Search results for: circular economy
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2915

Search results for: circular economy

2915 Circular Economy: An Overview of Principles, Strategies, and Case Studies

Authors: Dina Mohamed Ahmed Mahmoud Bakr


The concept of a circular economy is gaining increasing attention as a way to promote sustainable economic growth and reduce the environmental impact of human activities. The circular economy is a systemic approach that aims to keep materials and resources in use for as long as possible, minimize waste and pollution, and regenerate natural systems. The purpose of this article is to present a summary of the principles and tactics employed in the circular economy, along with examples of prosperous circular economy projects implemented in different sectors across Japan, Austria, the Netherlands, South Africa, Germany, and the United States. The paper concludes with a discussion of the challenges and opportunities associated with the transition to a circular economy and the policy interventions that can support this transition.

Keywords: circular economy, waste reduction, sustainable development, recycling

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2914 Harmonising the Circular Economy: An Analysis of 160 Papers

Authors: M. Novak, J. Dufourmount, D. Wildi, A. Sutherland, L. Sosa, J. Zimmer, E. Szabo


The circular economy has grounded itself amongst scholars and practitioners operating across governments and enterprises. The aim of this paper is to augment the circular economy concept by identifying common core and enabling circular business models. To this aim, we have analysed over 150 papers regarding circular activities and identified 8 clusters of business models and enablers. We have mapped and harmonised the most prominent frameworks conceptualising the circular economy. Our findings indicate that circular economy core business models include regenerative in addition to reduce, reuse and recycle activities. We further find enabling activities in design, digital technologies, knowledge development and sharing, multistakeholder collaborations, and extended corporate responsibility initiatives in various forms. We critically contrast the application of these business models across the European and African contexts. Overall, we find that seemingly varied circular economy definitions distill the same conceptual business models. We hope to contribute towards the coherence of the circular economy concept, and the continuous development of practical guidance to select and implement circular strategies.

Keywords: Circular economy, content analysis, business models, definitions, enablers, frameworks

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2913 Territories' Challenges and Opportunities to Promote Circular Economy in the Building Sector

Authors: R. Tirado, G. Habert, A. Mailhac, S. Laurenceau


The rapid development of cities implies significant material inflows and outflows. The construction sector is one of the main consumers of raw materials and producers of waste. The waste from the building sector, for its quantity and potential for recovery, constitutes significant deposits requiring major efforts, by combining different actors, to achieve the circular economy's objectives. It is necessary to understand and know the current construction actors' knowledge of stocks, urban metabolism, deposits, and recovery practices in this context. This article aims to explore the role of local governments in planning strategies by facilitating a circular economy. In particular, the principal opportunities and challenges of communities for applying the principles of the circular economy in the building sector will be identified. The approach used for the study was to conduct semi-structured interviews with those responsible for circular economy projects within local administrations of some communities in France. The results show territories' involvement in the inclusion and application of the principles of the circular economy in the building sector. The main challenges encountered are numerous, hence the importance of having identified and described them so that the different actors can work to meet them.

Keywords: building stock, circular economy, interview, local authorities

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2912 Embracing Circular Economy: Unlocking Sustainable Growth in Emerging Markets

Authors: Mario Jose Paillacho Silva, José Ángel Pérez López


This article delves into the critical role of circular economy principles in unlocking sustainable growth and addressing environmental inequalities in emerging markets. Circular economy practices, rooted in regenerative systems and resource conservation, offer a transformative pathway for dynamic economies to achieve prosperity while minimizing environmental impact. The article comprehensively explores the understanding of the circular economy in emerging markets, emphasizing its economic benefits, social implications, and environmental advantages. It highlights key challenges and opportunities faced by these markets and emphasizes the crucial role of governments in creating supportive policy frameworks. It emphasizes how circular economy practices empower local communities and promote social inclusion and equality. Furthermore, the article underscores how the adoption of circular economy practices can mitigate waste, pollution, and resource scarcity, thus contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation. Integrating circular economy principles with the United Nations' sustainable development goals (SDGs), the article showcases the potential of circularity in fostering responsible consumption and production, sustainable economic growth, and environmental protection. Overall, the article advocates for cross-sector collaboration and knowledge sharing to overcome barriers and scale circular economy practices in emerging markets, ultimately leading to a more equitable, prosperous, and environmentally sustainable future.

