Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: Salve Alessandria Alcantara

14 An Investigation of the Use of Visible Spectrophotometric Analysis of Lead in an Herbal Tea Supplement

Authors: Salve Alessandria Alcantara, John Armand E. Aquino, Ma. Veronica Aranda, Nikki Francine Balde, Angeli Therese F. Cruz, Elise Danielle Garcia, Antonie Kyna Lim, Divina Gracia Lucero, Nikolai Thadeus Mappatao, Maylan N. Ocat, Jamille Dyanne L. Pajarillo, Jane Mierial A. Pesigan, Grace Kristin Viva, Jasmine Arielle C. Yap, Kathleen Michelle T. Yu, Joanna J. Orejola, Joanna V. Toralba

Abstract:

Lead is a neurotoxic metallic element that is slowly accumulated in bones and tissues especially if present in products taken in a regular basis such as herbal tea supplements. Although sensitive analytical instruments are already available, the USP limit test for lead is still widely used. However, because of its serious shortcomings, Lang Lang and his colleagues developed a spectrophotometric method for determination of lead in all types of samples. This method was the one adapted in this study. The actual procedure performed was divided into three parts: digestion, extraction and analysis. For digestion, HNO3 and CH3COOH were used. Afterwards, masking agents, 0.003% and 0.001% dithizone in CHCl3 were added and used for the extraction. For the analysis, standard addition method and colorimetry were performed. This was done in triplicates under two conditions. The 1st condition, using 25µg/mL of standard, resulted to very low absorbances with an r2 of 0.551. This led to the use of a higher concentration, 1mg/mL, for condition 2. Precipitation of lead cyanide was observed and the absorbance readings were relatively higher but between 0.15-0.25, resulting to a very low r2 of 0.429. LOQ and LOD were not computed due to the limitations of the Milton-Roy Spectrophotometer. The method performed has a shorter digestion time, and used less but more accessible reagents. However, the optimum ratio of dithizone-lead complex must be observed in order to obtain reliable results while exploring other concentration of standards.

Keywords: herbal tea supplement, lead-dithizone complex, standard addition, visible spectroscopy

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13 From “Learning to Read” to “Reading to Learn”

Authors: Lucélia Alcântara

Abstract:

Reading has been seen as a passive skill by many people for a long time. However, when one comes to study it deeply and in a such a way that the act of reading equals acquiring knowledge through living an experience that belongs to him/her, passive definitely becomes active. Material development with a focus on reading has to consider much more than reading strategies. The following questions are asked: Is the material appropriate to the students’ reality? Does it make students think and state their points of view? With that in mind a lesson has been developed to illustrate theory becoming practice. Knowledge, criticality, intercultural experience and social interaction. That is what reading is for.

Keywords: reading, culture, material development, learning

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12 Controlling the Growth and Development of Mosquito (Aedes aegypti) Using Testosterone

Authors: Brian F. Estidola, Alfredo A. Alcantara, Catherine del Cruz, Genelita S. Garcia

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate the effects of testosterone in the development and growth of Aedes aegypti as a main vector of dengue virus. There were three concentrations of testosterone: (0µM), (10µM), and (15µM) arranged randomly in two blocks. Each concentration houses 10 mosquitoes and monitored their development. The results showed that there were no significant differences on the effects of testosterone in emergence of larvae, mortality of eggs and larvae. However, it was shown that adults emerged from 15µM had a lower sex ratio than 10µM leading to the conclusion that there could be an optimal concentration of testosterone close to 10µM that could led to a high possibility of sex reversal of adult mosquitoes from female to male.

Keywords: mosquito, sex reversal, testosterone, ecdysterone

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11 Radionuclides Transport Phenomena in Vadose Zone

Authors: R. Testoni, R. Levizzari, M. De Salve

Abstract:

Radioactive waste management is fundamental to safeguard population and environment by radiological risks. Environmental assessment of a site, where nuclear activities are located, allows understanding the hydro geological system and the radionuclides transport in groundwater and subsoil. Use of dedicated software is the basis of transport phenomena investigation and for dynamic scenarios prediction; this permits to understand the evolution of accidental contamination events, but at the same time the potentiality of the software itself can be verified. The aim of this paper is to perform a numerical analysis by means of HYDRUS 1D code, so as to evaluate radionuclides transport in a nuclear site in Piedmont region (Italy). In particular, the behaviour in vadose zone was investigated. An iterative assessment process was performed for risk assessment of radioactive contamination. The analysis therein developed considers the following aspects: i) hydro geological site characterization; ii) individuation of the main intrinsic and external site factors influencing water flow and radionuclides transport phenomena; iii) software potential for radionuclides leakage simulation purposes.

