Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 112

Search results for: parenting

112 The Relationship between Parenting Style, Nonattachment and Inferiority

Authors: Yu-Chien Huang, Shu-Chen Yang

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Introduction: Parenting style, non-attachment, and inferiority are important topics in psychology, but the related research on nonattachment is still lacking. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to explore the relationship between parenting style, nonattachment, and inferiority. Methods: We conducted a correlational study, and three instruments were utilized to collect data: parenting style scale, nonattachment scale, and inferiority scale. The inter-reliability Cronbach's α used in this research indicated good inter item reliability and the test-retest reliability that showed a good consistency. The data were analyzed using the descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, one way ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation, and regression analysis. Results: A total of 200 participators were tested in this research. As a result of the study, inferiority had a positive correlation with authoritarian parenting style; nonattachment had a negative correlation with authoritarian parenting style; and with inferiority, the hypothesis was supported. In the linear mediation models, nonattachment was found to be partially mediated the relationship between authoritarian parenting style and inferiority. Conclusion: These findings imply that interventions aimed at enhancing nonattachment as a way to improve inferiority are a good strategy.

Keywords: inferiority, nonattachment, parenting style, psychology

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111 Perceived Parenting Styles and Body Dissatisfaction among Women

Authors: Tazvin Ijaz, Aisha Shahid Sheikh

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The current study was conducted to explore the relationship between body dissatisfaction and the perceived parenting styles of women. For the purpose of study a sample of adult women (N=308) was drawn through the process of stratified random sampling. The sample consisted of women belonging to different categories which were based on their occupation. Two instruments, the Body Dissatisfaction Scale (BDSS) and Perceived Parenting Styles (PPSS) were used in the study to find the relationship between the two variables. The results showed that the controlling parenting style in father led to higher body dissatisfaction while the nurturing parenting style lead to lesser symptoms of body dissatisfaction. The results also proved that the controlling parenting style in mother also lead to high symptoms of body dissatisfaction as well. It was revealed that the women with high education showed more body dissatisfaction than women with lower education. It was also seen that there was a significant difference in the body dissatisfaction of working and the non-working women.

Keywords: body dissatisfaction, perceived parenting styles, Pakistani women, gender

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110 Parenting Stress and Maternal Psychological Statues in Mothers of Dual Diagnosis Children

Authors: Deena Moustafa

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The purpose of this paper is to describe the sources of parenting stress in mothers of Dual Diagnosis children (n =60) and examine the relationship between parenting stress and maternal psychological status (depression and well-being), also examine if there is any difference between the previous variables in different disabilities associated with Autism. A descriptive correlational design was used. Data were collected via online questionnaires. The study finds that there was no significant relationship between Autism Parenting Stress Index (APSI) scores and types of disability which associated with Autism, although Mothers with deaf autistic reported more parenting stress, Similar findings were found regarding Depressive Symptoms, as there was no significant relationship between (CESD-R) scores and types of disability which associated with Autism, also study finds that there was a significant correlation of the (APSI) with the (CESD-R) Mothers with higher overall parenting stress reported more depressive symptoms. Likewise, there was also a significant correlation between the (APSI) and the (RPWB) Mothers reporting more parenting stress also reported lower levels of well-being.

Keywords: parenting stress, maternal psychological statues, mothers of dual diagnosis, autism

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109 Relation Between Marital Adjustment and Parenting: The Moderating Effect of Children´s Temperament

Authors: Ester Ato, Maria Angeles Fernández-Vilar, Maria Dolores Galián

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The aim of this work was to analyze the relation between children´s effortful control, marital adjustment and parenting practices in a sample of 345 Spanish children aged between 6 and 8 years. Traditionally, the literature confirms that a higher level of marital conflict has been associated with less effective and less positive parenting, but there are few studies that include the effect that children´s effortful control exert to this relation. To measure marital adjustment, parenting practices and children’s temperament, parents were given the Marital Adjustment Test (MAT), the Spanish version of the PCRI (Parent-Child Relationship Inventory), and the TMCQ (Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire). The results confirmed that higher marital satisfaction predicted more positive parenting practices, whereas lower marital adjustment scores predicted less parenting support and control. Using a statistical modeling approach, we tested a moderation model that revealed the moderating role of effortful control in the relation between marital adjustment and parenting. Concretely, higher marital satisfaction predicts higher parenting communication and involvement, but only in children with low levels of effortful control. Therefore, a difficult temperament interferes in a less negative way in the family system when parents are satisfied and united. And a better self-regulated child predicts more effective parenting practice regardless of the parents´ marital satisfaction. The clinical implications of the present findings should be considered. Specifically, difficult children must be detected and evaluated in community settings, such as school or community programs, in order to take into account the marital adjustment and parenting practices of their parents, and to be able to design adequate family interventions and prevent future pathologizing patterns.

