Search results for: Ghana
247 Erotica in Ghana: Gendered Negotiations of Erotic Sexual Pleasure in Ghana
Authors: Daniel Y. Fiaveh, Michael P.K. Okyerefo, Clara K. Fayorsey
Abstract:Although sexual pleasure is an important aspect of human sexuality, there is little knowledge on how women and men negotiate pleasure in Ghana. The paper explores women and men’s agency in negotiating sexual pleasure in an urban community in Ghana based on the narratives of 20 women and 16 men. Specifically, we explore meanings of sexual pleasure, the erotic factors that stimulate sexual pleasure, and how women and men negotiate for these factors. Women are active negotiators of stimulants of sexual pleasure based on symbolic meanings.
Keywords: eroticism, sexual pleasure, sexual negotiation, GhanaProcedia PDF Downloads 387
246 Competition, Performance and Ethnicity: Explaining Corruption in Ghana and Kenya
Authors: Roxanne J. Kovacs
Abstract:This paper shows that political corruption in Ghana and Kenya does not, as is assumed by a considerable part of the academic literature, depend on the level of party competition as such, but rather on the kinds of issues that parties compete about. Party competition in Ghana revolves around party performance, which gives political leaders a strong incentive to control corruption. In contrast, party competition in Kenya revolves around ethnic identities, which directly reduces competition based on candidate quality and therefore fosters corruption.
Keywords: corruption, electoral competition, Kenya, GhanaProcedia PDF Downloads 253
245 Challenges of Sustainable Marine Fishing in Ghana
Authors: Eric K. W. Aikins
Abstract:Traditionally, Ghana is a marine fishing country. The fishing industry dominated by artisanal marine fishing helps Ghana to meet its fish and protein requirements. Also, it provides employment for most coastal dwellers that depend on fishing as their main economic enterprise. Nonetheless, the marine fishing industry is confronted with challenges that have contributed to a declining fish production in recent past decade. Bad fishing practices and the general limited knowledge on sustainable management of fisheries resources are the limiting factors that affect sustainable fish production and sustainable marine biodiversity management in Ghana. This paper discusses the challenges and strategies for attaining and maintaining sustainable marine fishing in Ghana as well as the state of marine fishing in Ghana. It concludes that an increase in the level of involvement of local fishers in the management of fisheries resources of the country could help local fishers to employ sustainable fisheries resources exploitation methods that could result in an improvement in the spatio-economic development and wellbeing of affected fishing communities in particular and Ghana in general.
Keywords: pair trawling, sargassum, spatio-economic development, sustainable marine fishingProcedia PDF Downloads 213
244 Examining Motivational Strategies of Foreign Manufacturing Firms in Ghana
Authors: Samuel Ato Dadzie
Abstract:The objective of this study is to examine the influence of eclectic paradigm on motivational strategy of foreign subsidiaries in Ghana. This study uses binary regression model, and the analysis was based on 75 manufacturing investments made by MNEs from different countries in 1994–2008. The results indicated that perceived market size increases the probability of foreign firms undertaking a market seeking (MS) in Ghana, while perceived cultural distance between Ghana and foreign firm’s home countries decreased the probability of foreign firms undertaking an market seeking (MS) foreign direct investment (FDI) in Ghana. Furthermore, extensive international experience decreases the probability of foreign firms undertaking a market seeking (MS) foreign direct investment (FDI) in Ghana. Most of the studies done by earlier researchers were based on the advanced and emerging countries and offered support for the theory, which was used in generalizing the result that multinational corporations (MNCs) normally used the theory regarding investment strategy outside their home country. In using the same theory in the context of Ghana, the result does not offer strong support for the theory. This means that MNCs that come to Sub-Sahara Africa cannot rely much on eclectic paradigm for their motivational strategies because prevailing economic conditions in Ghana are different from that of the advanced and emerging economies where the institutional structures work.
Keywords: foreign subsidiary, motives, Ghana, foreign direct investmentProcedia PDF Downloads 365
243 A Scoping Review of Trends in Climate Change Research in Ghana
Authors: Emmanuel Bintaayi Jeil, Kabila Abass, David Forkuor, Divine Odame Appiah
Abstract:In Ghana, the nature and trends of climate change-related research are not clear. This study synthesises various research evidence on climate change published in Ghana between 1999 and 2018. Data for the review was gathered using a set of search words performed in Google Scholar, Web of Science, ProQuest, and ScienceDirect following scoping review guidelines stipulated by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data were analysed using a scoping review. A total of 114 eligible articles were identified and included in the synthesis. Findings revealed that research on climate change in Ghana is growing steadily, and most of the studies were conducted in 2018. Trends in climate change research in Ghana relate to agriculture and development. There is a lack of attention on climate change issues related to women, water availability and management, and health. Future research should therefore focus on addressing these issues in addition to alternative livelihoods for vulnerable people.
