Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 162

Search results for: revision arthroplasty

162 Revision of Arthroplasty in Rheumatoid and Osteoarthritis: Methotrexate and Radiographic Lucency in RA Patients

Authors: Mike T. Wei, Douglas N. Mintz, Lisa A. Mandl, Arielle W. Fein, Jayme C. Burket, Yuo-Yu Lee, Wei-Ti Huang, Vivian P. Bykerk, Mark P. Figgie, Edward F. Di Carlo, Bruce N. Cronstein, Susan M. Goodman


Background/Purpose: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients have excellent total hip arthroplasty (THA) survival, and methotrexate (MTX), an anti-inflammatory disease modifying drug which may affect bone reabsorption, may play a role. The purpose of this study is to determine the diagnosis leading to revision THA (rTHA) in RA patients and to assess the association of radiographic lucency with MTX use. Methods: All patients with validated diagnosis of RA in the institution’s THA registry undergoing rTHA from May 2007 - February 2011 were eligible. Diagnosis leading to rTHA and medication use was determined by chart review. Osteolysis was evaluated on available radiographs by measuring maximum lucency in each Gruen zone. Differences within RA patients with/without MTX in osteolysis, demographics, and medications were assessed with chi-squared, Fisher's exact tests or Mann-Whitney U tests as appropriate. The error rate for multiple comparisons of lucency in the different Gruen zones was corrected via false discovery rate methods. A secondary analysis was performed to determine differences in diagnoses leading to revision between RA and matched OA controls (2:1 match by sex age +/- 5 years). OA exclusion criteria included presence of rheumatic diseases, use of MTX, and lack of records. Results: 51 RA rTHA were identified and compared with 103 OA. Mean age for RA was 57.7 v 59.4 years for OA (p = 0.240). 82.4% RA were female v 83.5% OA (p = 0.859). RA had lower BMI than OA (25.5 v 28.2; p = 0.166). There was no difference in diagnosis leading to rTHA, including infection (RA 3.9 v OA 6.8%; p = 0.719) or dislocation (RA 23.5 v OA 23.3%; p = 0.975). There was no significant difference in the length of time the implant was in before revision: RA 11.0 v OA 8.8 years (p = 0.060). Among RA with/without MTX, there was no difference in use of biologics (30.0 v 43.3%, p = 0.283), steroids (47.6 v 50.0%, p = 0.867) or bisphosphonates (23.8 v 33.3%, p = 0.543). There was no difference in rTHA diagnosis with/without MTX, including loosening (52.4 v 56.7%, p = 0.762). There was no significant difference in lucencies with MTX use in any Gruen zone. Patients with MTX had femoral stem subsidence of 3.7mm v no subsidence without MTX (p = 0.006). Conclusion: There was no difference in the diagnosis leading to rTHR in RA and OA, although RA trended longer prior to rTHA. In this small retrospective study, there were no significant differences associated with MTX exposure or radiographic lucency among RA patients. The significance of subsidence is not clear. Further study of arthroplasty survival in RA patients is warranted.

Keywords: hip arthroplasty, methotrexate, revision arthroplasty, rheumatoid arthritis

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161 Hybrid versus Cemented Fixation in Total Knee Arthroplasty: Mid-Term Follow-Up

Authors: Pedro Gomes, Luís Sá Castelo, António Lopes, Marta Maio, Pedro Mota, Adélia Avelar, António Marques Dias


Introduction: Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) has contributed to improvement of patient`s quality of life, although it has been associated with some complications including component loosening and polyethylene wear. To prevent these complications various fixation techniques have been employed. Hybrid TKA with cemented tibial and cementless femoral components have shown favourable outcomes, although it still lack of consensus in the literature. Objectives: To evaluate the clinical and radiographic results of hybrid versus cemented TKA with an average 5 years follow-up and analyse the survival rates. Methods: A retrospective study of 125 TKAs performed in 92 patients at our institution, between 2006 to 2008, with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. The same prosthesis was used in all knees. Hybrid TKA fixation was performed in 96 knees, with a mean follow-up of 4,8±1,7 years (range, 2–8,3 years) and 29 TKAs received fully cemented fixation with a mean follow-up of 4,9±1,9 years (range, 2-8,3 years). Selection for hybrid fixation was nonrandomized and based on femoral component fit. The Oxford Knee Score (OKS 0-48) was evaluated for clinical assessment and Knee Society Roentgenographic Evaluation Scoring System was used for radiographic outcome. The survival rate was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, with failures defined as revision of either the tibial or femoral component for aseptic failures and all-causes (aseptic and infection). Analysis of survivorship data was performed using the log-rank test. SPSS (v22) was the computer program used for statistical analysis. Results: The hybrid group consisted of 72 females (75%) and 24 males (25%), with mean age 64±7 years (range, 50-78 years). The preoperative diagnosis was osteoarthritis (OA) in 94 knees (98%), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in 1 knee (1%) and Posttraumatic arthritis (PTA) in 1 Knee (1%). The fully cemented group consisted of 23 females (79%) and 6 males (21%), with mean age 65±7 years (range, 47-78 years). The preoperative diagnosis was OA in 27 knees (93%), PTA in 2 knees (7%). The Oxford Knee Scores were similar between the 2 groups (hybrid 40,3±2,8 versus cemented 40,2±3). The percentage of radiolucencies seen on the femoral side was slightly higher in the cemented group 20,7% than the hybrid group 11,5% p0.223. In the cemented group there were significantly more Zone 4 radiolucencies compared to the hybrid group (13,8% versus 2,1% p0,026). Revisions for all causes were performed in 4 of the 96 hybrid TKAs (4,2%) and 1 of the 29 cemented TKAs (3,5%). The reason for revision was aseptic loosening in 3 hybrid TKAs and 1 of the cemented TKAs. Revision was performed for infection in 1 hybrid TKA. The hybrid group demonstrated a 7 years survival rate of 93% for all-cause failures and 94% for aseptic loosening. No significant difference in survivorship was seen between the groups for all-cause failures or aseptic failures. Conclusions: Hybrid TKA yields similar intermediate-term results and survival rates as fully cemented total knee arthroplasty and remains a viable option in knee joint replacement surgery.

Keywords: hybrid, survival rate, total knee arthroplasty, orthopaedic surgery

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160 Dynamic Balance and Functional Performance in Total Hip Arthroplasty

Authors: Mahmoud Ghazy, Ahmed R. Z. Baghdadi


Background: With the perceived pain and poor function experienced following total hip Arthroplasty (THA), patients usually feel un-satisfied. Methods: Thirty patients with THA (group I) and thirty indicated for arthroplasty but weren’t operated on yet (group II) participated in the study. The mean age was 54.53±3.44 and 55.33±2.32 years and BMI 35.7±3.03 and 35.73±1.03 kg/m2 for group I and III respectively. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) and Stair-Climbing (SC) tests were used for assessment. Assessments were conducted four weeks pre- and post-operatively and three months post-operatively with the control group being assessed at the same time intervals. The post-operative rehabilitation involved hospitalization (1st week), home-based (2nd-4th weeks), and outpatient clinic (5th-12th weeks) programs. Results: group I had significantly lower TUG and SC time compared with group II four weeks and three months post-operatively. Moreover, the BBS scores increased significantly and the pain scores and TUG and SC time decreased significantly four weeks and three months post-operatively compared with four weeks pre- operatively in group. But no significant differences in BBS scores four weeks and three months post-operatively in group I compared with group II. Interpretation/Conclusion : Patients with THA still have defects in proprioception, so they needs more concentration on proprioception training.