Keywords: effortful control, marital adjustment, parenting, moderation

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108 Mediation Effect of Mindful Parenting on Parental Self Efficacy and Parent-Child Attachment in Hong Kong

Authors: Man Chung Chu

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In the dynamic family interaction, parental self-efficacy is connected with parent-child attachment. Parental self-efficacy and its corresponding behavior played an influential role in the lifespan development of the child. Recently, Mindful parenting is popularly addressed as it lightens parents’ awareness to their own thoughts feelings and behaviors by adapting a nonjudgmental attitude in the present moment being with the child. The effectiveness of mindful parent is considerably significant in enhancing parent-child relationship as well as family functioning. Parenting in early developmental stage is always challenging and essential for later growth, however, literature is rarely exploring the mediation of mindful parenting on the effect of parent self-efficacy on parent-child attachment in preschoolers’ families. The mediation effect of the research shed light on how mindful parenting should head, where parental self-efficacy training should be incorporated together with mindful family program in attempt to yield the best outcome in the family of young-aged children. Two hundred and eight (208) parents, of two to six years old children, were participated in the study and results supported the significance in the mediator effect of mindful parenting in both facets, i.e. Parent-focused - ‘Mindful Discipline’ and Child-focused – ‘Being in the moment with the child’ where parental self-efficacy is a significant predictor of mindful parenting. The implication of the result suggests that mindful parenting would be a therapeutic framework in promoting family functioning and child’s well-being, it would also be a ‘significant helping hand’ in maintaining continuous secure attachment relationship and growing their mindful children in a family.

Keywords: mediation effect, mindful parenting, parental self efficacy, parent-child attachment, preschoolers

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107 An Exploratory Study of Effects of Parenting Styles on Maternal Expectation and Perception of Compliance among Adolescents

Authors: Anton James

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This study explored the contribution of parenting styles in the Maternal Perception of Compliance Model (MPCM). This model explores maternal expectations to illustrate the formation of maternal perception of severity of noncompliance in adolescent children. The methodology consisted of three stages: In the first stage, a focus group was held, and the data was analysed to fine-tune the interview schedule. In the second stage, a single interview was held, and the interview schedule was further modified. The third and the final stage consisted of interviewing six mothers who had adolescent children. They were chosen with ‘maximum variation’ approach to represent three tiered socioeconomic statuses, and Asian, white and black ethnicities. The data was thematically analysed in a hybrid fashion: inductive coding and deductive assignment of codes into discrete parenting styles. The study found: a) parenting styles are not always discrete and sometimes it can be mixed. b) The parenting styles are influenced by culture, socioeconomic status, transgenerational knowledge, academic knowledge, observational knowledge, self-reflective knowledge, and parental anxiety. c) The parenting style functioned a mediating mechanism where it attempted to converge discrepancies between parental expectations of compliance with maternal perception of severity of noncompliance. The findings of parenting styles were discussed in relation to MPCM.

Keywords: compliance, expectation, parenting styles, perception

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106 The Experience of Intercultural Parenting in Australia

Authors: Dharam Bhugun

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The growth of immigration and social diversity and advances in global technology, have contributed to an increase in intercultural marriages and relationships in Australia. Consequently, intercultural parenting experience is shaping as an important issue within society. Parenting experiences can be both challenging and rewarding for the intercultural couple and their children. Much of the Australian literature has focussed on parenting styles among different cultural groups and the experiences of children, with more research needed on the parenting experience of intercultural couples, with emphasis on those who have not sought professional help. This study employed a qualitative research design consistent with humanistic approaches in social sciences. A social constructionism theoretical framework was used to explore the experience of intercultural parents. Participants were selected through purposive sampling, and semi-structured interviews in English were employed to collect data. Thematic analysis was used to examine participant’s experiences. It is anticipated that the research will generate insights and findings that may assist current and future intercultural parents, add to the family systems theory to inform practice, and suggest possible professional strategies for clinicians and other government and community agencies.

Keywords: culture, intercultural couples, parenting styles and practices, conflicts resolution

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105 Efficacy of the Culturally Adapted Stepping Stones Positive Parenting Program on Parents of Children with Autism and down Syndrome

Authors: Afsheen Masood, Sumaira Rashid, Shama Mazahir

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The main aim of this research is to evaluate the efficacy of a culturally adapted management program The Stepping Stones Positive Parenting Program (Tripple P; SSTP) for caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorders and Down syndrome. Positive psychology has catered new dimensions to the traditional perspectives of parenting. The current study was designed to determine the adoptions of positive parenting elements such as parenting styles, parental satisfaction, parental competency, and management of parental stress in alignment with behavioral problems of children with special needs after their parents get trained on Positive Parenting Techniques. This research study was devised in liaison with rehabilitation institute that is extending services for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Down syndrome. A Quasi experimental research design was employed with pre-test, post-test control group study in order to evaluate the changes in parenting patterns of parents with children (with Autism and Down syndrome). Caregivers of children diagnosed with Autism and Down syndrome between the age ranges of 25 to 45 years, n=20 from autism group and 20 from Down syndrome group (while their children with special needs in the age ranges of 8 to 14 years) participated in the current research. Parenting scale encompassing areas of parental efficacy, parental satisfaction was used in addition to Parenting Stress Index (SF), indigenously developed Child Behavior Problems Checklist and demographic sheet. Findings revealed statistically significant improvement for caregivers in intervention group from pretest to posttest situation. There was considerable decrease in reported mean behavioral issues of children with Down syndrome when parents in experimental group started practicing Positive Parenting Techniques with their special needs children. This change was somehow not recorded in parents of children with autism. Thus these findings establish the efficacy of culturally adapted parenting program that is evidence based and is established in western empirical research. This carries significant implication for practitioners in special needs domain and for school psychologists in Pakistan.

