analyses of plant genome structure, dynamics and evolution using B. distachyon and some of its relatives. The current projects focus on important scientific questions, such as: What mechanisms shape the karyotypes? Is the distribution of individual chromosomes within an interphase nucleus determined? Are there hot spots of structural rearrangement in Brachypodium chromosomes? Which epigenetic processes play a crucial role in B. distachyon embryo development and selective silencing of rRNA genes in Brachypodium allopolyploids? The authors acknowledge financial support from the Polish National Science Centre (grants no. 2012/04/A/NZ3/00572 and 2011/01/B/NZ3/00177)

Keywords: Brachypodium, B. distachyon, chromosome, FISH, molecular cytogenetics, nucleus, plant genome organisation

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237 Organisationmatcher: An Organisation Ranking System for Student Placement Using Preference Weights

Authors: Nor Sahida Ibrahim, Ruhaila Maskat, Aishah Ahmad

Abstract:

Almost all tertiary-level students will undergo some form of training in organisations prior to their graduation. This practice provides the necessary exposure and experience to allow students to cope with actual working environment and culture in the future. Nevertheless, a particular degree of “matching” between what is expected and what can be offered between students and organisations underpins how effective and enriching the experience is. This matching of students and organisations is challenging when preferences from both parties must be satisfied. This work developed a web-based system, namely the OrganisationMatcher, which leverage on the use of preference weights to score each organisation and rank them based on “suitability”. OrganisationMatcher has been implemented on a relational database, designed using object-oriented methods and developed using PHP programming language for browser front-end access. We outline the challenges and limitations of our system and discuss future improvements to the system, specifically in the utilisation of intelligent methods.

Keywords: student industrial placement, information system, web-based, ranking

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236 The Principle of Methodological Rationality and Security of Organisations

Authors: Jan Franciszek Jacko

Abstract:

This investigation presents the principle of methodological rationality of decision making and discusses the impact of an organisation's members' methodologically rational or irrational decisions on its security. This study formulates and partially justifies some research hypotheses regarding the impact. The thinking experiment is used according to Max Weber's ideal types method. Two idealised situations("models") are compared: Model A, whereall decision-makers follow methodologically rational decision-making procedures. Model B, in which these agents follow methodologically irrational decision-making practices. Analysing and comparing the two models will allow the formulation of some research hypotheses regarding the impact of methodologically rational and irrational attitudes of members of an organisation on its security. In addition to the method, phenomenological analyses of rationality and irrationality are applied.

Keywords: methodological rationality, rational decisions, security of organisations, philosophy of economics

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235 Delivery of Sustainable Construction in South Africa – Assessing the Roles of Organisational Leadership

Authors: Ayodeji Emmanuel Oke, Mathew O. Ikuabe, Clinton O. Aigbavboa, Douglas O. Aghimien

Abstract:

The call for sustainable construction has received significant drive in recent time considering the overwhelming impacts of its adoption. However, not much has been deliberated on this subject with regards to the roles of organisational leadership in delivering sustainable construction. To this end, the study empirically scrutinised the roles of organisational leadership in delivering sustainable construction. The study adopted a quantitative approach while construction professionals formed the population of the study. A well-articulated questionnaire was used in eliciting responses from the respondents, while appropriate methods of data analysis were used. Findings from the study depicted that the major role of organisational leadership in the delivery of sustainable construction is acting as sustainability integrators. Equally revealed are the internal and external factors affecting organisational leadership in delivering sustainable construction. The study concluded by emphasizing the core roles for delivering sustainable construction by organisational leadership and further recommended that sustainable construction should serve as a prominent and focal organisation goal by organisational leadership when steering the organisation towards meeting its objectives

Keywords: organisational leadership, project delivery, roles, sustainable construction

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234 Impact of Covid-19 on Digital Transformation

Authors: Tebogo Sethibe, Jabulile Mabuza

Abstract:

The COVID-19 pandemic has been commonly referred to as a ‘black swan event’; it has changed the world, from how people live, learn, work and socialise. It is believed that the pandemic has fast-tracked the adoption of technology in many organisations to ensure business continuity and business sustainability; broadly said, the pandemic has fast-tracked digital transformation (DT) in different organisations. This paper aims to study the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on DT in organisations in South Africa by focusing on the changes in IT capabilities in the DT framework. The research design is qualitative. The data collection was through semi-structured interviews with information communication technology (ICT) leaders representing different organisations in South Africa. The data were analysed using the thematic analysis process. The results from the study show that, in terms of ICT in the organisation, the pandemic had a direct and positive impact on ICT strategy and ICT operations. In terms of IT capability transformation, the pandemic resulted in the optimisation and expansion of existing IT capabilities in the organisation and the building of new IT capabilities to meet emerging business needs. In terms of the focus of activities during the pandemic, there seems to be a split in organisations between the primary focus being on ‘digital IT’ or ‘traditional IT’. Overall, the findings of the study show that the pandemic had a positive and significant impact on DT in organisations. However, a definitive conclusion on this would require expanding the scope of the research to all the components of a comprehensive DT framework. This study is significant because it is one of the first studies to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on organisations, on ICT in the organisation, on IT capability transformation and, to a greater extent, DT. The findings from the study show that in response to the pandemic, there is a need for: (i) agility in organisations; (ii) organisations to execute on their existing strategy; (iii) the future-proofing of IT capabilities; (iv) the adoption of a hybrid working model; and for (v) organisations to take risks and embrace new ideas.

Keywords: digital transformation, COVID-19, bimodal-IT, digital transformation framework

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233 Maturity Level of Knowledge Management in Whole Life Costing in the UK Construction Industry: An Empirical Study

Authors: Ndibarefinia Tobin

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The UK construction industry has been under pressure for many years to produce economical buildings which offer value for money, not only during the construction phase, but more importantly, during the full life of the building. Whole life costing is considered as an economic analysis tool that takes into account the total investment cost in and ownership, operation and subsequent disposal of a product or system to which the whole life costing method is being applied. In spite of its importance, the practice is still crippled by the lack of tangible evidence, ‘know-how’ skills and knowledge of the practice i.e. the lack of professionals with the knowledge and training on the use of the practice in construction project, this situation is compounded by the absence of available data on whole life costing from relevant projects, lack of data collection mechanisms and so on. The aforementioned problems has forced many construction organisations to adopt project enhancement initiatives to boost their performance on the use of whole life costing techniques so as to produce economical buildings which offer value for money during the construction stage also the whole life of the building/asset. The management of knowledge in whole life costing is considered as one of the many project enhancement initiative and it is becoming imperative in the performance and sustainability of an organisation. Procuring building projects using whole life costing technique is heavily reliant on the knowledge, experience, ideas and skills of workers, which comes from many sources including other individuals, electronic media and documents. Due to the diversity of knowledge, capabilities and skills of employees that vary across an organisation, it is significant that they are directed and coordinated efficiently so as to capture, retrieve and share knowledge in order to improve the performance of the organisation. The implementation of knowledge management concept has different levels in each organisation. Measuring the maturity level of knowledge management in whole life costing practice will paint a comprehensible picture of how knowledge is managed in construction organisations. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify knowledge management maturity in UK construction organisations adopting whole life costing in construction project. Design/methodology/approach: This study adopted a survey method and conducted by distributing questionnaires to large construction companies that implement knowledge management activities in whole life costing practice in construction project. Four level of knowledge management maturity was proposed on this study. Findings: From the results obtained in the study shows that 34 contractors at the practiced level, 26 contractors at managed level and 12 contractors at continuously improved level.

Keywords: knowledge management, whole life costing, construction industry, knowledge

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232 Exploring Employee Experiences of Distributed Leadership in Consultancy SMEs

Authors: Mohamed Haffar, Ramdane Djebarni, Russell Evans

Abstract:

Despite a growth in literature on distributed leadership, the majority of studies are centred on large public organisations particularly within the health and education sectors. The purpose of this study is to fill the gap in the literature by exploring employee experiences of distributed leadership within two commercial consultancy SME businesses in the UK and USA. The aim of the study informed an exploratory method of research to gather qualitative data drawn from semi-structured interviews involving a sample of employees in each organisation. A series of broad, open questions were used to explore the employees’ experiences; evidence of distributed leadership; and extant barriers and practices in each organisation. Whilst some of our findings aligned with patterns and practices in the existing literature, it importantly discovered some emergent themes that have not previously been recognised in the previous studies. Our investigation identified that whilst distributed leadership was in evidence in both organisations, the interviewees’ experience reported that it was sporadic and inconsistent. Moreover, non-client focused projects were reported to be less important and distributed leadership was found to be inconsistent or non-existent.

Keywords: consultancy, distributed leadership, owner-manager, SME, entrepreneur

Procedia PDF Downloads 50