Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2170

Search results for: visible spectroscopy

2170 Effect of Deposition Time on Structural, Electrical, and Optical Properties of Tin Sulfide Thin Films Deposited by Spray Ultrasonic

Authors: I. Bouhaf Kharkhachi, A. Attaf

Abstract:

Tin sulfide thin films on glass substrate were prepared by spray ultrasonic technique, at different experimental conditions. The influence of deposition time (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 min) on different properties of thin films, such us, (XRD) and (UV) spectroscopy visible spectrum was investigated. X-ray diffraction showing that thin films crystallized in SnS, SnS2, and Sn2S3 phases. The results of (UV) spectroscopy visible spectrum show that films deposited at 4 min are large transmittance 60% in the visible region.

Keywords: SnS, thin films, ultrasonic spray, X-ray diffraction, UV spectroscopy visible

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2169 Characterization the Tin Sulfide Thin Films Prepared by Spray Ultrasonic

Authors: A. Attaf A., I. Bouhaf Kharkhachi

Abstract:

Spray ultrasonic deposition technique of tin disulfide (SnS2) thin films know wide application due to their adequate physicochemical properties for microelectronic applications and especially for solar cells. SnS2 film was deposited by spray ultrasonic technique, on pretreated glass substrates at well-determined conditions.The effect of SnS2 concentration on different optical properties of SnS2 Thin films, such us MEB, XRD, and UV spectroscopy visible spectrum was investigated. MEB characterization technique shows that the morphology of this films is uniform, compact and granular. x-ray diffraction study detects the best growth crystallinity in hexagonal structure with preferential plan (001). The results of UV spectroscopy visible spectrum show that films deposited at 0.1 mol/l is large transmittance greater than 25% in the visible region.The band gap energy is 2.54 Ev for molarity 0.1 mol/l.

Keywords: MEB, thin disulfide, thin films, ultrasonic spray, X-Ray diffraction, UV spectroscopy visible

Procedia PDF Downloads 537
2168 An Improved Visible Range Absorption Spectroscopy on Soil Macronutrient

Authors: Suhaila Isaak, Yusmeeraz Yusof, Khairunnisa Mohd Yusof, Ahmad Safuan Abdul Rashid

Abstract:

Soil fertility is commonly evaluated by soil macronutrients such as nitrate, potassium, and phosphorus contents. Optical spectroscopy is an emerging technology which is rapid and simple has been widely used in agriculture to measure soil fertility. For visible and near infrared absorption spectroscopy, the absorbed light level in is useful for soil macro-nutrient measurement. This is because the absorption of light in a soil sample influences sensitivity of the measurement. This paper reports the performance of visible and near infrared absorption spectroscopy in the 400–1400 nm wavelength range using light-emitting diode as the excitation light source to predict the soil macronutrient content of nitrate, potassium, and phosphorus. The experimental results show an improved linear regression analysis of various soil specimens based on the Beer–Lambert law to determine sensitivity of soil spectroscopy by evaluating the absorption of characteristic peaks emitted from a light-emitting diode and detected by high sensitivity optical spectrometer. This would denote in developing a simple and low-cost soil spectroscopy with light-emitting diode for future implementation.

Keywords: macronutrients absorption, optical spectroscopy, soil, absorption

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2167 Elaboration and Characterization of Tin Sulfide Thin Films Prepared by Spray Ultrasonic

Authors: A. Attaf, I. Bouhaf Kharkhachi

Abstract:

Hexagonal tin disulfide (SnS2) films were deposited by spray ultrasonic technique on glass substrates at different experimental conditions. The effect of deposition time (2, 4, 6, and 7 min) on different properties of SnS2 thin films was investigated by XRD and UV spectroscopy visible spectrum. X-ray diffraction study detected the preferential orientation growth of SnS2 compound having structure along (001) plane increased with the deposition time. The results of UV spectroscopy visible spectrum showed that films deposited at 4 min have high transmittance, up to 60%, in the visible region.

Keywords: structural and optical properties, tin sulfide, thin films, ultrasonic spray

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2166 Thin Films of Copper Oxide Deposited by Sol-Gel Spin Coating Method: Effect of Annealing Temperature on Structural and Optical Properties

Authors: Touka Nassim, Tabli Dalila

Abstract:

In this study, CuO thin films synthesized via simple sol-gel method, have been deposited on glass substrates by the spin coating technique and annealed at various temperatures. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy. The structural characterization by XRD reveals that the as prepared films were tenorite phase and have a high level of purity and crystallinity. The crystallite size of the CuO films was affected by the annealing temperature and was estimated in the range 20-31.5 nm. SEM images show a homogeneous distribution of spherical nanoparticles over the surface of the annealed films at 350 and 450 °C. Vibrational Spectroscopy revealed vibration modes specific to CuO with monolithic structure on the Raman spectra at 289 cm−1 and on FT-IR spectra around 430-580 cm−1. Electronic investigation performed by UV–Visible spectroscopy showed that the films have high absorbance in the visible region and their optical band gap increases from 2.40 to 2.66 eV (blue shift) with increasing annealing temperature from 350 to 550 °C.