Keywords: Autism and Parenting, Downsyndrome and Parenting , Positive Parenting, Stepping Stone Positive Parenting Program, Mangement of Behavioral Problems with positive parenting

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104 Positive Parenting and Subjective Well-Being: Proposed Program for Parents of Gifted Children

Authors: Suzy Pereira, Alberto Rocha, Ana Almeida, Catarina Figueiredo, Helena Fonseca, Leonor Moreira, Carla Blum Vestena, Cristina Costa-Lobo

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The socio-educational support to parents, through parental education intervention programs, is part of European social policies, aiming to respond to the needs of education, promotion of well-being and development of children and young people. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the impact of the Positive Parenting Program on the subjective well-being of the parents of gifted children. The Positive Parenting Program is authored and is conducted by the National Association of Study and Intervention in Giftedness, Portuguese Association. The central question to be explored in this research is: Does the promotion of positive parenting in parents of gifted children have a positive impact on the subjective well-being? The sample consisted of 30 parents, non-probabilistic sampling of convenience, of which 15 parents belong to the intervention group and the rest to the control group. One dimension will be evaluated - subjective well-being, through the PANAS questionnaire - before and after the sessions of this program. The aim is to contribute to the understanding of the process and results of the positive parenting program in parents of gifted children.

Keywords: positive parenting, subjective well-being, giftedness, parental education intervention programs

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103 An Exploration of Parenting By Perpetrator Fathers and Victim Mothers in the Context of Domestic Violence

Authors: Gunendra Rathnawali Kumarihamy Dissanayake

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Research on parenting of both perpetrators and victims of domestic violence (DV) is growing but limited. Further, much of this research in the Asian context is limited to explorations of victim mothers' parenting capacities, not shedding much light on the parenting of the perpetrator fathers. The current qualitative study aimed to explore how both the perpetrators and victims of DV engaged in parenting in the Sri Lankan cultural context. Twenty case studies were conducted with a sample of help-seeking women aged 20 to 40 years representing working to upper-middle social class. Participants have interviewed about their own as well as their partners´ parenting behaviors. The majority of women reported that their partners were often aggressive, controlling and authoritarian, less consistent, and engaged in a variety of manipulative behaviors intending to harm the relationship between their child and them. Further, victim mothers' styles of parenting and authority as parents have been severely undermined by their partners through frequent criticism, ridicule, and insulting in front of the children. As a result, mothers experienced great difficulty specifically trying to discipline their adolescent children as the children have started to disregard the mothers' authority. Most of the children also have shown treatment similar to that of their fathers', treating the mother as a personal servant not worthy of being listened to, thereby increasing the mothers' parenting stress. The mothers were often blamed and held responsible for the problems of the children by their partners, encouraging the children to disrespect and blame the mother for their problems leading them to take the side of the father who had more power. Findings are similar to those of the western context. This study highlights the intersection between domestic violence and parenting, and specific implications and recommendations for DV service providers are offered.

Keywords: parenting, domestic violence, impact, children

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102 Effect of Culture and Parenting Styles on Ambivalent Sexism in Mexican Population

Authors: Ilse Gonzalez-Rivera, Rolando Diaz-Loving

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Family, and parents in particular, are the main agents of socialization of children since they transmit values, beliefs, and cultural norms based on their own guidelines, so that children acquire the knowledge on how to interact with others in terms of the interaction with their parents. One way to measure socialization parenting is through parenting styles. Parenting styles are the set of parental behaviors that have a direct effect on the development of specific behaviors of children. The ideal parenting style depends on the cultural characteristics where people develop. In Mexico, the hierarchical structure of the family is built on a model in which men are dominant over women and their power is legitimized. This research explores the effect of parenting styles and the culture of the ambivalent sexism in the Mexican population. 150 men and 150 women participated. The instrument of individualism-collectivism was used to measure culture; participants also answered the instrument of ambivalent sexism and the parenting styles questionnaire. Regression analyses were done using sexism as the dependent variable and individualism-collectivism and parenting styles as independent variables. In addition, an analysis of variance between parental styles and gender of the participants was performed. The results indicate that the permissive style and authoritarian style are predictors of ambivalent sexism and higher levels of collectivism predict higher levels of sexism in both men and women. It is also found that parents tend to use authoritarian parenting style with women and permissive style with males. These results confirm the findings of other studies that indicate that parenting is an important variable that influences the interaction of adults. On the other hand, the effect of collectivism on sexism may be related to the fact that gender Mexican rules are rigid and for people with higher levels of collectivism, the social rules are more important than individual interests. In conclusion, these results indicate that both culture and parenting styles contribute to the maintenance of the status quo and prejudice towards women. Therefore, it is necessary to create proposals that break with this cultural paradigm and to further develop democratic styles of parenting with the aim of reducing prejudice and the legitimization of gender roles.

Keywords: culture, gender, parenting style, sexism

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101 The Relationship between Mothers’ Attachment Style, Mindful Parenting and Perception of the Child