Keywords: dynamic balance, functional performance, hip arthroplasty, total

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159 Gait Analysis in Total Knee Arthroplasty

Authors: Neeraj Vij, Christian Leber, Kenneth Schmidt


Introduction: Total knee arthroplasty is a common procedure. It is well known that the biomechanics of the knee do not fully return to their normal state. Motion analysis has been used to study the biomechanics of the knee after total knee arthroplasty. The purpose of this scoping review is to summarize the current use of gait analysis in total knee arthroplasty and to identify the preoperative motion analysis parameters for which a systematic review aimed at determining the reliability and validity may be warranted. Materials and Methods: This IRB-exempt scoping review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) checklist strictly. Five search engines were searched for a total of 279 articles. Articles underwent a title and abstract screening process followed by full-text screening. Included articles were placed in the following sections: the role of gait analysis as a research tool for operative decisions, other research applications for motion analysis in total knee arthroplasty, gait analysis as a tool in predicting radiologic outcomes, gait analysis as a tool in predicting clinical outcomes. Results: Eleven articles studied gait analysis as a research tool in studying operative decisions. Motion analysis is currently used to study surgical approaches, surgical techniques, and implant choice. Five articles studied other research applications for motion analysis in total knee arthroplasty. Other research applications for motion analysis currently include studying the role of the unicompartmental knee arthroplasty and novel physical therapy protocols aimed at optimizing post-operative care. Two articles studied motion analysis as a tool for predicting radiographic outcomes. Preoperative gait analysis has identified parameters than can predict postoperative tibial component migration. 15 articles studied motion analysis in conjunction with clinical scores. Conclusions: There is a broad range of applications within the research domain of total knee arthroplasty. The potential application is likely larger. However, the current literature is limited by vague definitions of ‘gait analysis’ or ‘motion analysis’ and a limited number of articles with preoperative and postoperative functional and clinical measures. Knee adduction moment, knee adduction impulse, total knee range of motion, varus angle, cadence, stride length, and velocity have the potential for integration into composite clinical scores. A systematic review aimed at determining the validity, reliability, sensitivities, and specificities of these variables is warranted.

Keywords: motion analysis, joint replacement, patient-reported outcomes, knee surgery

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158 Long-Term Follow-Up of Dynamic Balance, Pain and Functional Performance in Cruciate Retaining, Posterior Stabilized Total Knee Arthroplasty

Authors: Ahmed R. Z. Baghdadi,  Mona H. Gamal Eldein


Background: With the perceived pain and poor function experienced following knee arthroplasty, patients usually feel unsatisfied. Yet, a controversy still persists on the appropriate operative technique that doesn’t affect proprioception much. Purpose: This study compared the effects of Cruciate Retaining (CR) and Posterior Stabilized (PS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA on dynamic balance, pain and functional performance following rehabilitation. Methods: Thirty patients with CRTKA (group I), thirty with PSTKA (group II) and fifteen indicated for arthroplasty but weren’t operated on yet (group III) participated in the study. The mean age was 54.53±3.44, 55.13±3.48 and 55.33±2.32 years and BMI 35.7±3.03, 35.7±1.99 and 35.73±1.03 kg/m2 for group I, II, and III respectively. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS), WOMAC pain subscale and Timed-Up-and-Go (TUG) and Stair-Climbing (SC) tests were used for assessment. Assessments were conducted four weeks pre- and post-operatively, three, six and twelve months post-operatively with the control group being assessed at the same time intervals. The post-operative rehabilitation involved hospitalization (1st week), home-based (2nd-4th weeks), and outpatient clinic (5th-12th weeks) programs, follow-up to all groups for twelve months. Results: The Mixed design MANOVA revealed that group I had significantly lower pain scores and SC time compared with group II three, six and twelve months post-operatively. Moreover, the BBS scores increased significantly and the pain scores and TUG and SC time decreased significantly six months post-operatively compared with four weeks pre- and post-operatively and three months post-operatively in group I and II with the opposite being true four weeks post-operatively. But no significant differences in BBS scores, pain scores and TUG and SC time between six and twelve months post-operatively in group I and II. Interpretation/Conclusion: CRTKA is preferable to PSTKA, possibly due to the preserved human proprioceptors in the un-excised PCL.

Keywords: dynamic balance, functional performance, knee arthroplasty, long-term

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157 Computer Aided Shoulder Prosthesis Design and Manufacturing

Authors: Didem Venus Yildiz, Murat Hocaoglu, Murat Dursun, Taner Akkan


The shoulder joint is a more complex structure than the hip or knee joints. In addition to the overall complexity of the shoulder joint, two different factors influence the insufficient outcome of shoulder replacement: the shoulder prosthesis design is far from fully developed and it is difficult to place these shoulder prosthesis due to shoulder anatomy. The glenohumeral joint is the most complex joint of the human shoulder. There are various treatments for shoulder failures such as total shoulder arthroplasty, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Due to its reverse design than normal shoulder anatomy, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty has different physiological and biomechanical properties. Post-operative achievement of this arthroplasty is depend on improved design of reverse total shoulder prosthesis. Designation achievement can be increased by several biomechanical and computational analysis. In this study, data of human both shoulders with right side fracture was collected by 3D Computer Tomography (CT) machine in dicom format. This data transferred to 3D medical image processing software (Mimics Materilise, Leuven, Belgium) to reconstruct patient’s left and right shoulders’ bones geometry. Provided 3D geometry model of the fractured shoulder was used to constitute of reverse total shoulder prosthesis by 3-matic software. Finite element (FE) analysis was conducted for comparison of intact shoulder and prosthetic shoulder in terms of stress distribution and displacements. Body weight physiological reaction force of 800 N loads was applied. Resultant values of FE analysis was compared for both shoulders. The analysis of the performance of the reverse shoulder prosthesis could enhance the knowledge of the prosthetic design.

Keywords: reverse shoulder prosthesis, biomechanics, finite element analysis, 3D printing

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156 Efficacy of In-Situ Surgical vs. Needle Revision on Late Failed Trabeculectomy Blebs

Authors: Xie Xiaobin, Zhang Yan, Shi Yipeng, Sun Wenying, Chen Shuang, Cai Zhipeng, Zhang Hong, Zhang Lixia, Xie Like


Objective: The objective of this research is to compare the efficacy of the late in-situ surgical revision augmented with continuous infusion and needle revision on failed trabeculectomy blebs. Methods From December 2018 to December 2021, a prospective randomized controlled trial was performed on 44 glaucoma patients with failed bleb ≥ 6months with medically uncontrolled in Eye Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences. They were randomly divided into two groups. 22 eyes of 22 patients underwent the late in-situ surgical revision with continuous anterior chamber infusion in the study group, and 22 of 22 patients were treated with needle revision in the control group. Main outcome measures include preoperative and postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP), the number of anti-glaucoma medicines, the operation success rate, and the postoperative complications. Results The postoperative IOP values decreased significantly from the baseline in both groups (both P<0.05). IOP was significantly lower in the study group than in the control group at one week, 1, and 3 months postoperatively (all P<0.05). IOP reductions in the study group were substantially more prominent than in the control group at all postoperative time points (all P<0.05). The complete success rate in the study group was significantly higher than in the control group (71.4% vs. 33.3%, P<0.05), while the complete failure rate was significantly lower in the study group (0% vs. 28.5%, P<0.05). According to Cox’s proportional hazards regression analysis, high IOP at baseline was independently associated with increased risks of complete failure (adjusted hazard ratio=1.141, 95% confidence interval=1.021-1.276, P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of postoperative complications between the two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Both in-situ surgical and needle revision have acceptable success rates and safety for the late failed trabeculectomy blebs, while the former is likely to have a higher level of efficacy over the latter. Needle revision may be insufficient for eyes with low target IOP.