Keywords: circular economy, sustainability, emerging markets, circularity

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2911 A Review on the Outlook of the Circular Economy in the Automotive Industry

Authors: A. Buruzs, A. Torma


The relationship of the automotive industry with raw material supply is a major challenge and presents obstacles. Automobiles are ones of the most complex products using a large variety of materials. Safety, eco-friendliness and comfort requirements, physical, chemical and economic limitations set the framework in which this industry continuously optimizes the efficient and responsible use of resources. The concept of circular economy covers the issues of waste generation, resource scarcity and economic advantages. However, circularity is already known for the automobile industry – several efforts are done to foster material reuse, product remanufacturing and recycling. The aim of this study is to give an overview on how the producers comply with the growing demands on one hand, and gain efficiency and increase profitability on the other hand from circular economy.

Keywords: automotive industry, circular economy, international requirements, natural resources

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2910 Adopting Circular Economy Principles in Municipal Waste Management: A Pathway to Sustainability

Authors: Bushra, Filza Akhtar


As countries face increased pressure to address environmental issues and resource constraints, the need to implement sustainable waste management strategies grows. This research study investigates the concept of circular economy principles in the context of municipal waste management as a tool for achieving sustainability goals. Municipalities can reduce environmental impacts, conserve resources, and promote economic development by switching from traditional linear waste disposal prototypes to circular approaches prioritizing waste minimization, reuse, recycling, and resource recovery. Drawing on case studies and best practices worldwide, this study investigates the potential benefits, obstacles, and opportunities of incorporating circular economy principles into waste management methods. It also talks about the role of regulatory frameworks, technology advances, and stakeholder participation in driving the transformation.

Keywords: sustainable, waste, management, circular economy

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2909 Analyzing the Potential of Job Creation by Taking the First Step Towards Circular Economy: Case Study of Brazil

Authors: R. Conde


The Brazilian economic projections and social indicators show a future of crisis for the country. Solutions to avoid this crisis scenario are necessary. Several developed countries implement initiatives linked to sustainability, mainly related to the circular economy, to solve their crises quickly - green recovery. This article aims to assess social gains if Brazil followed the same recovery strategy. Furthermore, with the use of data presented and recognized in the international academic society, the number of jobs that can be created, if Brazil took the first steps towards a more circular economy, was found. Moreover, in addition to the gross value in the number of jobs created, this article also detailed the number of these jobs by type of activity (collection, processing, and manufacturing) and by type of material.

Keywords: circular economy, green recovery, job creation, social gains

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2908 Circular Bio-economy of Copper and Gold from Electronic Wastes

Authors: Sadia Ilyas, Hyunjung Kim, Rajiv R. Srivastava


Current work has attempted to establish the linkages between circular bio-economy and recycling of copper and gold from urban mine by applying microbial activities instead of the smelter and chemical technologies. Thereafter, based on the potential of microbial approaches and research hypothesis, the structural model has been tested for a significance level of 99%, which is supported by the corresponding standardization co-efficient values. A prediction model applied to determine the recycling impact on circular bio-economy indicates to re-circulate 51,833 tons of copper and 58 tons of gold by 2030 for the production of virgin metals/raw-materials, while recycling rate of the accumulated e-waste remains to be 20%. This restoration volume of copper and gold through the microbial activities corresponds to mitigate 174 million kg CO₂ emissions and 24 million m³ water consumption if compared with the primary production activities. The study potentially opens a new window for environmentally-friendly biotechnological recycling of e-waste urban mine under the umbrella concept of circular bio-economy.

Keywords: urban mining, biobleaching, circular bio-economy, environmental impact

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2907 Development and Validation of the Circular Economy Scale