Authors: Brigitta Szabo, Miklosi Monika

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Background/Aims: In early childhood, the context of development is the caregiver-child relationship. Maternal attachment style plays a major role in the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between the mothers’ attachment style, mindful parenting, and perception of the child. Method: Data was collected from 144 non-clinical mothers who have a child below the age of 3 years. Mothers completed self-report questionnaires, including the following scales: a demographic questionnaire, Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ), Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale (IMP), and the Mothers’ Object Relations Scale (MORS-SF). K-means cluster analysis was used to identify the mothers’ attachment styles. Mediation analyses with Mothers’ Object Relations Scale (MORS-SF) positive emotions and dominance subscales as dependent variables, mothers’ attachment style (ASQ) as an independent variable, and mindful parenting (IMP) as a mediator were conducted. Results: Four attachment styles (secure, preoccupied, fearful, dismissing) were identified. The relationship between mothers’ attachment style and mindful parenting was significant (R2 = .51; F(4,139) = 36.60; p < .001). Compared to the secure attachment style as a reference group, both preoccupied and dismissing styles were related to lower levels of mindful parenting; however, this relationship was the strongest in case of fearful style. In mediation analysis the direct effects of mothers’ attachment style on the perception of the child were not significant (MORS positive emotions: R2= .29; F(5,138) = 11.22; p < .001; MORS dominance: R2= .39 F(5,138) = 17.54, p < .001). However, indirect effects through mindful parenting were significant; higher levels of mindful parenting were associated with higher levels of MORS positive emotions and lower levels of MORS dominance. Conclusions: These findings suggest that attachment styles are related to the perception of the child through mindful parenting. Mindfulness-based parenting training might be useful in case of attachment-related problems to improve the parent-child relationship.

Keywords: mindfulness, mindful parenting, attachement, perception

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100 Parenting Styles and Their Relation to Videogame Addiction

Authors: Petr Květon, Martin Jelínek

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We try to identify the role of various aspects of parenting style in the phenomenon of videogame playing addiction. Relevant self-report questionnaires were part of a wider set of methods focused on the constructs related to videogame playing. The battery of methods was administered in school settings in paper and pencil form. The research sample consisted of 333 (166 males, 167 females) elementary and high school students at the age between 10 and 19 years (m=14.98, sd=1.77). Using stepwise regression analysis, we assessed the influence of demographic variables (gender and age) and parenting styles. Age and gender together explained 26.3% of game addiction variance (F(2,330)=58.81, p<.01). By adding four aspect of parenting styles (inconsistency, involvement, control, and warmth) another 10.2% of variance was explained (∆F(4,326)=13.09, p<.01). The significant predictor was gender of the respondent, where males scored higher on game addiction scale (B=0.70, p<.01), age (β=-0.18, p<.01), where younger children showed higher level of addiction, and parental inconsistency (β=0.30, p<.01), where the higher the inconsistency in upbringing, the more developed game playing addiction.

Keywords: gender, parenting styles, video games, addiction

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99 Parental Negative Emotional States, Parenting Style and Child Emotional and Behavioural Problems: Australia-Indonesia Cross-Cultural Study

Authors: Yulina E. Riany, Divna Haslam, Matthew Sanders

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This cross-cultural study aims to compare the level of parental depression and stress, parenting style use, and child emotional and behavioural problems between parents in Australia as an example of a Western country and parents in Indonesia as an example of Asian culture. A series of hierarchical regressions were undertaken to determine two models examining the factors that predict child problems residing in Australia (Model 1) and in Indonesia (Model 2). The online survey was completed by 179 parents in Australia and 448 parents in Indonesia. Results indicated that Australian parents reported higher levels of depression, authoritative parenting and higher levels of child misbehaviours compared to Indonesian parents. In comparison, Indonesian parents reported higher authoritarian parenting. Analyses performed to examine Model 1 and 2 revealed that parental negative emotional states and parenting style predicted child emotional and behavioural problems in both countries.

Keywords: cross-cutural study, parental stress, parenting, child misbehaviour

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98 Invisible and Visible Helpers in Negotiating Child Parenting by Single Mothers: A Comparative Analysis of South Africa and Germany

Authors: Maud Mthembu, Tanusha Raniga, Michael Boecker

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In South Africa and Germany, countless number of children are raised by single mothers with little or no support from the biological fathers. As evidenced in literature, having an involved father living at home can have a positive influence in the life of a child and the mother can be supported in her role. Often single parenting is seen as a causative factor in numerous psychological and social challenges which are faced by children from single-parent households, which is an indication of a pathological lens of viewing single parenting. The empirical data from our study reveals that single mothers in formal employment experience social, economic and emotional hardships of parenting. However, a sense of determination to raise healthy and well-balanced children using economic and social capital accessible to them was one of the key findings. The participants reported visible and invisible sources of support which creates an enabling environment for them to negotiate the challenges of parenting without support from non-residence fathers. Using a qualitative paradigm, a total of twenty professional single mothers were interviewed in Germany and South Africa. Four key themes emerged from the data analysis namely; internal locus of control, positive new experiences, access to economic capital and dependable social support. This study suggests that single mothers who are economically self-reliant and have access to bonding social capital are able to cope with the demands of single parenting. Understanding this multi-dimensional experience of parenting by single parents in formal employment is important to advocate for supportive working conditions for mothers.

Keywords: child parenting, child protection, single parenting, social capital

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97 Comparison of Marital Conflict Resolution Procedures and Parenting Styles between Nurses with Fixed and Rotating Shifts in Public Hospitals of Bandar Abbas, Iran

Authors: S. Abdolvahab Samavi, Kobra Hajializadeh, S. Abdolhadi Samavi

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Nursing is a critical work that that can effect on the health of the society. A parenting style is a psychological construct demonstrating standard policies that parents use in their child rearing. The quality of parenting is more critical than the quantity spend with the child. Also, marital Conflict resolution is conceptualized as the methods and processes involved in facilitating the peaceful ending of conflict between couples. Both of these variables were affected by job status in nurses. Aim of this study was to compare the Marital Conflict Resolution and Parenting Styles between Nurses with fixed and rotating shifts in public hospitals of Bandar Abbas, Iran. Statistical population includes all married Nurses in hospitals of Bandar Abbas (900 Persons). For sample size estimation, the Morgan table was used, 270 people were selected by random sampling method. Conflict solution styles and Baumrind parenting styles questionnaire were used for collecting data about study variables. For analysis of data, descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Results showed there was significant difference between both groups in conflict solution styles. According to study results, nurses with fixed shifts had an effective conflict solution styles. Also, there was significant difference between both groups in Parenting Styles. According to study results, nurses with fixed shifts had an effective parenting style. Totally, results of this study showed that job status of nurses affected on Marital Conflict Resolution and Parenting Styles of nurses. Managers of health system should be consider these issues about work of nurses and if possible, married nurses employed at fixed day (vs. rotating) shift.