Keywords: scoping review, trends, climate change, research, GhanaProcedia PDF Downloads 20
242 Relationship between Food Inflation and Agriculture Lending Rate in Ghana: A Vector Autoregressive Approach
Authors: Raymond K. Dziwornu
Abstract:Lending rate of agriculture loan has persistently been high and attributed to risk in the sector. This study examined how food inflation and agriculture lending rate react to each other in Ghana using vector autoregressive approach. Quarterly data from 2006 to 2018 was obtained from the Bank of Ghana quarterly bulletin and the Ghana Statistical Service reports. The study found that a positive standard deviation shock to food inflation causes lending rate of agriculture loan to react negatively in the short run, but positively and steadily in the long run. This suggests the need to direct appropriate policy measures to reduce food inflation and consequently, the cost of credit to the agricultural sector for its growth.
Keywords: food inflation, agriculture, lending rate, vector autoregressive, GhanaProcedia PDF Downloads 71
241 A Social Care Intervention for Improving the Quality of Life of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana
Authors: Tina Abrefa-Gyan
Abstract:Background: In Ghana and the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS is a public health threat and also causes medical crises for many who are infected with the virus. Objective: This study tested a social care intervention developed to help improve the quality of life of those living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana. Method: Adult respondents (N = 248) were assigned to receive the intervention or usual care for six weeks. Results: Results of the study revealed significant differences between the treatment and control groups in their reports of quality of life. Respondents reported better quality of life upon receiving the intervention. Implication: This study sheds light on the positive relationship between the intervention and quality of life among those living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana. Conclusion: The intervention is innovative and novel in the setting. It will, therefore, help to reduce the risks such as depression, low cognitive functioning, and low physical functioning associated with low quality of life among people living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana in specific, and in sub-Saharan Africa in general.
Keywords: social care intervention, HIV/AIDS, Ghana, quality of lifeProcedia PDF Downloads 371
240 Corporate Foundation Giving and Female Labour Force Participation in Ghana
Authors: Shaibu Salifu, Ofori Boachie
Abstract:Philanthropy is part and parcel of African identity; it is intrinsically embedded in the life of Africans where at any point in time people contribute to philanthropy through giving or receiving. Even though, research on corporate philanthropy has gained attention in the academic space of Ghana, little have been done on the effects of corporate foundation giving on female labour force participation in Ghana. We investigate the effects of corporate foundations giving on female labour force participation in Ghana. We applied convenient and purposive sampling techniques to collect qualitative data from thirty (30) women in Ghana through interviews and open-ended questionnaires. We used Nvivo to carryout analysis on the data and our results indicate that corporate foundation giving has significant effect on female labour force participation in Ghana. In addition, contrary to the feminization U-Shape Hypothesis, evidence suggest that, to a larger extent marriage and fertility (birth) of women positively contribute to the female labour force participation in Ghana. Nevertheless, the study was limited by the number of women who were interviewed, time constraints of women for elaborate discussions on the issues (constructs) of the study and fear of victimization by authorities on most of their responses to the interviews. The findings have implications for all stakeholders of philanthropy: academia, governments, civil society organizations, corporate foundations, women of Ghana and other relevant bodies.
Keywords: corporate philanthropy, corporate foundations, corporate foundation giving, female labour force participation, women, GhanaProcedia PDF Downloads 11
239 The Influence of Theories and Approaches to Educational Policy and Planning in Ghana’s Current Educational Developments
Authors: Ruth Donkoh, Wing On Lee, Solomon A. Boateng, Portia Oware Twerefoo, Josephine Donkor
Abstract:In this paper we defend the value of theories and approaches to educational policy and planning in enhancing the educational developments in Ghana. This mission is achieved by enumerating the recent educational developments in Ghana and juxtaposing it with some educational theories, approaches to policy making, and policy planning to see if the educational developments conform with the theory principles as well as policy making and planning processes. Data collection for the research was made through textual analysis of policy documents as well as review of relevant literatures. The findings reveled that educational developments in Ghana are unable to attain its objectives due to the policies not conforming with the policy formation and planning principles. In addition, was that education planning in Ghana does not follow the policy-administration dichotomy theory principles and likewise the distribution of educational needs goes contrary to the equity theory. We recommend that educational policies in Ghana should be in conformity with the principles of theories as well as the approaches to educational policy making and planning to help meet the needs of learners, attain educational quality, and to help in the accomplishment of educational development objectives.
