Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 826

Search results for: validity

826 Internal and External Validity in Experimental Economics

Authors: Helena Chytilova, Robin Maialeh

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Experimental economics is subject to criticism with regards to frequently discussed trade-off between internal and external validity requirements, which seems to be critically flawed. Incompatibility of trade-off condition and condition of internal validity as a prerequisite for external validity is presented. In addition, the imprecise concept of artificiality found to be rather improving external validity, seems to strengthen illusory status of external versus internal validity tension. Internal validity will be further analysed with regards to Duhem-Quine problem, where unpredictability argument is significantly weakened trough application of inductivism within the illustrative hypothetical-deductive model. Discussion outlined above partially weakens critical arguments related to robustness of results in experimental economics, if perfectly controlled experimental environment is secured.

Keywords: Duhem-Quine problem, external validity, inductivism, internal validity

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825 Validity Study of The Zimbardo’s Stanford Time Perspective Inventory in Indonesia Students Context

Authors: Anggi Permana, Zahrah Nabila Putri, Anisa Dwi Arifani, Veany Aprillia

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This research aims to evaluate the validity of Zimbardo’s Stanford Time Perspective Inventory (STPI) in Indonesian context. The model of validity used in this study is the criterion-based validity, in which the associated variables are depression and subjective well-being (SWB). BDI (Beck Depression Inventory) was used to measure depression, while PANAS (Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale) and SWLS (Satisfaction with Life Scale) were used to measure subjective well-being. The analysis showed that STPI variables are closely related to STPI Dimension, Present Hedonistic showed pro validity to SWB, Future indicated contra validity to SWB, and Present Fatalistic revealed contra validity to depression and pro validity to SWB. The subjects of this research are from the same university.

Keywords: BDI, PANAS, STPI, subjective well-being, SWLS

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824 Wally Feelings Test: Validity and Reliability Study

Authors: Gökhan Kayili, Ramazan Ari

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In this research, it is aimed to be adapted Wally Feelings Test to Turkish children and performed the reliability and validity analysis of the test. The sampling of the research was composed of three to five year-old 699 Turkish preschoolers who are attending official and private nursery school. The schools selected with simple random sampling method by considering different socio economic conditions and different central district in Konya. In order to determine reliability of Wally Feelings Test, internal consistency coefficients (KR-20), split-half reliability and test- retest reliability analysis have been performed. During validation process construct validity, content/scope validity and concurrent/criterion validity were used. When validity and reliability of the test examined, it is seen that Wally Feelings Test is a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate three to five year old Turkish children’s understanding feeling skills.

Keywords: reliability, validity, wally feelings test, social sciences

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823 Developing Critical-Process Skills Integrated Assessment Instrument as Alternative Assessment on Electrolyte Solution Matter in Senior High School

Authors: Sri Rejeki Dwi Astuti, Suyanta

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The demanding of the asessment in learning process was impact by policy changes. Nowadays, the assessment not only emphasizes knowledge, but also skills and attitude. However, in reality there are many obstacles in measuring them. This paper aimed to describe how to develop instrument of integrated assessment as alternative assessment to measure critical thinking skills and science process skills in electrolyte solution and to describe instrument’s characteristic such as logic validity and construct validity. This instrument development used test development model by McIntire. Development process data was acquired based on development test step and was analyzed by qualitative analysis. Initial product was observed by three peer reviewer and six expert judgment (two subject matter expert, two evaluation expert and two chemistry teacher) to acquire logic validity test. Logic validity test was analyzed using Aiken’s formula. The estimation of construct validity was analyzed by exploratory factor analysis. Result showed that integrated assessment instrument has 0,90 of Aiken’s Value and all item in integrated assessment asserted valid according to construct validity.

Keywords: construct validity, critical thinking skills, integrated assessment instrument, logic validity, science process skills

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822 The Validity of a Literature Review Rubric in the Ecuadorian Context

Authors: Francisco Bolaños-Burgos, Antonio Cevallos Gamboa

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The aim of this paper is to evaluate the validity of a literature review rubric in the Ecuadorian context at the graduate level. The sample was composed of 73 students of the online and on-site study format in the years 2015-2016. The instrument has 20 items (α=0.974) ranked in a 5-point Likert scale with six dimensions. The validity analysis was made by experts´ criterion. Findings evidenced that there is no significance difference between grades based on the study formats and that women write better than men. Furthermore, the students lacked to describe the limitation of their research and are good in writing: the research topic of the abstract, the conclusion in terms of the research objective and the citation norms (APA).

