Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2534

Search results for: family

2534 Non-Family Members as Successors of Choice in South African Family Businesses

Authors: Jonathan Marks, Lauren Katz

Abstract:

Family firms are a vital component of a country’s stability, prosperity and development. Their sustainability, longevity and continuity are critical. Given the premise that family firms wish to continue the business for the benefit of the family, the family founder / owner is faced with an emotionally charged transition option; either to transfer the family business to a family member or to transfer the firm to a non-family member. The rationale employed by family founders to select non-family members as successors/ executives of choice and the concomitant rationale employed by non-family members to select family firms as employers of choice, has been under-researched in the literature of family business succession planning. This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews to gain access to family firm founders/ owners, non-family successors/ executives and industry experts on family business. The findings indicated that the rationale for family members to select non-family successors/ executives was underpinned by the objective to grow the family firm for the benefit of the family. If non-family members were the most suitable candidates to ensure this outcome, family members were comfortable to employ non-family members. Non- family members, despite the knowledge that benefit lay primarily with family members, chose to work for family firms for personal benefits in terms of wealth, security and close connections. A commonly shared value system was a pre-requisite for all respondents. The research study provides insights from family founders/ owners, non-family successors/ executives, and industry experts on the subject of succession planning outside the family structure.

Keywords: agency theory, family business, institutional logics, non-family successors, Stewardship Theory

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2533 Family Business Succession through the Eye of the Upper Echelon Theory: A Phenomenological Approach

Authors: Ruswiati Suryasaputra, Linda Salim

Abstract:

This concept paper, initially a proposal for the completion of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, is seeking to gain more understanding of family business succession in order to extend the average lifespan of family business that has shrunken significantly for the past 20 years. While multitude studies have been done in family business succession, the average lifespan of a family business continues to decline sharply over the past two decades to only 24 years, or 1.5 generations, in 2010, from 50-60 years, equivalent to 3 generations, as recently as 1990. While the qualitative approach of this study will not churn a theoretical framework unique to the family business field, it will bring to the surface important issues during a family business succession process that have been hidden behind the mostly profit-making issues that have been the main highlight of the family business field.

Keywords: family business, succession, nepotism, family studies

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2532 Diagnose of the Future of Family Businesses Based on the Study of Spanish Family Businesses Founders

Authors: Fernando Doral

Abstract:

Family businesses are a key phenomenon within the business landscape. Nevertheless, it involves two terms (“family” and “business”) which are nowadays rapidly evolving. Consequently, it isn't easy to diagnose if a family business will be a growing or decreasing phenomenon, which is the objective of this study. For that purpose, a sample of 50 Spanish-established companies from various sectors was taken. Different factors were identified for each enterprise, related to the profile of the founders, such as age, the number of sons and daughters, or support received from the family at the moment to start it up. That information was taken as an input for a clustering method to identify groups, which could help define the founders' profiles. That characterization was carried as a base to identify three factors whose evolution should be analyzed: family structures, business landscape and entrepreneurs' motivations. The analysis of the evolution of these three factors seems to indicate a negative tendency of family businesses. Therefore the consequent diagnosis of this study is to consider family businesses as a declining phenomenon.

Keywords: business diagnose, business trends, family business, family business founders

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2531 Role of Family for Grooming a Child: A Protective Step for Vulnerable Child

Authors: Arpita Sabat, Kanaklata Samal

Abstract:

A child is the most innocent being on the earth. It is born innocent but the family, the community, the institution and the world at large always butcher its innocence. This paper aims at the role of family for the development of a child in different ethnic or social groups. Family, in fact, is the nucleus in the growth and development of the child. A child grows up with the idea that a family is the world around him. The child tries to emulate consciously or unconsciously from the surrounding. This imitation has serious impact on the development of the child. It even sometimes cripples or stunts the growth of a mind. It results in the disability of the child. All policies about education or changing of curriculum can not bring about a change in the plight of a child’s life unless there is a serious thinking about the role of a family and the contribution of a family to the development of a child.