Keywords: Ghana education, equity theories, politics- administration dichotomy theory, educational policies, educational planningProcedia PDF Downloads 66
238 Perceived Ease-of-Use and Intention to Use E-Government Services in Ghana: The Moderating Role of Perceived Usefulness
Authors: Isaac Kofi Mensah
Abstract:Public sector organizations, ministries, departments and local government agencies are adopting e-government as a means to provide efficient and quality service delivery to citizens. The purpose of this research paper is to examine the extent to which perceived usefulness (PU) of e-government services moderates between perceived ease-of-use (PEOU) of e-government services and intention to use (IU) e-government services in Ghana. A structured research questionnaire instrument was developed and administered to 700 potential respondents in Ghana, of which 693 responded, representing 99% of the questionnaires distributed. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was used as the theoretical framework for the study. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used to capture and analyze the data. The results indicate that even though predictors such as PU and PEOU are main determiners of citizens’ intention to adopt and use e-government services in Ghana, it failed to show that PEOU and IU e-government services in Ghana is significantly moderated by the PU of e-government services. The implication of this finding on theory and practice is further discussed.
Keywords: e-government services, intention to use, moderating role, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, Ghana, technology acceptance modelProcedia PDF Downloads 341
237 Evaluation of Access to Finance for Local Oil Fields Companies in Ghana
Authors: Gordon Newlove Asamoah, Wendy Ama Oti
Abstract:This study focused on evaluating access to finance for local oil field companies in Ghana. The study adopted a census survey design in evaluating access to finance for local oil field companies in Ghana. The respondents of this study were 30 management members of three oil field companies in Ghana. The data collected was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) to generate tables and graphs for interpretation. The results show that most companies use equity financing in combination with other forms of financing to finance their business activities. This research has shown the various challenges bordering on the financing of local oil and gas projects, with emphasis on the challenges of raising funds by indigenous oil companies. Financing of the projects by indigenous oil field companies in Ghana is preferably achieved through equity finance mainly because it is the easiest to get compared to all the other forms of financing available. Other sources of financing available are debt financing, joint venture, and retained earnings from the profits generated from their operations. The study made recommendations to local oil field companies as to how they can make good use of the capital market to raise financing.
Keywords: access, financing, oil fields, GhanaProcedia PDF Downloads 14
236 Citizens’ Readiness to Adopt and Use Electronic Voting System in Ghana
Authors: Isaac Kofi Mensah
Abstract:The adoption and application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in government administration through e-government is expected to permeate all sectors of state/ public institutions as well as democratic institutions. One of such public institutions is the Electoral Commission of Ghana mandated by the 1992 Constitution to hold all public elections including presidential and parliamentary elections. As Ghana holds its 7th General Elections since 1992, on 7th November 2016, there are demands from key stakeholders for the Election Management Body, which is the Electoral Commission (EC) of Ghana to adopt and implement an electronic voting system. This case study, therefore, attempts to contribute significantly to the debate by examining influencing factors that would impact on citizen’s readiness to adopt and use an electronic voting system in Ghana. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was used as a theoretical framework for this study, out of which a research model and hypotheses were developed. Importantly, the outcome of this research finding would form a basis for appropriate policy recommendation for consideration of Government and EC of Ghana.
Keywords: citizens readiness, e-government, electronic voting, technology acceptance model (TAM)Procedia PDF Downloads 182
235 Law Verses Tradition: Beliefs in and Practices of Witchcraft in Contemporary Ghana and the Law
Authors: Baba Iddrisu Musah
Abstract:Many Ghanaians, including the rich and downtrodden, elite and unlettered, rural and urban dwellers, politicians and civil servants, in one way or the other, believe in and practice witchcraft. The existence of witches’ camp in northern Ghana, the rise of Pentecostal churches, especially in southern Ghana with the penchant to cleanse people of witchcraft, as well as media reports of witchcraft imputations assuming wider dimensions in the country, often classified as a citadel of democracy, good governance and human rights in Africa, buttress the pervasive nature of belief in and the practice of witchcraft in the country. This is in spite of the fact that tremendous efforts, especially by British colonial authorities, were made to regulate witchcraft beliefs and its associated practices. Informed by Western values and philosophy, witchcraft was considered by colonial authorities as illogical and unscientific. This paper, which is largely a review of existing literature, supplemented by archival information from the national archives of Ghana, focuses on the nature of witchcraft regulation in Ghana’s pre-colonial and colonial past, as well as immediately after Ghana obtained her independence in 1957. This article concludes by rhetorically questioning whether or not believing in and the practice of witchcraft in contemporary Ghana in general, and the existence of witches’ camps in the northern region of the country are attributed to the failure of past regulations, as well as the failure of present government policies.