Keywords: Sol-gel, Spin coating method, Copper oxide, Thin films

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2165 Scientific Investigation for an Ancient Egyptian Polychrome Wooden Stele

Authors: Ahmed Abdrabou, Medhat Abdalla

Abstract:

The studied stele dates back to Third Intermediate Period (1075-664) B.C in an ancient Egypt. It is made of wood and covered with painted gesso layers. This study aims to use a combination of multi spectral imaging {visible, infrared (IR), Visible-induced infrared luminescence (VIL), Visible-induced ultraviolet luminescence (UVL) and ultraviolet reflected (UVR)}, along with portable x-ray fluorescence in order to map and identify the pigments as well as to provide a deeper understanding of the painting techniques. Moreover; the authors were significantly interested in the identification of wood species. Multispectral imaging acquired in 3 spectral bands, ultraviolet (360-400 nm), visible (400-780 nm) and infrared (780-1100 nm) using (UV Ultraviolet-induced luminescence (UVL), UV Reflected (UVR), Visible (VIS), Visible-induced infrared luminescence (VIL) and Infrared photography. False color images are made by digitally editing the VIS with IR or UV images using Adobe Photoshop. Optical Microscopy (OM), potable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (p-XRF) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were used in this study. Mapping and imaging techniques provided useful information about the spatial distribution of pigments, in particular visible-induced luminescence (VIL) which allowed the spatial distribution of Egyptian blue pigment to be mapped and every region containing Egyptian blue, even down to single crystals in some instances, is clearly visible as a bright white area; however complete characterization of the pigments requires the use of p. XRF spectroscopy. Based on the elemental analysis found by P.XRF, we conclude that the artists used mixtures of the basic mineral pigments to achieve a wider palette of hues. Identification of wood species Microscopic identification indicated that the wood used was Sycamore Fig (Ficus sycomorus L.) which is recorded as being native to Egypt and was used to make wooden artifacts since at least the Fifth Dynasty.

Keywords: polychrome wooden stele, multispectral imaging, IR luminescence, Wood identification, Sycamore Fig, p-XRF

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2164 Structure and Optical Properties of Potassium Doped Zinc Oxide

Authors: Lila A. Alkhattaby, Norah A. Alsayegh, Mohammad S. Ansari, Mohammad O. Ansari

Abstract:

In this work, we doped zinc oxide ZnO with potassium K we have synthesized using the sol-gel method. Structural properties were depicted by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and energy distribution spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction studies confirm the nanosized of the particles and favored orientations along the (100), (002), (101), (102), (110), (103), (200), and (112) planes confirm the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO NPs. The optical properties study using the UV-Vis spectroscopy. The band gap decreases from 4.05 eV to 3.88 eV, the lowest band gap at 10% doped concentration. The photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy results show two main peaks, a sharp peak at ≈ 384 nm in the UV region and a broad peak around 479 nm in the visible region. The highest intensity of the band-edge luminescence was for 2% doped concentration because of the combined effect of the decreased probability of nonradiative recombination and has better crystallinity.

Keywords: K doped ZnO, photoluminescence spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, x-ray spectroscopy

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2163 The Study of Visible Light Active Bismuth Modified Nitrogen Doped Titanium Dioxide Photocatlysts

Authors: B. Benalioua, I. Benyamina, A. Bentouami, B. Boury

Abstract:

The objective of this study is based on the synthesis of a new photocatalyst based on TiO2 and its application in the photo-degradation of an acid dye under the visible light. The material obtained was characterized by different techniques like diffuse reflectance UV–Vis spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic efficiency of the Bi, N co-doped TiO2 treated at 600°C for 1 h was tested on the Indigo Carmine under the irradiation of visible light and compared with that of the commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25 (Degussa). The XRD characterization of the material Bi -N- TiO2 (600°C) revealed the presence of the anatase phase and the absence of the rutile phase in comparison of the TiO2 P25 diffractogram. Characterization by UV- visible diffuse reflection (DRS) material showed that the Bi-N-TiO2 exhibits redshift (move visible) relative to commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25, this property promises a photocatalytic activity of Bi-N-TiO2 under visible light. Indeed, the efficiency of photocatalytic Bi-N-TiO2 as a visible light is shown by a complete discoloration of indigo carmine solution of 16 mg/L after 40 minutes, whereas with the P25-TiO2 discoloration is achieved after 90 minutes.