Keywords: vulnerable child, grooming, surrounding, role of family

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2530 Distorted Digital Mediated Communication: An Analysis of the Effect of Smartphone on Family Communication in Nigeria

Authors: Peter E. Egielewa

Abstract:

Communication through the smartphone connects people globally. However, since the last 10 years, there has been an increasing shift from the social engagement in the family to the digital mediated communication aided by the smartphone. The traditional family communication had largely been oral and relational, which the smartphone is now digitally mediating. The study employs mixed research method of quantitative and qualitative research design and deploys questionnaire to elicit responses from both parents and children of 50 purposively selected families from five villages in Southern Nigeria that are very active with smartphone use. Based on the Theory of Family Systems, preliminary findings show that the smartphone is becoming an addiction among Nigerian family members and has shifted the dynamics of family communication from relational to digital culture. The research concludes that smartphone use affects family communication negatively and recommends the moderation of smartphone use in the family and the search for alternative platforms for family communication that minimises smartphone addiction.

Keywords: digital, distorted communication, family, Nigeria, smartphone

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2529 The Effect of Family Support on Employee Satisfaction and Perception of Work-Family Conflict: The Case of Oil Sector Employees in Kuwait

Authors: Ali H. Muhammad

Abstract:

This paper investigates both instrumental and emotional family support on employee job satisfaction and perception of work-family conflict. Instrumental family support is manifested in family behavior that contributes to the reduction of employee’s family responsibilities and keeping the physical home environment in a proper shape. Emotional family support includes the encouragement and praise that the employee receives from his family and families for the employee’s work problem and their role in assisting the employees in dealing with these problems. The paper suggests that instrumental and emotional family support increases employee’s job satisfaction. Furthermore, the study proposes that family support decreases employee’s perception of work-family conflict. In addition, this study examines the reliability and validity of the family support index developed by Lynda King and her colleagues in 1995. Confirmatory factor analysis is used to test the validity of the instrument in an Arab business setting. A paper-pencil questionnaire was used to collect data from a random sample of 70 Kuwaiti employees working in the oil sector. Data were analyzed using factor analysis, reliability tests, and regression analysis. Results confirmed the research hypothesis. Family support had a positive effect on job satisfaction. Furthermore, family support significantly contributed to the reduction of employee perception of work-family conflict.

Keywords: family support, job satisfaction, work-family conflict, Kuwait oil sector

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2528 Impact of Work and Family Conflict on Employee Self Esteem

Authors: Romana P. Khokhar

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of work-family conflict on self-esteem. On the basis of the literature reviewed, it was hypothesized that 1) work-family conflict has an impact on self- esteem, 2). There would be a gender difference on the variable of work family conflict. Data for this study was taken from a sample of 70 employees within the banking industry since this industry is generally associated with higher levels of work-family conflict. Statistical tests performed were regression and t-test. Self-esteem was assessed with the 10-item Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE; Rosenberg, 1965) and Work-Family Conflict Scale (WFCS; Netemeyer, R. G., Boles, J. S., & McMurrian, R. 1996) was used to assess the level of work –family conflict. The results indicated that an increase in work-family conflict resulted in lower self-esteem due to the various pressures evidenced in a complicated network of direct and indirect influences. It was also determined that there is less effect of work-family conflict on the female workers, as opposed to the male population, leading to the conclusion that in the case of the female workers the impact on self-esteem was not significant.

Keywords: work and family conflict, self-esteem, employee

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2527 Moderating Effects of Family Structure on College Achievement

Authors: Jennifer Knudsen

Abstract:

This study observes the moderating effects of family structure on College Achievement across cohorts. Over the past half-century, social stigmas surrounding non-traditional families have shifted, as they make up an increasing proportion of American families. Using the General Social Survey, this study employs a varying coefficient model to test if family structure moderates the effects of other background variables on respondents’ educational attainment. Initial analysis suggests that living in alternative family arrangements has an increasingly negative effect on college achievement, whereas living in an intact family with a mother and father has a positive effect on college achievement.

Keywords: education, family, college, family structure

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2526 An Iterative Family for Solution of System of Nonlinear Equations

Authors: Sonia Sonia

Abstract:

This paper presents a family of iterative scheme for solving nonlinear systems of equations which have wide application in sciences and engineering. The proposed iterative family is based upon some parameters which generates many different iterative schemes. This family is completely derivative free and uses first of divided difference operator. Moreover some numerical experiments are performed and compared with existing methods. Analysis of convergence shows that the presented family has fourth-order of convergence. The dynamical behaviour of proposed family and local convergence have also been discussed. The numerical performance and convergence region comparison demonstrates that proposed family is efficient.