Keywords: marital conflict resolution procedures, parenting styles, nurses with fixed and rotating shifts, public hospitals

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96 Influence of Parenting Styles on Adolescents Self-Esteem

Authors: Olubukola Ajayi

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INFLUENCE OF PARANTING STYLES ON ADOLECENST’ SELF-ESTEEM BY AJAYI OLUBUKOLA (PhD) DEPARTMRNT OF PSYCHOLOGY & BEHAVIOURAL STUDIES FACULTY OF THE SOCIAL SCIENCES EKITI STATE UNIVERSITY [email protected] , [email protected] ABSTRACT This study was designed to assess the influence of parenting styles on adolescents’ self-esteem. The study population comprised of adolescents selected from two secondary schools (Bishop Philip Academy and T.L. Oyeshina Model School) in Ibadan, Oyo State. A total number of 300 students whose ages range from 13-19 were used. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) developed by Rosenberg (1965) was used to measure Adolescents’ Self-Esteem. While Robinson (2001) Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire was used to measure how adolescents perceive their parents on four sub scales (Authoritative, Authoritarian, Uninvolved, Permissiveness).Three hypotheses were tested using Regression, One way ANOVA and Independent t-test. Result showed that parenting styles do not significantly influence Self-Esteem. Parents Work Status did not have a significant influence on Self-Esteem. The result also revealed no significant difference between Male and Female Self-Esteem. The findings were discussed in line with relevant empirical literatures, while conclusions and recommendations subsequently followed. Key Words: Parenting style, Adolescents, Self- esteem,

Keywords: AUTHORITATIVE, AUTHORITARIAN, UNINVOLVED, PERMISSIVENESS

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95 Grandparent's Psychologically Control, Parent's Well-Being and the Coparenting Practice among Vietnamese Families

Authors: Nam-Phuong T. Hoang, Divna Haslam, Matthew Sanders

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Parenting psychological control (PPC) is a parenting manner of which intrusive tactics such as guilt induction, shaming or love withdrawal is adopted to manipulate the child's behavior, emotion and beliefs. PPC has been widely reported to be associated with both psychological dysfunction and low self-esteem in adolescents. Highly demanding and restrictive parenting was also found to related to high rate of risk behaviors, depression, anxiety and anti-social behaviors in adults who co-live with their parents. In many cultures like that of Asia, adults keep on co-live with their parents even after having their own families, and this is not an uncommon practice. Due to the culture obligation of family relationship and the filial piety, children are expected to stay with their parents to taking care of them when they get older, and the parents are also expected to co-live with their children in order to support them with grandchild care. As one become a grandparent, however, it does not means one stop being the parent to their own child. The effect of PPC if exist thus might continue to interfere one’s relationship with their adult children and also their adult child’s parenting. This study was designed to examine that effect of PPC on adults’ life as parents. Data was collected from 501 Vietnamese parents whose children between the age of 2 to 12 and having their parent living with them or taking care of the grandchild on daily basic. Findings show that grandparent psychological control (GPPC) is significantly associated with parent’s harsh parenting, parent’s well-being, and parent-grandparent coparenting relationship. Significantly, GPPC is the strongest predictor for the coparenting conflict between parent and grandparent.

Keywords: parenting psychological control, grandparent, coparenting, well-being

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94 Differential Impact of Parenting on Mental Health Functioning of Pakistani Adolescents: A Cultural Perspective

Authors: Zahid Mahmood

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Mental health problems in adolescents are said to be increasing tremendously, and a large proportion of adolescents are suffering from serious mental health problems that result in short and long term socio-emotional negative consequences. Contemporary clinical and school psychology is now focused on prevention rather than intervene in the mental health concerns of adolescents. Therefore, a wealth of literature is devoted to identify the risk and protective factors so that adolescents may be prevented and identified earlier. This quest has led to identify many risk factors including the early parent-child relationship. Parenting has a long last impact on the growth and development of an individual. If the parent-child relationship is secure and warm, the child tends to have a positive psychological outcome. On the other hand, if parenting is rejecting and distant, it may lead to more mental health problems. Keeping in view the cross-cultural influence of parenting, the current study was aimed to explore the relationship between parental rearing practices and mental health problems on a group of Pakistani adolescents. A sample of 805 participants (49% boys and 51% girls) were selected through a stratified sample with the age range of 13-18 years. All the participants were given protocol of EMBU-C and School Children Problem Scale (SCPS). Results indicate that age, the gender of the participant and parental rejection were found to be a significant positive predictor of mental health problems in adolescents. It can be concluded that parenting may be a universal phenomenon comprising rejection and acceptance yet the differential impact on mental health varies from culture to culture.