Authors: Yu Fang Chen, Jeng Fung Hung


This study aimed to develop a circular economy scale to assess the level of recognition among high-level executives in businesses regarding the circular economy. The circular economy is crucial for global ESG sustainable development and poses a challenge for corporate social responsibility. The aim of promoting the circular economy is to reduce resource consumption, move towards sustainable development, reduce environmental impact, maintain ecological balance, increase economic value, and promote employment. This study developed a 23-item Circular Economy Scale, which includes three subscales: "Understanding of Circular Economy by Enterprises" (8 items), "Attitudes" (9 items), and "Behaviors" (6 items). The Likert 5-point scale was used to measure responses, with higher scores indicating higher levels of agreement among senior executives with regard to the circular economy. The study tested 105 senior executives and used a structural equation model (SEM) as a measurement indicator to determine the extent to which potential variables were measured. The standard factor loading of the measurement indicator needs to be higher than 0.7, and the average variance explained (AVE) represents the index of convergent validity, which should be greater than 0.5 or at least 0.45 to be acceptable. Out of the 23 items, 12 did not meet the standard, so they were removed, leaving 5 items, 3 items, and 3 items for each of the three subscales, respectively, all with a factor loading greater than 0.7. The AVE for all three subscales was greater than 0.45, indicating good construct validity. The Cronbach's α reliability values for the three subscales were 0.887, 0.787, and 0.734, respectively, and the total scale was 0.860, all of which were higher than 0.7, indicating good reliability. The Circular Economy Scale developed in this study measures three conceptual components that align with the theoretical framework of the literature review and demonstrate good reliability and validity. It can serve as a measurement tool for evaluating the degree of acceptance of the circular economy among senior executives in enterprises. In the future, this scale can be used by senior executives in enterprises as an evaluation tool to further explore its impact on sustainable development and to promote circular economy and sustainable development based on the reference provided.

Keywords: circular economy, corporate social responsibility, scale development, structural equation model

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2906 Reduced Model Investigations Supported by Fuzzy Cognitive Map to Foster Circular Economy

Authors: A. Buruzs, M. F. Hatwágner, L. T. Kóczy


The aim of the present paper is to develop an integrated method that may provide assistance to decision makers during system planning, design, operation and evaluation. In order to support the realization of Circular Economy (CE), it is essential to evaluate local needs and conditions which help to select the most appropriate system components and resource needs. Each of these activities requires careful planning, however, the model of CE offers a comprehensive interdisciplinary framework. The aim of this research was to develop and to introduce a practical methodology for evaluation of local and regional opportunities to promote CE.

Keywords: circular economy, factors, fuzzy cognitive map, model reduction, sustainability

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2905 Relationships between Actors within Business Ecosystems That Adopt Circular Strategies: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Sophia Barquete, Adriana H. Trevisan, Janaina Mascarenhas


The circular economy (CE) aims at the cycling of resources through restorative and regenerative strategies. To achieve circularity, coordination of several actors who have different responsibilities is necessary. The interaction among multiple actors allows the connection between the CE and business ecosystem research fields. Although fundamental, the relationships between actors within an ecosystem to foster circularity are not deeply explored in the literature. The objective of this study was to identify the possibilities of cooperation, competition, or even coopetition among the members of business ecosystems that adopt circular strategies. In particular, the motivations that make these actors interact to achieve a circular economy were investigated. A systematic literature review was adopted to select business ecosystem cases that adopt circular strategies. As a result, several motivations were identified for actors to engage in relationships within ecosystems, such as sharing knowledge and infrastructure, developing products with a circular design, promoting reverse logistics, among others. The results suggest that partnerships between actors are, in fact, important for the implementation of circular strategies. In order to achieve a complete and circular solution, actors must be able to clearly understand their roles and relationships within the network so that they can establish new partnerships or reframe those already established.

Keywords: business ecosystem, circular economy, cooperation, coopetition, competition

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2904 Ethical Implications of Gaps in the Implementation Process of the Circular Economy: Special Focus on Underdeveloped Countries

Authors: Sujith Gunawardhana


The circular economy is a system in which resources and energy are derived from renewable sources, utilized efficiently, recycled, and reused to reduce waste, reduce nonrenewable resource consumption, and mitigate negative environmental impacts. However, it poses moral questions about sustainability, the environment, and societal issues. Many societies face challenges when implementing the circular economy, as the concept is still young. The equitable distribution of the advantages and costs of circularity should be ensured during implementation, as some communities, particularly disadvantaged or marginalized ones, may suffer unfairly disproportionately from the harmful effects of production and recycling facilities. Prioritizing the health and safety of workers, communities, and the environment is essential, and strict rules must be implemented to guard against harm. However, most underdeveloped countries need a legal safeguard for this situation. The ultimate objective of the circular economy is to improve social, environmental, and economic performance, but its implementation also requires consideration of the ethics of care and non-epistemic values. Those are often hindered in underdeveloped countries, as the availability of infrastructure and technology, affordability, and legislative framework are poor. To achieve long-term success in the circular economy, evaluating implementation steps and considering health, safety, environmental, and social risks is crucial. To implement the circular economy, respect ethics of care and non-epistemic values. Adopt Kantian Ethics and control technology design to ensure equal benefits for all involved. Ethical gaps may lead underdeveloped countries to generate social pressure against the circular economy.

