Search results for: drying
466 Persian Pistachio Nut (Pistacia vera L.) Dehydration in Natural and Industrial Conditions
Authors: Hamid Tavakolipour, Mohsen Mokhtarian, Ahmad Kalbasi Ashtari
Abstract:In this study, the effect of various drying methods (sun drying, shade drying and industrial drying) on final moisture content, shell splitting degree, shrinkage and color change were studied. Sun drying resulted higher degree of pistachio nuts shell splitting on pistachio nuts relative other drying methods. The ANOVA results showed that the different drying methods did not significantly effects on color change of dried pistachio nut. The results illustrated that pistachio nut dried by industrial drying had the lowest moisture content. After the end of drying process, initially, the experimental drying data were fitted with five famous drying models namely Newton, Page, Silva et al., Peleg and Henderson and Pabis. The results indicated that Peleg and Page models gave better results compared with other models to monitor the moisture ratio’s pistachio nut in industrial drying and open sun (or shade drying) methods, respectively.
Keywords: industrial drying, pistachio, quality properties, traditional dryingProcedia PDF Downloads 270
465 Drying Kinetics of Vacuum Dried Beef Meat Slices
Authors: Elif Aykin Dincer, Mustafa Erbas
Abstract:The vacuum drying behavior of beef slices (10 x 4 x 0.2 cm3) was experimentally investigated at the temperature of 60, 70, and 80°C under 25 mbar ultimate vacuum pressure and the mathematical models (Lewis, Page, Midilli, Two-term, Wangh and Singh and Modified Henderson and Pabis) were used to fit the vacuum drying of beef slices. The increase in drying air temperature resulted in a decrease in drying time. It took approximately 206, 180 and 157 min to dry beef slices from an initial moisture content to a final moisture content of 0.05 kg water/kg dry matter at 60, 70 and 80 °C of vacuum drying, respectively. It is also observed that the drying rate increased with increasing drying temperature. The coefficients (R2), the reduced chi-square (x²) and root mean square error (RMSE) values were obtained by application of six models to the experimental drying data. The best model with the highest R2 and, the lowest x² and RMSE values was selected to describe the drying characteristics of beef slices. The Page model has shown a better fit to the experimental drying data as compared to other models. In addition, the effective moisture diffusivities of beef slices in the vacuum drying at 60 - 80 °C varied in the range of 1.05 – 1.09 x 10-10 m2/s. Consequently, this results can be used to simulate vacuum drying process of beef slices and improve efficiency of the drying process.
Keywords: beef slice, drying models, effective diffusivity, vacuumProcedia PDF Downloads 229
464 Comparative Survival Rates of Yeasts during Freeze-Drying, Traditional Drying and Spray Drying
Authors: Latifa Hamoudi-Belarbi, L'Hadi Nouri, Khaled Belkacemi
Abstract:The effect of three methods of drying (traditional drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying) on the survival of concentrated cultures of Geotrichum fragrans and Wickerhamomyces anomalus was studied. The survival of yeast cultures was initially compared immediately after freeze-drying using HES 12%(w/v)+Sucrose 7% (w/v) as protectant, traditional drying in dry rice cakes and finally spray-drying with whey proteins. The survival of G. fragrans and W. anomalus was studied during 4 months of storage at 4°C and 25°C, in the darkness, under vacuum and at 0% relative humidity. The results demonstrated that high survival was obtained using traditional method of preservation in rice cakes (60% for G. fragrans and 65% for W. anomalus) and freeze-drying in (68% for G. fragrans and 74% for W. anomalus). However, poor survival was obtained by spray-drying method in whey protein with 20% for G. fragrans and 29% for W. anomalus. During storage at 25°C, yeast cultures of G. fragrans and W. anomalus preserved by traditional and freeze-drying methods showed no significant loss of viable cells up to 3 months of storage. Spray-dried yeast cultures had the greatest loss of viable count during the 4 months of storage at 25°C. During storage at 4°C, preservation of yeasts cultures using traditional method of preservation provided better survival than freeze-drying. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of the traditional method to preserve yeasts cultures compared to the high cost methods like freeze-drying and spray-drying.
Keywords: freeze-drying, traditional drying, spray drying, yeastsProcedia PDF Downloads 419
463 Experimental Study on Drying Parameters of Freeze Drying Systems
Authors: Ali Osman Suiçmez, Emrah Deniz
Abstract:In this study, control experiments were made on a freeze drying system of which were built a prototype. In experiments, apple slices in different geometrical shapes were dried and drying curves were gained. Then, the shapes which were the fastest for drying were determined. Twenty samples for each apple shapes were put in the prototype and dried. After the experiments, the humidity ratio of the samples and water activity values of the samples have been obtained. Obtained results show that the prototype is working and by comparing the results the shape which dried fastest was determined.