Keywords: literature review, rubric, validity, Ecuadorian context, graduate level

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821 A Study on the Development of Social Participation Activity Scale for the Elderly

Authors: Young-Kwang Lee, Eun-Gu Ji, Min-Joo Kim, Seung-Jae Oh

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The purpose of this study is to develop a social participation activity scale for the elderly. As a result of exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using maximum likelihood method using bundled items. In conclusion, thirteen items of social participation activity scale seemed appropriate. Finally, convergent validity and discriminant validity were verified on the scale with the fit. The convergent validity was based on the variance extracted value. In other words, the hypothesis that the variables are the same is rejected and the validity is confirmed. This study extensively considered the measurement items of the social participation activity scale used to measure social participation activities of the elderly. In the future, it will be meaningful that it can be used as a tool to verify the effectiveness of services in organizations that provide social welfare services to elderly people such as comprehensive social welfare centers and the elderly comprehensive social welfare centers.

Keywords: elderly, social participation, scale development, validity

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820 Developing a Health Literacy Questionnaire in Breast Cancer

Authors: Lida Moghaddam-Banaem, Mahmood Tavoosi, Soheila Khalili

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Objective: The main objective of this study was designing a breast cancer health literacy questionnaire and assess its psychometric properties. Methods: A comprehensive literature review was performed to develop a primary questionnaire consisting of five domains. Qualitative and quantitative content validity were assessed by relevant experts, and after some modifications, the content validity index (CVI) and content validity ratio (CVR) were calculated. Qualitative and quantitative face validity were evaluated by a number of patients, and the impact score for each item was calculated. 225 women with breast cancer were asked to fill out the questionnaire and construct validity was determined by using exploratory factor analysis. The reliability was tested by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Results: A 36-item questionnaire with five domains of reading, having access, understanding, assessing/judgment, and decision making/behavior was designed. 2 items were omitted in the qualitative content validity process. All items achieved optimum values in CVI, CVR and impact scores. Content and face validity of the questionnaire were confirmed too. According to the exploratory factor analysis, the five-factor solution accounted for 64.98 percent of the observed variance. Conclusion: Due to the obtained satisfactory validity and reliability, this tool can be used to assess health literacy in women with breast cancer. Health policy makers can use these findings for improving health-related behaviors in breast cancer patients.

Keywords: health literacy, breast cancer, questionnaire, psychometric properties

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819 Development and Validation of Research Process for Enhancing Humanities Competence of Medical Students

Authors: S. J. Yune, K. H. Park

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The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the research process for enhancing the humanities competence of the medical students. The research process was developed to be operated as a core subject course of 3 semesters. Among them, the research process for enhancing humanities capacity consisted of humanities and societies (6 teams) and education-psychology (2teams). The subjects of this study were 88-second grade students and 22 professors who participated in the research process. Among them, 13 professors participated in the study of humanities and 37 students. In the validity test, the professors were more likely to have more validity in the research process than the students in all areas of logic (p = .001), influence (p = .037), process (p = .001). The validity of the professor was higher than that of the students. The professors highly evaluated the students' learning outcomes and showed the most frequency to the prize group. As a result of analyzing the agreement between the students and the professors through the Kappa coefficient, the agreement degree of communication and cooperation competence was moderate to .430. Problem-solving ability was .340, which showed a fair degree of agreement. However, other factors showed only a slight degree of agreement of less than .20.

Keywords: research process, medical school, humanities competence, validity verification

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818 Validity and Reliability of a Questionaire for Measuring Behaviour Change of Low Performance Employee

Authors: Hazaila Binti Hassan, Abu Yazid Bin Abu Bakar, Salleh Amat

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This study is to get the validity and reliability of the questionnaire for behaviour change on low-performing officers. This study aimed to develop and evaluate the behaviour of low performing officers. There are 75 items in this questionnaire which involves 5 subscales, which are the 5 dimensions intended to be studied: 1st emotional stability, 2nd psycho-spiritual enhancement, 3rd social skills development, 4th cognitive and rationality improvement and 5th behavioural alignment and adjustment. There are 2 processes in this research whereby to check the validity and reliability. Both use quantitative methods. Validity content testing has been conducted to validate the behavioural change questionnaire of the low performing officers. For the face validity, 4 people are involved, two are psychologists who carried out the program and the other two are officers of the same rank, i.e. supporting officers. They are involved in correction of sentences, languages, and grammar as well as the sentence structures so that it tallies with the purpose of studies. The questionnaire underwent content validity by the experts. Five experts are appointed to attend this session, 3 are directly involved in the construction of this questionnaire and 2 others are experts from the university with a background in questionnaire development. The result shows that the content validity obtained a high coefficient of 0.745 with a minimum and maximum value of more than 0.60 which satisfies the characteristic of Content Value Ratio. The Cronbach’s alpha result is 0.867. The highest scores are the behavioural alignment and adjustment sub-scale recorded the highest value, followed by social skills development sub-scale, cognitive and rational improvements sub-scale, psycho-spiritual enhancement sub-scale, and lastly emotional stability. Therefore, both of validity and reliability result were accepted that this questionnaire is valid and reliable can be used in the study of behaviour changes of low performing officers in the civil service.