Keywords: convergence, divided difference operator, nonlinear system, Newton's method

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
2525 Using the Family Justice System to Respond to ISIS Returnees: The UK Experience

Authors: Fatima Ahdash

Abstract:

Over the last 6-7 years, the UK has resorted to using the family courts and the family justice system more generally as a way of dealing with children and young people either traveling to or returning from ISIS territories in the Middle East. This is an important innovation in counter-terrorism laws and practices in the UK: never before have the family courts been used for the purpose of preventing and countering terrorism anywhere in the world. This paper will examine this innovation; it will explore how, why, and the implications of the interaction between family law and counter-terrorism, particularly on the human rights of the parents and children involved. It will question whether the use of the family courts provides a more useful, and perhaps human rights compliant, method of tackling terrorism and extremism when compared to other more Draconian legal and administrative methods.

Keywords: counter-terrorism, family justice, law, human rights

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
2524 Perceived Family Functioning 12 Months after the COVID-19 Outbreak Has Been Declared a Global Pandemic

Authors: Snezana Svetozarevic

Abstract:

The aim of the research was to determine whether there were significant changes in perceptions of family functioning by families in Serbia 12 months after the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak has been declared a global pandemic. Above all, what has protected families in the face of the global crisis caused by COVID-19. The Self-Report Family Inventory, II version (SFI-II; Beavers and Hampson, 2013) and the Inventory of Family Protective Factors (IFPF; Gardner et al., 2008) were used to assess family functioning and protective factors. Currently, families perceive their functioning as more problematic regarding family emotional expressiveness, conflict, cohesion, and global family health/competence. Adaptive appraisal based on positive coping experiences significantly predicted values on emotional expressiveness, conflict, leadership, and global family health/competence dimensions -a higher prevalence of this factor was associated with more optimal family functioning and fewer problems. The growing problem in family functioning with the beginning of the pandemic is inevitable. However, our research confirmed that it is not enough to take into account what families do to survive. It is equally important to learn about what they do to thrive i.e., to study the family resilience.

Keywords: family, coping, resilience, pandemic, COVID-19

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2523 Family and Marital Functioning during the Transition to Motherhood

Authors: Fei Wan Ngai

Abstract:

Background: Family and marital functioning has become an important public health issue because it is vital to child development and well-being. Objective: This study was designed to examine the changes in family and marital functioning among Chinese women during the transition to motherhood. Methods: A longitudinal design was used. A convenience sample of 202 Chinese childbearing women completed the Medical Outcomes Study Family and Marital Functioning Measures during pregnancy, at 6 weeks and at 6 months postpartum. Results: The results showed that women experienced substantial decline in their family and marital functioning from pregnancy to 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Conclusions: The findings of this study highlight the need for more attention to family and marital functioning among women after childbirth. Culturally relevant interventions should be developed to assist women in facing the challenges of new motherhood and achieving a better family and marital functioning.

Keywords: family and marital functioning, perinatal period, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
2522 The Role of Parents in Teaching Entrepreneurship Culture to Their Children in Family Businesses

Authors: Ahmet Diken, Meral Erdirençelebi

Abstract:

Similar to economies in many countries; family-owned enterprises have a significant role in the development of Turkish economy. Although they have a large share in economic terms, their lifetime is limited to working life of their founders. Failure in achieving their sustainability deeply affects not only these businesses but also the economy. Therefore, two basic elements of family owned enterprises, family and organizational culture and especially entrepreneurship culture, should be examined closely. The degree of effectiveness of parents in instilling their children with entrepreneurship culture and their effects on children's profession choices are examined through face-to-face surveys with the managers owning family businesses randomly chosen among family-owned enterprises registered in Konya Chamber of Industry, which are active in specific sectors and which had different generations in their management.

Keywords: family businesses, entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial culture, family culture

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2521 Women's Concerns in Disasters at Family Level in Iranian Context

Authors: Maryam Nakhaei, Hamid Reza Khankeh, Mitra Moodi, Leila Daddoust

Abstract:

Although individuals (men and women) experience disasters in different ways, because of important women’s roles in the family, we aim to shed more light on their issues in doing family. In this report, we present an overview of the main qualitative and quantitative findings of different projects have been conducted in the regions affected by disaster in Iran. This paper explores women’s needs and experiences after disaster at the family level in 'disaster response behavior', 'personal health' including reproductive health and needs of pregnant women, 'livelihood responsibilities', and 'marital relationships'. This clarification can help not only to ensure that their needs are adequately addressed but also to plan family based strategies which consider their strengths.