Keywords: POA, heterogeneous photocatalysis, TiO2, co-doping

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2162 The Photocatalytic Degradation of Acid Blue 25 Dye by Polypyrrole/Titanium Dioxide and Polypyrrole/Zinc Oxide Composites

Authors: Ljerka Kratofil Krehula, Martina Perlog, Jasmina Stjepanović, Vanja Gilja, Marijana Kraljić Roković, Zlata Hrnjak-Murgić

Abstract:

The composite preparation of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide photocatalysts with the conductive polymers gives the opportunity to carry out the catalysis reactions not only under UV light but also under visible light. Such processes may efficiently use sunlight in degradation of different organic pollutants and present new design for wastewater treatment. The paper presents the preparation procedure, material characteristics and photocatalytic efficiency of polypyrrole/titanium dioxide and polypyrrole/zinc oxide composites (PPy/TiO2 and PPy/ZnO). The obtained composite samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Vis spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The photocatalytic efficiency of the samples was determined following the decomposition of Acid Blue 25 dye (AB 25) under UV and visible light by UV/Vis spectroscopy. The efficiency of degradation is determined by total organic carbon content (TOC) after photocatalysis processes. The results show enhanced photocatalytic efficiency of the samples under visible light, so the prepared composite samples are recognized as efficient catalysts in degradation process of AB 25 dye. It can be concluded that the preparation of TiO2 or ZnO composites with PPy can serve as a very efficient method for the improvement of TiO2 and ZnO photocatalytic performance under visible light.

Keywords: composite, photocatalysis, polypyrrole, titanium dioxide, zinc oxide

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2161 Synthesis, Investigation, DFT Study and Biologically Activity of Zirconium (IV) Complexes with Diammie Complexes

Authors: Salem El Ashoor, Fathia M. El-Meheishi, Ibtisam M. Diab

Abstract:

Zirconium diammin and triammin complexes can be possess biological activities, these complexes were synthesized via the reaction equimolar quantity of (1:10-phenanthroline){NC3H3(C6H2)NC3H3} (L1) or 4-4-amino phenazone {ONC6H5(NH)CH(NH2} (L2) or diphenyl carbizon {HNNCO(NH)2(C6H5)} (L3) with Zirconium Salt {ZrOCl2} in ratio (1:1) to form complexes [{NC3H3(C6H2)NC3H3}ZrOCl2}] [ZrOCl2L1], [{(O2NC6H4(NH)(NH2)}ZrOCl2] [ZrOCl2L2] and [{HNNCO(NH)2(C6H5)ZrOCl2}] [ZrOCl2L3] respectively. The characterization of these complexes were follow by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and UV-Visible spectroscopy. Also a variable temperature study of these complexes has been followed by using UV-Visible spectroscopy to follow electronic transform behaviors under temperature control also DFT study calculation was follow these complexes via the information from FT-IR and UV-Visible spectroscopy. A coordination number of these complexes of types five and six of the geometry can be suggested. These complexes were found to shown deferent inhibition to the growth of bacterial strains of Bacillus spp & Klebsiella spp & E.coli & proteus spp & pseudomona spp) while all complexes were in deferent's concentration (0.001, 0.2 and 1M) and the result as evidenced from the presence. For better understanding these complexes were examined by using Density functional theory (DFT) calculation.

Keywords: (1:10-phenanthroline) (L1), 4-4-amino phenazone (L2), diphenyl carbizon (L3), DFT study, antibacterial

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2160 Rb-Modified Few-Layered Graphene for Gas Sensing Application

Authors: Vasant Reddy, Shivani A. Singh, Pravin S. More

Abstract:

In the present investigation, we demonstrated the fabrication of few-layers of graphene sheets with alkali metal i.e. Rb-G using chemical route method. The obtained materials were characterized by means of chemical, structural and electrical techniques, using the ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and 4 points probe, respectively. The XRD studies were carried out to understand the phase of the samples where we found a sharp peak of Rb-G at 26.470. UV-Spectroscopy of Graphene and Rb-modified graphene samples shows the absorption peaks at ~248 nm and ~318 nm respectively. These analyses show that this modified material can be useful for gas sensing applications and to be used in diverse areas.

Keywords: chemical route, graphene, gas sensing, UV-spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
2159 Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Performance of TiO2 Co-Doped with Sulfur and Nitrogen

Authors: B. Benalioua, I. Benyamina, A. Bentouami, B. Boury

Abstract:

The objective of this study is based on the synthesis of a new photocatalyst based on TiO2 and its application in the photo-degradation of an acid dye under the visible light. The material obtained was characterized by different techniques like diffuse reflectance UV–Vis spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic efficiency of the S, N co-doped TiO2 treated at 600°C for 1 h was tested on the Indigo Carmine under the irradiation of visible light and compared with that of the commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25 (Degussa). The XRD characterization of the material S-N-TiO2 (600°C) revealed the presence of the anatase phase and the absence of the rutile phase in comparison of the TiO2 P25 diffractogram. Characterization by UV- visible diffuse reflection (DRS) material showed that the S-N-TiO2 exhibits redshift (move visible) relative to commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25, this property promises a photocatalytic activity of S-N-TiO2 under visible light. Indeed, the efficiency of photocatalytic S-N-TiO2 as a visible light is shown by a complete discoloration of indigo carmine solution of 16 mg/L after 40 minutes, whereas with the P25-TiO2 discoloration is achieved after 90 minutes.