Keywords: parenting, mental health, adolescents, cross cultural

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93 Parents of Mentally Disabled Children in Iran: A Study of Their Parenting Stress Levels and Mental Health

Authors: Mohsen Amiri

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This study aimed at investigating the relationship between familial functioning, child characteristics, demographic variables and parenting stress and mental health among parents of children with mental disabilities. 200 parents (130 mothers and 70 fathers) were studied and they completed the Parenting Stress Index, General Health Questionnaire, Family Assessment Device and demographic questionnaires for parents and children. Data were analyzed using correlation and regression analysis. Regression analysis showed that child characteristics, familial functioning and parents demographic factors could predict 8, 4 and 17 percent of variance in parental stress and 3.6, 16 and 10 percent of variance in mental health, respectively. Familial functioning, child characteristics and parental demographic variables correlated with mental health and parental stress and could predict them.

Keywords: parenting stress, mental health, mentally disabled children, familial functioning, demographic variables

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92 The Importance of Parental Projective Care in Perceived Parenting Effectiveness in African American Upper Middle Class Families

Authors: Susan D. Toliver

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Within the professional research literature on parenting in the United States, there is a paucity of research on parenting within the African American or Black community. Research on parenting focused on African Americans within the upper middle class, who constitute a critical and growing sector within the African American population, is all but non-existent. Research to address this void is needed. Despite the progress that has been made toward eliminating the long-standing racial divides in U.S. society, these divides persist and continue to affect different experiences and opportunity structures for White Americans versus Black Americans, including those in the upper middle class. Achievement of middle and upper middle class status of adult heads of families has generally been seen as the route to greater success and well-being for their children. While higher family class status is positively correlated with these factors, the strength of the relationship between higher social class and success and well-being is weaker for Black American families as compared to White American families. In light of the realities of racial inequality, African American parents, including those who have achieved higher status, have unique concerns for their children. African American parents, on the basis of their own experiences and their sense of the world as being highly racialized, anticipate the kinds of experiences that their children are likely to encounter as they grow and mature from childhood to adulthood and beyond. Racial discrimination and macro and micro racial aggressions are continued sources of concern for these parents. On the basis of in-depth personal interviews with upper middle class African American parents, findings suggest that the parenting goals and strategies of African American parents are influenced by the continuing significance of race as a social divide, including in higher socio-economic strata, in the United States. Black American families' parenting practices differ from those of White American families and are inclusive of the unique factors that threaten the well-being of African American children. Specifically, parenting practices are shaped by parents' fears about the racial experiences that they anticipate that their children will encounter. Parents' perceptions of parental effectiveness are linked to their ability to prepare their children for success in confronting, understanding, and contextualizing racial inequalities and aggressions. Theories of Parental Projective Care are useful in understanding the special considerations and unique parenting goals and behaviors of higher status African Americans.

Keywords: African American parenting, parental projective care, parenting effectiveness, racial socialization, upper middle class parenting

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91 Effect of Co-Parenting Support on Duration of Exclusive Breastfeeding in a Developing Nation: A Randomised Controlled Trial

Authors: Phomid Techi, L. N. Padmasini, Mohan Mathew

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Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of co-parent support on the duration of exclusive breastfeeding by a randomized control trial. Introduction: The current rates of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months in India is 46% (NFHS3 2008.). The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of co-parenting support on duration of exclusive breastfeeding in primi mothers. Design: RCT: Willing parents of healthy TAGA babies born in our hospital were explained about the study purpose and randomly assigned to either trial or control group. The control group was given the usual care. The intervention group received usual care and in addition the trial intervention. Follow-up data was collected at the end of 6 mon. Intervention: Face to face 30-minute discussion in post partum unit on breast feeding benefits, techniques, and problem-solving information followed up by phone calls to mother every 4 weeks to answer questions/concerns. Outcome measures: Duration of exclusive breastfeeding Baseline demographic variables were measured. Results: After obtaining IEC approval a total of 100 couples were recruited, 100 is each group. In the intervention group, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding was 97.2% while in the control group it was 64% (p-value 0.00). Conclusion: Co-parenting support has an important role in promoting exclusive breastfeeding.

Keywords: co-parenting, exclusive breastfeeding, developing nation, randomised control trial

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
90 Divorce Advice and Parents' Council Support Groups: Help for Divorced Parents to Create Co-Parenting after Divorce

Authors: Paivi Hietanen

Abstract:

At family with children, divorce is a risk for a child to lose the relationship to the parent with whom the child doesn't live. A child has the right to the get care from both parents after the divorce. Even though your ex-spouse isn’t longer your companion, to the child he or she is still unique as a parent and parents must cooperate and support their child in the new family situation. To divorcee, it's necessary to understand the difference between the intimate relationship that ends and parenthood that continues. Cooperative parenting takes a lot of effort and flexibility for the parents to make joint custody work well. It is vital that parents get help to understand the situation from child points of view. When parent is facing divorce, and all the emotions that it brings along, can the child easily be forgotten. To help children, we must help parents to understand, that a relationship can end, parenthood cannot. As professionals, we should help the parents to see the significance and value of both parents to the child and try to support and protect parenthood-relationship between parents. The Federation of Mother and Child Homes and Shelters have developed group models to work with parents during or after divorce. These support groups are led by professionals, but peer support is also used. These support groups have been held over 10 years and there are found from 20 different cities in Finland. Eroneuvo event (divorce advice) service is intended for parents who are considering or have already divorced. The Vanhemman neuvo (parents' council) is a peer support group that helps parents with post-divorce parenting issues. From these groups, parents receive information and peer support for matters related to divorcing and how to support the child and do co-parenting. At the groups and in given information for divorced parents, is used a method called the 'Irreversible triangle'. It's a way to picture the intimate relationship and parenthood after the divorce and what is the difference between these two things. 'Irreversible triangle' is used to help parents and professionals to understand, what happens if a child loses the relationship to the other parent or if parents co-parenting doesn't work well. From the largely collected feedback, group members tell that they feel themselves relieved after taking part of the group. Parents also experience that talking with other parents helps to survive. Group members learn to co-operate with the other parent, and they'll also learn to see the best interest of the child after the divorce. Parents would highly recommend these groups to other parents.