Keywords: glaucoma, trabeculectomy blebs, in-situ surgical revision, needle revision

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155 Morphometric Study of Human Anterior and Posterior Meniscofemoral Ligaments of the Knee Joint on Thiel Embalmed Cadavers

Authors: Mohammad Alobaidy, David Nicoll, Tracey Wilkinson


Background: Many patients suffer postoperative knee stability after total knee arthroplasty (joint replacement) involving posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) sacrificing or retaining, but is not clear whether the meniscofemoral ligaments (MFLs) are retained during these procedures; their function in terms of knee stability is not well established in the literature. Purpose: Macroscopic, detailed, morphometric investigation of the anterior and posterior MFLs of the knee joint was undertaken to assist understanding of knee stability after total knee arthroplasty and ligament reconstruction. Methods: Dissection of eighty Thiel embalmed knees from 19 male and 21 female cadavers was conducted, mean age 77 (range 47-99 years). The origin and insertion of the anterior and posterior MFLs were measured using high accuracy, calibrated, digital Vernier calipers at 0.01mm. Results: The means were: anterior meniscofemoral ligament (aMFL) length 28.4 ± 2.7mm; posterior meniscofemoral ligament (pMFL) length 29 ± 3.7mm; aMFL femoral width 6.4 ± 1.7mm, mid-distance ligament width 4 ± 1.1mm, meniscal ligament width 3.9 ± 1.2mm; pMFL femoral width 5.6 ± 1.5mm, mid-distance ligament width 4.1 ± 1.1mm, meniscal ligament width 4.1 ± 1.3mm. Some of the male measurements were larger than female, with significant differences in the length of the aMFL femoral length p<0.01 and pMFL femoral length p<0.007, and width of the pMFL mid-distance p<0.04. Conclusion: This study may help explore the role of the meniscofemoral ligaments in knee stability after total knee arthroplasty with a posterior cruciate ligament retaining prosthesis. Anatomical information for Thiel embalmed knees may aid orthopaedic surgeons in ligament reconstruction.

Keywords: anterior and posterior meniscofemoral ligaments, morphometric analysis, Thiel embalmed knees, knee arthroplasty

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154 Impact of Preoperative Physiotherapy Care in Total Hip Arthroplasty in Slovakia and Austria

Authors: Peter Kutis, Vladimir Littva


Nowadays, it is necessary to ensure that this reduction in costs is not at the expense of the quality of health care and future medical success. In general, physiotherapy for total hip joint arthroplasty is considered to be a routine matter that deals mainly with mobility training, increased muscular strength, and basic day-to-day activities such as bed-to-chair transition, standing, and walking. Within the KEGA project no. 003KU-4-2021, we decided to investigate preoperative physiotherapy care in Slovakia and Austria in total hip arthroplasty patients to shortened overall recovery. Research Sample and Methods: The sample comprised 498 respondents –patients who were indicated to total hip arthroplasty on the territory of Slovakia and Austria. There were 130 women in Slovakia and 135 women in Austria. The numbers of men were 120 in Slovakia and 113 men in Austria. The age of respondents was between 40 and 85 years of age. As a method of our research, we chose a non-standardized questionnaire, which consisted of three parts. The first part for the initial examination of the patient contained the identification of the patient according to the assigned number and subsequently 19 questions conditioned by the physical examination and evaluation of the patients. The second part of our questionnaire was completed after the patient's hospitalization and contained 10 questions that were conditioned by the patient's examination. The last third part for the overall assessment of the patient's state of health consisted of 12 questions conditioned by the patient's examination. This part was performed at the last meeting with the patient at the end of the treatment. All data were statistically processed by SPSS 25. Results: All data were evaluated at a significance level of p = 0.05. From the comparison of patients who underwent preoperative preparation, we can clearly state that the total duration of treatment is significantly shorter. A t-test of two mean values with uneven variance was used to verify the validity of the assumption. The total duration of treatment in patients with preoperative preparation was on average 92,635 days and without preoperative preparation was on average 135,884 days (t-Stat = 44,52784, t Critical one-tail = 1,648187415, t Critical two-tail = 1,965157). Conclusion: The results obtained during the research show the importance of adequate preoperative physiotherapeutic preparation of the patient. The results of total hip joint arthroplasty studies showed a significant reduction in a hospital stay as well as shortened total treatment time.

Keywords: THA, physiotherapy, recovery, preoperative physiotherapy care

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153 Ultrasonography of Low Extremities Veins Before and After Replacement of Knee Joint by Endoprosthesis

Authors: A. V. Alabut, V. D. Sikilinda, N. J. Nelasov, O. L. Eroshenko, M. N. Morgunov, I. V. Koroleva


We have analyzed the results of treatment of 204 patients with knee prosthetic arthroplasty. For the purpose of active delineation of vascular pathology triplex sonography of arterial and venous vessels of low extremities was performed in all cases in the preoperative period. When it was necessary, reconstructive vascular surgery was implemented to improve peripheral circulation and reduce the hazard of thrombosis after knee replacement. The combination of specific and nonspecific methods of thromboprophylaxis was used in perioperative period. On 7-10 day and 2.5-3 month after prosthetic arthroplasty, all patients iteratively underwent triple sonography. In case of detection of floating thrombus, urgent venous ligation was performed. Active diagnostics of venous thrombosis gave the opportunity to avoid fatal pulmonary embolism.

Keywords: knee replacement, venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, vascular surgery

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152 The Effects of Inferior Tilt Fixation on a Glenoid Components in Reverse Shoulder-Arthroplasty

Authors: Soo Min Kim, Soo-Won Chae, Soung-Yon Kim, Haea Lee, Ju Yong Kang, Juneyong Lee, Seung-Ho Han


Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) has become an effective treatment option for cuff tear arthropathy and massive, irreparable rotator cuff tears and indications for its use are expanding. Numerous methods for optimal fixation of the glenoid component have been suggested, such as inferior overhang, inferior tilt, to maximize initial fixation and prevent glenoid component loosening. The inferior tilt fixation of a glenoid component has been suggested, which is expected to decrease scapular notching and to improve the stability of a glenoid component fixation in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Inferior tilt fixation of the glenoid component has been suggested, which can improve stability and, because it provides the most uniform compressive forces and imparts the least amount of tensile forces and micromotion, reduce the likelihood of mechanical failure. Another study reported that glenoid component inferior tilt improved impingement-free range of motion as well as minimized the scapular notching. Several authors have shown that inferior tilt of a glenoid component reduces scapular notching. However, controversy still exists regarding its importance in the literature. In this study the influence of inferior tilt fixation on the primary stability of a glenoid component has been investigated. Finite element models were constructed from cadaveric scapulae and glenoid components were implanted with neutral and 10° inferior tilts. Most previous biomechanical studies regarding the effect of glenoid component inferior tilt used a solid rigid polyurethane foam or sawbones block, not cadaveric scapulae, to evaluate the stability of the RTSA. Relative micromotions at the bone-glenoid component interface, and the distribution of bone stresses under the glenoid component and around the screws were analyzed and compared between neutral and 10° inferior tilt groups. Contact area between bone and screws and cut surface area of the cancellous bone exposed after reaming of the glenoid have also been investigated because of the fact that cancellous and cortical bone thickness vary depending on the resection level of the inferior glenoid bone. The greater relative micromotion of the bone-glenoid component interface occurred in the 10° inferior tilt group than in the neutral tilt group, especially at the inferior area of the bone-glenoid component interface. Bone stresses under the glenoid component and around the screws were also higher in the 10° inferior tilt group than in the neutral tilt group, especially at the inferior third of the glenoid bone surface under the glenoid component and inferior scapula. Thus inferior tilt fixation of the glenoid component may adversely affect the primary stability and longevity of the reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.