Keywords: freeze drying, vacuum, energy consumption, drying process, appleProcedia PDF Downloads 218
462 Mathematical Modeling of the Effect of Pretreatment on the Drying Kinetics, Energy Requirement and Physico-Functional Properties of Yam (Dioscorea Rotundata) and Cocoyam (Colocasia Esculenta)
Authors: Felix U. Asoiro, Kingsley O. Anyichie, Meshack I. Simeon, Chinenye E. Azuka
Abstract:The work was aimed at studying the effects of microwave drying (450 W) and hot air oven drying on the drying kinetics and physico-functional properties of yams and cocoyams species. The yams and cocoyams were cut into chips of thicknesses of 3mm, 5mm, 7mm, 9mm, and 11mm. The drying characteristics of yam and cocoyam chips were investigated under microwave drying and hot air oven temperatures (50oC – 90oC). Drying methods, temperature, and thickness had a significant effect on the drying characteristics and physico-functional properties of yam and cocoyam. The result of the experiment showed that an increase in the temperature increased the drying time. The result also showed that the microwave drying method took lesser time to dry the samples than the hot air oven drying method. The iodine affinity of starch for yam was higher than that of cocoyam for the microwaved dried samples over those of hot air oven-dried samples. The results of the analysis would be useful in modeling the drying behavior of yams and cocoyams under different drying methods. It could also be useful in the improvement of shelf life for yams and cocoyams as well as designs of efficient systems for drying, handling, storage, packaging, processing, and transportation of yams and cocoyams.
Keywords: coco yam, drying, microwave, modeling, energy consumption, iodine affinity, drying ateProcedia PDF Downloads 46
461 Mathematical Modeling of Eggplant Slices Drying Using Microwave-Oven
Authors: M.H. Keshek, M.N. Omar, A.H. Amer
Abstract:Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is considered one of the most important crops in summer season, and it is grown in most cultivated area in Egypt. Eggplant has a very limited shelf life for freshness and physiological changes occur after harvest. Nowadays, microwave drying offers an alternative way to drying agricultural products. microwave drying is not only faster but also requiring less energy consumption than conventional drying. The main objective of this research was to evaluate using the microwave oven in Eggplant drying, to determine the optimum drying time of higher drying efficiency and lower energy consumption. The eggplants slices, having a thickness of about 5, 10, 15, and 20 mm, with diameter 50±2 mm was dried using microwave oven (KOR-9G2B) using three different levels were 450, 630, and 810 Watt (50%, 70%, and 90% of 900 Watt). The results show that, the initial moisture content of the eggplant slices was around 93 % wet basis (13.28 g water/g dry matter). The results indicated that, the moisture transfer within the sample was more rapidly during higher microwave power heating (810 watt) and lower thickness (5 mm) of the eggplant slices. In addition, the results show that, the drying efficiency increases by increasing slices thickness at power levels 450, 630 and 810 Watt. The higher drying efficiency was 83.13% occurred when drying the eggplant slices 20 mm thickness in microwave oven at power 630 Watt. the higher total energy consumption per dry kilogram was 1.275 (kWh/ dry kg) occurred at used microwave 810 Watt for drying eggplant slices 5 mm thickness, and the lower total energy consumption per dry kilogram was 0.55 (kWh/ dry kg) occurred at used microwave 810 Watt for drying eggplant slices 20 mm thickness.
Keywords: microwave drying, eggplant, drying rate, drying efficiency, energy consumptionProcedia PDF Downloads 94
460 Empirical Research to Improve Performances of Paddy Columnar Dryer
Authors: Duong Thi Hong, Nguyen Van Hung, Martin Gummert
Abstract:Good practices of mechanical drying can reduce losses of grain quality. Recently, with demands of higher capacity for paddy drying in the Mekong River Delta of Vietnam, columnar dryers have been introduced rapidly in this area. To improve the technology, this study was conducted to investigate and optimize the parameters for drying Jasmine paddy using an empirical cross-flow columnar dryer. The optimum parameters were resulted in air flow rate and drying temperature that are 1-1.5 m³ s-¹ t-¹ of paddy and 40-42°C, respectively. The investigation also addressed a solution of reversing drying air to achieve the uniformity of grain temperature and quality. Results of this study should be significant for developments of grain drying, contributing to reduce post harvest losses
Keywords: paddy drying, columnar dryer, air flow rate, drying temperatureProcedia PDF Downloads 299
459 Effect of Drying on the Concrete Structures
Authors: A. Brahma
Abstract:The drying of hydraulics materials is unavoidable and conducted to important spontaneous deformations. In this study, we show that it is possible to describe the drying shrinkage of the high-performance concrete by a simple expression. A multiple regression model was developed for the prediction of the drying shrinkage of the high-performance concrete. The assessment of the proposed model has been done by a set of statistical tests. The model developed takes in consideration the main parameters of confection and conservation. There was a very good agreement between drying shrinkage predicted by the multiple regression model and experimental results. The developed model adjusts easily to all hydraulic concrete types.