Keywords: child's right, co-parenting, parenthood after the divorce, peer support

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
89 Parenting a Child with Profound Disabilities in Developing Countries: Experiences from Bangladesh

Authors: M. Abdul Jalil

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Parents caring for a child with a profound disability encounter different experiences compared to the parents caring for a child without a disability. The aim of this paper is to develop a greater understanding of parenting of a child with profound disabilities in the context of developing countries with reference to Bangladesh. The paper reveals that parents caring for a child with a profound disability are experiencing increased financial burden, affiliate and courtesy stigma and negative impact on mothers in terms of additional caregiving role, instability of conjugal relations, giving up of involvement in economic activities, and shrinking kinship and social relationships. In addition, government and non-government services for children with disabilities are very limited. Moreover, the information about the services is also not available to the parents. Therefore, parents find it difficult to cope with the challenges that lead to the alienation of the parents. The paper recommended the strategies to address the issues in the context of Bangladesh, which in turn might be applicable to the developing countries as well.

Keywords: caregiving, coping, parenting, profound disability

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
88 Pathway Linking Early Use of Electronic Device and Psychosocial Wellbeing in Early Childhood

Authors: Rosa S. Wong, Keith T.S. Tung, Winnie W. Y. Tso, King-Wa Fu, Nirmala Rao, Patrick Ip

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Electronic devices have become an essential part of our lives. Various reports have highlighted the alarming usage of electronic devices at early ages and its long-term developmental consequences. More sedentary screen time was associated with increased adiposity, worse cognitive and motor development, and psychosocial health. Apart from the problems caused by children’s own screen time, parents today are often paying less attention to their children due to hand-held device. Some anecdotes suggest that distracted parenting has negative impact on parent-child relationship. This study examined whether distracted parenting detrimentally affected parent-child activities which may, in turn, impair children’s psychosocial health. In 2018/19, we recruited a cohort of preschoolers from 32 local kindergartens in Tin Shui Wai and Sham Shui Po for a 5-year programme aiming to build stronger foundations for children from disadvantaged backgrounds through an integrated support model involving medical, education and social service sectors. A comprehensive set of questionnaires were used to survey parents on their frequency of being distracted while parenting and their frequency of learning and recreational activities with children. Furthermore, they were asked to report children’s screen time amount and their psychosocial problems. Mediation analyses were performed to test the direct and indirect effects of electronic device-distracted parenting on children’s psychosocial problems. This study recruited 873 children (448 females and 425 males, average age: 3.42±0.35). Longer screen time was associated with more psychosocial difficulties (Adjusted B=0.37, 95%CI: 0.12 to 0.62, p=0.004). Children’s screen time positively correlated with electronic device-distracted parenting (r=0.369, p < 01). We also found that electronic device-distracted parenting was associated with more hyperactive/inattentive problems (Adjusted B=0.66, p < 0.01), fewer prosocial behavior (Adjusted B=-0.74, p < 0.01), and more emotional symptoms (Adjusted B=0.61, p < 0.001) in children. Further analyses showed that electronic device-distracted parenting exerted influences both directly and indirectly through parent-child interactions but to different extent depending upon the outcome under investigation (38.8% for hyperactivity/inattention, 31.3% for prosocial behavior, and 15.6% for emotional symptoms). We found that parents’ use of devices and children’s own screen time both have negative effects on children’s psychosocial health. It is important for parents to set “device-free times” each day so as to ensure enough relaxed downtime for connecting with children and responding to their needs.

Keywords: early childhood, electronic device, psychosocial wellbeing, parenting

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87 The Relationship between Permissive Parenting Style and Sexual Exploitation

Authors: Natalia Langner Smith

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Because of the covert nature of sexual exploitation (SE), there is a need to explore a range of risk profiles beyond the typical victim to increase victim identification and services. The current study utilized ADD health data to assess the influence of parental involvement on the risk of SE using the logistic regression analysis. The study showed the need to expand risk assessment to minors who show red flags for SE instead of focusing on specific characteristics of their vulnerabilities. The study showed that minors from loving and warm families are also at risk for exploitation.

Keywords: permissive parenting style, sexual exploitation, risk profiles, identification

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
86 Action Plans to Prevent Negative Attitudes Towards Gay and Lesbian Parents: A Systemic Analysis of Health-Care Interventions in Belgium

Authors: Therese Scali

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Over the years, the European Union has continued to extend its action on lesbian, gay men, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) rights to a range of areas including access to justice, asylum, freedom of expression and assembly, parenting, and mutual recognition of civil status within the EU. The European Parliament has been a driving force behind such action adopting a range of resolutions calling for continued progress in this field. In particular, Belgium has been one of the first countries to legalize same-sex parenting and to create a general framework for action against negative attitudes towards gay and lesbian parents. The present paper aims at highlighting public healthcare workers’ attitudes towards different types of same-sex headed families in Belgium, and the content of their interventions in schools. Results revealed that attitudes can go from supportive to unsupportive, and participants do not show the same degree of support towards the different types of same-sex parenting. This contribution highlights work’s implication for public policy by understanding the resources and challenges that health-care professionals face in their work.