Keywords: POA, heterogeneous photocatalysis, TiO2, co-doping

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2158 Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Performance of TiO2 Co-doped with Bismuth and Zinc

Authors: B.Benalioua, I.Benyamina, A.Bentouami, B.Boury

Abstract:

The objective of this study is based on the synthesis of a new photocatalyst based on TiO2 and its application in the photo-degradation of an acid dye under the visible light. The material obtained was characterized by different techniques like diffuse reflectance UV–Vis spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic efficiency of the Bi, Zn co-doped TiO2 treated at 670°C for 2 h was tested on the Indigo Carmine under the irradiation of visible light and compared with that of the commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25 (Degussa). The XRD characterization of the material Bi-Zn-TiO2 (670°C) revealed the presence of the anatase phase and the absence of the rutile phase in comparison of the TiO2 P25 diffractogram. Characterization by UV- visible diffuse reflection (DRS) material showed that the Bi-Zn-TiO2 exhibits redshift (move visible) relative to commercial titanium oxide TiO2-P25, this property promises a photocatalytic activity of Bi-Zn-TiO2 under visible light. Indeed, the efficiency of photocatalytic Bi-Zn-TiO2 as a visible light is shown by a complete discoloration of indigo carmine solution of 16 mg/L after 70 minutes, whereas with the P25-TiO2 discoloration is achieved after 120 minutes.

Keywords: POA, heterogeneous photocatalysis, TiO2, co-doping

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2157 Remediation of Dye Contaminated Wastewater Using N, Pd Co-Doped TiO₂ Photocatalyst Derived from Polyamidoamine Dendrimer G1 as Template

Authors: Sarre Nzaba, Bulelwa Ntsendwana, Bekkie Mamba, Alex Kuvarega

Abstract:

The discharge of azo dyes such as Brilliant black (BB) into the water bodies has carcinogenic and mutagenic effects on humankind and the ecosystem. Conventional water treatment techniques fail to degrade these dyes completely thereby posing more problems. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are promising technologies in solving the problem. Anatase type nitrogen-platinum (N, Pt) co-doped TiO₂ photocatalysts were prepared by a modified sol-gel method using amine terminated polyamidoamine generation 1 (PG1) as a template and source of nitrogen. The resultant photocatalysts were characterized by X‐ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV‐Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy (RS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the calcination atmosphere played an important role in the morphology, crystal structure, spectral absorption, oxygen vacancy concentration, and visible light photocatalytic performance of the catalysts. Anatase phase particles ranging between 9- 20 nm were also confirmed by TEM, SEM, and analysis. The origin of the visible light photocatalytic activity was attributed to both the elemental N and Pd dopants and the existence of oxygen vacancies. Co-doping imparted a shift in the visible region of the solar spectrum. The visible light photocatalytic activity of the samples was investigated by monitoring the photocatalytic degradation of brilliant black dye. Co-doped TiO₂ showed greater photocatalytic brilliant black degradation efficiency compared to singly doped N-TiO₂ or Pd-TiO₂ under visible light irradiation. The highest reaction rate constant of 3.132 x 10-2 min⁻¹ was observed for N, Pd co-doped TiO₂ (2% Pd). The results demonstrated that the N, Pd co-doped TiO₂ (2% Pd) sample could completely degrade the dye in 3 h, while the commercial TiO₂ showed the lowest dye degradation efficiency (52.66%).

Keywords: brilliant black, Co-doped TiO₂, polyamidoamine generation 1 (PAMAM G1), photodegradation

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2156 A Simple Chemical Precipitation Method of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Using Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone as a Capping Agent and Their Characterization

Authors: V. P. Muhamed Shajudheen, K. Viswanathan, K. Anitha Rani, A. Uma Maheswari, S. Saravana Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper, a simple chemical precipitation route for the preparation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, synthesized by using titanium tetra isopropoxide as a precursor and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping agent, is reported. The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) of the samples were recorded and the phase transformation temperature of titanium hydroxide, Ti(OH)4 to titanium oxide, TiO2 was investigated. The as-prepared Ti(OH)4 precipitate was annealed at 800°C to obtain TiO2 nanoparticles. The thermal, structural, morphological and textural characterizations of the TiO2 nanoparticle samples were carried out by different techniques such as DSC-TGA, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), Micro Raman spectroscopy, UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) and Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) techniques. The as-prepared precipitate was characterized using DSC-TGA and confirmed the mass loss of around 30%. XRD results exhibited no diffraction peaks attributable to anatase phase, for the reaction products, after the solvent removal. The results indicate that the product is purely rutile. The vibrational frequencies of two main absorption bands of prepared samples are discussed from the results of the FTIR analysis. The formation of nanosphere of diameter of the order of 10 nm, has been confirmed by FESEM. The optical band gap was found by using UV-Visible spectrum. From photoluminescence spectra, a strong emission was observed. The obtained results suggest that this method provides a simple, efficient and versatile technique for preparing TiO2 nanoparticles and it has the potential to be applied to other systems for photocatalytic activity.