Keywords: colonial, natives, regulation, witchcraftProcedia PDF Downloads 183
234 Examination of Occupational Health and Safety Practices in Ghana
Authors: Zakari Mustapha, Clinto Aigbavboa, Wellinton Didi Thwala
Abstract:Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) issues has been a major challenge to the Ghanaian government. The purpose of the study was to examine OHS practices in Ghana. The study looked at various views from different scholars about OHS practices in order to achieve the objective of the study. Literature review was conducted on OHS in Ghana. Findings from the study shows Ministry of Roads and Transport (MRT) and Ministry of Water Resources, Works and Housing (MWRWH) are two government ministries in charge of construction and implementation of the construction sector policy. The Factories, Offices and Shops Act 1970, Act 328 and the Mining Regulations 1970 LI 665 are the two major edicts. The study presents a strong background on OHS practices in Ghana and contribute to the body of knowledge on the solution to the current trends and challenges of OHS in the construction sector.
Keywords: ILO convention, OHS challenges, OHS practices, OHS improvementProcedia PDF Downloads 286
233 Food Security and Mental Health: A Qualitative Exploration of Mediating Factors in Rural and Urban Ghana
Authors: Emma Mathias
Abstract:The aim of this study was to explore the role of food insecurity as a mediator of mental health in sub-Saharan Africa, taking Ghana as a case study. Although a quantitative correlation has recently been established between food insecurity and mental illness in Ghana, the nature and validity of this correlation remains unclear. A qualitative exploration was employed to investigate this correlation further. During the data collection period, twelve semi-structured interviews and five focus groups were conducted with a total of 124 individuals who were diagnosed with mental illnesses and their primary carers throughout rural and urban areas in Ghana. Interviews and focus groups were transcribed, translated, and analysed using thematic analysis. Preliminary results suggest that food insecurity may plays a role in mental illness in rural areas of Ghana where communities are reliant on agriculture for their livelihoods, but may play a lesser role in urban areas where communities are more reliant on petty trade as a source of livelihood. These results support psychosocial theories which suggest that the social and cultural factors involved in food production and consumption may be the key mediators between food insecurity and mental health.
Keywords: Food insecurity, Ghana, Mental health, PhenomenologyProcedia PDF Downloads 76
232 The Rise of Boko Haram in Nigeria: Lesson for Ghana
Authors: Emmanuel Anim
Abstract:Ghana has been touted as an oasis of peace in Africa following her relatively peaceful democratic elections, proliferated number of the media, and freedom of speech. Besides, the former Gold Coast country is yet to experience any major incidence of terrorism. Nevertheless, the somewhat occasional simmering violence and conflicts arising from political, religious and chieftaincy skirmishes, largely at its northern part portrays that it is not immune to the political violence of terrorism. The predominantly-based qualitative research reveals that current conditions of socio-politico-economic, and religious issues in Ghana places the West African country on the possible sidelines of the phenomenon of terrorism, when its status quo is juxtaposed with the factors enumerated to have culminated in the rise of Boko Haram, and its accompanying insurgency in Nigeria. Arguing from the perspective of the theory of Social Movement, the analyses and discussions note that the current state of affairs in Ghana could foster domestic terrorism in the country. What is more, the research shows that Ghana faces threats from transnational terrorism given the tendency for elements in Ghana to sympathize and subscribe to the ideological dictates and appeals from Boko Haram and other terrorist organizations. As a consequence, the study recommends that adverse conditions of poverty, poor governance, unemployment, and rising levels of (Islamic) religious radicalization should be remedied by economic improvements, good governance, job creation, and de-radicalization programs by government officials to aid mitigate the incidence of terrorism in the country.