Keywords: attitudes, gay and lesbian parents, health-care workers, homophobia, prevention

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85 Gaybe-Boom TV: Reading Homonormative Fatherhood on Israeli Television

Authors: Itay Harlap

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Over the past decade, LGBT figures have become increasingly visible on Israeli television in its various channels and genres. In recent years, however, the representation of gays on Israeli television has undergone an interesting shift, whereby many television texts feature gay people as fathers. These texts, mostly news items and documentaries, usually present gay parenthood as a positive phenomenon. The question in paper is whether LGBT parenting (in reality and as representation) fated to be part of the homonormativity that characterizes the LGBT community in Israel, or can it be an alternative to the hegemonic discourse? This paper embraces a dialectical position and explores the tension between mainstream and radical, or homonormativity and queer politics in the specific Israeli Jewish context through a textual and discursive reading of a selection of television programs that revolve principally around gay parenting in Israel. The first part of this lecture addresses the cultural and social context that generated these representations, dealing with three key Israeli areas: The fertility cult, the evolution of the LGBT community, and the evolution of local television. The second part offers a queer reading of these ‘positive’ representations (mainly in special reports on the news and programs labeled as ‘documentaries’ by broadcasters) and highlight the possible price of the ‘bear hug’ given by Israeli media to gay parents. The last part focuses on a single case study, the TV serial drama Ima Veabaz, and suggests that this drama exposes the performative aspect of parenting and the connection between ethnicity and fertility, and offers an alternative to normative displays of gay parenting.

Keywords: fatherhood, heteronormativity, Israel, queer theory, television

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
84 Understanding Parental Style and Its Effect on the Wellbeing of Adolescents with Epilepsy

Authors: Arthy Vinayakam, Emilda Judith Ezhil Rajan

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Adolescents with epilepsy living in developing country like India face many difficulties on stigma towards the disease. The psychological wellbeing of adolescents who are living with epilepsy has a varied influence on their daily activities and decision-making. Parental involvement with adolescents has always been a subject of caution. The dynamics in adolescents with epilepsy is much varied as their parental aspects has been known to have an impact on their education, socialization and wellbeing. The current study aims to identify the effect of parental styles, how they tend to effect the perception of self-concept that relate to the stigma in adolescents with epilepsy. A sample of 30 adolescents with epilepsy and their parents were taken; a control group of 30 adolescents and their parents were also taken. The General Health Questionnaire -12 was used as a screening for both groups to be included in the study. Parents were evaluated with Parenting Practices Questionnaire (PPQ). Adolescents were administered the Epilepsy Stigma Scale (ESS), Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSS) and Adolescent Wellbeing Scale (AWS). Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data. The findings of the study highlight the challenges of both parent and their influence on adolescent’s wellbeing. The findings also establish the impact of parenting style on the stigma in adolescents having epilepsy and how this influences their self-concept whereby their emotional strength.

Keywords: epilepsy, parenting style, stigma, wellbeing

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
83 Parenting Interventions for Refugee Families: A Systematic Scoping Review

Authors: Ripudaman S. Minhas, Pardeep K. Benipal, Aisha K. Yousafzai

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Background: Children of refugee or asylum-seeking background have multiple, complex needs (e.g. trauma, mental health concerns, separation, relocation, poverty, etc.) that places them at an increased risk for developing learning problems. Families encounter challenges accessing support during resettlement, preventing children from achieving their full developmental potential. There are very few studies in literature that examine the unique parenting challenges refugee families’ face. Providing appropriate support services and educational resources that address these distinctive concerns of refugee parents, will alleviate these challenges allowing for a better developmental outcome for children. Objective: To identify the characteristics of effective parenting interventions that address the unique needs of refugee families. Methods: English-language articles published from 1997 onwards were included if they described or evaluated programmes or interventions for parents of refugee or asylum-seeking background, globally. Data were extracted and analyzed according to Arksey and O’Malley’s descriptive analysis model for scoping reviews. Results: Seven studies met criteria and were included, primarily studying families settled in high-income countries. Refugee parents identified parenting to be a major concern, citing they experienced: alienation/unwelcoming services, language barriers, and lack of familiarity with school and early years services. Services that focused on building the resilience of parents, parent education, or provided services in the family’s native language, and offered families safe spaces to promote parent-child interactions were most successful. Home-visit and family-centered programs showed particular success, minimizing barriers such as transportation and inflexible work schedules, while allowing caregivers to receive feedback from facilitators. The vast majority of studies evaluated programs implementing existing curricula and frameworks. Interventions were designed in a prescriptive manner, without direct participation by family members and not directly addressing accessibility barriers. The studies also did not employ evaluation measures of parenting practices or the caregiving environment, or child development outcomes, primarily focusing on parental perceptions. Conclusion: There is scarce literature describing parenting interventions for refugee families. Successful interventions focused on building parenting resilience and capacity in their native language. To date, there are no studies that employ a participatory approach to program design to tailor content or accessibility, and few that employ parenting, developmental, behavioural, or environmental outcome measures.

Keywords: asylum-seekers, developmental pediatrics, parenting interventions, refugee families

Procedia PDF Downloads 46