Keywords: hydraulic concretes, drying, shrinkage, prediction, modelingProcedia PDF Downloads 270
458 Drying Kinetics, Energy Requirement, Bioactive Composition, and Mathematical Modeling of Allium Cepa Slices
Authors: Felix U. Asoiro, Meshack I. Simeon, Chinenye E. Azuka, Harami Solomon, Chukwuemeka J. Ohagwu
Abstract:The drying kinetics, specific energy consumed (SEC), effective moisture diffusivity (EMD), flavonoid, phenolic, and vitamin C contents of onion slices dried under convective oven drying (COD) were compared with microwave drying (MD). Drying was performed with onion slice thicknesses of 2, 4, 6, and 8 mm; air drying temperatures of 60, 80, and 100°C for COD, and microwave power of 450 W for MD. A decrease in slice thickness and an increase in drying air temperature led to a drop in the drying time. As thickness increased from 2 – 8 mm, EMD rose from 1.1-4.35 x 10⁻⁸ at 60°C, 1.1-5.6 x 10⁻⁸ at 80°C, and 1.25-6.12 x 10⁻⁸ at 100°C with MD treatments yielding the highest mean value (6.65 x 10⁻⁸ m² s⁻¹) at 8 mm. Maximum SEC for onion slices in COD was 238.27 kWh/kg H₂O (2 mm thickness), and the minimum was 39.4 kWh/kg H₂O (8 mm thickness) whereas maximum during MD was 25.33 kWh/kg H₂O (8 mm thickness) and minimum, 18.7 kWh/kg H₂O (2 mm thickness). MD treatment gave a significant (p 0.05) increase in the flavonoid (39.42 – 64.4%), phenolic (38.0 – 46.84%), and vitamin C (3.7 – 4.23 mg 100 g⁻¹) contents, while COD treatment at 60°C and 100°C had positive effects on only vitamin C and phenolic contents, respectively. In comparison, the Weibull model gave the overall best fit (highest R²=0.999; lowest SSE=0.0002, RSME=0.0123, and χ²= 0.0004) when drying 2 mm onion slices at 100°C.
Keywords: allium cepa, drying kinetics, specific energy consumption, flavonoid, vitamin C, microwave oven dryingProcedia PDF Downloads 36
457 Transparency Phenomenon in Kuew Teow
Authors: Muhammad Heikal Ismail, Law Chung Lim, Hii Ching Lik
Abstract:In maintaining food quality and shelf life, drying is employed in food industry as the most reliable perseverance technique. In this way, heat pump drying and hot air drying of fresh rice noodles was deduced to freeze drying in achieving quality attributes of oil content Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images, texture, and colour. Soxthlet analysis shows freeze dried noodles contain more than 10 times oil content, distinct pores of SEM images, higher hardness by more than three times, and wider colour changes by average more than two times to both methods to explain the less transparency physical outlook of freeze dried samples.
Keywords: freeze drying, heat pump drying, noodles, SoxthletProcedia PDF Downloads 428
456 Eucalyptus camendulensis and Its Drying Effect on Water and Essential Oil Content
Authors: Mehani Mouna, Segni Ladjel
Abstract:Medicinal and aromatic plants are promising and are characterized by the biosynthesis of odorous molecules that make up the so-called essential oils (EO), which have long been known for their antiseptic and therapeutic activity in folk medicine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of drying in the shade on the water content and on the content of essential oils extracted from leaves of Eucalyptus camendulensis for better quality control of medicinal and aromatic plants. The water content of the Eucalyptus camendulensis plant material decreases during the drying process. It increased from 100 % to 0.006 % for the drying in the shade after ten days. The moisture content is practically constant at the end of the drying period. The drying in the shade increases the concentration of essential oils of Eucalyptus camendulensis. When the leaves of Eucalyptus camendulensis plant are in the shade, the maximum of the essential oil content was obtained on the eighth days; the recorded value was 1.43% ± 0.01%. Beyond these periods, the content continuously drops in before stabilizing. The optimum drying time is between 6 and 9 days.
Keywords: Eucalyptus camendulensis, drying, essential oils, water, contentProcedia PDF Downloads 289
455 Influence of Drying Method in Parts of Alumina Obtained for Rapid Prototyping and Uniaxial Dry Pressing
Authors: N. O. Muniz, F. A. Vechietti, L. Treccani, K. Rezwan, Luis Alberto dos Santos
Abstract:Developing new technologies in the manufacture of biomaterials is a major challenge for researchers in the tissue engineering area. Many in vitro and in vivo studies have revealed the significance of the porous structure of the biomaterials on the promotion of bone ingrowth. The use of Rapid Prototyping in the manufacture of ceramics in the biomedical area has increased in recent years and few studies are conducted on obtaining alumina pieces. The aim of this work was the study of alumina pieces obtained by 3D printing and uniaxial dry pressing (DP) in order to evaluate porosity achieved by this two different techniques. Also, the influence of the powder drying process was determined. The row alumina powders were drying by freeze drying and oven. Apparent porosity, apparent density, retraction after thermal treatment were evaluated. The porosity values obtained by DP, regardless of method of drying powders, were much lower than those obtained by RP as expected. And for the prototyped samples, the method of powder drying significantly influenced porosities, reached 48% for drying oven versus 65% for freeze-drying. Therefore, the method of 3D printing, using different powder drying, allows a better control over the porosity.