Keywords: finite element analysis, glenoid component, inferior tilt, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty

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151 Malposition of Femoral Component in Total Hip Arthroplasty

Authors: Renate Krassnig, Gloria M. Hohenberger, Uldis Berzins, Stefen Fischerauer


Background: Only a few reports discuss the effectiveness of intraoperative radiographs for placing femoral components. Therefore there is no international standard in using intraoperative imaging in the proceeding of total hip replacement. Method: Case report; an 84-year-old female patient underwent changing the components of the Total hip arthroplasty (THA) because of aseptic loosening. Due to circumstances, the surgeon decided to implant a cemented femoral component. The procedure was without any significant abnormalities. The first postoperative radiograph was planned after recovery – as usual. The x-ray imaging showed a misplaced femoral component. Therefore a CT-scan was performed additionally and the malposition of the cemented femoral component was confirmed. The patient had to undergo another surgery – removing of the cemented femoral component and implantation of a new well placed one. Conclusion: Intraoperative imaging of the femoral component is not a common standard but this case shows that intraoperative imaging is a useful method for detecting errors and gives the surgeon the opportunity to correct errors intraoperatively.

Keywords: femoral component, intraoperative imaging, malplacement, revison

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150 A Next-Generation Pin-On-Plate Tribometer for Use in Arthroplasty Material Performance Research

Authors: Lewis J. Woollin, Robert I. Davidson, Paul Watson, Philip J. Hyde


Introduction: In-vitro testing of arthroplasty materials is of paramount importance when ensuring that they can withstand the performance requirements encountered in-vivo. One common machine used for in-vitro testing is a pin-on-plate tribometer, an early stage screening device that generates data on the wear characteristics of arthroplasty bearing materials. These devices test vertically loaded rotating cylindrical pins acting against reciprocating plates, representing the bearing surfaces. In this study, a pin-on-plate machine has been developed that provides several improvements over current technology, thereby progressing arthroplasty bearing research. Historically, pin-on-plate tribometers have been used to investigate the performance of arthroplasty bearing materials under conditions commonly encountered during a standard gait cycle; nominal operating pressures of 2-6 MPa and an operating frequency of 1 Hz are typical. There has been increased interest in using pin-on-plate machines to test more representative in-vivo conditions, due to the drive to test 'beyond compliance', as well as their testing speed and economic advantages over hip simulators. Current pin-on-plate machines do not accommodate the increased performance requirements associated with more extreme kinematic conditions, therefore a next-generation pin-on-plate tribometer has been developed to bridge the gap between current technology and future research requirements. Methodology: The design was driven by several physiologically relevant requirements. Firstly, an increased loading capacity was essential to replicate the peak pressures that occur in the natural hip joint during running and chair-rising, as well as increasing the understanding of wear rates in obese patients. Secondly, the introduction of mid-cycle load variation was of paramount importance, as this allows for an approximation of the loads present in a gait cycle to be applied and to test the fatigue properties of materials. Finally, the rig must be validated against previous-generation pin-on-plate and arthroplasty wear data. Results: The resulting machine is a twelve station device that is split into three sets of four stations, providing an increased testing capacity compared to most current pin-on-plate tribometers. The loading of the pins is generated using a pneumatic system, which can produce contact pressures of up to 201 MPa on a 3.2 mm² round pin face. This greatly exceeds currently achievable contact pressures in literature and opens new research avenues such as testing rim wear of mal-positioned hip implants. Additionally, the contact pressure of each set can be changed independently of the others, allowing multiple loading conditions to be tested simultaneously. Using pneumatics also allows the applied pressure to be switched ON/OFF mid-cycle, another feature not currently reported elsewhere, which allows for investigation into intermittent loading and material fatigue. The device is currently undergoing a series of validation tests using Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight-Polyethylene pins and 316L Stainless Steel Plates (polished to a Ra < 0.05 µm). The operating pressures will be between 2-6 MPa, operating at 1 Hz, allowing for validation of the machine against results reported previously in the literature. The successful production of this next-generation pin-on-plate tribometer will, following its validation, unlock multiple previously unavailable research avenues.

Keywords: arthroplasty, mechanical design, pin-on-plate, total joint replacement, wear testing

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149 Total Knee Arthroplasty in a Haemophilia: A Patient with High Titre of Inhibitor Using Recombinant Factor VIIa

Authors: Mohammad J. Mortazavi, Arvin Najafi, Pejman Mansouri


Hemophilia A is simply described as deficiency of factor VIII(FVIII) and patients with this disorder have bleeding complications in different organs. By using the recombinant factor VIII in these patients, elective orthopedic surgeries have been done approximately in 40 last years. About 10-30 % of these patients have bleeding complications in their surgeries even by using recombinant factor VIII because of their inhibitor against FVIII molecule. Preoperative haemostatic management in these patients is challenging. We treated a 28-year-old male patient with hemophilia A with FVIII inhibitor which had been detected when he was14 years old (with the titer 54 Bethesda unit(BU)) scheduled for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We use 90 µg/kg rFVIIa just before the surgery and every 2 hours during surgery. The patient did not have any significant hemorrhage during the surgery and after that. For the 2 days after surgery, the rFVIIa repeated every 2 hours as the same as preoperative dosage(90 µg/kg) and for another 2 days of postoperative admission it continued every 4 hours. After 4th day, the rFVIIa continued every 6 hours with the same dosage until the sixth day from the surgery, and finally the patient were discharged about two weeks after surgery. Seven days after the discharge, he came back for the follow up visit. On the follow up examination, the site of the surgery had neither infection hemarthroses signs.

Keywords: hemophilia, factor VIII inhibitor, total knee replacement, rFVIIa

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148 An Historical Revision of Change and Configuration Management Process

Authors: Expedito Pinto De Paula Junior


Current systems such as artificial satellites, airplanes, automobiles, turbines, power systems and air traffic controls are becoming increasingly more complex and/or highly integrated as defined in SAE-ARP-4754A (Society Automotive Engineering - Certification considerations for highly-integrated or complex aircraft systems standard). Among other processes, the development of such systems requires careful Change and Configuration Management (CCM) to establish and maintain product integrity. Understand the maturity of CCM process based in historical approach is crucial for better implementation in hardware and software lifecycle. The sense of work organization, in all fields of development is directly related to the order and interrelation of the parties, changes in time, and record of these changes. Generally, is observed that engineers, administrators and managers invest more time in technical activities than in organization of work. More these professionals are focused in solving complex problems with a purely technical bias. CCM process is fundamental for development, production and operation of new products specially in the safety critical systems. The objective of this paper is open a discussion about the historical revision based in standards focus of CCM around the world in order to understand and reflect the importance across the years, the contribution of this process for technology evolution, to understand the mature of organizations in the system lifecycle project and the benefits of CCM to avoid errors and mistakes during the Lifecycle Product.