Keywords: disaster, family, women, Iran

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
2520 The Family Sense of Coherence of Early Childhood Education Students

Authors: M. Demir, A. Demir

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to examine the family sense of coherence of early childhood education students. The Family Sense of Coherence Inventory has applied to 233 (108 girls and 125 boys) early childhood education students in Turkey. At the stage of data collection, with the aim of determining the family sense of coherence of early childhood education students, Family Sense of Coherence Inventory which was developed by Çeçen (2007) was used. In the process of the analysis of data, independent samples t-test, and one-way ANOVA were used. According to the results of the study, there were significant differences between some demographic variables in terms of the family sense of coherence.

Keywords: family sense of coherence, early childhood education students

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2519 Family Firms and Investment–Cash Flow Sensitivity: Empirical Evidence from Canada

Authors: Imen Latrous

Abstract:

Family firm is the most common form of business organization in the world. Many family businesses rely heavily on their own capital to finance their expansion. This dependence on internal funds for their investment may be deliberate to maintain the family dominant position or involuntary as family firms have limited access to external funds. Our understanding of family firm’s choice to fund their own growth using existing capital is somewhat limited. The aim of this paper is to study whether the presence of a controlling family in the company either mitigates or exacerbates external financing constraints. The impact of family ownership on investment–cash flow sensitivity is ultimately an empirical question. We use a sample of 406 Canadian firms listed in Toronto Stock exchange (TSX) over the period 2005–2014 in order to explore this relationship. We distinguish between three elements in the definition of family firms, specifically ownership, control and management, to explore the issue whether family firms are more efficient organisational form. Our research contributes to the extant literature on family ownership in several ways. First, as our understanding of family firm’s investment cash flow sensitivity is somewhat limited in recession times, we explore the effect of family firms on the relation between investment and cash flow during the recent 2007-2009 financial crisis. We also analyse this relationship difference between family firms and non family firms before and during financial crisis. Finally, our paper addresses the endogeneity problem of family ownership and investment-cash flow sensitivity.

Keywords: family firms, investment–cash flow sensitivity, financial crisis, corporate governance

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2518 Effectiveness of an Unorthodox Intervention for Work-Family Interaction: A Field Experiment

Authors: Hassan Rasool

Abstract:

There is limited research in the intervention domain of work family interaction. We identified that meditation could be effective in coping work family conflict and nurturing work family facilitation across domains. We conducted pretest posttest control group field experiment on a sample of sixty employees to test the effectiveness of meditation in a financial sector organization. Empirical evidence confirms that the intervention was effective in coping work family conflict & nurturing facilitation across work & home domains. The intervention, also positively affected a known outcome (i.e. satisfaction at work and home) of work family interaction. Future research perspectives on the use of unorthodox interventions in the domain of work family interaction are also discussed.

Keywords: work family interaction, meditation, satisfaction, experiment

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2517 Transgenerational Entrepreneurship in Chinese Family Businesses: Proposal for a Model of Work-Life Synergy

Authors: Jenny Oliveros Lao Phillips, Arturo E. Osorio, José Alves

Abstract:

Family business are the dominant form of business in the world, and Chinese family business (CFB) is a unique type of family business that relies on collective action to survive. This paper argues that in CFBs, entrepreneurial actions are transgenerational collective endeavors, and successors are groomed as stewards of the family legacy. Work-life relationship in CFBs is about synergy and not balance because the family identity is the business identity, and vice-versa. Using five in-depth case studies, this research introduces an alternative understanding of CFBs and proposes a model of work-life synergy in transgenerational entrepreneurship based on discussion of five theory-based propositions. This model explains that through emphasizing on the business family’s shared value and entrepreneurial legacy, elements of trust, shared identity and stewardship of family members are enhanced which leads to collective action and goal of the business family, resulting in transgenerational entrepreneurship. Limitations and future research are presented.