Keywords: TiO2 nanoparticles, chemical precipitation route, phase transition, Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), micro-Raman spectroscopy, UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Photoluminescence Spectroscopy (PL) and Field Effect Scanning electron microscopy (FESEM)

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2155 Ultraviolet Visible Spectroscopy Analysis on Transformer Oil by Correlating It with Various Oil Parameters

Authors: Rajnish Shrivastava, Y. R. Sood, Priti Pundir, Rahul Srivastava

Abstract:

Power transformer is one of the most important devices that are used in power station. Due to several fault impending upon it or due to ageing, etc its life gets lowered. So, it becomes necessary to have diagnosis of oil for fault analysis. Due to the chemical, electrical, thermal and mechanical stress the insulating material in the power transformer degraded. It is important to regularly assess the condition of oil and the remaining life of the power transformer. In this paper UV-VIS absorption graph area is correlated with moisture content, Flash point, IFT and Density of Transformer oil. Since UV-VIS absorption graph area varies accordingly with the variation in different transformer parameters. So by obtaining the correlation among different oil parameters for oil with respect to UV-VIS absorption area, decay contents of transformer oil can be predicted

Keywords: breakdown voltage (BDV), interfacial Tension (IFT), moisture content, ultra violet-visible rays spectroscopy (UV-VIS)

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2154 Effect of Cr and Fe Doping on the Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Nanostructures

Authors: Prakash Chand, Anurag Gaur, Ashavani Kumar

Abstract:

In the present study, we have synthesized Cr and Fe doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-structures (Zn1-δCraFebO; where δ= a + b=20%, a = 5, 6, 8 & 10% and b=15, 14, 12 & 10%) via sol-gel method at different doping concentrations. The synthesized samples were characterized for structural properties by X-ray diffractometer and field emission scanning electron microscope and the optical properties were carried out through photoluminescence and UV-visible spectroscopy. The particle size calculated through field emission scanning electron microscope varies from 41 to 96 nm for the samples synthesized at different doping concentrations. The optical band gaps calculated through UV-visible spectroscopy are found to be decreasing from 3.27 to 3.02 eV as the doping concentration of Cr increases and Fe decreases.

Keywords: nano-structures, optical properties, sol-gel method, zinc oxide

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2153 Detection of Internal Mold Infection of Intact Tomatoes by Non-Destructive, Transmittance VIS-NIR Spectroscopy

Authors: K. Petcharaporn

Abstract:

The external characteristics of tomatoes, such as freshness, color and size are typically used in quality control processes for tomatoes sorting. However, the internal mold infection of intact tomato cannot be sorted based on a visible assessment and destructive method alone. In this study, a non-destructive technique was used to predict the internal mold infection of intact tomatoes by using transmittance visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectroscopy. Spectra for 200 samples contained 100 samples for normal tomatoes and 100 samples for mold infected tomatoes were acquired in the wavelength range between 665-955 nm. This data was used in conjunction with partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) method to generate a classification model for tomato quality between groups of internal mold infection of intact tomato samples. For this task, the data was split into two groups, 140 samples were used for a training set and 60 samples were used for a test set. The spectra of both normal and internally mold infected tomatoes showed different features in the visible wavelength range. Combined spectral pretreatments of standard normal variate transformation (SNV) and smoothing (Savitzky-Golay) gave the optimal calibration model in training set, 85.0% (63 out of 71 for the normal samples and 56 out of 69 for the internal mold samples). The classification accuracy of the best model on the test set was 91.7% (29 out of 29 for the normal samples and 26 out of 31 for the internal mold tomato samples). The results from this experiment showed that transmittance VIS-NIR spectroscopy can be used as a non-destructive technique to predict the internal mold infection of intact tomatoes.

Keywords: tomato, mold, quality, prediction, transmittance

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2152 Detection of Internal Mold Infection of Intact For Tomatoes by Non-Destructive, Transmittance VIS-NIR Spectroscopy

Authors: K. Petcharaporn, N. Prathengjit

Abstract:

The external characteristics of tomatoes, such as freshness, color and size are typically used in quality control processes for tomatoes sorting. However, the internal mold infection of intact tomato cannot be sorted based on a visible assessment and destructive method alone. In this study, a non-destructive technique was used to predict the internal mold infection of intact tomatoes by using transmittance visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectroscopy. Spectra for 200 samples contained 100 samples for normal tomatoes and 100 samples for mold infected tomatoes were acquired in the wavelength range between 665-955 nm. This data was used in conjunction with partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) method to generate a classification model for tomato quality between groups of internal mold infection of intact tomato samples. For this task, the data was split into two groups, 140 samples were used for a training set and 60 samples were used for a test set. The spectra of both normal and internally mold infected tomatoes showed different features in the visible wavelength range. Combined spectral pretreatments of standard normal variate transformation (SNV) and smoothing (Savitzky-Golay) gave the optimal calibration model in training set, 85.0% (63 out of 71 for the normal samples and 56 out of 69 for the internal mold samples). The classification accuracy of the best model on the test set was 91.7% (29 out of 29 for the normal samples and 26 out of 31 for the internal mold tomato samples). The results from this experiment showed that transmittance VIS-NIR spectroscopy can be used as a non-destructive technique to predict the internal mold infection of intact tomatoes.