Keywords: HYDRUS 1D, radionuclides transport phenomena, site characterization, radiation protection

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10 Integration Network ASI in Lab Automation and Networks Industrial in IFCE

Authors: Jorge Fernandes Teixeira Filho, André Oliveira Alcantara Fontenele, Érick Aragão Ribeiro

Abstract:

The constant emergence of new technologies used in automated processes makes it necessary for teachers and traders to apply new technologies in their classes. This paper presents an application of a new technology that will be employed in a didactic plant, which represents an effluent treatment process located in a laboratory of a federal educational institution. At work were studied in the first place, all components to be placed on automation laboratory in order to determine ways to program, parameterize and organize the plant. New technologies that have been implemented to the process are basically an AS-i network and a Profinet network, a SCADA system, which represented a major innovation in the laboratory. The project makes it possible to carry out in the laboratory various practices of industrial networks and SCADA systems.

Keywords: automation, industrial networks, SCADA systems, lab automation

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9 A Case Study at Lara's Landfill: Solid Waste Management and Energy Recovery

Authors: Kelly Danielly Da Silva Alcantara, Daniel Fernando Molina Junqueira, Graziella Colato Antonio

Abstract:

The Law No. 12,305/10, established by the National Solid Waste Policy (PNRS), provides major changes in the management and managing scenario of solid waste in Brazil. The PNRS established since changes from population behavior as environmental and the consciousness and commitment of the companies with the waste produced. The objective of this project is to conduct a benchmarking study of the management models of Waste Management Municipal Solid (MSW) in national and international levels emphasizing especially in the European Union (Portugal, France and Germany), which are reference countries in energy development, sustainability and consequently recovery of waste generated. The management that encompasses all stages that are included in this sector will be analyzed by benchmarking, as the collection, transportation, processing/treatment and final disposal of waste. Considering the needs to produce clean energy in Brazil, this study will allow the determination to the best treatment of the waste in order to reduce the amount of waste and increase the lifetime of the landfill. Finally, it intends to identify the energy recovery potential through a study analysis of economic viability, energy and sustainable based on a holistic approach.

Keywords: benchmarking, energy recovery, landfill, municipal solid waste

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8 Farming Production in Brazil: Innovation and Land-Sparing Effect

Authors: Isabela Romanha de Alcantara, Jose Eustaquio Ribeiro Vieira Filho, Jose Garcia Gasques

Abstract:

Innovation and technology can be determinant factors to ensure agricultural and sustainable growth, as well as productivity gains. Technical change has contributed considerably to supply agricultural expansion in Brazil. This agricultural growth could be achieved by incorporating more land or capital. If capital is the main source of agricultural growth, it is possible to increase production per unit of land. The objective of this paper is to estimate: 1) total factor productivity (TFP), which is measured in terms of the rate of output per unit of input; and 2) the land-saving effect (LSE) that is the amount of land required in the case that yield rate is constant over time. According to this study, from 1990 to 2019, it appears that 87 percent of Brazilian agriculture product growth comes from the gains of productivity; the rest of 13 percent comes from input growth. In the same period, the total LSE was roughly 400 Mha, which corresponds to 47 percent of the national territory. These effects reflect the greater efficiency of using productive factors, whose technical change has allowed an increase in agricultural production based on productivity gains.

Keywords: agriculture, land-saving effect, livestock, productivity

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7 The Food and Nutrition Security in Brazilian Quilombo: The Account of Experiences in Two Titled Territories

Authors: Dyego Ramos Henrique, Viviane Pimentel, Katia Souto, Ana Valéria Mendonça, Andrea Gallassi

Abstract:

Socioeconomic inequalities in Brazil have accentuated the aggravations of poverty among the most vulnerable populations, among which are the quilombola communities. The objective was to reflect on a situation of food and nutritional security in two Brazilian quilombola communities. The data were collected by means of reports of experience through the production of talk wheels in two quilombola communities (Itamatatiua and Mesquita), located in the cities of Alcântara and Cidade Ocidental. Access to health services and health promotion actions were still incipient in the quilombola communities visited. The perceptions of the participants of the quilombolas revealed that there are still repressed demands that have rendered the fulfillment of the principles of equity, universality and integrality, both for access to health and for access and availability of food. They recognize in governmental instances a socioeconomic-cultural valorization and nutritional qualities intrinsic to the foods produced by them. Although they have been used as communities of quilombolas live and their level of access to services and programs, dealing with quilombola communities does not mean dealing with 'isolated groups or a strictly homogeneous population.' It demands a great need of attention in relation to the access and availability of food, besides overcoming barriers that made it an unfeasible valuation of social, economic and cultural precepts, intrinsic to the thought about food and nutritional security in Brazilian quilombos.