Keywords: content validity, reliability, five dimension, low-performing officers, questionnaire

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817 Assessment of Age-Friendliness in Rural Areas: An Investigation of Content Validity

Authors: Barbara Erjauz, Juliane Eichhorn

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Background and Purpose: The world´s population is rapidly aging, wherefore the World Health Organization (WHO) is dealing with concepts of Age-Friendly-Communities and criteria to define them. Also in Germany, we can find an aging population and a large amount of seniors is living in rural areas. Those regions are defined by unique social and environmental characteristics, which can enhance or decrease age-friendliness. To identify and work with these characteristics, we are in need of appropriate assessment instruments. To the author’s best knowledge until now, no instrument could be identified as suitable and scientifically proven for the German speaking area. The aim of the study was to identify an assessment instrument to measure the age-friendliness of rural communities and its psychometric testing regarding the content validity. Methods: A literature search was carried out to identify instruments related to concepts of Age-Friendly-Communities. According to the German situation, an instrument was chosen and modified based on a Delphi-study. In this context, the content validity was investigated by calculating the Content Validity Index (CVI). Results: An instrument consisting of 86 items based on WHO indicators and the German situation in rural areas was created. 43 items (50%) had a Content Validity Index for Items (I-CVI) of 1,00, 37 items (43%) had an I-CVI of >0,78 and > 1.00, and 6 items had an I-CVI of >0,78. The value of the Content Validity Index for Scales, averaging calculation method (S-CVI/Ave) for the entire scale was 0,91. Conclusions: The results indicate a good content validity and it can be concluded that the created instrument represents the phenomenon of age-friendliness in rural areas. Nevertheless, further psychometric testing related to reliability, validity and responsiveness is recommended.

Keywords: assessment, age-friendly, rural, psychometric testing

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816 Developing of Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale in Turkey

Authors: Ayşegül Bilge, Merve Uğuryol, Şeyda Dülgerler, Mustafa Yıldız

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The purpose of this research is to prove the Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale reliability and validity. The research is a methodological type of research that has been planned to determine the validity and reliability of the Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale. The scale has been developed by the researchers. In the scale, there are 23 questions including complementary and modern therapies individuals apply when they have health problems 4-item Likert-type evaluation has been carried out in preparing the questionnaire. High score obtained from the scale indicates a positive attitude towards complementary therapies. In the course of validity assessment of the scale, expert opinion has been received, and the content validity of the scale has been determined by using Kendall coefficient correlation test (Wa=0.200, p = 0.460). In the course of the reliability assessment of the scale, total score correlations of 23 materials have been examined, and those under 0.20 correlation limit has been removed from the scale correlation. As a result, the scale was left to be 13 items. In the internal consistency tests of the analyses, Cronbach's alpha value has been found to be 0.79. As a result, of the validity analyses of the Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale, the content and language validity analyses has been found to be at the expected level. It has been determined to be a highly reliable scale as the result of the reliability analyses. In conclusion, Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale is a valid and reliable scale.

Keywords: alternative health care, complementary treatment, instrument development, nursing practice

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815 Validity and Reliability of Competency Assessment Implementation (CAI) Instrument Using Rasch Model

Authors: Nurfirdawati Muhamad Hanafi, Azmanirah Ab Rahman, Marina Ibrahim Mukhtar, Jamil Ahmad, Sarebah Warman

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This study was conducted to generate empirical evidence on validity and reliability of the item of Competency Assessment Implementation (CAI) Instrument using Rasch Model for polythomous data aided by Winstep software version 3.68. The construct validity was examined by analyzing the point-measure correlation index (PTMEA), in fit and outfit MNSQ values; meanwhile the reliability was examined by analyzing item reliability index. A survey technique was used as the major method with the CAI instrument on 156 teachers from vocational schools. The results have shown that the reliability of CAI Instrument items were between 0.80 and 0.98. PTMEA Correlation is in positive values, in which the item is able to distinguish between the ability of the respondent. Statistical data obtained shows that out of 154 items, 12 items from the instrument suggested to be omitted. This study is hoped could bring a new direction to the process of data analysis in educational research.

Keywords: competency assessment, reliability, validity, item analysis

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814 Confirmatory Analysis of Externalizing Issue Validity from an Adolescent Sample

Authors: Zhidong Zhang, Zhi-Chao Zhang

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This study investigated the structural validity of externalizing issues of Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) via a Chinese sample. The externalizing problems consist of two sub-problems: rule-breaking behavior and aggressive behavior. The rule-breaking behavior consists of 17 items, and aggressive behavior consists of 18 items. The factor analysis model was used to examine the structure validity. For the rule breaking behavior, at the first step, the most items weighted with component 2. After the rotation, there was a clear weight on both component 1 and 2. For the aggressive behavior, at the first step, there was no clear picture about the components. After the rotation, two clusters of items were closer to component 1 and 2 respectively. It seemed that both rule breaking behavior issue and aggressive behavior issue suggested two components. Further studies should be done to examine both samples and structures of externalizing problems.