Keywords: circular economy, ethics, values, sustainability

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2903 Correlation between Consumer Knowledge of the Circular Economy and Consumer Behavior towards Its Application: A Canadian Exploratory Study

Authors: Christopher E. A. Ramsey, Halia Valladares Montemayor


This study examined whether the dissemination of information about the circular economy (CE) has any bearing on the likelihood of the implementation of its concepts on an individual basis. Specifically, the goal of this research study was to investigate the impact of consumer knowledge about the circular economy on their behavior in applying such concepts. Given that our current linear supply chains are unsustainable, it is of great importance that we understand what mechanisms are most effective in encouraging consumers to embrace CE. The theoretical framework employed was the theory of planned behavior (TPB). TPB, with its analysis of how attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control affect intention, provided an adequate model for testing the effects of increased information about the CE on the implementation of its recommendations. The empirical research consisted of a survey distributed among university students, faculty, and staff at a Canadian University in British Columbia.

Keywords: circular economy, consumer behavior, sustainability, theory of planned behavior

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2902 Circular Economy in Social Practice in Response to Social Needs: Community Actions Versus Government Policy

Authors: Sai-Kit Choi


While traditional social services heavily depended on Government funding and support, there were always time lag, and resources mismatch with the fast growing and changing social needs. This study aims at investigating the effectiveness of implementing Circular Economy concept in a social service setting with comparison to Government Policy in response to social needs in 3 areas: response time, suitability, and community participation. To investigate the effectiveness of implementing Circular Economy concept in a social service setting, a real service model, a community resources sharing platform, was set up and statistics of the first 6 months’ operation data were used as comparison with traditional social services. Literature review was conducted as a reference basis of traditional social services under Government Policy. Case studies were conducted to provide the qualitative perspectives of the innovative approach. The results suggest that the Circular Economy model showed extraordinarily high level of community participation. In addition, it could utilize community resources in response precisely to the burning social needs. On the other hand, the available resources were unstable when comparing to those services supported by Government funding. The research team concluded that Circular Economy has high potential in applications in social service, especially in certain areas, such as resources sharing platform. Notwithstanding, it should be aware of the stability of resources when the services targeted to support some crucial needs.

Keywords: circular economy, social innovation, community participation, sharing economy, social response

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2901 Bio-Based Processes for Circular Economy in the Textile Industry

Authors: Nazanin Forouz


The textile industry faces increasing criticism due to its resource-intensive nature and the negative environmental and societal impacts associated with the manufacturing, use, and disposal of clothes. To address these concerns, there is a growing desire to transition towards a circular economy for textiles, implementing recycling concepts and technologies to protect resources, the environment, and people. While existing recycling processes have focused on chemical and mechanical reuse of textile fibers, bio-based processes have received limited attention beyond end-of-life composting. However, bio-based technologies hold great promise for circularizing the textile life cycle and reducing environmental impacts.

Keywords: textile industry, circular economy, bio-based processes, recycling, environmental impacts

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2900 The European Legislation on End-of-Waste

Authors: Claudio D'Alonzo


According to recent tendencies, progress on resource efficiency is possible and it will lead to economic, environmental, and social benefits. The passage to a circular economy system, in which all the materials and energy will maintain their value for as long as possible, waste is reduced and only a few resources are used, is one of the most relevant parts of the European Union's environmental policy to develop a sustainable, competitive and low-carbon economy. A definition of circular economy can be found in Decision 1386/2013/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on a General Union Environment Action Programme to 2020 named “Living well, within the limits of our planet”. The purpose of renewing waste management systems in the UE and making the European model one of the most effective in the world, a revised waste legislative framework entered into force in July 2018. Regarding the Italian legislation, the laws to be modified are the Legislative Decree 3 April 2006, n. 152 and the laws ruling waste management, end-of-waste, by-products and, the regulatory principles regarding circular economy. European rules on end-of-waste are not fully harmonised and so there are legal challenges. The target to be achieved is full consistency between the laws implementing waste and chemicals policies. Only in this way, materials will be safe, fit-for-purpose and designed for durability; additionally, they will have a low environmental impact.