Keywords: rapid prototyping, freeze-drying, porosity, aluminaProcedia PDF Downloads 399
454 Thin-Layer Drying Characteristics and Modelling of Instant Coffee Solution
Authors: Apolinar Picado, Ronald Solís, Rafael Gamero
Abstract:The thin-layer drying characteristics of instant coffee solution were investigated in a laboratory tunnel dryer. Drying experiments were carried out at three temperatures (80, 100 and 120 °C) and an air velocity of 1.2 m/s. Drying experimental data obtained are fitted to six (6) thin-layer drying models using the non-linear least squares regression analysis. The acceptability of the thin-layer drying model has been based on a value of the correlation coefficient that should be close to one, and low values for root mean square error (RMSE) and chi-square (x²). According to this evaluation, the most suitable model for describing drying process of thin-layer instant coffee solution is the Page model. Further, the effective moisture diffusivity and the activation energy were computed employing the drying experimental data. The effective moisture diffusivity values varied from 1.6133 × 10⁻⁹ to 1.6224 × 10⁻⁹ m²/s over the temperature range studied and the activation energy was estimated to be 162.62 J/mol.
Keywords: activation energy, diffusivity, instant coffee, thin-layer modelsProcedia PDF Downloads 175
453 Design and Evaluation of a Fully-Automated Fluidized Bed Dryer for Complete Drying of Paddy
Authors: R. J. Pontawe, R. C. Martinez, N. T. Asuncion, R. V. Villacorte
Abstract:Drying of high moisture paddy remains a major problem in the Philippines, especially during inclement weather condition. To alleviate the problem, mechanical dryers were used like a flat bed and recirculating batch-type dryers. However, drying to 14% (wet basis) final moisture content is long which takes 10-12 hours and tedious which is not the ideal for handling high moisture paddy. Fully-automated pilot-scale fluidized bed drying system with 500 kilograms per hour capacity was evaluated using a high moisture paddy. The developed fluidized bed dryer was evaluated using four drying temperatures and two variations in fluidization time at a constant airflow, static pressure and tempering period. Complete drying of paddy with ≥28% (w.b.) initial MC was attained after 2 passes of fluidized-bed drying at 2 minutes exposure to 70 °C drying temperature and 4.9 m/s superficial air velocity, followed by 60 min ambient air tempering period (30 min without ventilation and 30 min with air ventilation) for a total drying time of 2.07 h. Around 82% from normal mechanical drying time was saved at 70 °C drying temperature. The drying cost was calculated to be P0.63 per kilogram of wet paddy. Specific heat energy consumption was only 2.84 MJ/kg of water removed. The Head Rice Yield recovery of the dried paddy passed the Philippine Agricultural Engineering Standards. Sensory evaluation showed that the color and taste of the samples dried in the fluidized bed dryer were comparable to air dried paddy. The optimum drying parameters of using fluidized bed dryer is 70 oC drying temperature at 2 min fluidization time, 4.9 m/s superficial air velocity, 10.16 cm grain depth and 60 min ambient air tempering period.
Keywords: drying, fluidized bed dryer, head rice yield, paddyProcedia PDF Downloads 254
452 Determination of Natural Logarithm of Diffusion Coefficient and Activation Energy of Thin Layer Drying Process of Ginger Rhizome Slices
Authors: Austin Ikechukwu Gbasouzor, Sam Nna Omenyi, Sabuj Malli
Abstract:This study is an extension of the previous work done with ARS-680 Environmental Chamber. Drying is a complex operation that demands much energy and time. Drying is essentially important for preservation of ginger rhizome. Drying of ginger was modeled, and then the effective diffusion coefficient and activation energy where determined. For this purpose, the experiments were done at six levels of varied temperature ranging from (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60°C). The average effective diffusion coefficient for their studies samples for temperature range of 40°C to 70°C was 4.48 x10-10m²/s, 4.96 x10-10m²/s, and 5.31 x10-10m²/s for 0.8, 1.5 and 3m/s drying air velocity respectively. These values closely agreed with the values of effective diffusion coefficients obtained in these studies for the variously treated ginger rhizomes and test conducted.
Keywords: activation energy, diffusion coefficients, drying model, drying time, ginger rhizomes, moisture ratio, thin layerProcedia PDF Downloads 93
451 Mathematical Modeling of Thin Layer Drying Behavior of Bhimkol (Musa balbisiana) Pulp
Authors: Ritesh Watharkar, Sourabh Chakraborty, Brijesh Srivastava
Abstract:Reduction of water from the fruits and vegetables using different drying techniques is widely employed to prolong the shelf life of these food commodities. Heat transfer occurs inside the sample by conduction and mass transfer takes place by diffusion in accordance with temperature and moisture concentration gradient respectively during drying. This study was undertaken to study and model the thin layer drying behavior of Bhimkol pulp. The drying was conducted in a tray drier at 500c temperature with 5, 10 and 15 % concentrations of added maltodextrin. The drying experiments were performed at 5mm thickness of the thin layer and the constant air velocity of 0.5 m/s.Drying data were fitted to different thin layer drying models found in the literature. Comparison of fitted models was based on highest R2(0.9917), lowest RMSE (0.03201), and lowest SSE (0.01537) revealed Middle equation as the best-fitted model for thin layer drying with 10% concentration of maltodextrin. The effective diffusivity was estimated based on the solution of Fick’s law of diffusion which is found in the range of 3.0396 x10-09 to 5.0661 x 10-09. There was a reduction in drying time with the addition of maltodextrin as compare to the raw pulp.