Keywords: Chinese family business, family legacy, stewardship, transgenerational entrepreneurship, work-life synergy

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2516 Family Succession and Cost of Bank Loans: Evidence from China

Authors: Tzu-Ching Weng, Hsin-Yi Chi

Abstract:

This study examines the effect of family succession on the cost of bank loans and non-price contractual terms. We use a unique dataset from China and find that lending banks are likely to charge high-interest rates and offer tight contractual terms, such as loan maturity and collateral requirement, for family succession firms. These findings indicate that information and default risks may arise after subsequent family successions. We also find that family succession firms can reduce the cost of bank loans by hiring top-tier auditors to enhance financial reporting credibility. This finding suggests that professional and high-quality auditors can provide extremely valuable services to family succession firms.

Keywords: family succession, cost of bank loans, loan contract terms, top-tier auditor

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2515 Barriers and Strategies for Effective Communication between Parents and Children in the Family

Authors: Sadhana Ghnayiem

Abstract:

This article deals with the issue of effective communication between parents and children and its impact on the family in general and on the child in particular. The aim of this article is to provide information to parents, students, anyone interested in family communication between parents and children, and to provide them with tools to deal with barriers to communication in the family unit. The article presented a literature review of the importance of effective communication in the family, the definition of the concept of communication, and was a reference to factors and barriers in communication between parents and children leading to conflict destructive to the extent that barriers to effective communication in the family unit. At the end of the article, strategies were introduced to motivate children to behave appropriately, and to equip parents best to foster the healthy development of their children when they can create an atmosphere of effective communication. From the literature review, it's found that effective communication between parents and children prevents problematic behavior and helps children understand how to communicate effectively with others. Communication between parents and children is the cornerstone of a happy family life and is the basis for positive interactions between parents and children and increases self-esteem in children.

Keywords: children, communication, conflict, family

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2514 The Basics of Cognitive Behavioral Family Therapy and the Treatment of Various Physical and Mental Diseases

Authors: Mahta Mohamadkashi

Abstract:

The family is the most important source of security and health for the people of the society, and at the same time, it is the main field of creating all kinds of social and psychological problems. On the one hand, a family is a natural group with many goals and roles that are important and necessary for all family members. On the other hand, the family is a strong and organized group that recruits the therapist because of the goals that are concealed in its policy and procedures. The relationship between the environment and the family background with mental illnesses has been the focus of various researchers for a long time, and the research and experiments that have been conducted to show that the functioning of the family is related to the mental health of the members of the family. Currently, several theoretical perspectives with different approaches seek to explain and resolve psychological problems and family conflicts that can be mentioned. This research aims to investigate "cognitive-behavioral family therapy" by using the "family therapy" research method which is included the descriptive-analytical method and the method of collecting library information, with special reliance on Persian and Latin books and articles. for considering one of the important approaches of family therapy that we are going which have been known as data and its conditions that also includes requirements and limitations. For this purpose, in the beginning, brief background and introduction about family and family therapy are going to describe, and then the basics of cognitive-behavioral family therapy and the implementation process and various techniques of this approach can go through a big discussion. After that, we will apply this approach in the treatment of various physical and mental diseases in the form of related research, and we will examine the ups and downs of the implementation procedures, limitations, and future directions in this field. In general, This study emphasizes the role of the family system in the occurrence of psychological diseases and disorders and also validates the role of the family system in the treatment of those diseases and disorders. Also, cognitive-behavioral family therapy has been approved as an effective treatment approach for a variety of mental disorders.

Keywords: cognitive-behavioral, family, family therapy, cognitive-behavioral family therapy

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2513 Intergenerational Technology Learning in the Family

Authors: Chih-Chun Wu

Abstract:

Learning information and communication technologies (ICT) helps people survive in current society. For the internet generation also referred as digital natives, learning new technology is like breathing; however, for the elder generations also called digital immigrants, including parents and grandparents, learning new technology could be challenged and frustrated. While majority research focused on the effects of elders’ ICT learning, less attention was paid to the help that the elders got from their other family members while learning ICT. This study utilized the anonymous questionnaire to survey 3,749 undergraduates and demonstrated that families are great places for intergenerational technology learning to be carried out. Results from this study confirmed that in the family, the younger generation both helped set up technology products and educated the elder ones needed technology knowledge and skills. The family elder members in this study applied to those who lived under the same roof with relative relations. Results from this study revealed that 2,331 (62.2%) and 2,656 (70.8%) undergraduates revealed that they helped their family elder members set up and taught them how to use LINE respectively. In addition, 1,481 (49.1%) undergraduates helped their family elder members set up, and 2,222 (59.3%) taught them. When it came to Apps, 2,527 (67.4%) helped their family elder members download them, and 2,876 (76.7%) taught how to use them. As for search engine, 2,317 (61.8%) undergraduates taught their family elders. Furthermore, 3,118 (83.2%), 2,639 (70.4%) and 2,004 (53.7%) undergraduates illustrated that they taught their family elder members smartphones, computers and tablets respectively. Meanwhile, only 904 (24.2%) undergraduates taught their family elders how to make a doctor appointment online. This study suggests to making good use of intergenerational technology learning in the family, since it increases family elders’ technology capital, and thus strengthens our country’s human capital and competitiveness.