Keywords: tomato, mold, quality, prediction, transmittance

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2151 Synthesis and D.C. Conductivity Measurements of Polyaniline/CopperOxide Nanocomposites

Authors: L. N. Shubha, P. Madhusudana Rao

Abstract:

The Polyaniline / Copper Oxide(PANI / CuO) nanocomposite was prepared by solution mixing of prepared Polyaniline and copper Oxide in Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The synthesis involved the formation of dark green colored Polyaniline-Copper Oxide nanocomposite. The synthesized polymer nano composites were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM and UV-Visible Spectroscopy. The characteristic peaks in XRD, FTIR and UV-Visible spectra confirmed the presence of CuO in the polymer structure. SEM analysis revealed formation of PANI/CuO nano composite The D.C. conductivity measurements were performed using two probe method for various temperatures.

Keywords: polyaniline/copper oxide (PANI/CuO) nanocomposite, XRD, SEM, FTIRand DC- conductivity, UV-visible spectra

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2150 Corrosion Protection of Steel 316 by Electrochemically Synthesized Conductive Poly (O-Toluidine)

Authors: H. Acar, M. Karakışla, L. Aksu, M. Saçak

Abstract:

The corrosion protection effect of poly(o-toluidine) (POT) coated on steel 316 electrode was determined in corrosive media such as NaCl, H2SO4 and HCl with the use of Tafel curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The POT coatings were prepared with cyclic voltammetry technique in aqueous solution of oxalic acid and they were characterized by FTIR and UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. The Tafel curves revealed that the POT coating provides the most effective protection compared to the bare steel 316 electrode in NaCl as corrosive medium. The results were evaluated based upon data decrease of corrosion current and shift to positive potentials with the increase of number of scans. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements were found to support Tafel data of POT coating.

Keywords: corrosion, impedance spectroscopy, steel 316, poly(o-toluidine)

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2149 Performance and Lifetime of Tandem Organic Solar Cells

Authors: Guillaume Schuchardt, Solenn Berson, Gerard Perrier

Abstract:

Multi-junction solar cell configurations, where two sub-cells with complementary absorption are stacked and connected in series, offer an exciting approach to tackle the single junction limitations of organic solar cells and improve their power conversion efficiency. However, the augmentation of the number of layers has, as a consequence, to increase the risk of reducing the lifetime of the cell due to the ageing phenomena present at the interfaces. In this work, we study the intrinsic degradation mechanisms, under continuous illumination AM1.5G, inert atmosphere and room temperature, in single and tandem organic solar cells using Impedance Spectroscopy, IV Curves, External Quantum Efficiency, Steady-State Photocarrier Grating, Scanning Kelvin Probe and UV-Visible light.

Keywords: single and tandem organic solar cells, intrinsic degradation mechanisms, characterization: SKP, EQE, SSPG, UV-Visible, Impedance Spectroscopy, optical simulation

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2148 Visible-Light-Driven OVs-BiOCl Nanoplates with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity toward NO Oxidation

Authors: Jiazhen Liao, Xiaolan Zeng

Abstract:

A series of BiOCl nanoplates with different oxygen vacancies (OVs) concentrations were successfully synthesized via a facile solvothermal method. The concentration of OVs of BiOCl can be tuned by the ratios of water/ethylene glycol. Such nanoplates containing oxygen vacancies served as an efficient visible-light-driven photocatalyst for NO oxidation. Compared with pure BiOCl, the enhanced photocatalytic performance was mainly attributed to the introduction of OVs, which greatly enhanced light absorption, promoted electron transfer, activated oxygen molecules. The present work could provide insights into the understanding of the role of OVs in photocatalysts for reference. Combined with characterization analysis, such as XRD(X-ray diffraction), XPS(X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), TEM(Transmission Electron Microscopy), PL(Fluorescence Spectroscopy), and DFT (Density Functional Theory) calculations, the effect of vacancies on photoelectrochemical properties of BiOCl photocatalysts are shown. Furthermore, the possible reaction mechanisms of photocatalytic NO oxidation were also revealed. According to the results of in situ DRIFTS ( Diffused Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy), various intermediates were produced during different time intervals of NO photodegradation. The possible pathways are summarized below. First, visible light irradiation induces electron-hole pairs on the surface of OV-BOC (BiOCl with oxygen vacancies). Second, photogenerated electrons form superoxide radical with the contacted oxygen. Then, the NO molecules adsorbed on the surface of OV-BOC are attacked by superoxide radical and form nitrate instead of NO₂ (by-products). Oxygen vacancies greatly improve the photocatalytic oxidation activity of NO and effectively inhibit the production of harmful by-products during the oxidation of NO.