Keywords: confirmatory analysis, externalizing issue, structural validity, varimax rotations

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813 Standardization of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2, Parent Rating Scales - Adolescent Form (K BASC-2, PRS-A) among Korean Sample

Authors: Christine Myunghee Ahn, Sung Eun Baek, Sun Young Park

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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cross-cultural validity of the Korean version of the Behavioral Assessment System for Children 2nd Edition, Parent Rating Scales - Adolescent Form (K BASC-2, PRS-A). The 150-item K BASC-2, PRS-A questionnaire was administered to a total of 690 Korean parents or caregivers (N=690) of adolescent children in middle school and high school. Results from the confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses indicate that the K BASC-2, PRS-A yielded a 3-factor solution similar to the factor structure found in the original version of the BASC-2. The internal consistencies using the Cronbach’s alpha of the composite scale scores were in the .92~ .98 range. The overall reliability and validity of the K BASC-2, PRS-A seem adequate. Structural equation modeling was used to verify the theoretical relationship among the scales of Adaptability, Withdrawal, Somatization, Depression, and Anxiety, to render additional support for internal validity. Other relevant findings, practical implications regarding the use of the KBASC-2, PRS-A and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Keywords: behavioral assessment system, cross-cultural validity, parent report, screening

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812 Development of Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire for Diabetes Management in Thailand and Lao People Democratic Republic

Authors: Phoutsathaphone Sibounheuang, Phayom Sookaneknun Olson, Chanuttha Ploylearmsang, Santiparp Sookaneknun, Chanthanom Manithip

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Patient satisfaction is an outcome that can be measured and used to improve diabetes care and management. There are limited instruments for assessing patient satisfaction covering the whole process of diabetes management. In this study, the questionnaire was developed with items pooled from a systematic review of qualitative studies of patients’ and healthcare providers’ perspectives in diabetes management. The questionnaire consists of 11 domains with 45 items. The Thai version was translated to Lao and then checked by back-translating it into Thai. We tested the questionnaire on 150 diabetes patients in Thailand and 150 in Lao People Democratic Republic (PDR). Validity was performed by factor analysis and Pearson correlation. Internal consistency reliability was estimated by calculating Cronbach’s alpha. The study was approved by the Mahasarakham University Ethics Committee, and the National Ethics Committee for Health Research, Lao PDR. The Thai and Lao versions showed the construct validity by principal component analysis. This consisted of 11 domains which account for 71.23% of the variance (Thai version) and 71.66% of the variance (Lao version) in the total patient satisfaction scores. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measures were 0.85 for the Thai version and 0.75 for the Lao version. The Bartlett tests of sphericity of both versions were significant (p < 0.001). The factor loadings of all items in both versions were > 0.40. The convergent validity of the Thai and Lao versions was 93.63% and 79.54% respectively. The discriminant validity for the Thai and Lao versions was 92.68% and 88.68% respectively. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.95 in both versions. The Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ) in both versions had acceptable properties. This study has yielded evidence supporting the validity and reliability of both versions.

Keywords: construct validity, diabetes management, patient satisfaction, questionnaire development, reliability

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811 Adapting Depression and Anxiety Questionnaire for Children into Turkish: Reliability and Validity Studies

Authors: İsmail Seçer

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Although depression and anxiety disorders are considered to be adult disorders, the evidence obtained from several studies conducted recently shows that the roots of depression and anxiety disorders go back to childhood years. Thus, it is thought that analyzing depressive symptoms and anxiety disorders observed in the childhood is an important necessity. In the direction of the problem status of the study, the purpose of this study is to adapt anxiety and depression questionnaire for children into Turkish culture and analyze the psychometric characteristics of it on clinical and nonclinical samples separately. The study is a descriptive survey research. The study was conducted on two different sample groups, clinical and nonclinical. The clinical sample is formed of 205 individuals and the nonclinical sample is formed of 630 individuals. Through the study, anxiety and depression questionnaire for children, anxiety sensitivity index and obsessive compulsive disorder questionnaire for children were used. Experts’ opinions were asked to provide language validity of the scale. Confirmatory factor analysis and criterion-related validity to analyze construct validity and internal consistency and split-half reliability analyses were done for reliability. In the direction of experts’ opinions, construct validity of the scale was analyzed with simple confirmatory factor analysis and it was determined that the model fit of the two-factor structure of the scale gives good fit on both the clinical and nonclinical samples after determining that the language validity of the scale is provided. In criterion-related validity, it was determined that there are positive and significant relations between anxiety and depression questionnaire for children and anxiety sensitivity and obsessive compulsive disorder. The results of internal consistency and half-split reliability analyses also show that the scale has adequate reliability value. It can be said that depression and anxiety questionnaire for children which was adapted to determine depressive symptoms and anxiety disorders observed in childhood has adequate reliability and validity values and it can be used in future studies. It can be recommended that the psychometric characteristics of the scale can be analyzed and reported on new samples in the future studies.