Keywords: Boko Haram, Ghana, Nigeria, terrorismProcedia PDF Downloads 278
231 Adoption and Use of an Electronic Voting System in Ghana
Authors: Isaac Kofi Mensah
Abstract:The manual system of voting has been the most widely used system of electing representatives around the globe, particularly in Africa. Due to the known numerous problems and challenges associated with the manual system of voting, many countries are migrating to the electronic voting system as a suitable and credible means of electing representatives over the manual paper-based system. This research paper therefore investigated the factors influencing adoption and use of an electronic voting system in Ghana. A total of 400 Questionnaire Instruments (QI) were administered to potential respondents in Ghana, of which 387 responded representing a response rate of 96.75%. The Technology Acceptance Model was used as the theoretical framework for the study. The research model was tested using a simple linear regression analysis with SPSS. A little of over 71.1% of the respondents recommended the Electoral Commission (EC) of Ghana to adopt an electronic voting system in the conduct of public elections in Ghana. The results indicated that all the six predictors such as perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU), perceived free and fair elections (PFFF), perceived credible elections (PCE), perceived system integrity (PSI) and citizens trust in the election management body (CTEM) were all positively significant in predicting the readiness of citizens to adopt and use an electronic voting system in Ghana. However, jointly, the hypotheses tested revealed that apart from Perceived Free and Fair Elections and Perceived Credible and Transparent Elections, all the other factors such as PU, Perceived System Integrity and Security and Citizen Trust in the Election Management Body were found to be significant predictors of the Willingness of Ghanaians to use an electronic voting system. All the six factors considered in this study jointly account for about 53.1% of the reasons determining the readiness to adopt and use an electronic voting system in Ghana. The implications of this research finding on elections in Ghana are discussed.
Keywords: credible elections, Election Management Body (EMB), electronic voting, Ghana, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)Procedia PDF Downloads 301
230 The Relationship Between Policy Design and Poverty Reduction: The Case of Ghana
Authors: Joseph Kwame Sarfo-Adu
Abstract:Social protection programs have been rolled out by successive governments in the quest of bridging the inequality gap in Ghana. Despite notable positive impacts of these programs across the country, there still remains worrying experience of the exclusion of the poor and vulnerable especially in rural Ghana Notwithstanding the rhetoric of participation within the discussion of social protection programs, less attention has been given to the design of these programs. In view of this, the study seeks to address how social protection programs are designed to address the needs of the poor. This study focused on five selected social protection programs in Ghana because they are programs with nationwide coverage. Qualitative thematic analysis was applied to analyze our data with the use of the Nvivo 12 version. We found out that there is a strong link between policy design and poverty alleviation. Our findings revealed that a well-designed program can significantly alleviate poverty, a poorly designed program can create more damage.
Keywords: social protection, poverty alleviation, policy design, effective outcomeProcedia PDF Downloads 81
229 Public Financial Management in Ghana: A Move beyond Reforms to Consolidation and Sustainability
Authors: Mohammed Sani Abdulai
Abstract:Ghana’s Public Financial Management reforms have been going on for some two decades now (1997/98 to 2017/18). Given this long period of reforms, Ghana in 2019 is putting together both a Public Financial Management (PFM) strategy and a Ghana Integrated Financial Management Information System (GIFMIS) strategy for the next 5-years (2020-2024). The primary aim of these dual strategies is assisting the country in moving beyond reforms to consolidation and sustainability. In this paper we, first, examined the evolution of Ghana’s PFM reforms. We, secondly, reviewed the legal and institutional reforms undertaken to strengthen the country’s key PFM institutions. Thirdly, we summarized the strengths and weaknesses identified by the 2018 Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability (PEFA) assessment of Ghana’s PFM system relating to its macro-fiscal framework, budget preparation and approval, budget execution, accounting and fiscal reporting as well as external scrutiny and audit. We, finally, considered what the country should be doing to achieve its intended goal of PFM consolidation and sustainability. Using a qualitative method of review and analysis of existing documents, we, through this paper, brought to the fore the lessons that could be learnt by other developing countries from Ghana’s PFM reforms experiences. These lessons included the need to: (a) undergird any PFM reform with a comprehensive PFM reform strategy; (b) undertake a legal and institutional reforms of the key PFM institutions; (c) assess the strengths and weaknesses of those reforms using PFM performance evaluation tools such as PEFA framework; and (d) move beyond reforms to consolidation and sustainability.
Keywords: public financial management, public expenditure and financial accountability, reforms, consolidation, sustainabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 111
228 Exploring Consumers' Intention to Adopt Mobile Payment System in Ghana
Authors: Y. Kong, I. Masud, M. H. Nyaso
Abstract:This paper seeks to examine consumers’ intention to adopt and use mobile payment method in Ghana. A conceptual framework was adopted from the extant literature using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) as the theoretical bases. Data for the study was obtained from a sample of 425 respondents through online and direct surveys using structured questionnaire. Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyse the data through SPSS v.22 and SmartPLS v.3. Findings with regards to the determinants of mobile payment system adoption indicate that subjective norm, perceived ease of use, attitude, and perceived usefulness play active roles in consumers’ decision to adopt mobile payment system in Ghana. Also, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use have a significant and positive influence on consumers’ attitude towards mobile payment adoption in Ghana. Further, subjective norm was found to influence perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use of mobile payment adoption in Ghana. The study contributes to literature on mobile payment system from developing country context. The study proffered some recommendations.