Keywords: Bhimkol, diffusivity, maltodextrine, Midilli modelProcedia PDF Downloads 148
450 Heat and Mass Transfer Modelling of Industrial Sludge Drying at Different Pressures and Temperatures
Authors: L. Al Ahmad, C. Latrille, D. Hainos, D. Blanc, M. Clausse
Abstract:A two-dimensional finite volume axisymmetric model is developed to predict the simultaneous heat and mass transfers during the drying of industrial sludge. The simulations were run using COMSOL-Multiphysics 3.5a. The input parameters of the numerical model were acquired from a preliminary experimental work. Results permit to establish correlations describing the evolution of the various parameters as a function of the drying temperature and the sludge water content. The selection and coupling of the equation are validated based on the drying kinetics acquired experimentally at a temperature range of 45-65 °C and absolute pressure range of 200-1000 mbar. The model, incorporating the heat and mass transfer mechanisms at different operating conditions, shows simulated values of temperature and water content. Simulated results are found concordant with the experimental values, only at the first and last drying stages where sludge shrinkage is insignificant. Simulated and experimental results show that sludge drying is favored at high temperatures and low pressure. As experimentally observed, the drying time is reduced by 68% for drying at 65 °C compared to 45 °C under 1 atm. At 65 °C, a 200-mbar absolute pressure vacuum leads to an additional reduction in drying time estimated by 61%. However, the drying rate is underestimated in the intermediate stage. This rate underestimation could be improved in the model by considering the shrinkage phenomena that occurs during sludge drying.
Keywords: industrial sludge drying, heat transfer, mass transfer, mathematical modellingProcedia PDF Downloads 68
449 Optimizing Water Consumption of a Washer-Dryer Which Contains Water Condensation Technology under a Constraint of Energy Consumption and Drying Performance
Authors: Aysegul Sarac
Abstract:Washer-dryers are the machines which can either wash the laundries or can dry them. In other words, we can define a washer-dryer as a washing machine and a dryer in one machine. Washing machines are characterized by the loading capacity, cabinet depth and spin speed. Dryers are characterized by the drying technology. On the other hand, energy efficiency, water consumption, and noise levels are main characteristics that influence customer decisions to buy washers. Water condensation technology is the most common drying technology existing in the washer-dryer market. Water condensation technology uses water to dry the laundry inside the machine. Thus, in this type of the drying technology water consumption is at high levels comparing other technologies. Water condensation technology sprays cold water in the drum to condense the humidity of hot weather in order to dry the laundry inside. Thus, water consumption influences the drying performance. The scope of this study is to optimize water consumption during drying process under a constraint of energy consumption and drying performance. We are using 6-Sigma methodology to find the optimum water consumption by comparing drying performances of different drying algorithms.
Keywords: optimization, 6-Sigma methodology, washer-dryers, water condensation technologyProcedia PDF Downloads 290
448 Power Ultrasound Application on Convective Drying of Banana (Musa paradisiaca), Mango (Mangifera indica L.) and Guava (Psidium guajava L.)
Authors: Erika K. Méndez, Carlos E. Orrego, Diana L. Manrique, Juan D. Gonzalez, Doménica Vallejo
Abstract:High moisture content in fruits generates post-harvest problems such as mechanical, biochemical, microbial and physical losses. Dehydration, which is based on the reduction of water activity of the fruit, is a common option for overcoming such losses. However, regular hot air drying could affect negatively the quality properties of the fruit due to the long residence time at high temperature. Power ultrasound (US) application during the convective drying has been used as a novel method able to enhance drying rate and, consequently, to decrease drying time. In the present study, a new approach was tested to evaluate the effect of US on the drying time, the final antioxidant activity (AA) and the total polyphenol content (TPC) of banana slices (BS), mango slices (MS) and guava slices (GS). There were also studied the drying kinetics with nine different models from which water effective diffusivities (Deff) (with or without shrinkage corrections) were calculated. Compared with the corresponding control tests, US assisted drying for fruit slices showed reductions in drying time between 16.23 and 30.19%, 11.34 and 32.73%, and 19.25 and 47.51% for the MS, BS and GS respectively. Considering shrinkage effects, Deff calculated values ranged from 1.67*10-10 to 3.18*10-10 m2/s, 3.96*10-10 and 5.57*10-10 m2/s and 4.61*10-10 to 8.16*10-10 m2/s for the BS, MS and GS samples respectively. Reductions of TPC and AA (as DPPH) were observed compared with the original content in fresh fruit data in all kinds of drying assays.