Keywords: access to services, food and nutrition security, health promotion, quilombo population

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6 Efficacy of Vitamins A, C and E on the Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens Subjected to Heat Stress

Authors: Desierin Rodrin, Magdalena Alcantara, Cristina Olo

Abstract:

The increase in environmental temperatures brought about by climate change impacts negatively the growth performance of broilers that may be solved by manipulating the diet of the animals. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different vitamin supplements on the growth performance of broiler chickens subjected to ambient (31°C) and heat stress (34°C) temperatures. The treatments were: I- Control (no vitamin supplement), II- Vitamin A (4.5 mg/kg of feed), III- Vitamin C (250 mg/kg of feed), IV- Vitamin E (250 mg/kg of feed), V- Vitamin C and E (250 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), VI- Vitamin A and E (4.5 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), VII- Vitamin A and C (4.5 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), and VIII- Vitamin A, C and E (4.5 mg/kg of feed, 250 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed). The birds (n=240) were distributed randomly into eight treatments replicated three times, with each replicates having five birds. Ambient temperature was maintained using a 25 watts bulb for every 20 birds, while heat stress condition was sustained at 34°C for about 9 hours daily by using a 50 watts bulb per 5 birds. The interaction of vitamin supplements and temperatures did not significantly (P>0.05) affected body weight, average daily gain, feed consumption and feed conversion efficiency throughout the growing period. Similarly, supplementation of different vitamins did not improve (P>0.05) the overall production performance of birds throughout the rearing period. Birds raised in heat stress (34°C) condition had significantly lower ((P<0.05) body weight, average daily gain, and feed consumption compared to birds raised in ambient temperature at weeks 3, 4 and 5 of rearing. Supplementation of vitamins A, C, and E in the diet of broilers did not alleviate the effect of heat stress in the growth performance of broilers.

Keywords: broiler growth performance, heat stress, vitamin supplementation, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E

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5 Teenagers in Conflict with Law: Exploratory Study about Psychic Suffering

Authors: Carolina Alcântara, Ileno Costa

Abstract:

This study had the objective to systemize the main psycho-social and socioeducational aspects that related with the psychic suffering of adolescents in conflict of law and freedom privation. This research wanted to verify the signals and symptoms identified trough themselves perceptions related to their condition of health/insanity. In a similar way, it was objectified to know the opinions of the ambient conditions of the institution the use of the currently available resources for Health Service and Educational Service. The methodological proposal is based on the quant-qualitative analysis of interviews half-structuralized carried through with 36 teenagers was using psychiatric medication continuously. The data had pointed the experiences of sleeplessness and nightmares, associates or not with experiences of loss of reality (hallucinations) had constituted the illness most frequent. The self-punishment behavior appeared at second place. With regard to the ambient factors, it was verified that institution had, in general way, guaranteed the physical integrity and the maintenance of the health. Amongst the current available resources of Health Service, the administration of anticonvulsivants, in association with other psychotropic drugs has been widely used. The school was viewed as important device of available in the institution. By means of the adolescent’s understanding who do not like to go to the school, they don’t disqualify the knowledge, in contrast, they wanted for knowledge, however, they were frustrated for not having their educational supplies adequately, affirming that the school is weak or they do not learn. Finally, among the possible conclusions guided for the Winnicott’s thought, it was observed that institution in analysis is a representative of the paternal function. However, to begin the self-cure process is necessary that formation of therapeutical bonds. The group of teachers is identified as the main tool of change.

Keywords: serious psychic suffering, adolescent in conflict with the law, delinquency, privation of freedom

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4 Tropical Squall Lines in Brazil: A Methodology for Identification and Analysis Based on ISCCP Tracking Database

Authors: W. A. Gonçalves, E. P. Souza, C. R. Alcântara

Abstract:

The ISCCP-Tracking database offers an opportunity to study physical and morphological characteristics of Convective Systems based on geostationary meteorological satellites. This database contains 26 years of tracking of Convective Systems for the entire globe. Then, Tropical Squall Lines which occur in Brazil are certainly within the database. In this study, we propose a methodology for identification of these systems based on the ISCCP-Tracking database. A physical and morphological characterization of these systems is also shown. The proposed methodology is firstly based on the year of 2007. The Squall Lines were subjectively identified by visually analyzing infrared images from GOES-12. Based on this identification, the same systems were identified within the ISCCP-Tracking database. It is known, and it was also observed that the Squall Lines which occur on the north coast of Brazil develop parallel to the coast, influenced by the sea breeze. In addition, it was also observed that the eccentricity of the identified systems was greater than 0.7. Then, a methodology based on the inclination (based on the coast) and eccentricity (greater than 0.7) of the Convective Systems was applied in order to identify and characterize Tropical Squall Lines in Brazil. These thresholds were applied back in the ISCCP-Tracking database for the year of 2007. It was observed that other systems, which were not Squall Lines, were also identified. Then, we decided to call all systems identified by the inclination and eccentricity thresholds as Linear Convective Systems, instead of Squall Lines. After this step, the Linear Convective Systems were identified and characterized for the entire database, from 1983 to 2008. The physical and morphological characteristics of these systems were compared to those systems which did not have the required inclination and eccentricity to be called Linear Convective Systems. The results showed that the convection associated with the Linear Convective Systems seems to be more intense and organized than in the other systems. This affirmation is based on all ISCCP-Tracking variables analyzed. This type of methodology, which explores 26 years of satellite data by an objective analysis, was not previously explored in the literature. The physical and morphological characterization of the Linear Convective Systems based on 26 years of data is of a great importance and should be used in many branches of atmospheric sciences.

Keywords: squall lines, convective systems, linear convective systems, ISCCP-Tracking

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3 Efficacy of Mixed Actinomycetes against Fusarium Wilt Caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense

Authors: Jesryl B. Paulite, Irene Alcantara-Papa, Teofila O. Zulaybar, Jocelyn T. Zarate, Virgie Ugay

Abstract:

Banana is one of the major fruits in the Philippines in terms of volume of production and export earnings. The Philippines export of fresh Cavendish banana ranked No.1 with 22% share. One major threat to the industry is Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. It tops as a major concern today affecting the Philippine banana industry since 2002 up to the present in Mindanao. Because of environmental and health issues concerning the use of chemical pesticides in the control of diseases, utilization of microorganisms has been significant in recent years as a promising alternative. This study aims to evaluate the potential of actinomycetes to control Fusarium wilt in Cavendish banana. The in-vitro experiments was carried out in Complete Randomized Design (CRD) while field experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three treatments and three replications. Actinomycetes were isolated from mangrove soils in areas in Quezon and Bataan, Philippines. A total of 199 actinomycetes were isolated and 82 actinomycetes showed activity against the local Fusarium oxysporum (Foc) by agar plug assay. The test for antagonisms (AQ6, AQ30, and AQ121) of three best isolates Foc to were selected inhibiting Foc by 21.0mm, 22.0mm and 20.5mm, respectively. The same actinomycetes inhibited well Foc Tropical Race 4 showing 24.6 mm, 20.2mm and 19.0 mm zones of inhibition by agar plug assay, respectively. Combinations of the three isolates yielded an inhibition of 13.5 mm by cup cylinder assay. These findings led to the formulation of the mixed actinomycetes as biocontrol agents against Foc. A field experiment to evaluate the formulated mixed actinomycetes against Foc in a Foc infested field in Kinamayan, Sto Tomas, Davao Del Norte, Philippines. was conducted. Results showed that preventive method of application of the mixed actinomycetes against Foc showed promising results. A 56.66% mortality was observed in control set-up (no biocontrol agent added) compared to 33.33% mortality in preventive method. Further validation of the effectiveness of the mixed actinomycetes as biocontrol agent is presently being conducted in Asuncion, Davao Del Norte, Philippines.

Keywords: actinomycetes, biocontrol agents, cavendish banana, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense

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2 Fire Risk Information Harmonization for Transboundary Fire Events between Portugal and Spain

Authors: Domingos Viegas, Miguel Almeida, Carmen Rocha, Ilda Novo, Yolanda Luna

Abstract:

Forest fires along the more than 1200km of the Spanish-Portuguese border are more and more frequent, currently achieving around 2000 fire events per year. Some of these events develop to large international wildfire requiring concerted operations based on shared information between the two countries. The fire event of Valencia de Alcantara (2003) causing several fatalities and more than 13000ha burnt, is a reference example of these international events. Currently, Portugal and Spain have a specific cross-border cooperation protocol on wildfires response for a strip of about 30km (15 km for each side). It is recognized by public authorities the successfulness of this collaboration however it is also assumed that this cooperation should include more functionalities such as the development of a common risk information system for transboundary fire events. Since Portuguese and Spanish authorities use different approaches to determine the fire risk indexes inputs and different methodologies to assess the fire risk, sometimes the conjoint firefighting operations are jeopardized since the information is not harmonized and the understanding of the situation by the civil protection agents from both countries is not unique. Thus, a methodology aiming the harmonization of the fire risk calculation and perception by Portuguese and Spanish Civil protection authorities is hereby presented. The final results are presented as well. The fire risk index used in this work is the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI), which is based on meteorological data. The FWI is limited on its application as it does not take into account other important factors with great effect on the fire appearance and development. The combination of these factors is very complex since, besides the meteorology, it addresses several parameters of different topics, namely: sociology, topography, vegetation and soil cover. Therefore, the meaning of FWI values is different from region to region, according the specific characteristics of each region. In this work, a methodology for FWI calibration based on the number of fire occurrences and on the burnt area in the transboundary regions of Portugal and Spain, in order to assess the fire risk based on calibrated FWI values, is proposed. As previously mentioned, the cooperative firefighting operations require a common perception of the information shared. Therefore, a common classification of the fire risk for the fire events occurred in the transboundary strip is proposed with the objective of harmonizing this type of information. This work is integrated in the ECHO project SpitFire - Spanish-Portuguese Meteorological Information System for Transboundary Operations in Forest Fires, which aims the development of a web platform for the sharing of information and supporting decision tools to be used in international fire events involving Portugal and Spain.

Keywords: data harmonization, FWI, international collaboration, transboundary wildfires

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1 Effects of Oxidized LDL in M2 Macrophages: Implications in Atherosclerosis

Authors: Fernanda Gonçalves, Karla Alcântara, Vanessa Moura, Patrícia Nolasco, Jorge Kalil, Maristela Hernandez

Abstract:

Introduction: Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease where two striking features are observed: retention of lipids and inflammation. Understanding the interaction between immune cells and lipoproteins involved in atherogenesis are urgent challenges, since cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Macrophages are critical to the development of atherosclerotic plaques and in the perpetuation of inflammation in these lesions. These cells are also directly involved in unstable plaque rupture. Recently different populations of macrophages are being identified in atherosclerotic lesions. Although the presence of M2 macrophages (macrophages activated by the alternative pathway, eg. The IL-4) has been identified, the function of these cells in atherosclerosis is not yet defined. M2 macrophages have a high endocytic capacity, they promote remodeling of tissues and to have anti-inflammatory activity. However, in atherosclerosis, especially unstable plaques, severe inflammatory reaction, accumulation of cellular debris and intense degradation of the tissue is observed. Thus, it is possible that the M2 macrophages have altered function (phenotype) in atherosclerosis. Objective: Our aim is to evaluate if the presence of oxidized LDL alters the phenotype and function of M2 macrophages in vitro. Methods: For this, we will evaluate whether the addition of lipoprotein in M2 macrophages differentiated in vitro with IL -4 induces 1) a reduction in the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines (CBA and ELISA), 2) secretion of inflammatory cytokines (CBA and ELISA), 3) expression of cell activation markers (Flow cytometry), 4) alteration in gene expression of molecules adhesion and extracellular matrix (Real-Time PCR) and 5) Matrix degradation (confocal microscopy). Results: In oxLDL stimulated M2 macrophages cultures we did not find any differences in the expression of the cell surface markers tested, including: HLA-DR, CD80, CD86, CD206, CD163 and CD36. Also, cultures stimulated with oxLDL had similar phagocytic capacity when compared to unstimulated cells. However, in the supernatant of these cultures an increase in the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 was detected. No significant changes where observed in IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and IL-1b levels. The culture supernatant also induced massive extracellular matrix (produced by mouse embryo fibroblast) filaments degradation. When evaluating the expression of 84 extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules genes, we observed that the stimulation of oxLDL in M2 macrophages decreased 47% of the genes and increased the expression of only 3% of the genes. In particular we noted that oxLDL inhibit the expression of 60% of the genes constituents of extracellular matrix and collagen expressed by these cells, including fibronectin1 and collagen VI. We also observed a decrease in the expression of matrix protease inhibitors, such as TIMP 2. On the opposite, the matricellular protein thrombospondin had a 12 fold increase in gene expression. In the presence of native LDL 90% of the genes had no altered expression. Conclusion: M2 macrophages stimulated with oxLDL secrete the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8, have an altered extracellular matrix constituents gene expression, and promote the degradation of extracellular matrix. M2 macrophages may contribute to the perpetuation of inflammation in atherosclerosis and to plaque rupture.

Keywords: atherosclerosis, LDL, macrophages, m2

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