Keywords: consumer behaviour, mobile payment, subjective norm, theory of planned behaviorProcedia PDF Downloads 73
227 Impact of the Government Ghana Block Farm Program on Rural Households in Northern Ghana
Authors: Antwi Kwaku Dei, Lyford Conrad Power
Abstract:This paper investigates the outcome of participating in the government of Ghana block farm program on rural households’ farm productivity, income, food security and nutritional status in Northern Ghana using cross-sectional data. Data analysis was done using the Instrumental Variable and the Heckman Selection Bias procedures. Our analysis indicates that participation in the block farm program significantly increased directly the productivity of maize, rice, and soybean by 21.3 percent, 15.8 percent, and 12.3 percent respectively. Also, the program participation was found to increase households’ farm income by 20 percent in northern Ghana. Furthermore, program participation was found to improve household food security and nutrition by 19 percent and 14 percent respectively through income effect. Based on the benefit-cost ratio of 1.59 the results from the study recommends that the program is expanded to other communities in the northern region. Further analysis indicates that rural households’ decision to participate in food security intervention programs is significantly influenced by factors including the gender of the household head, the age of the household head, and household size. Results of the study further show that gender of household head, household size, household monthly income, household assets, women educational status, the age of women, marital status of women, are significant determinants of food security and nutrition status in Northern Ghana.
Keywords: block farm program, farm productivity, , household food security, Northern GhanaProcedia PDF Downloads 196
226 Evaluation of Sustainable Business Model Innovation in Increasing the Penetration of Renewable Energy in the Ghana Power Sector
Authors: Victor Birikorang Danquah
Abstract:Ghana's primary energy supply is heavily reliant on petroleum, biomass, and hydropower. Currently, Ghana gets its energy from hydropower (Akosombo and Bui), thermal power plants powered by crude oil, natural gas, and diesel, solar power, and imports from La Cote d'Ivoire. Until the early 2000s, large hydroelectric dams dominated Ghana's electricity generation. Due to unreliable weather patterns, Ghana increased its reliance on thermal power. However, thermal power contributes the highest percentage in terms of electricity generation in Ghana and is predominantly supplied by Independent Power Producers (IPPs). Ghana's electricity industry operates the corporate utility model as its business model. This model is typically' vertically integrated,' with a single corporation selling the majority of power generated by its generation assets to its retail business, which then sells the electricity to retail market consumers. The corporate utility model has a straightforward value proposition that is based on increasing the number of energy units sold. The unit volume business model drives the entire energy value chain to increase throughput, locking system users into unsustainable practices. This report uses the qualitative research approach to explore the electricity industry in Ghana. There is a need for increasing renewable energy, such as wind and solar, in electricity generation. The research recommends two critical business models for the penetration of renewable energy in Ghana's power sector. The first model is the peer-to-peer electricity trading model, which relies on a software platform to connect consumers and generators in order for them to trade energy directly with one another. The second model is about encouraging local energy generation, incentivizing optimal time-of-use behaviour, and allowing any financial gains to be shared among the community members.
Keywords: business model innovation, electricity generation, renewable energy, solar energy, sustainability, wind energyProcedia PDF Downloads 82
225 Sex Positions Decisions and Negotiations of Sexual Pleasure and Gender in Ghana
Authors: Daniel Y. Fiaveh, Chimaraoke O. Izugbara
Abstract:Based on the narratives of 20 women and 16 men, the paper explores how knowing more about the factors that trigger sex positions decisions advance knowledge of male and female sexuality, and how these translate into higher levels of female sexual negotiations in Ghana. Findings demonstrated that the willingness to perform sex positions or not were gendered and derive, at least in part, from differences in demographic profiles (such as age, gender, and marriage), beliefs associated with sexual practices (such as anal sex), the desire to maximize sexual pleasure, and sexual myths and misconceptions e.g. fear of infecundity. The women were not passive to sex positions decisions and engaged in a dialogical sexual encounter with men including threats of sexual refusal in negotiating sex.