Keywords: circular economy, end-of-waste, legislation, secondary raw materials

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2899 Transition from Linear to Circular Business Models with Service Design Methodology

Authors: Minna-Maari Harmaala, Hanna Harilainen


Estimates of the economic value of transitioning to circular economy models vary but it has been estimated to represent $1 trillion worth of new business into the global economy. In Europe alone, estimates claim that adopting circular-economy principles could not only have environmental and social benefits but also generate a net economic benefit of €1.8 trillion by 2030. Proponents of a circular economy argue that it offers a major opportunity to increase resource productivity, decrease resource dependence and waste, and increase employment and growth. A circular system could improve competitiveness and unleash innovation. Yet, most companies are not capturing these opportunities and thus the even abundant circular opportunities remain uncaptured even though they would seem inherently profitable. Service design in broad terms relates to developing an existing or a new service or service concept with emphasis and focus on the customer experience from the onset of the development process. Service design may even mean starting from scratch and co-creating the service concept entirely with the help of customer involvement. Service design methodologies provide a structured way of incorporating customer understanding and involvement in the process of designing better services with better resonance to customer needs. A business model is a depiction of how the company creates, delivers, and captures value; i.e. how it organizes its business. The process of business model development and adjustment or modification is also called business model innovation. Innovating business models has become a part of business strategy. Our hypothesis is that in addition to linear models still being easier to adopt and often with lower threshold costs, companies lack an understanding of how circular models can be adopted into their business and how customers will be willing and ready to adopt the new circular business models. In our research, we use robust service design methodology to develop circular economy solutions with two case study companies. The aim of the process is to not only develop the service concepts and portfolio, but to demonstrate the willingness to adopt circular solutions exists in the customer base. In addition to service design, we employ business model innovation methods to develop, test, and validate the new circular business models further. The results clearly indicate that amongst the customer groups there are specific customer personas that are willing to adopt and in fact are expecting the companies to take a leading role in the transition towards a circular economy. At the same time, there is a group of indifferents, to whom the idea of circularity provides no added value. In addition, the case studies clearly show what changes adoption of circular economy principles brings to the existing business model and how they can be integrated.

Keywords: business model innovation, circular economy, circular economy business models, service design

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2898 Designing a Model to Increase the Flow of Circular Economy Startups Using a Systemic and Multi-Generational Approach

Authors: Luís Marques, João Rocha, Andreia Fernandes, Maria Moura, Cláudia Caseiro, Filipa Figueiredo, João Nunes


The implementation of circularity strategies other than recycling, such as reducing the amount of raw material, as well as reusing or sharing existing products, remains marginal. The European Commission announced that the transition towards a more circular economy could lead to the net creation of about 700,000 jobs in Europe by 2030, through additional labour demand from recycling plants, repair services and other circular activities. Efforts to create new circular business models in accordance with completely circular processes, as opposed to linear ones, have increased considerably in recent years. In order to create a societal Circular Economy transition model, it is necessary to include innovative solutions, where startups play a key role. Early-stage startups based on new business models according to circular processes often face difficulties in creating enough impact. The StartUp Zero Program designs a model and approach to increase the flow of startups in the Circular Economy field, focusing on a systemic decision analysis and multi-generational approach, considering Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis to support a decision-making tool, which is also supported by the use of a combination of an Analytical Hierarchy Process and Multi-Attribute Value Theory methods. We define principles, criteria and indicators for evaluating startup prerogatives, quantifying the evaluation process in a unique result. Additionally, this entrepreneurship program spanning 16 months involved more than 2400 young people, from ages 14 to 23, in more than 200 interaction activities.

Keywords: circular economy, entrepreneurship, startups;, multi-criteria decision analysis

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2897 Circular Economy in Relation to Waste Management Development

Authors: Kwok Tak Kit


Construction and demolition (C&D) waste generated in the process of urbanization which only contribute to approx. 25–35 per cent of municipal solid waste (MSW), and the action to reduce the generation of other MSW is considered more critical. Developed and cities produce a higher percentage of inorganic waste rather than organic waste. Most of the MSW was disposed in landfill, and a large number of the landfills are not effectively and efficiently operated to receive the untreated incoming waste. It is also a global problem that the demands for enhancement of basic infrastructure for waste collection, treatment, and disposal, including rehabilitation of the dump sites, is the urgent priority. This paper is to review the factors taken into consideration of waste management development in relation to circular economy development on development countries and green recovery in the post-pandemic era for further researches use.