Keywords: scale adapting, construct validity, confirmatory factor analysis, childhood depression

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810 The Development of the Self-concept Scale for Elders in Taiwan

Authors: Ting-Chia Lien, Tzu-Yin Yen, Szu-Fan Chen, Tai-chun Kuo, Hung-Tse Lin, Yi-Chen Chung, Hock-Sen Gwee

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The purpose of this study was to explore the result of the survey by developing “Self-Concept Scale for Elders”, which could provide community counseling and guidance institution for practical application. The sample of this study consisted of 332 elders in Taiwan (male: 33.4%; female: 66.6%). The mean age of participants was 65-98 years. The measurements applied in this study is “Self-Concept Scale for Elders”. After item and factor analyses, the preliminary version of the Self-Concept Scale for Elders was revised to the final version. The results were summarized as follows: 1) There were 10 items in Self-Concept Scale for Elders. 2) The variance explained for the scale accounted for 77.15%, with corrected item-total correlations Cronbach’s alpha=0.87. 3) The content validity, criterion validity and construct validity have been found to be satisfactory. Based on the findings, the implication and suggestions are offered for reference regarding counselor education and future research.

Keywords: self-concept, elder, development scale, applied psychology

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809 Developing a Multidimensional Adjustment Scale

Authors: Nadereh Sohrabi Shegefti, Siamak Samani

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Level of adjustment is the first index to check mental health. The aim of this study was developing a valid and reliable Multidimensional Adjustment Scale (MAS). The sample consisted of 150 college students. Multidimensional adjustment scale and Depression, Anxiety, and stress scale (DASS) were used in this study. Principle factor analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient, and Cornbach's Alpha were used to check the validity and reliability of the MAS. Principle component factor analysis showed a 5 factor solution for the MAS. Alpha coefficients for the MAS sub scales were ranged between .69 to .83. Test-retest reliability for MAS was .88 and the mean of sub scales- total score correlation was .88. All these indexes revealed an acceptable reliability and validity for the MAS. The MAS is a short assessment instrument with good acceptable psychometric properties to use in clinical filed.

Keywords: psychological adjustment, psychometric properties, validity, Pearson correlation

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808 Psychometric Properties of the Secondary School Stressor Questionnaire among Adolescents at Five Secondary Schools

Authors: Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff

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This study aimed to evaluate the construct, convergent, and discriminant validity of the Secondary School Stressor Questionnaire (3SQ) as well as to evaluate its internal consistency among adolescents in Malaysian secondary schools. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 700 secondary school students in five secondary schools. Stratified random sampling was used to select schools and participants. The confirmatory factor analysis was performed by AMOS to examine construct, convergent, and discriminant validity. The reliability analysis was performed by SPSS to determine internal consistency. The results showed that the original six-factor model with 44 items failed to achieve acceptable values of the goodness of fit indices, suggesting poor model fit. The new five-factor model of 3SQ with 22 items demonstrated acceptable level of goodness of fit indices to signify a model fit. The overall Cronbach’s alpha value for the new version 3SQ was 0.93, while the five constructs ranged from 0.68 to 0.94. The composite reliability values of each construct ranged between 0.68 and 0.93, indicating satisfactory to high level of convergent validity. Our study did not support the construct validity of the original version of 3SQ. We found the new version 3SQ showed more convincing evidence of validity and reliability to measure stressors of adolescents. Continued research is needed to verify and maximize the psychometric credentials of 3SQ across countries.

Keywords: stressors, adolescents, secondary school students, 3SQ, psychometric properties

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807 Opportunity Integrated Assessment Facilitating Critical Thinking and Science Process Skills Measurement on Acid Base Matter

Authors: Anggi Ristiyana Puspita Sari, Suyanta

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To recognize the importance of the development of critical thinking and science process skills, the instrument should give attention to the characteristics of chemistry. Therefore, constructing an accurate instrument for measuring those skills is important. However, the integrated instrument assessment is limited in number. The purpose of this study is to validate an integrated assessment instrument for measuring students’ critical thinking and science process skills on acid base matter. The development model of the test instrument adapted McIntire model. The sample consisted of 392 second grade high school students in the academic year of 2015/2016 in Yogyakarta. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to explore construct validity, whereas content validity was substantiated by Aiken’s formula. The result shows that the KMO test is 0.714 which indicates sufficient items for each factor and the Bartlett test is significant (a significance value of less than 0.05). Furthermore, content validity coefficient which is based on 8 expert judgments is obtained at 0.85. The findings support the integrated assessment instrument to measure critical thinking and science process skills on acid base matter.