Keywords: sexual positions, sexual pleasure, masculinity, femininity, GhanaProcedia PDF Downloads 362
224 Artificial Intelligence as a Policy Response to Teaching and Learning Issues in Education in Ghana
Authors: Joshua Osondu
Abstract:This research explores how Artificial Intelligence (AI) can be utilized as a policy response to address teaching and learning (TL) issues in education in Ghana. The dual (AI and human) instructor model is used as a theoretical framework to examine how AI can be employed to improve teaching and learning processes and to equip learners with the necessary skills in the emerging AI society. A qualitative research design was employed to assess the impact of AI on various TL issues, such as teacher workloads, a lack of qualified educators, low academic performance, unequal access to education and educational resources, a lack of participation in learning, and poor access and participation based on gender, place of origin, and disability. The study concludes that AI can be an effective policy response to TL issues in Ghana, as it has the potential to increase students’ participation in learning, increase access to quality education, reduce teacher workloads, and provide more personalized instruction. The findings of this study are significant for filling in the gaps in AI research in Ghana and other developing countries and for motivating the government and educational institutions to implement AI in TL, as this would ensure quality, access, and participation in education and help Ghana industrialize.
Keywords: artificial intelligence, teacher, learner, students, policy responseProcedia PDF Downloads 11
223 The Effectiveness of Rebranding as a Comparative Study of Ghanaian Business Using the Principles of Corporate Rebranding
Authors: Kennedy Gbenu, Richmond Kweku Frempong
Abstract:Rebranding has become a very important strategic tool for companies wanting to succeed in the ever competitive business world using the principles of rebranding Moisescu. Two businesses in Ghana (Ghana Commercial Bank and Vodafone Ghana) have been used to ascertain how rebranding of these organizations was done using the principles in their effort to rebrand themselves and to stay relevant. A secondary research mainly on literature surrounding rebranding, official websites of the organizations under study have also been used extensively. After a basic comparative study undertaken two firms (GCB and VODAFONE) seems to be using the first three principles and reaping from it as provided by Moisescu. This goes to show that rebranding should not be done in vacuum but should be guided by such principles so as to achieve the full potential of any kind of investments made.
Keywords: brands, corporate branding, innovation, case studiesProcedia PDF Downloads 327
222 Project Risk Assessment of the Mining Industry of Ghana
Authors: Charles Amoatey
Abstract:The issue of risk in the mining industry is a global phenomenon and the Ghanaian mining industry is not exempted. The main purpose of this study is to identify the critical risk factors affecting the mining industry. The study takes an integrated view of the mining industry by examining the contribution of various risk factors to mining project failure in Ghana. A questionnaire survey was conducted to solicit the critical risk factors from key mining practitioners. About 80 respondents from 11 mining firms participated in the survey. The study identified 22 risk factors contributing to mining project failure in Ghana. The five most critical risk factors based on both probability of occurrence and impact were: (1) unstable commodity prices, (2) inflation/exchange rate, (3) land degradation, (4) high cost of living and (5) government bureaucracy for obtaining licenses. Furthermore, the study found that risk assessment in the mining sector has a direct link with mining project sustainability. Mitigation measures for addressing the identified risk factors were discussed. The key findings emphasize the need for a comprehensive risk management culture in the entire mining industry.
Keywords: risk, assessment, mining, GhanaProcedia PDF Downloads 331
221 Prevalence of Disability among Children Two to Fourteen Years at Selected Districts in Greater Accra Region of Ghana
Authors: Yvonne Nanaama Brew, Bismark Jampim Abrokwah
Abstract:Children with disabilities in Ghana are not routinely registered, and this can imply that they may be neglected in national policy planning since global estimates may not be near the exact numbers. Although there are some studies with reports on the prevalence of disability among children in Ghana, reliable information on the prevalence, types of disability in children, and children who die with disabilities in the Greater Accra region are lacking. The current study seeks to investigate the incidence of disability among children two to fourteen years at selected districts in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. A cross-sectional design is adapted with a quantitative method for this study. Parents with disabled children who access child welfare clinics at the Greater Accra regional hospital, Maamobi hospital, Ga west, and Ga south district hospitals will be selected through purposive sampling for the study. An adapted UNICEF structured Ten Questions will be used to collect relevant data about participants. The responses to the questions will be either 'Yes' or 'No'. Parents with children who answer 'Yes' to a disability and purposively sampled parents with children who answer 'No' to disability will be invited to Child Health Clinic at the Greater Accra regional hospital for a free clinical assessment. Data will be entered into Microsoft Office Excel 2013 and imported into STATA version 15 for analysis. The study is expected to provide reliable disaggregated data on less than fourteen years of children with disabilities in the Greater Accra region. The findings and recommendations of the study will demonstrate the importance of early detection of disability and facilitate more quality and holistic planning of appropriate programmes that best safeguard the rights of children with disabilities in Ghana. It will help in policy and decision-making on children less than fourteen years with disabilities in Ghana. Also, findings will be useful for health facilities in Ghana to plan services for disabled children. Finally, the study is expected to add to the guides for the National Council of Persons with Disabilities to fulfill its legal mandate for disabled persons in Ghana.