Keywords: changes, configuration management, historical, revision

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147 Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Use of COBLATION™ Knee Chondroplasty versus Mechanical Debridement in German Patients

Authors: Ayoade Adeyemi, Leo Nherera, Paul Trueman, Antje Emmermann


Background and objectives: Radiofrequency (RF) generated plasma chondroplasty is considered a promising treatment alternative to mechanical debridement (MD) with a shaver. The aim of the study was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing costs and outcomes following COBLATION chondroplasty versus mechanical debridement in patients with knee pain associated with a medial meniscus tear and idiopathic ICRS grade III focal lesion of the medial femoral condyle from a payer perspective. Methods: A decision-analytic model was developed comparing economic and clinical outcomes between the two treatment options in German patients following knee chondroplasty. Revision rates based on the frequency of repeat arthroscopy, osteotomy and conversion to total knee replacement, reimbursement costs and outcomes data over a 4-year time horizon were extracted from published literature. One-way sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess uncertainties around model parameters. Threshold analysis determined the revision rate at which model results change. All costs were reported in 2016 euros, future costs were discounted at a 3% annual rate. Results: Over a 4 year period, COBLATION chondroplasty resulted in an overall net saving cost of €461 due to a lower revision rate of 14% compared to 48% with MD. Threshold analysis showed that both options were associated with comparable costs if COBLATION revision rate was assumed to increase up to 23%. The initial procedure costs for COBLATION were higher compared to MD and outcome scores were significantly improved at 1 and 4 years post-operation versus MD. Conclusion: The analysis shows that COBLATION chondroplasty is a cost-effective option compared to mechanical debridement in the treatment of patients with a medial meniscus tear and idiopathic ICRS grade III defect of the medial femoral condyle.

Keywords: COBLATION, cost-effectiveness, knee chondroplasty, mechanical debridement

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146 International Classification of Primary Care as a Reference for Coding the Demand for Care in Primary Health Care

Authors: Souhir Chelly, Chahida Harizi, Aicha Hechaichi, Sihem Aissaoui, Leila Ben Ayed, Maha Bergaoui, Mohamed Kouni Chahed


Introduction: The International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) is part of the morbidity classification system. It had 17 chapters, and each is coded by an alphanumeric code: the letter corresponds to the chapter, the number to a paragraph in the chapter. The objective of this study is to show the utility of this classification in the coding of the reasons for demand for care in Primary health care (PHC), its advantages and limits. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in 4 PHC in Ariana district. Data on the demand for care during 2 days in the same week were collected. The coding of the information was done according to the CISP. The data was entered and analyzed by the EPI Info 7 software. Results: A total of 523 demands for care were investigated. The patients who came for the consultation are predominantly female (62.72%). Most of the consultants are young with an average age of 35 ± 26 years. In the ICPC, there are 7 rubrics: 'infections' is the most common reason with 49.9%, 'other diagnoses' with 40.2%, 'symptoms and complaints' with 5.5%, 'trauma' with 2.1%, 'procedures' with 2.1% and 'neoplasm' with 0.3%. The main advantage of the ICPC is the fact of being a standardized tool. It is very suitable for classification of the reasons for demand for care in PHC according to their specificity, capacity to be used in a computerized medical file of the PHC. Its current limitations are related to the difficulty of classification of some reasons for demand for care. Conclusion: The ICPC has been developed to provide healthcare with a coding reference that takes into account their specificity. The CIM is in its 10th revision; it would gain from revision to revision to be more efficient to be generalized and used by the teams of PHC.

Keywords: international classification of primary care, medical file, primary health care, Tunisia

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
145 Surgical Prep-Related Burns in Laterally Positioned Hip Procedures

Authors: B. Kenny, M. Dixon, A. Boshell


The use of alcoholic surgical prep was recently introduced into the Royal Newcastle Center for elective procedures. In the past 3 months there have been a significant number of burns believed to be related to ‘pooling’ of this surgical prep in patients undergoing procedures where they are placed in the lateral position with hip bolsters. The aim of the audit was to determine the reason for the burns, analyze what pre-existing factors may contribute to the development of the burns and what can be changed to prevent further burns occurring. All patients undergoing a procedure performed on the hip who were placed in the lateral position with sacral and anterior, superior iliac spine (ASIS) support with ‘bolsters’ were included in the audit. Patients who developed a ‘burn’ were recorded, details of the surgery, demographics, surgical prep used and length of surgery were obtained as well as photographs taken to document the burn. Measures were then taken to prevent further burns and the efficacy was documented. Overall 14 patients developed burns over the ipsilateral ASIS. Of these, 13 were Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) and 1 was a removal of femoral nail. All patients had Chlorhexidine 0.5% in Alcohol 70% Tinted Red surgical preparation or Betadine Alcoholic Skin Prep (70% etoh). Patients were set up in the standard lateral decubitus position with sacral and bilateral ASIS bolsters with a valband covering. 86% of patients were found to have pre-existing hypersensitivities to various substances. There is very little literature besides a few case reports on surgical prep-related burns. The case reports that do exist are related to the use of tourniquet-related burns and there is no mention in the literature examining ‘bolster’ related burns. The burns are hypothesized to be caused by pooling of the alcoholic solution which is amplified by the use of Valband.

Keywords: arthroplasty, chemical burns, wounds, rehabilitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
144 Plantar Neuro-Receptor Activation in Total Knee Arthroplasty Patients: Impact on Clinical Function, Pain, and Stiffness - A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Woolfrey K, Woolfrey M, Bolton CL, Warchuk D


Objectives: Osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease of adults worldwide. Despite total knee arthroplasty (TKA) demonstrating high levels of success, 20% of patients report dissatisfaction with their result. VOXX Wellness Stasis Socks are embedded with a proprietary pattern of neuro-receptor activation points that have been proven to activate a precise neuro-response, according to the pattern theory of haptic perception, which stimulates improvements in pain and function. The use of this technology in TKA patients may prove beneficial as an adjunct to recovery as many patients suffer from deficits to their proprioceptive system caused by ligamentous damage and alterations to mechanoreceptors during the procedure. We hypothesized that VOXX Wellness Stasis Socks are a safe, cost-effective, and easily scalable strategy to support TKA patients through their recovery. Design: Double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized trial. Participants: Patients scheduled to receive TKA were considered eligible for inclusion in the trial. Interventions: Intervention group (I): VOXX Wellness Stasis socks containing receptor point-activation technology. Control group (C): VOXX Wellness Stasis socks without receptor point-activation technology. Sock use during the waking hours x 6 weeks. Main Outcome Measures: Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire completed at baseline, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks to assess pain, stiffness, and physical function. Results: Data analysis using SPSS software. P-values, effect sizes, and confidence intervals are reported to assess clinical relevance of the finding. Physical status classifications were compared using t-test. Within-subject and between-subject differences in the mean WOMAC were analyzed by ANOVA. Effect size was analyzed using Cramer’s V. Consistent improvement in WOMAC scores for pain and stiffness at 2 weeks post op in the I over the C group. The womac scores assessing physical function showed a consistent improvement at both 2 and 6 weeks post op in the I group compared to C group. Conclusions: VOXX proved to be a low cost, safe intervention in TKA to help patients improve with regard to pain, stiffness, and physical function. Disclosures: None