Keywords: acid base matter, critical thinking skills, integrated assessment instrument, science process skills, validity

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806 Reliability and Validity Examinations of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL): One of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment

Authors: Zhidong Zhang, Zhi-Chao Zhang

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In this study, three Chinese versions of the Achenbach systems of empirically based assessment (ASEBA) scales were used to examine adolescent psychological and behavioral problems. These three scales are CBCL, TRF, and YSR. In order to further understand the robustness of these scales, their reliability and construct validity have been examined. Each scale consists of about 113 items plus relevant background variables. These 113 items were further classified into 8 psychological and behavioral problems: emotionally reactive, anxious/depressed, somatic complaints, withdrawn, attention problems, aggressive behavior, social problems, thought problems, and association problems. The study explored the item and construct correlation relations and the correlations between the corresponding constructs among three scales. The results indicated that the associations between item and constructs varied. The construct validities were very robust.

Keywords: ASEBA, construct validity, psychological and behavioral problems, reliability

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805 Developing E-Psychological Instrument for an Effective Flood Victims' Mental Health Management

Authors: A. Nazilah

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Floods are classified among sudden onset phenomenon and the highest natural disasters happen in Malaysia. Floods have a negative impact on mental health. Measuring the psychopathology symptoms among flood victims is an important step for intervention and treatment. However, there is a gap of a valid, reliable and an efficient instrument to measure flood victims' mental health, especially in Malaysia. This study aims to replicate the earlier studies of developing e-Psychological Instrument for Flood Victims (e-PIFV). The e-PIFV is a digital self-report inventory that has 84 items with 4 dimension scales namely stress, anxiety, depression, and trauma. Two replicated studies have been done to validate the instrument using expert judgment method. Results showed that content coefficient validity for each sub-scale of the instrument ranging from moderate to very strong validity. In study I, coefficient values of stress was 0.7, anxiety was 0.9, depression was 1.0, trauma was 0.6 and overall was 0.8. In study II, the coefficient values for two subscales and overall scale were increased. The coefficient value of stress was 0.8, anxiety was 0.9, depression was 1.0, trauma was 0.8 and overall was 0.9. This study supports the theoretical framework and provides practical implication in the field of clinical psychology and flood management.

Keywords: developing e-psychological instrument, content validity, instrument, mental health management, flood victims, psychopathology, validity

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804 Psychological Capital: Convergent and Discriminant Validity of a Reconfigured Measure

Authors: Anton Grobler

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Background: Psychological capital (PsyCap), consisting of Hope, Optimism, Resilience, and Self-efficacy, is a popular positive organisational behaviour construct utilised in the studying employee work and behavioral attitudes. Various scholars believe however that further validity research should be conducted on the PsyCap questionnaire (PCQ), outside of the founding research team and in more diverse settings, for the purpose of this paper, within the diverse South African (SA) context. Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the construct validity of the PCQ with specific reference to its psychometric properties within the diverse SA context. Setting: The sample includes a total of 1 749 respondents, ± 60 each from 30 organisations in South Africa. Method: This study utilised a cross-sectional design and quantitative analysis. The sample is relatively representative (in terms of race, gender) of the South African workforce. A multi-factorial model was statistically explored and confirmed (with exploratory factor analysis [EFA] and confirmatory factor analysis [CFA] respectively). Results: The study yielded a three-factor solution, with Hope and Optimism as a combined factor and Resilience and Self-efficacy made up of a reconfigured set of substantively justifiable items. Three items of the original 24 items were found not to be suitable. The three factors showed good psychometric properties, good fit (in support of construct validity) and acceptable levels of convergent and discriminant validity. Conclusion: The results support the original conceptualisation of PsyCap, although with a unique structural configuration. This resonates with the notion of scholars that further research should be conducted within diverse settings. This is necessary to ensure the valid measurement of the construct, which is considered to be one of the four criteria for a construct to be categorised as a positive organisational behaviour construct.