Keywords: OVs-BiOCl nanoplate, oxygen vacancies, NO oxidation, photocatalysis

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2147 Biomolecular Interaction of Ruthenium(II) Polypyridyl Complexes

Authors: S. N. Harun, H. Ahmad

Abstract:

A series of ruthenium(II) complexes, including two novel compounds [Ru(dppz)2(L)]2+ where dppz = dipyrido-[3,2-a:2’,3’-c]phenazine, and L = 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (PIP) or 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (p-HPIP) have been synthesized and characterized. The previously reported complexes [Ru(bpy)2L]2+ and [Ru(phen)2L]2+ were also prepared. All complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H-NMR spectroscopy, ESI-Mass spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy. The photophysical properties were analyzed by UV-Visible spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)]2+ and [Ru(dppz)2(p-HPIP)]2+ displayed ‘molecular light-switch’ effect as they have high emission in acetonitrile but no emission in water. The cytotoxicity of all complexes against cancer cell lines Hela and MCF-7 were investigated through standard MTT assay. [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)]2+ showed moderate toxicity on both MCF-7 and Hela with IC50 of 37.64 µM and 28.02 µM, respectively. Interestingly, [Ru(dppz)2(p-HPIP)]2+ exhibited remarkable cytotoxicity results with IC50 of 13.52 µM on Hela and 11.63 µM on MCF-7 cell lines which are comparable to the infamous anti-cancer drug, cisplatin. The cytotoxicity of this complex series increased as the ligands size extended in order of [Ru(bpy)2(L)]2+ < [Ru(phen)2(L)]2+ < [Ru(dppz)2(L)]2+.

Keywords: ruthenium, cytotoxicity, molecular light-switch, anticancer

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2146 Synthesis, Characterization and Applications of Some Selected Dye-Functionalized P and N-Type Nanoparticles in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors: Arifa Batool, Ghulam Hussain Bhatti, Syed Mujtaba Shah

Abstract:

Inorganic n-type (TiO2, CdO) and p-type (NiO, CuO) metal oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by a facile wet chemical method at room temperature. The morphological, compositional, structural and optical properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, FT-IR, XRD analysis, UV/Visible and fluorescence spectroscopy. All semiconducting nanoparticles were photosensitized with Ru (II) based Z907 dye in ethanol solvent by grafting. Grafting of dye on the surface of nanoparticles was confirmed by UV/Visible and FT-IR spectroscopy. The synthesized photo-active nanohybrid was thoroughly blended with P3HT, a solid electrolyte and I-V measurements under solar stimulated radiations 1000 W/m2 (AM 1.5) were recorded. Maximum incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 0.9% was achieved with dye functionalized Z907-TiO2 hybrid, IPCE of 0.72% was achieved with bulk-heterojunction of TiO2-Z907-CuO and IPCE of 0.68% was attained with nanocomposite of TiO2-CdO. TiO2 based Solar cells have maximum Jscvalue i.e.4.63 mA/cm2. Dye-functionalized TiO2-based photovoltaic devices were found more efficient than the reference device but the morphology of the device was a major check in progress.

Keywords: solar cell, bulk heterojunction, nanocomposites, photosensitization, dye sensitized solar cell

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2145 Facile Synthesis of Heterostructured Bi₂S₃-WS₂ Photocatalysts for Photodegradation of Organic Dye

Authors: S. V. Prabhakar Vattikuti, Chan Byon

Abstract:

In this paper, we report a facile synthetic strategy of randomly disturbed Bi₂S₃ nanorods on WS₂ nanosheets, which are synthesized via a controlled hydrothermal method without surfactant under an inert atmosphere. We developed a simple hydrothermal method for the formation of heterostructured of Bi₂S₃/WS₂ with a large scale (>95%). The structural features, composition, and morphology were characterized by XRD, SEM-EDX, TEM, HRTEM, XPS, UV-vis spectroscopy, N₂ adsorption-desorption, and TG-DTA measurements. The heterostructured Bi₂S₃/WS₂ composite has significant photocatalytic efficiency toward the photodegradation of organic dye. The time-dependent UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy measurement was consistent with the enhanced photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation with the diminishing carrier recombination for the Bi₂S₃/WS₂ photocatalyst. Due to their marked synergistic effects, the supported Bi₂S₃ nanorods on WS₂ nanosheet heterostructures exhibit significant visible-light photocatalytic activity and stability for the degradation of RhB. A possible reaction mechanism is proposed for the Bi₂S₃/WS₂ composite.

Keywords: photocatalyst, heterostructures, transition metal disulfides, organic dye, nanorods

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2144 Fe-Doped Graphene Nanoparticles for Gas Sensing Applications

Authors: Shivani A. Singh, Pravin S. More

Abstract:

In the present inspection, we indicate the falsification of Fe-doped graphene nanoparticles by modified Hummers method. Structural and physiochemical properties of the resulting pallets were explored with the help of ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) for graphene sample exhibits absorption peaks ~248nm. Pure graphene shows PL peak at 348 nm. After doping of Fe with graphene the PL peak shifted from 348 nm to 332 nm. The oxidation degree, i.e. the relative amount of oxygen functional groups was estimated from the relative intensities of the oxygen related bands (ORB) in the FTIR measurements. These analyses show that this modified material can be useful for gas sensing applications and to be used in diverse areas.