Keywords: osteoarthritis, RCT, pain management, total knee arthroplasty

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143 A Comparison and Discussion of Modern Anaesthetic Techniques in Elective Lower Limb Arthroplasties

Authors: P. T. Collett, M. Kershaw


Introduction: The discussion regarding which method of anesthesia provides better results for lower limb arthroplasty is a continuing debate. Multiple meta-analysis has been performed with no clear consensus. The current recommendation is to use neuraxial anesthesia for lower limb arthroplasty; however, the evidence to support this decision is weak. The Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) society has recommended, either technique can be used as part of a multimodal anesthetic regimen. A local study was performed to see if the current anesthetic practice correlates with the current recommendations and to evaluate the efficacy of the different techniques utilized. Method: 90 patients who underwent total hip or total knee replacements at Nevill Hall Hospital between February 2019 to July 2019 were reviewed. Data collected included the anesthetic technique, day one opiate use, pain score, and length of stay. The data was collected from anesthetic charts, and the pain team follows up forms. Analysis: The average of patients undergoing lower limb arthroplasty was 70. Of those 83% (n=75) received a spinal anaesthetic and 17% (n=15) received a general anaesthetic. For patients undergoing knee replacement under general anesthetic the average day, one pain score was 2.29 and 1.94 if a spinal anesthetic was performed. For hip replacements, the scores were 1.87 and 1.8, respectively. There was no statistical significance between these scores. Day 1 opiate usage was significantly higher in knee replacement patients who were given a general anesthetic (45.7mg IV morphine equivalent) vs. those who were operated on under spinal anesthetic (19.7mg). This difference was not noticeable in hip replacement patients. There was no significant difference in length of stay between the two anesthetic techniques. Discussion: There was no significant difference in the day one pain score between the patients who received a general or spinal anesthetic for either knee or hip replacements. The higher pain scores in the knee replacement group overall are consistent with this being a more painful procedure. This is a small patient population, which means any difference between the two groups is unlikely to be representative of a larger population. The pain scale has 4 points, which means it is difficult to identify a significant difference between pain scores. Conclusion: There is currently little standardization between the different anesthetic approaches utilized in Nevill Hall Hospital. This is likely due to the lack of adherence to a standardized anesthetic regimen. In accordance with ERAS recommends a standard anesthetic protocol is a core component. The results of this study and the guidance from the ERAS society will support the implementation of a new health board wide ERAS protocol.

Keywords: anaesthesia, orthopaedics, intensive care, patient centered decision making, treatment escalation

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
142 Comparison of the Proprioception Sense and Standing Balance in Patients with Osteoarthritis Before and After Total Knee Arthroplasty Surgery

Authors: S. Daneshi, G. Shahcheraghi, F. Ghaffarinejad


Back ground: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis, affecting millions of people around the world during the aging process. Knee joint proprioception sense decrease with OA and Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) surgery may affect them. We investigated two parameters of proprioception sense (the joint position sense and kinesthesia) and standing balance in affected limbs before and after TKA, in patient with Knee OA. Methods and Materials: In this Analytic study, 10 patients who were candidate for TKA during two months in Dena Hospital of Shiraz, selected for further analysis. All of cases were female in range of 55-70 years old. Participants assessed before and two weeks after TKA using three instruments: electrogoniometer and continuous passive motion (CPM) to assess Knee joint position sense and kinesthesia in 20 and 45 degrees; and chronometer to assess duration of standing balance on affected leg with open and closed eyes. Results: To examine differences between before and after of TKA scorings Willcoxon Signed Rank and Mann-Whitney was performed which indicated no significant differences between knee joint position sense and kinesthesia in 20 and 45 degrees (P>0.05) and no significant differences between Standing Balance in a patient with knee OA before and after TKA (P>0.05). Conclusion: The study indicates that, OA can affect proprioception sense and standing balance but TKA doesn’t have any effect on these parameters. Intra articular structures such as cruciate ligaments and mines are responsible for proprioception sense in normal knee joint. Since in severe knee OA the number of mechanoreceptors in these intra articular structures decrease and their function reduce more than normal knee joint, so the anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) become defected, thus after TKA surgery which this ligament is removed no significant change was found in proprioception sense. As a result of involving proprioception sense, muscles strength and the function of vestibular system in balance, standing balance did not show significant difference before and after TKA.

Keywords: knee joint, proprioception sense, standing balance, rehabilitation sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
141 An Intelligent Steerable Drill System for Orthopedic Surgery

Authors: Wei Yao


A steerable and flexible drill is needed in orthopaedic surgery. For example, osteoarthritis is a common condition affecting millions of people for which joint replacement is an effective treatment which improves the quality and duration of life in elderly sufferers. Conventional surgery is not very accurate. Computer navigation and robotics can help increase the accuracy. For example, In Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA), robotic surgery is currently practiced mainly on acetabular side helping cup positioning and orientation. However, femoral stem positioning mostly uses hand-rasping method rather than robots for accurate positioning. The other case for using a flexible drill in surgery is Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Reconstruction. The majority of ACL Reconstruction failures are primarily caused by technical mistakes and surgical errors resulting from drilling the anatomical bone tunnels required to accommodate the ligament graft. The proposed new steerable drill system will perform orthopedic surgery through curved tunneling leading to better accuracy and patient outcomes. It may reduce intra-operative fractures, dislocations, early failure and leg length discrepancy by making possible a new level of precision. This technology is based on a robotically assisted, steerable, hand-held flexible drill, with a drill-tip tracking device and a multi-modality navigation system. The critical differentiator is that this robotically assisted surgical technology now allows the surgeon to prepare 'patient specific' and more anatomically correct 'curved' bone tunnels during orthopedic surgery rather than drilling straight holes as occurs currently with existing surgical tools. The flexible and steerable drill and its navigation system for femoral milling in total hip arthroplasty had been tested on sawbones to evaluate the accuracy of the positioning and orientation of femoral stem relative to the pre-operative plan. The data show the accuracy of the navigation system is better than traditional hand-rasping method.