Keywords: banana, drying, effective diffusivity, guava, mango, ultrasoundProcedia PDF Downloads 477
447 Protein Stabilized Foam Structures as Protective Carrier Systems during Microwave Drying of Probiotics
Authors: Jannika Dombrowski, Sabine Ambros, Ulrich Kulozik
Abstract:Due to the increasing popularity of healthy products, probiotics are still of rising importance in food manufacturing. With the aim to amplify the field of probiotic application to non-chilled products, the cultures have to be preserved by drying. Microwave drying has proved to be a suitable technique to achieve relatively high survival rates, resulting from drying at gentle temperatures, among others. However, diffusion limitation due to compaction of cell suspension during drying can prolong drying times as well as deteriorate product properties (grindability, rehydration performance). Therefore, we aimed to embed probiotics in an aerated matrix of whey proteins (surfactants) and di-/polysaccharides (foam stabilization, probiotic protection) during drying. As a result of the manifold increased inner surface of the cell suspension, drying performance was enhanced significantly as compared to non-foamed suspensions. This work comprises investigations on suitable foam matrices, being stable under vacuum (variation of protein concentration, type and concentration of di-/polysaccharide) as well as development of an applicable microwave drying process in terms of microwave power, chamber pressure and maximum product temperatures. Performed analyses included foam characteristics (overrun, drainage, firmness, bubble sizes), and properties of the dried cultures (survival, activity). In addition, efficiency of the drying process was evaluated.
Keywords: foam structure, microwave drying, polysaccharides, probioticsProcedia PDF Downloads 201
446 Empirical Modeling of Air Dried Rubberwood Drying System
Authors: S. Khamtree, T. Ratanawilai, C. Nuntadusit
Abstract:Rubberwood is a crucial commercial timber in Southern Thailand. All processes in a rubberwood production depend on the knowledge and expertise of the technicians, especially the drying process. This research aims to develop an empirical model for drying kinetics in rubberwood. During the experiment, the temperature of the hot air and the average air flow velocity were kept at 80-100 °C and 1.75 m/s, respectively. The moisture content in the samples was determined less than 12% in the achievement of drying basis. The drying kinetic was simulated using an empirical solver. The experimental results illustrated that the moisture content was reduced whereas the drying temperature and time were increased. The coefficient of the moisture ratio between the empirical and the experimental model was tested with three statistical parameters, R-square (R²), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Chi-square (χ²) to predict the accuracy of the parameters. The experimental moisture ratio had a good fit with the empirical model. Additionally, the results indicated that the drying of rubberwood using the Henderson and Pabis model revealed the suitable level of agreement. The result presented an excellent estimation (R² = 0.9963) for the moisture movement compared to the other models. Therefore, the empirical results were valid and can be implemented in the future experiments.
Keywords: empirical models, rubberwood, moisture ratio, hot air dryingProcedia PDF Downloads 205
445 Improvement in Drying Characteristics of Raisin by Carbonic Maceration– Process Optimization
Authors: Nursac Akyol, Merve S. Turan, Mustafa Ozcelik, Erdogan Kucukoner, Erkan Karacabey
Abstract:Traditional raisin production is a long time drying process under sunlight. During this procedure, grapes are open to some environmental effects besides the adverse effects of the long drying period. Thus, there is a need to develop an alternative method being applicable instead of traditional one. To this extent, a combination of a potential pretreatment (carbonic maceration, CM) with convectional oven drying was examined. CM application was used in raisin production (grape drying) as a pretreatment process before oven drying. Pressure, temperature and time were examined as application parameters of CM. In conventional oven drying, the temperature is a process variable. The aim is to find out how CM and convectional drying processes affect the drying characteristics of grapes as well as their physical and chemical properties. For this purpose, the response surface method was used to determine both the effects of the variables and the optimum pretreatment and drying conditions. The optimum conditions of CM for raisin production were 0.3 MPa of pressure value, 4°C of application temperature and 8 hours of application time. The optimized drying temperature was 77°C. The results showed that the application of CM before the drying process improved the drying characteristics. Drying took only 389 minutes for grapes pretreated by CM under optimum conditions and 495 minutes for the control group dried only by the conventional drying process. According to these results, a decrease of 21% was achieved in the time requirement for raisin production. Also, it was observed that the samples dried under optimum conditions had similar physical properties as those the control group had. It was seen that raisin, which was dried under optimum conditions were in better condition in terms of some of the bioactive contents compared to control groups. In light of all results, it is seen that CM has an important potential in the industrial drying of grape samples. The current study was financially supported by TUBITAK, Turkey (Project no: 116R038).