Keywords: prevalence, disability, children, GhanaProcedia PDF Downloads 71
220 Children and Migration in Ghana: Unveiling the Realities of Vulnerability and Social Exclusion
Authors: Thomas Yeboah
Abstract:In contemporary times, the incessant movement of northern children especially girls to southern Ghana at the detriment of their education is worrisome. Due to the misplaced mindset of the migrants concerning southern Ghana, majority of them move without an idea of where to stay and what to do exposing them to hash conditions of living. Majority find menial work in cocoa farms, illegal mining and head porterage business. This study was conducted in the Kumasi Metropolis to ascertain the major causes of child migration from the northern part of Ghana to the south and their living conditions. Both qualitative and quantitative tools of data collection and analysis were employed. The purposive sampling technique was used to select 90 migrants below 18 years. Specifically, interviews, focus group discussions and questionnaires were used to elicit responses from the units of analysis. The study revealed that the major cause of child migration from northern Ghana to the south is poverty. It was evident that respondents were vulnerable to the new environment in which they lived. They are exposed to harsh environmental conditions; sexual, verbal and physical assault; and harassment from arm robbers. The paper recommends that policy decisions should be able to create an enabling environment for the labour force in the north to ameliorate the compelling effects poverty has on child migration. Efforts should also be made to create a proper psychological climate in the minds of the children regarding their destination areas through sensitization and education.
Keywords: child migration, vulnerability, social exclusion, child labour, GhanaProcedia PDF Downloads 385
219 A Critical Geography of Reforestation Program in Ghana
Authors: John Narh
Abstract:There is high rate of deforestation in Ghana due to agricultural expansion, illegal mining and illegal logging. While it is attempting to address the illegalities, Ghana has also initiated a reforestation program known as the Modified Taungya System (MTS). Within the MTS framework, farmers are allocated degraded forestland and provided with tree seedlings to practice agroforestry until the trees form canopy. Yet, the political, ecological and economic models that inform the selection of tree species, the motivations of participating farmers as well as the factors that accounts for differential access to the land and performance of farmers engaged in the program lie underexplored. Using a sequential explanatory mixed methods approach in five forest-fringe communities in the Eastern Region of Ghana, the study reveals that economic factors and Ghana’s commitment to international conventions on the environment underpin the selection of tree species for the MTS program. Social network and access to remittances play critical roles in having access to, and enhances poor farmers’ chances in the program respectively. Farmers are more motivated by the access to degraded forestland to cultivate food crops than having a share in the trees that they plant. As such, in communities where participating farmers are not informed about their benefit in the tree that they plant, the program is largely unsuccessful.
Keywords: translocality, deforestation, forest management, social networkProcedia PDF Downloads 19
218 Effect of Agricultural Extension Services on Technical Efficiency of Smallholder Cassava Farmers in Ghana: A Stochastic Meta-Frontier Analysis
Authors: Arnold Missiame
Abstract:In Ghana, rural dwellers who depend primarily on agriculture for their livelihood constitute about 60% of the country’s population. This shows the critical role and potentials of the agricultural sector in helping to achieve Ghana’s vision 2030. With the current threat of climate change and advancements in technology, agricultural extension is not just about technology transfer and improvements in productivity, but it is also about improving the managerial and technical skills of farmers. In Ghana, the government of Ghana as well as other players in the sector like; non-governmental organizations, NGOs, local and international funding agencies, for decades now, have made capacity-building-investments in smallholder farmers by way of extension services delivery. This study sought to compare the technical efficiency of farmers who have access to agricultural extension and farmers who do not in Ghana. The study employed the stochastic meta-frontier model to analyze household survey data comprising 300 smallholder cassava farmers from the Fanteakwa district of Ghana. The farmers were selected through a two-stage sampling technique where 5 communities were purposively selected in the first stage and then 60 smallholder cassava farmers were randomly selected from each of the 5 communities. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect data on farmers’ socioeconomic and farm-level characteristics. The results showed that farmers who have access to agricultural extensions services have higher technical efficiencies (TE) and produce much closer to their meta-production frontiers (higher technology gap ratios (TGR) than farmers who do not have access to such extension services. Furthermore, experience in cassava cultivation and formal education significantly improves the technical efficiencies of farmers. The study recommends that the mode and scope of agricultural extension service delivery in the country should be enhanced to ensure that smallholder farmers have easy access to extension agents.
Keywords: agricultural extension, Ghana, smallholder farmers, stochastic meta-frontier model, technical efficiencyProcedia PDF Downloads 50