Keywords: chemical doping, graphene, gas sensing, sensing

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2143 Elaboration and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles for Therapeutic and Environmental Applications

Authors: Manel Bouloudenine, Karima Djeddou, Hadjer Ben Manser, Hana Soualah Alila, Mohmed Bououdina

Abstract:

This survey research involves the elaboration and characterization of silver nanoparticles for therapeutic and environmental applications. The silver nanoparticles "Ag NPs" were synthesized by reducing AgNO3 with microwaves. The characterization of nanoparticles was done by using Transmission Electron Microscopy " TEM ", Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy "EDS", Selected Area Electron Diffraction "SEAD", UV-Visible Spectroscopy and Dynamic Light Scattering "DLS". Transmission Electron Microscopy and Electron Diffraction have confirmed the nanoscale, the shape, and the crystalline quality of as synthesized silver nanoparticles. Elementary analysis has proved the purity of Ag NPs and the presence of the Surface Plasmon Resonance phenomenon "SPR". A strong absorption shift was observed in the visible range of the UV-visible spectrum of as synthesized Ag NPs, which indicates the presence of metallic silver. When the strong absorption in the ultraviolet range of the spectrum has revealed the presence of ionic Ag NPs ionic Ag aggregates species. The autocorrelation function measured by the Dynamic Light Scattering has shown a strong monodispersed character of Ag NPs, which is indicated by the presence of a single size population, with a minima and a maxima laying between 40 and 111 nm. Related to other research, our results confirm the performance properties of as synthesized Ag NPs, which allows them to be performing in many technological applications, including therapeutic and environmental ones.

Keywords: silvers nanoparticles, microwaves, EDS, TEM

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2142 Improved Visible Light Activities for Degrading Pollutants on ZnO-TiO2 Nanocomposites Decorated with C and Fe Nanoparticles

Authors: Yuvraj S. Malghe, Atul B. Lavand

Abstract:

In recent years, semiconductor photocatalytic degradation processes have attracted a lot of attention and are used widely for the destruction of organic pollutants present in waste water. Among various semiconductors, titanium dioxide (TiO2) is the most popular photocatalyst due to its excellent chemical stability, non-toxicity, relatively low cost and high photo-oxidation power. It has been known that zinc oxide (ZnO) with band gap energy 3.2 eV is a suitable alternative to TiO2 due to its high quantum efficiency, however it corrodes in acidic medium. Unfortunately TiO2 and ZnO both are active only in UV light due to their wide band gaps. Sunlight consist about 5-7% UV light, 46% visible light and 47% infrared radiation. In order to utilize major portion of sunlight (visible spectrum), it is necessary to modify the band gap of TiO2 as well as ZnO. This can be done by several ways such as semiconductor coupling, doping the material with metals/non metals. Doping of TiO2 using transition metals like Fe, Co and non-metals such as N, C or S extends its absorption wavelengths from UV to visible region. In the present work, we have synthesized ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposite using reverse microemulsion method. Visible light photocatalytic activity of synthesized nanocomposite was investigated for degradation of aqueous solution of malachite green (MG). To increase the photocatalytic activity of ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposite, it is decorated with C and Fe. Pure, carbon (C) doped and carbon, iron(C, Fe) co-doped nanosized ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposites were synthesized using reverse microemulsion method. These composites were characterized using, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV visible spectrophotometery and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Visible light photocatalytic activities of synthesized nanocomposites were investigated for degradation of aqueous malachite green (MG) solution. C, Fe co-doped ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposite exhibit better photocatalytic activity and showed threefold increase in photocatalytic activity. Effect of amount of catalyst, pH and concentration of MG solution on the photodegradation rate is studied. Stability and reusability of photocatalyst is also studied. C, Fe decorated ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposite shows threefold increase in photocatalytic activity.

Keywords: malachite green, nanocomposite, photocatalysis, titanium dioxide, zinc oxide

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2141 Low Temperature PVP Capping Agent Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles by a Simple Chemical Precipitation Method and Their Properties

Authors: V. P. Muhamed Shajudheen, K. Viswanathan, K. Anitha Rani, A. Uma Maheswari, S. Saravana Kumar

Abstract:

We are reporting a simple and low-cost chemical precipitation method adopted to prepare zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping agent. The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was applied on the dried gel sample to record the phase transformation temperature of zinc hydroxide Zn(OH)2 to zinc oxide (ZnO) to obtain the annealing temperature of 800C. The thermal, structure, morphology and optical properties have been employed by different techniques such as DSC-TGA, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), Micro Raman spectroscopy, UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) and Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). X-ray diffraction results confirmed the wurtzite hexagonal structure of ZnO nanoparticles. The two intensive peaks at 160 and 432 cm-1 in the Raman Spectrum are mainly attributed to the first order modes of the wurtzite ZnO nanoparticles. The energy band gap obtained from the UV-Vis absorption spectra, shows a blue shift, which is attributed to increase in carrier concentration (Burstein Moss Effect). Photoluminescence studies of the single crystalline ZnO nanoparticles, show a strong peak centered at 385 nm, corresponding to the near band edge emission in ultraviolet range. The mixed shape of grapes, sphere, hexagonal and rock like structure has been noticed in FESEM. The results showed that PVP is a suitable capping agent for the preparation of ZnO nanoparticles by simple chemical precipitation method.

Keywords: ZnO nanoparticles, simple chemical precipitation route, mixed shape morphology, UV-visible absorption, photoluminescence, Fourier transform infra-Red spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 349