Keywords: waste management, waste reduction, circular economy, developed countries, sustainable design goals

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2896 Incorporating Circular Economy into Passive Design Strategies in Tropical Nigeria

Authors: Noah G. Akhimien, Eshrar Latif


The natural environment is in need for an urgent rescue due to dilapidation and recession of resources. Passive design strategies have proven to be one of the effective ways to reduce CO2 emissions and to improve building performance. On the other hand, there is a huge drop in material availability due to poor recycling culture. Consequently, building waste pose environmental hazard due to unrecycled building materials from construction and deconstruction. Buildings are seen to be material banks for a circular economy, therefore incorporating circular economy into passive housing will not only safe guide the climate but also improve resource efficiency. The study focuses on incorporating a circular economy in passive design strategies for an affordable energy and resource efficient residential building in Nigeria. Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is still on the increase as buildings are responsible for a significant amount of this emission globally. Therefore, prompt measures need to be taken to combat the effect of global warming and associated threats. Nigeria is rapidly growing in human population, resources on the other hand have receded greatly, and there is an abrupt need for recycling even in the built environment. It is necessary that Nigeria responds to these challenges effectively and efficiently considering building resource and energy. Passive design strategies were assessed using simulations to obtain qualitative and quantitative data which were inferred to case studies as it relates to the Nigeria climate. Building materials were analysed using the ReSOLVE model in order to explore possible recycling phase. This provided relevant information and strategies to illustrate the possibility of circular economy in passive buildings. The study offers an alternative approach, as it is the general principle for the reworking of an economy on ecological lines in passive housing and by closing material loops in circular economy.

Keywords: building, circular, efficiency, environment, sustainability

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2895 Adopting a Stakeholder Perspective to Profile Successful Sustainable Circular Business Approaches: A Single Case Study

Authors: Charleen von Kolpinski, Karina Cagarman, Alina Blaute


The circular economy concept is often framed by politicians, scientists and practitioners as being the solution to sustainability problems of our times. However, the focus of these discussions and publications is very often set on environmental and economic aspects. In contrast, the social dimension of sustainability has been neglected and only a few recent and mostly conceptual studies targeted the inclusion of social aspects and the SDGs into circular economy research. All stakeholders of this new circular system have to be included to represent a truly sustainable solution to all the environmental, economic and social challenges caused by the linear economic system. Hence, this empirical research aims to analyse, next to the environmental and economic dimension, also explicitly the social dimension of a sustainable circular business model. This inductive and explorative approach applies the single case study method. A multi-stakeholder view is adopted to shed light on social aspects of the circular business model. Different stakeholder views, tensions between stakeholders and conflicts of interest are detected. In semi-structured interviews with different stakeholders of the company, this study compares the different stakeholder views to profile the success factors of its business model in terms of sustainability implementation and to detect its shortcomings. These findings result in the development of propositions which cover different social aspects of sustainable circular business model implementation. This study is an answer to calls for future empirical research about the social dimension of the circular economy and contributes to sustainable business model thinking in entrepreneurial contexts of the circular economy. It helps identifying all relevant stakeholders and their needs to successfully and inclusively implement a sustainable circular business model. The method of a single case study has some limitations by nature as it only covers one enterprise with its special business model. Therefore, more empirical studies are needed to research sustainable circular business models from multiple stakeholder perspectives, in different countries and industries. Future research can build upon the developed propositions of this study and develop hypotheses to be tested.

Keywords: circular economy, single case study, social dimension, sustainable circular business model

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2894 Circular Economy and Remedial Frameworks in Contract Law

Authors: Reza Beheshti


This paper examines remedies for defective manufactured goods in commercial circular economic transactions. The linear ‘take-make-dispose’ model fits well with the conventional remedial framework in which damages are considered the primary remedy. Damages under English Sales Law encourages buyers to look for a substitute seller with broadly similar goods to the ones agreed on in the original contract, enter into contract with this new seller and hence terminate the original contract. By doing so, the buyer ends the contractual relationship. This seems contrary to the core principles of the circular economy: keeping products, components, and materials in longer use, which can partly be achieved by product refurbishment. This process involves returning a product to good working condition by replacing or repairing major components that are faulty or close to failure and making ‘cosmetic’ changes to update the appearance of a product. This remedy has not been widely accepted or applied in commercial cases, which in turn flags up the secondary nature of performance-related remedies. This paper critically analyses the laws concerning the seller’s duty to cure in English law and the extent to which they correspond with core principles of the circular economy. In addition, this paper takes into account the potential of circular economic transactions being characterised as something other than sales. In such situations, the likely outcome will be a license to use products, which may limit the choice of remedy further. Consequently, this paper suggests an outline remedial framework specifically for commercial circular economic transactions in manufactured goods.