Keywords: navigation, robotic orthopedic surgery, steerable drill, tracking

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
140 Cartilage Mimicking Coatings to Increase the Life-Span of Bearing Surfaces in Joint Prosthesis

Authors: L. Sánchez-Abella, I. Loinaz, H-J. Grande, D. Dupin


Aseptic loosening remains as the principal cause of revision in total hip arthroplasty (THA). For long-term implantations, submicron particles are generated in vivo due to the inherent wear of the prosthesis. When this occurs, macrophages undergo phagocytosis and secretion of bone resorptive cytokines inducing osteolysis, hence loosening of the implanted prosthesis. Therefore, new technologies are required to reduce the wear of the bearing materials and hence increase the life-span of the prosthesis. Our strategy focuses on surface modification of the bearing materials with a hydrophilic coating based on cross-linked water-soluble (meth)acrylic monomers to improve their tribological behavior. These coatings are biocompatible, with high swelling capacity and antifouling properties, mimicking the properties of natural cartilage, i.e. wear resistance with a permanent hydrated layer that prevents prosthesis damage. Cartilage mimicking based coatings may be also used to protect medical device surfaces from damage and scratches that will compromise their integrity and hence their safety. However, there are only a few reports on the mechanical and tribological characteristics of this type of coatings. Clear beneficial advantages of this coating have been demonstrated in different conditions and different materials, such as Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), Polyethylene (XLPE), Carbon-fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK), cobalt-chromium (CoCr), Stainless steel, Zirconia Toughened Alumina (ZTA) and Alumina. Using routine tribological experiments, the wear for UHMWPE substrate was decreased by 75% against alumina, ZTA and stainless steel. For PEEK-CFR substrate coated, the amount of material lost against ZTA and CrCo was at least 40% lower. Experiments on hip simulator allowed coated ZTA femoral heads and coated UHMWPE cups to be validated with a decrease of 80% of loss material. Further experiments on hip simulator adding abrasive particles (1 micron sized alumina particles) during 3 million cycles, on a total of 6 million, demonstrated a decreased of around 55% of wear compared to uncoated UHMWPE and uncoated XLPE. In conclusion, CIDETEC‘s hydrogel coating technology is versatile and can be adapted to protect a large range of surfaces, even in abrasive conditions.

Keywords: cartilage, hydrogel, hydrophilic coating, joint

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
139 Vancomycin Resistance Enterococcus and Implications to Trauma and Orthopaedic Care

Authors: O. Davies, K. Veravalli, P. Panwalkar, M. Tofighi, P. Butterick, B. Healy, A. Mofidi


Vancomycin resistant enterococcus infection is a condition that usually impacts ICUs, transplant, dialysis, and cancer units, often as a nosocomial infection. After an outbreak in the acute trauma and orthopaedic unit in Morriston hospital, we aimed to access the conditions that predispose VRE infections in our unit. Thirteen cases of VRE infection and five cases of VRE colonisations were identified in patients who were treated for orthopaedic care between 1/1/2020 and 1/11/2021. Cases were reviewed to identify predisposing factors, specifically looking at age, presenting condition and treatment, presence of infection and antibiotic care, active haemo-oncological condition, long term renal dialysis, previous hospitalisation, VRE predisposition, and clearance (PREVENT) scores, and outcome of care. The presenting condition, treatment, presence of postoperative infection, VRE scores, age was compared between colonised and the infected cohort. VRE type in both colonised and infection group was Enterococcus Faecium in all but one patient. The colonised group had the same age (T=0.6 P>0.05) and sex (2=0.115, p=0.74), presenting condition and treatment which consisted of peri-femoral fixation or arthroplasty in all patients. The infected group had one case of myelodysplasia and four cases of chronic renal failure requiring dialysis. All of the infected patient had sustained an infected complication of their fracture fixation or arthroplasty requiring reoperation and antibiotics. The infected group had an average VRE predisposition score of 8.5 versus the score of 3 in the colonised group (F=36, p<0.001). PREVENT score was 7 in the infected group and 2 in the colonised group(F=153, p<0.001). Six patients(55%) succumbed to their infection, and one VRE infection resulted in limb loss. In the orthopaedic cohort, VRE infection is a nosocomial condition that has peri-femoral predilection and is seen in association with immunosuppression or renal failure. The VRE infection cohort has been treated for infective complication of original surgery weeks prior to VRE infection. Based on our findings, we advise avoidance of infective complications, change of practice in use of antibiotics and use radical surgery and surveillance for VRE infections beyond infective precautions. PREVENT score shows that the infected group are unlikely to clear their VRE in the future but not the colonised group.

Keywords: surgical site infection, enterococcus, orthopaedic surgery, vancomycin resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
138 The Use of Online Multimedia Platforms to Deliver a Regional Medical Schools Finals Revision Course During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Matthew Edmunds, Andrew Hunter, Clare Littlewood, Wisha Gul, Gabriel Heppenstall-Harris, Thomas Humphries


Background: Revision courses for medical students undertaking their final examinations are commonplace throughout the UK. Traditionally these take the form of a series of lectures over multiple weeks or a single day of intensive lectures. The COVID-19 pandemic, however, has required medical educators to create new teaching formats to ensure they adhere to social distancing requirements. It has provided an unexpected opportunity to accelerate the development of students proficiency in the use of ‘technology-enabled communication platforms’, as mandated in the 2018 GMC Outcomes of Graduates. Recent advances in technology have made distance learning possible, whilst also providing novel and more engaging learning opportunities for students. Foundation Year 2 doctors at Aintree University Hospital developed an online series of videos to help prepare medical students in the North West and byond for their final medical school examinations. Method: Eight hour-long videos covering the key topics in medicine and surgery were posted on the Peer Learning Liverpool Youtube channel. These videos were created using new technology such as the screen and audio recording platform, Loom. Each video compromised at least 20 single best answer (SBA) questions, in keeping with the format in most medical school finals. Explanations of the answers were provided, and additional important material was covered. Students were able to ask questions by commenting on the videos, with the authors replying as soon as possible. Feedback was collated using an online Google form. Results: An average of 327 people viewed each video, with 113 students filling in the feedback form. 65.5% of respondents were within one month of their final medical school examinations. The average rating for how well prepared the students felt for their finals was 6.21/10 prior to the course and 8.01/10 after the course. A paired t-test demonstrated a mean increase of 1.80 (95% CI 1.66-1.93). Overall, 98.2% said the online format worked well or very well, and 99.1% would recommend the course to a peer. Conclusions: Based on the feedback received, the online revision course was successful both in terms of preparing students for their final examinations, and with regards to how well the online format worked. Free-text qualitative feedback highlighted advantages such as; students could learn at their own pace, revisit key concepts important to them, and practice exam style questions via the case-based format. Limitations identified included inconsistent audiovisual quality, and requests for a live online Q&A session following the conclusion of the course. This course will be relaunched later in the year with increased opportunities for students to access live feedback. The success of this online course has shown the roll that technology can play in medical education. As well as providing novel teaching modes, online learning allows students to access resources that otherwise would not be available locally, and ensure that they do not miss out on teaching that was previously provided face to face, in the current climate of social distancing.

Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, Medical School, Online learning, Revision course

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
137 Determination of the Pull-Out/ Holding Strength at the Taper-Trunnion Junction of Hip Implants

Authors: Obinna K. Ihesiulor, Krishna Shankar, Paul Smith, Alan Fien


Excessive fretting wear at the taper-trunnion junction (trunnionosis) apparently contributes to the high failure rates of hip implants. Implant wear and corrosion lead to the release of metal particulate debris and subsequent release of metal ions at the taper-trunnion surface. This results in a type of metal poisoning referred to as metallosis. The consequences of metal poisoning include; osteolysis (bone loss), osteoarthritis (pain), aseptic loosening of the prosthesis and revision surgery. Follow up after revision surgery, metal debris particles are commonly found in numerous locations. Background: A stable connection between the femoral ball head (taper) and stem (trunnion) is necessary to prevent relative motions and corrosion at the taper junction. Hence, the importance of component assembly cannot be over-emphasized. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the influence of head-stem junction assembly by press fitting and the subsequent disengagement/disassembly on the connection strength between the taper ball head and stem. Methods: CoCr femoral heads were assembled with High stainless hydrogen steel stem (trunnion) by Push-in i.e. press fit; and disengaged by Pull-out test. The strength and stability of the two connections were evaluated by measuring the head pull-out forces according to ISO 7206-10 standards. Findings: The head-stem junction strength linearly increases with assembly forces.