Keywords: positive organisational behaviour, psychological capital, hope, optimism, resilience, self-efficacy, construct validity

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803 Validity and Reliability of Lifestyle Measurement of the LSAS among Recurrent Stroke Patients in Selected Hospital, Central Java, Indonesia

Authors: Meida Laely Ramdani, Earmporn Thongkrajai, Dedy Purwito

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Lifestyle is one of the most important factors affecting health. Measurement of lifestyle behaviors is necessary for the identification of causal associations between unhealthy lifestyle and health outcomes. There was many instruments have been measured for lifestyle, but not specific for stroke recurrence. This study aimed to develop a new questionnaire of Lifestyle Adjustment Scale (LSAS) among recurrent stroke patients in Indonesia and to measure the reliability and validity of LSAS. The instrument consist of 33 items was developed from the responses of 30 recurrent stroke patients with the maximum age 60 years. Data was collected during October to November 2015. The properties of the instrument were evaluated by validity assessment and reliability measures. The content validity was judged adequate by a panel of five experts, with the result of I-CVI was 0.97. The Cronbach’s alpha analysis was carried out to measure the reliability of LSAS. The result showed that Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.819. LSAS were classified under the domains of dietary habit, smoking habit, physical activity, and stress management. The results of Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for each subscale were 0.60, 0.39, 0.67, 0.65 and 0.76 respectively. LSAS instrument was valid and reliable therefore can be used as research tool among recurrent stroke patients. The development of this questionnaire has been adapted to the socio-cultural context in Indonesia.

Keywords: LSAS, recurrent stroke patients, lifestyle, Indonesia

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802 Development and Evaluation of a Psychological Adjustment and Adaptation Status Scale for Breast Cancer Survivors

Authors: Jing Chen, Jun-E Liu, Peng Yue

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Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a psychological adjustment and adaptation status scale for breast cancer survivors, and to examine the reliability and validity of the scale. Method: 37 breast cancer survivors were recruited in qualitative research; a five-subject theoretical framework and an item pool of 150 items of the scale were derived from the interview data. In order to evaluate and select items and reach a preliminary validity and reliability for the original scale, the suggestions of study group members, experts and breast cancer survivors were taken, and statistical methods were used step by step in a sample of 457 breast cancer survivors. Results: An original 24-item scale was developed. The five dimensions “domestic affections”, “interpersonal relationship”, “attitude of life”, “health awareness”, “self-control/self-efficacy” explained 58.053% of the total variance. The content validity was assessed by experts, the CVI was 0.92. The construct validity was examined in a sample of 264 breast cancer survivors. The fitting indexes of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed good fitting of the five dimensions model. The criterion-related validity of the total scale with PTGI was satisfactory (r=0.564, p<0.001). The internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability were tested. Cronbach’s alpha value (0.911) showed a good internal consistency reliability, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC=0.925, p<0.001) showed a satisfactory test-retest reliability. Conclusions: The scale was brief and easy to understand, was suitable for breast cancer patients whose physical strength and energy were limited.

Keywords: breast cancer survivors, rehabilitation, psychological adaption and adjustment, development of scale

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801 Factorial Validity for the Morale Sprit Scale: The Case for Physical Education Faculty Members at Jordanian Universities

Authors: Abedalbasit M. Abedalhafiz, Aman Kasawneh, Zyad Altahynah, Ahmad Okor

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The purpose of this study was to determine the construct validity of the morale sprit scale (MSS). Ninety faculty members from colleges of physical education at Jordanian universities were chosen to participate in this study. The design of this study was an ex-post facto. The MSS consists of (48) items that measure different dimensions of morale spirit among faculty members. Principle axis factoring with oblique rotation was utilized to uncover the underlying structure of the instrument. The findings revealed eight factor solution explaining (72.825%). Seven factors were accepted according to the conditions of accepting factors. The seven factors were named morale as reflection of faculty and department's administration, regulations and instructions, working environment and conditions, promotions and incentives and salaries, relations between the faculty member's, the trend toward the college and university, the trend toward self factors.

Keywords: Factorial validity, morale sprit, faculty members, Jordanian Universities

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800 Validation of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire: Adolescent Short Form (TEIQue-ASF) among Adolescents in Vietnam

Authors: Anh Nguyen, Jane Fisher, Thach Tran, Anh T. T. Tran

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Trait Emotional Intelligence is the knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes an individual has about their own and other people’s emotions. It is believed that trait emotional intelligence is a component of personality. Petrides’ Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) is well regarded and well-established, with validation data about its functioning among adults from many countries. However, there is little data yet about its use among Asian populations, including adolescents. The aims were to translate and culturally verify the Trait Emotional Intelligence Adolescent Short Form (TEIQue-ASF) and investigate content validity, construct validity, and reliability among adolescents attending high schools in Vietnam. Content of the TEIQue-ASF was translated (English to Vietnamese) and back-translated (Vietnamese to English) in consultation with bilingual and bicultural health researchers and pilot tested among 51 potential respondents. Phraseology and wording were then adjusted and the final version is named the VN-TEIQue-ASF. The VN-TEIQue-ASF’s properties were investigated in a cross-sectional elf-report survey among high school students in Central Vietnam. In total 1,546 / 1,573 (98.3%) eligible students from nine high schools in rural, urban, and coastline areas completed the survey. Explanatory Factor Analysis yielded a four-factor solution, including some with facets that loaded differently compared to the original version: Well-being, Emotion in Relationships, Emotion Self-management, and Emotion Sensitivity. The Cronbach’s alpha of the global score for the VN-TEIQue-ASF was .77. The VN-TEIQue-ASF is comprehensible and has good content and construct validity and reliability among adolescents in Vietnam. The factor structure is only partly replicated the original version. The VN-TEIQue-ASF is recommended for use in school or community surveys and professional study in education, psychology, and public health to investigate the trait emotional intelligence of adolescents in Vietnam.