Keywords: circular economy, contract law, remedies, English Sales Law

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2893 An Integrated Framework for Engaging Stakeholders in the Circular Economy Processes Using Building Information Modeling and Virtual Reality

Authors: Erisasadat Sahebzamani, Núria Forcada, Francisco Lendinez


Global climate change has become increasingly problematic over the past few decades. The construction industry has contributed to greenhouse gas emissions in recent decades. Considering these issues and the high demand for materials in the construction industry, Circular Economy (CE) is considered necessary to keep materials in the loop and extend their useful lives. By providing tangible benefits, Construction 4.0 facilitates the adoption of CE by reducing waste, updating standard work, sharing knowledge, and increasing transparency and stability. This study aims to present a framework for integrating CE and digital tools like Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Virtual Reality (VR) to examine the impact on the construction industry based on stakeholders' perspectives.

Keywords: circular economy, building information modeling, virtual reality, stakeholder engagement

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2892 Circular Economy Maturity Models: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Dennis Kreutzer, Sarah Müller-Abdelrazeq, Ingrid Isenhardt


Resource scarcity, energy transition and the planned climate neutrality pose enormous challenges for manufacturing companies. In order to achieve these goals and a holistic sustainable development, the European Union has listed the circular economy as part of the Circular Economy Action Plan. In addition to a reduction in resource consumption, reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and a reduced volume of waste, the principles of the circular economy also offer enormous economic potential for companies, such as the generation of new circular business models. However, many manufacturing companies, especially small and medium-sized enterprises, do not have the necessary capacity to plan their transformation. They need support and strategies on the path to circular transformation, because this change affects not only production but also the entire company. Maturity models offer an approach, as they enable companies to determine the current status of their transformation processes. In addition, companies can use the models to identify transformation strategies and thus promote the transformation process. While maturity models are established in other areas, e.g. IT or project management, only a few circular economy maturity models can be found in the scientific literature. The aim of this paper is to analyse the identified maturity models of the circular economy through a systematic literature review (SLR) and, besides other aspects, to check their completeness as well as their quality. Since the terms "maturity model" and "readiness model" are often used to assess the transformation process, this paper considers both types of models to provide a more comprehensive result. For this purpose, circular economy maturity models at the company (micro) level were identified from the literature, compared, and analysed with regard to their theoretical and methodological structure. A specific focus was placed, on the one hand, on the analysis of the business units considered in the respective models and, on the other hand, on the underlying metrics and indicators in order to determine the individual maturity level of the entire company. The results of the literature review show, for instance, a significant difference in the holism of their assessment framework. Only a few models include the entire company with supporting areas outside the value-creating core process, e.g. strategy and vision. Additionally, there are large differences in the number and type of indicators as well as their metrics. For example, most models often use subjective indicators and very few objective indicators in their surveys. It was also found that there are rarely well-founded thresholds between the levels. Based on the generated results, concrete ideas and proposals for a research agenda in the field of circular economy maturity models are made.

Keywords: maturity model, circular economy, transformation, metric, assessment

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2891 Advancing Circular Economy Principles: Integrating AI Technology in Street Sanitation for Sustainable Urban Development