Keywords: wear, modular hip prosthesis, taper head-stem, force assembly and disassembly

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
136 An Observation Approach of Reading Order for Single Column and Two Column Layout Template

Authors: In-Tsang Lin, Chiching Wei


Reading order is an important task in many digitization scenarios involving the preservation of the logical structure of a document. From the paper survey, it finds that the state-of-the-art algorithm could not fulfill to get the accurate reading order in the portable document format (PDF) files with rich formats, diverse layout arrangement. In recent years, most of the studies on the analysis of reading order have targeted the specific problem of associating layout components with logical labels, while less attention has been paid to the problem of extracting relationships the problem of detecting the reading order relationship between logical components, such as cross-references. Over 3 years of development, the company Foxit has demonstrated the layout recognition (LR) engine in revision 20601 to eager for the accuracy of the reading order. The bounding box of each paragraph can be obtained correctly by the Foxit LR engine, but the result of reading-order is not always correct for single-column, and two-column layout format due to the table issue, formula issue, and multiple mini separated bounding box and footer issue. Thus, the algorithm is developed to improve the accuracy of the reading order based on the Foxit LR structure. In this paper, a creative observation method (Here called the MESH method) is provided here to open a new chance in the research of the reading-order field. Here two important parameters are introduced, one parameter is the number of the bounding box on the right side of the present bounding box (NRight), and another parameter is the number of the bounding box under the present bounding box (Nunder). And the normalized x-value (x/the whole width), the normalized y-value (y/the whole height) of each bounding box, the x-, and y- position of each bounding box were also put into consideration. Initial experimental results of single column layout format demonstrate a 19.33% absolute improvement in accuracy of the reading-order over 7 PDF files (total 150 pages) using our proposed method based on the LR structure over the baseline method using the LR structure in 20601 revision, which its accuracy of the reading-order is 72%. And for two-column layout format, the preliminary results demonstrate a 44.44% absolute improvement in accuracy of the reading-order over 2 PDF files (total 18 pages) using our proposed method based on the LR structure over the baseline method using the LR structure in 20601 revision, which its accuracy of the reading-order is 0%. Until now, the footer issue and a part of multiple mini separated bounding box issue can be solved by using the MESH method. However, there are still three issues that cannot be solved, such as the table issue, formula issue, and the random multiple mini separated bounding boxes. But the detection of the table position and the recognition of the table structure are out of the scope in this paper, and there is needed another research. In the future, the tasks are chosen- how to detect the table position in the page and to extract the content of the table.

Keywords: document processing, reading order, observation method, layout recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
135 Arthroscopic Assisted Fibertape Technique For Recurrent MPFL Reconstruction - Case Series Done In The UK Population

Authors: Naufal Ahmed, Michael Lwin


Background: MPFL reconstructions are ideally performed with au-tografts like gracilis semitendinosus tendon, which may be associated with donor site morbidity and complications. In this case series, we have tried to use fiber tape, which avoids the above complications and also keeps the graft virgin. This kind of synthetic graft has been used successfully in rotator cuffs and ACJ reconstructions with good results. Materials and methods: It was a retrospective data analysis of 45 patients who underwent this procedure from 2014-2020 under a single consultant in a DGH . These patiens have been followed up at 6 weeks, 6 months, 1 year, and 1 ½ years with clinical assessment and KOOS scores. We compared the results with the NJR and also with the Belgium report and was found to be satisfactory and comparable with them. Surgical technique : We used Arthrex fiber tape for the reconstruction of MPFL . Initially, two parallel holes drilled over sup aspect of the patella with help of an image intensifier, and then fiber wire passed through them from the medial to the lateral side and back to the medial side. The fiber wire was attached to the schottle point on the femoral side, giving a good extra articular internal brac-ing to the MPFL. All patients were scoped before the procedure, and the final tightening over the femoral side was done directly under vision to see the position of the patella. Results: We had 45 MPFL reconstructions along with 4 additional procedures 1 ACLR, 2 ACL REPAIR, 1 TTT advancement ( revision MPFL ). There were 14 males and 31 females, and their average age was 25 (13-55 ). We did not have any donor site morbidity, no infection, no fractures, no recurrent dislocations, no reoperations yet. Conclusion: Fiber tape is a feasible and appropriate option for MPFL reconstruction. We haven’t seen any re -operation in our 5 year follow up. This technique avoids the use of autograft, which can be used in the future if needed for revision surgeries. We don’t lose anything by following this simple novel technique.

Keywords: arthroscopy, fibertape, MPFL reconstruction, recurrent patella dislocation

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
134 The Benefits of a Totally Autologous Breast Reconstruction Technique Using Extended Latissimus Dorsi Flap with Lipo-Modelling: A Seven Years United Kingdom Tertiary Breast Unit Results

Authors: Wisam Ismail, Brendan Wooler, Penelope McManus


Introduction: The public perception of implants has been damaged in the wake of recent negative publicity and increasingly we are finding patients wanting to avoid them. Planned lipo-modelling to enhance the volume of a Latissimus dorsi flap is a viable alternative to silicone implants and maintains a Totally Autologous Technique (TAT). Here we demonstrate that when compared to an Implant Assisted Technique (IAT), a TAT offers patients many benefits that offset the requirement of more operations initially, with reduced short and long term complications, reduced symmetrisation surgery and reduced revision rates. Methods. Data was collected prospectively over 7 years. The minimum follows up was 3 years. The technique was generally standardized in the hand of one surgeon. All flaps were extended LD flaps (ELD). Lipo-modelling was performed using standard techniques. Outcome measures were unplanned secondary procedures, complication rates, and contralateral symmetrisation surgery rates. Key Results Were: Lower complication rates in the TAT group (18.5% vs. 33.3%), despite higher radiotherapy rates (TAT=49%, IAT=36.8%), TAT was associated with lower subsequent symmetrisation rates (30.6% vs. 50.9%), IAT had a relative risk of 3.1 for subsequent unplanned procedure, Autologous patients required an average of 1.76 sessions of lipo-modelling, Conclusions: Using lipo-modelling to enable totally autologous LD reconstruction offers significant advantages over an implant assisted technique. We have shown a lower subsequent unplanned procedure rate, lower revision surgery, and less contralateral symmetrisation surgery. We anticipate that a TAT will be supported by patient satisfaction surveys and long-term patient-reported cosmetic outcome data and intended to study this.

Keywords: breast, Latissimus dorsi, lipomodelling, reconstruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
133 Corporate Demography: An Unexplored Trend along the Latin American Context

Authors: Jesus Argueta


This study aims to explore the Business Demography Phenomena along the Central American context, through the examination of its theoretical background, and the revision of Central American corporations success stories, that will eventually guide this research towards the business Demography Key Performance Indicators, across the Central American Business Ambiance. Considering that this analysis will support the development of a Small and Medium Business Observatory over the Honduran commercial landscapes, as platform for the reinforcement of this global topic.

Keywords: business demography, economic dynamism, small, medium and large enterprises, corporate demography

Procedia PDF Downloads 451