Keywords: adolescents, construct validity, content validity, factor analysis, questionnaire validity, trait emotional intelligence, Vietnam

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799 Embodying the Ecological Validity in Creating the Sustainable Public Policy: A Study in Strengthening the Green Economy in Indonesia

Authors: Gatot Dwi Hendro, Hayyan ul Haq

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This work aims to explore the strategy in embodying the ecological validity in creating the sustainability of public policy, particularly in strengthening the green economy in Indonesia. This green economy plays an important role in supporting the national development in Indonesia, as it is a part of the national policy that posits the primary priority in Indonesian governance. The green economy refers to the national development covering strategic natural resources, such as mining, gold, oil, coal, forest, water, marine, and the other supporting infrastructure for products and distribution, such as fabrics, roads, bridges, and so forth. Thus, all activities in those national development should consider the sustainability. This sustainability requires the strong commitment of the national and regional government, as well as the local governments to put the ecology as the main requirement for issuing any policy, such as licence in mining production, and developing and building new production and supporting infrastructures for optimising the national resources. For that reason this work will focus on the strategy how to embody the ecological values and norms in the public policy. In detail, this work will offer the method, i.e. legal techniques, in visualising and embodying the norms and public policy that valid ecologically. This ecological validity is required in order to maintain and sustain our collective life.

Keywords: ecological validity, sustainable development, coherence, Indonesian Pancasila values, environment, marine

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798 An Investigation of Construct Validity of GAT as a High-Stake Test Used for MS/MPhil English Admissions in Pakistan

Authors: Anam Nawaz

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The study attempts to investigate the ‘construct validity’ of GAT general test; a high-stake test (any assessment whose outcome has life-changing implications for the test taker, used by most of the government and private sector universities in Pakistan as an admission requirement). Participants need at least 50 marks to qualify the test which consists of verbal, quantitative and analytical sections. 10 participants from English department of International Islamic University Islamabad were conveniently selected and asked to attempt a sample of GAT test in a limited time. Afterwards, they were requested to fill a brief questionnaire and were further asked a few questions regarding the relevance and significance of GAT test. The study revealed some insights about the construct validity of GAT tests from the test takers’ perspectives. It has been unanimously reported that the mathematics queries in the quantitative part had little or nothing to do with the concept of English proficiency and were, therefore, unnecessary. The participants also reported facing issues while attempting the analytical part of the test for a couple of reasons; mainly because the questions needed more time to be solved and were scarcely relevant to the language proficiency being more of intelligence questions. In a nutshell, the study concluded that GAT tests suffer from both construct under-representation and construct-irrelevant problems. Consequently, it has been suggested that GAT tests (with the present format) should not continue to be a requirement for MS/MPhil admissions and more relevant alternatives should be developed.

Keywords: construct validity, GAT General, high-stake tests, National Testing Service (NTS), qualitative paradigm of construct validation

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797 Effective Retirement Planning: Exploring Financial Planning Behavior in Malaysia

Authors: Stanley Yap Peng Lok, Chong Wei Ying, Leow Hon Wei, Fatemeh Kimiyaghalam

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Purpose: This paper examines how people treat on the importance of financial planning for their retirement. There is lack of standard instrument that enable us to access the retirement planning behavior. This paper studies the reliability and validity of a proposed scale for accessing this behavior. Design/methodology/approach: The Retirement Planning Behavior scale (RPB) is developed from the results of reviewing different papers on this topic. A total of 900 Malaysians from the age of 18 and above are used as the sample. Findings: Our results show, firstly, the RPB meets all criteria from the instrument reliability and validity which based on the theory of planned behavior. Second, our findings propose two components for this RPB scale; attitude toward planning for retirement and intention towards retirement planning behavior. Practical implication: An effective retirement planning achieves financial independence after the retirement. Our findings have important implications for the scope and significance of the retirement planning behavior measurement, especially for retirees. Originality/value: This study proposes a new approach to cater consumers’ needs for retirement planning. Therefore, consumers are able to achieve financial independence in their retirement age.

Keywords: retirement planning behavior (RPB) scale, reliability, validity, retirement planning, financial independence

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