Keywords: intergenerational technology learning, adult technology learning, family technology learning, ICT learning

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2512 Prevalence and Correlates of Anxiety and Depression among Family Carers of Cancer

Authors: Godfrey Katende, Lillian Nakimera

Abstract:

The process of caregiving may cause emotional distress in form of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients. Little is known about the prevalence anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients in Uganda. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients and related factors associated with abnormal levels of anxiety and depression. A total of 119 family carers from Uganda Cancer Institute (UCI) were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) standardized questionnaire. The prevalence of anxiety and depression among family carers was high (45% and 26 % respectively); (2) abnormal levels of anxiety (ALA) and depression (ALD) was significantly associated with being a relative carer. Incorporating evidence based psychological therapies targeting family carers into usual care of cancer patients is imperative.

Keywords: anxiety, cancer, carer, cross-sectional design, depression, Uganda

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2511 The Role of Identifications in Women Psychopathology

Authors: Mary Gouva, Elena Dragioti, Evangelia Kotrsotsiou

Abstract:

Family identification has the potential to play a very decisive role in psychopathology. In this study we aimed to investigate the impact of family identifications on female psychopathology. A community sample of 101 women (mean age 20.81 years, SD = 0.91 ranged 20-25) participated to the present study. The girls completed a) the Symptom Check-List Revised (SCL-90) and b) questionnaire concerning socio-demographic information and questions for family identifications. The majority of women reported that they matched to the father in terms of identifications (47.1%). Age and birth order were not contributed on family identifications (F(5) =2.188, p=.062 and F(3)=1.244, p=.299 respectively). Multivariate analysis by using MANCOVA found statistical significant associations between family identifications and domains of psychopathology as provided by SCL-90 (P<05). Our results highlight the role of identifications especially on father and female psychopathology as well as replicate the Freudian perception about the female Oedipus complex.

Keywords: family identification, psychoanalysis, psychopathology, women

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2510 Family Values and Honest Attitudes in Pakistan: The Role of Tolerance and Justice Attitudes

Authors: Muhammad Shoaib

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to examine the effects of family values on honest attitudes by the mediation of tolerance attitudes and justice attitudes among family members. As many other developing settings, Pakistani society is undergoing a rapid and multifaceted social changes, in which traditional thinking coexists and often clashes with modern thinking. Family values have great effects on the honest attitudes among family members as well as all the members of Pakistani society. Tolerance attitudes, justice attitudes, personal experiences and modernity factors are contributing to the development of honest attitudes among family members. Family values attitudes enhance the concept of honesty feelings, fairness, and less thinking towards theft. For the present study 520 respondents were sampled from two urban areas of Punjab province; Lahore and Faisalabad, through proportionate random sampling technique. A survey method was used as a technique of data collection and an interview schedule was administered to collect information from the respondents. The results shows similar positive effects of tolerance and justice attitudes on honest attitude by the mediation of family values attitudes.

Keywords: family values, tolerance, justice, honesty, attitudes, Pakistan

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2509 The Implementation of Child Adoption as Legal Protection of Children

Authors: Sonny Dewi Judiasih

Abstract:

The principle of a marriage is to achieve a happy and eternity family based on the willing of the God. The family has a fundamental role in the society as a social individual and as a nuclear family consists of father, mother, and children. Thus, each family always would like to have children who will continue the family. However, not all family will be blessed with children and consequently, there is family without children. Therefore, the said the certain family will do any effort to fulfill the wish to have children. One of the ways is to adopt children. The implementation of child adoption is conducted by the family who does not have children but sometimes child adoption is conducted by a family who has already children. The implementation of child adoption is based on the interest of the welfare and the intellectual of the said child. Moreover, it should be based on the social liability of the individual in accordance with the developing of the traditional values as part of the nation culture. The child adoption is conducted for the welfare of the child demonstrates that a change on the basic motive (value) whereby in the past the child adoption is to fulfill the wish of foster parent (to have children in the family). Nowadays the purpose of child adoption is not merely for the interest of foster parent but in particular for the interest, welfare and the future of the child. The development of the society has caused the occurrence of changes of perspective in the society which lead to a need for new law. The court of justice has an impact of such changes. It is evidenced by the court order for child adoption in the legal framework of certainty of law. The changes of motives (value) of the child adoption in the society can be fully understood in the event that the society fully understand that the ultimate purpose of Indonesia nation is to achieve a justice and prosperity society, i.e., social welfare for all Indonesian people.