Keywords: drying time, pretreatment, response surface methodlogy, total phenolicProcedia PDF Downloads 70
444 Microwave Freeze Drying of Fruit Foams for the Production of Healthy Snacks
Authors: Sabine Ambros, Mine Oezcelik, Evelyn Dachmann, Ulrich Kulozik
Abstract:Nutritional quality and taste of dried fruit products is still often unsatisfactory and does not meet anymore the current consumer trends. Dried foams from fruit puree could be an attractive alternative. Due to their open-porous structure, a new sensory perception with a sudden and very intense aroma release could be generated. To make such high quality fruit snacks affordable for the consumer, a gentle but at the same time fast drying process has to be applied. Therefore, microwave-assisted freeze drying of raspberry foams was investigated in this work and compared with the conventional freeze drying technique in terms of nutritional parameters such as antioxidative capacity, anthocyanin content and vitamin C and the physical parameters colour and wettability. The following process settings were applied: 0.01 kPa chamber pressure and a maximum temperature of 30 °C for both freeze and microwave freeze drying. The influence of microwave power levels on the dried foams was investigated between 1 and 5 W/g. Intermediate microwave power settings led to the highest nutritional values, a colour appearance comparable to the undried foam and a proper wettability. A proper process stability could also be guaranteed for these power levels. By the volumetric energy input of the microwaves drying time could be reduced from 24 h in conventional freeze drying to about 6 h. The short drying times further resulted in an equally high maintenance of the above mentioned parameters in both drying techniques. Hence, microwave assisted freeze drying could lead to a process acceleration in comparison to freeze drying and be therefore an interesting alternative drying technique which on industrial scale enables higher efficiency and higher product throughput.
Keywords: foam drying, freeze drying, fruit puree, microwave freeze drying, raspberryProcedia PDF Downloads 254
443 Energy and Exergy Analyses of Thin-Layer Drying of Pineapple Slices
Authors: Apolinar Picado, Steve Alfaro, Rafael Gamero
Abstract:Energy and exergy analyses of thin-layer drying of pineapple slices (Ananas comosus L.) were conducted in a laboratory tunnel dryer. Drying experiments were carried out at three temperatures (100, 115 and 130 °C) and an air velocity of 1.45 m/s. The effects of drying variables on energy utilisation, energy utilisation ratio, exergy loss and exergy efficiency were studied. The enthalpy difference of the gas increased as the inlet gas temperature increase. It is observed that at the 75 minutes of the drying process the outlet gas enthalpy achieves a maximum value that is very close to the inlet value and remains constant until the end of the drying process. This behaviour is due to the reduction of the total enthalpy within the system, or in other words, the reduction of the effective heat transfer from the hot gas flow to the vegetable being dried. Further, the outlet entropy exhibits a significant increase that is not only due to the temperature variation, but also to the increase of water vapour phase contained in the hot gas flow. The maximum value of the exergy efficiency curve corresponds to the maximum value observed within the drying rate curves. This maximum value represents the stage when the available energy is efficiently used in the removal of the moisture within the solid. As the drying rate decreases, the available energy is started to be less employed. The exergetic efficiency was directly dependent on the evaporation flux and since the convective drying is less efficient that other types of dryer, it is likely that the exergetic efficiency has relatively low values.
Keywords: efficiency, energy, exergy, thin-layer dryingProcedia PDF Downloads 185
442 Post Harvest Preservation of Mango Fruit Using Freeze Drying and Tray Drying Methods
Authors: O. A. Adeyeye, E. R. Sadiku, Selvam Sellamuthu Periyar, Babu Perumal Anand, B. Nambiar Reshma
Abstract:Mango is a tropical fruit which is often labelled as ‘super-fruit’ because of its unquantifiable benefits to human beings. However, despite its great importance, mango is a seasonal fruit, and only very few off-seasonal species are available in the market for consumption. Therefore, in order to overcome the seasonal variation and to increase the shelf-life of mango fruits, different drying methods are considered In this study, freeze drying and tray drying methods were used to preserve two different cultivars of mango from South Africa. Moisture content, total soluble solid, ascorbic acid, total phenol content (TPC), antioxidant activity (DPPH) and organoleptic tests were carried out on the samples before and after drying. The effects of different edible preservatives and selected packaging materials used were analyzed on each sample. The result showed that freeze drying method is the best method of preserving the selected cultivar.
Keywords: postharvest, mangos, cultivar, total soluble solid, total phenol content, antioxidantProcedia PDF Downloads 305
441 Prediction of Deformations of Concrete Structures
Authors: A. Brahma
Abstract:Drying is a phenomenon that accompanies the hardening of hydraulic materials. It can, if it is not prevented, lead to significant spontaneous dimensional variations, which the cracking is one of events. In this context, cracking promotes the transport of aggressive agents in the material, which can affect the durability of concrete structures. Drying shrinkage develops over a long period almost 30 years although most occurred during the first three years. Drying shrinkage stabilizes when the material is water balance with the external environment. The drying shrinkage of cementitious materials is due to the formation of capillary tensions in the pores of the material, which has the consequences of bringing the solid walls of each other. Knowledge of the shrinkage characteristics of concrete is a necessary starting point in the design of structures for crack control. Such knowledge will enable the designer to estimate the probable shrinkage movement in reinforced or prestressed concrete and the appropriate steps can be taken in design to accommodate this movement. This study is concerned the modelling of drying shrinkage of the hydraulic materials and the prediction of the rate of spontaneous deformations of hydraulic materials during hardening. The model developed takes in consideration the main factors affecting drying shrinkage. There was agreement between drying shrinkage predicted by the developed model and experimental results. In last we show that developed model describe the evolution of the drying shrinkage of high performances concretes correctly.
Keywords: drying, hydraulic concretes, shrinkage, modeling, predictionProcedia PDF Downloads 275
440 Microwave Assisted Foam-Mat Drying of Guava Pulp
Authors: Ovais S. Qadri, Abhaya K. Srivastava
Abstract:Present experiments were carried to study the drying kinetics and quality of microwave foam-mat dried guava powder. Guava pulp was microwave foam mat dried using 8% egg albumin as foaming agent and then dried at microwave power 480W, 560W, 640W, 720W and 800W, foam thickness 3mm, 5mm and 7mm and inlet air temperature of 40˚C and 50˚C. Weight loss was used to estimate change in drying rate with respect to time. Powdered samples were analysed for various physicochemical quality parameters viz. acidity, pH, TSS, colour change and ascorbic acid content. Statistical analysis using three-way ANOVA revealed that sample of 5mm foam thickness dried at 800W and 50˚C was the best with 0.3584% total acid, 3.98 pH, 14min drying time, 8˚Brix TSS, 3.263 colour change and 154.762mg/100g ascorbic acid content.
Keywords: foam mat drying, foam mat guava, guava powder, microwave dryingProcedia PDF Downloads 266
439 Effect of Temperature and Feed Solution on Microencapsulation of Quercetin by Spray Drying Technique
Authors: S. Lekhavat, U. Srimongkoluk, P. Ratanachamnong, G. Laungsopapun
Abstract:Quercetin was encapsulated with whey protein and high methoxyl pectin by spray drying technique. Feed solution, consisting of 0.1875 0.125 and 0.0625 % w/w quercetin, respectively, was prepared and then sprays at outlet temperature of 70, 80 and 90 °C. Quercetin contents either in feed solution or in spray dried powder were determined by HPLC technique. Physicochemical properties such as viscosity and total soluble solid of feed solution as well as moisture content and water activity of spray dried powder were examined. Particle morphology was imaged using scanning electron microscope. The results showed that feed solution has total soluble solid and viscosity in range of 1.73-5.60 ºBrix and 2.58-8.15 cP, in that order. After spray drying, the moisture content and water activity value of powder are in range of 0.58-2.72 % and 0.18-0.31, respectively. Quercetin content in dried sample increased along with outlet drying temperature but decreased when total soluble solid increased. It was shown that particles are likely to shrivel when spray drying at high temperature. The suggested conditions for encapsulation of quercetin are feed solution with 0.0625 % (w/w) quercetin and spray drying at drying outlet temperature of 90°C.
Keywords: drying temperature, particle morphology, spray drying, quercetinProcedia PDF Downloads 194
438 Dimensioning of a Solar Dryer with Application of an Experiment Design Method for Drying Food Products
Authors: B. Touati, A. Saad, B. Lips, A. Abdenbi, M. Mokhtari.
Abstract:The purpose of this study is an application of experiment design method for dimensioning of a solar drying system. NIMROD software was used to build up the matrix of experiments and to analyze the results. The software has the advantages of being easy to use and consists of a forced way, with some choices about the number and range of variation of the parameters, and the desired polynomial shape. The first design of experiments performed concern the drying with constant input characteristics of the hot air in the dryer and a second design of experiments in which the drying chamber is coupled with a solar collector. The first design of experiments allows us to study the influence of various parameters and get the studied answers in a polynomial form. The correspondence between the polynomial thus determined, and the model results were good. The results of the polynomials of the second design of experiments and those of the model are worse than the results in the case of drying with constant input conditions. This is due to the strong link between all the input parameters, especially, the surface of the sensor and the drying chamber, and the mass of the product.
Keywords: solar drying, experiment design method, NIMROD, mint leavesProcedia PDF Downloads 435
437 Drying Characteristics of Shrimp by Using the Traditional Method of Oven
Authors: I. A. Simsek, S. N. Dogan, A. S. Kipcak, E. Morodor Derun, N. Tugrul
Abstract:In this study, the drying characteristics of shrimp are studied by using the traditional drying method of oven. Drying temperatures are selected between 60-80°C. Obtained experimental drying results are applied to eleven mathematical models of Alibas, Aghbashlo et al., Henderson and Pabis, Jena and Das, Lewis, Logaritmic, Midilli and Kucuk, Page, Parabolic, Wang and Singh and Weibull. The best model was selected as parabolic based on the highest coefficient of determination (R²) (0.999990 at 80°C) and the lowest χ² (0.000002 at 80°C), and the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) (0.000976 at 80°C) values are compared to other models. The effective moisture diffusivity (Deff) values were calculated using the Fick’s second law’s cylindrical coordinate approximation and are found between 6.61×10⁻⁸ and 6.66×10⁻⁷ m²/s. The activation energy (Ea) was calculated using modified form of Arrhenius equation and is found as 18.315 kW/kg.
Keywords: activation energy, drying, effective moisture diffusivity, modelling, oven, shrimpProcedia PDF Downloads 115