Keywords: child adoption, family law, legal protection, children

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2508 Family Planning Use among Women Living with HIV in Malawi: Analysis from Malawi DHS-2010 Data

Authors: Dereje Habte, Jane Namasasu

Abstract:

Background: The aim of the analysis was to assess the practice of family planning (FP) among HIV-infected women and the influence of women’s awareness of HIV-positive status in the practice of FP. Methods: The analysis was made among 489 non-pregnant, sexually active, fecund women living with HIV. Result: Of the 489 confirmed HIV positive women, 184 (37.6%) reported that they knew they are HIV positive. The number of women with current use and unmet need of any family planning method were found to be 251 (51.2%) and 107 (21.9%) respectively. Women’s knowledge of HIV-positive status (AOR: 2.32(1.54,3.50)), secondary and above education (AOR: 2.36(1.16,4.78)), presence of 3-4 (AOR: 2.60(1.08,6.28)) and more than four alive children (AOR: 3.03(1.18,7.82)) were significantly associated with current use of family planning. Conclusion: Women’s awareness of HIV-positive status was found to significantly predict family planning practice among women living with HIV.

Keywords: family planning, HIV, Malawi, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 487
2507 The Effect of Family Controlling Ownership on Financing Policy

Authors: Vera Diyanty, Akhmad Syahroza

Abstract:

This research aims to describe an empirical evidence of the influence of family control on the company’s financing policy. Additionally, this research also shows the effect of leadership from family member and the effectiveness of the board of commissioners on companies’ financing policy. The result of this study found that family control through direct and indirect ownership mechanism have a positive impact on the choice of bank loan compare to public debt. Nevertheless, this research also shows that companies’ founders who become CEO and the effectiveness of board of commissioners do not prove to increase the alignment effect nor decrease the negative impact of entrenchment effect on the bank loan preference.

Keywords: family controlling, family CEO, board effectiveness, financing policy

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2506 Meat Consumption for Family Health in Nigeria

Authors: Chigbu Ruth Nnena

Abstract:

This paper discussed the concept of meat its nutritive value in family meals. The paper further discussed the selection, storage and preparation of meat in family meal the Nigerian way. The paper made the following recommendations among others; that families in Nigeria should rear cow meat for easy access to the meant and that family should purchase meat that are fresh from chain shops in the market to avoid meat contamination among others.

Keywords: meat, selection, storage meals, concept and preparation

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
2505 Base Change for Fisher Metrics: Case of the q-Gaussian Inverse Distribution

Authors: Gabriel I. Loaiza Ossa, Carlos A. Cadavid Moreno, Juan C. Arango Parra

Abstract:

It is known that the Riemannian manifold determined by the family of inverse Gaussian distributions endowed with the Fisher metric has negative constant curvature κ= -1/2, as does the family of usual Gaussian distributions. In the present paper, firstly, we arrive at this result by following a different path, much simpler than the previous ones. We first put the family in exponential form, thus endowing the family with a new set of parameters, or coordinates, θ₁, θ₂; then we determine the matrix of the Fisher metric in terms of these parameters; and finally we compute this matrix in the original parameters. Secondly, we define the inverse q-Gaussian distribution family (q < 3) as the family obtained by replacing the usual exponential function with the Tsallis q-exponential function in the expression for the inverse Gaussian distribution and observe that it supports two possible geometries, the Fisher and the q-Fisher geometry. And finally, we apply our strategy to obtain results about the Fisher and q-Fisher geometry of the inverse q-Gaussian distribution family, similar to the ones obtained in the case of the inverse Gaussian distribution family.

Keywords: base of changes, information geometry, inverse Gaussian distribution, inverse q-Gaussian distribution, statistical manifolds

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