Authors: Xukai Fu


The concept of circular economy is interdisciplinary, intersecting environmental engineering, information technology, business, and social science domains. Over the course of its 15-year tenure in the sanitation industry, Jinkai has concentrated its efforts in the past five years on integrating artificial intelligence (AI) technology with street sanitation apparatus and systems. This endeavor has led to the development of various innovations, including the Intelligent Identification Sweeper Truck (Intelligent Waste Recognition and Energy-saving Control System), the Intelligent Identification Water Truck (Intelligent Flushing Control System), the intelligent food waste treatment machine, and the Intelligent City Road Sanitation Surveillance Platform. This study will commence with an examination of prevalent global challenges, elucidating how Jinkai effectively addresses each within the framework of circular economy principles. Utilizing a review and analysis of pertinent environmental management data, we will elucidate Jinkai's strategic approach. Following this, we will investigate how Jinkai utilizes the advantages of circular economy principles to guide the design of street sanitation machinery, with a focus on digitalization integration. Moreover, we will scrutinize Jinkai's sustainable practices throughout the invention and operation phases of street sanitation machinery, aligning with the triple bottom line theory. Finally, we will delve into the significance and enduring impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and environmental, social, and governance (ESG) initiatives. Special emphasis will be placed on Jinkai's contributions to community stakeholders, with a particular emphasis on human rights. Despite the widespread adoption of circular economy principles across various industries, achieving a harmonious equilibrium between environmental justice and social justice remains a formidable task. Jinkai acknowledges that the mere development of energy-saving technologies is insufficient for authentic circular economy implementation; rather, they serve as instrumental tools. To earnestly promote and embody circular economy principles, companies must consistently prioritize the UN Sustainable Development Goals and adapt their technologies to address the evolving exigencies of our world.

Keywords: circular economy, core principles, benefits, the tripple bottom line, CSR, ESG, social justice, human rights, Jinkai

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2890 Green Human Recourse Environment Performance, Circular Performance Environment Reputation and Economics Performance: The Moderating Role of CEO Ethical Leadership

Authors: Muhammad Umair Ahmed, Aftab Shoukat


Today the global economy has become one of the key strategies in dealing with environmental issues. To allow for a round economy, organizations have begun to work to improve their sustainability management. The contribution of green resource management to the transformation of the global economy has not been investigated. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of green labor management on the global economy, environmental and economic performance, and the organisation's environmental dignity. We strongly evaluate the different roles of the various processes of green personnel management (i.e., green recruitment, training, and engagement green, as well as green performance management and reward) in organizational operations. We are also investigating the leadership role of CEO Ethical. Our outcome will have a positive impact on the performance of the organization. Green Human Resource Management contributes to the evolution of a roundabout economy without the influence of different external factors such as market demand and commitment. Finally, the results of our research will provide a few aspects for future research, both academic and human.

Keywords: sustainability, green human resource management, circular economy, human capital

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2889 Circular Economy-Relationship of Natural Water Collection System, Afforestation and Country Park Towards Environmental Sustainability

Authors: Kwok Tak Kit


The government and community have raised their awareness of the benefits of water reuse. Deforestation has a significant effect to climate change as it causes the drying out of the tropical rainforest and hence increases the chance of natural hazards. The loss of forests due to natural fire or human factors would be threatening the storage and supply of clean water. In this paper, we will focus on the discussion of the relationship of the natural water collection system, afforestation and country parks towards environmental sustainability and circular economy with a case study of water conservation policy and strategy in Hong Kong and Singapore for further research. The UN General Assembly launched the Water Action Decade in 2018 to mobilize action that will help to tackle the growing challenge of water scarcity through water conservation and protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes.

Keywords: afforestation, environmental sustainability, water conservation, circular economy, climate change, sustainable development goal

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2888 Interconnections of Circular Economy, Circularity, and Sustainability: A Systematic Review and Conceptual Framework

Authors: Anteneh Dagnachew Sewenet, Paola Pisano


The concept of circular economy, circularity, and sustainability are interconnected and promote a more sustainable future. However, previous studies have mainly focused on each concept individually, neglecting the relationships and gaps in the existing literature. This study aims to integrate and link these concepts to expand the theoretical and practical methods of scholars and professionals in pursuit of sustainability. The aim of this systematic literature review is to comprehensively analyze and summarize the interconnections between circular economy, circularity, and sustainability. Additionally, it seeks to develop a conceptual framework that can guide practitioners and serve as a basis for future research. The review employed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol. A total of 78 articles were analyzed, utilizing the Scopus and Web of Science databases. The analysis involved summarizing and systematizing the conceptualizations of circularity and its relationship with the circular economy and long-term sustainability. The review provided a comprehensive overview of the interconnections between circular economy, circularity, and sustainability. Key themes, theoretical frameworks, empirical findings, and conceptual gaps in the literature were identified. Through a rigorous analysis of scholarly articles, the study highlighted the importance of integrating these concepts for a more sustainable future. This study contributes to the existing literature by integrating and linking the concepts of circular economy, circularity, and sustainability. It expands the theoretical understanding of how these concepts relate to each other and provides a conceptual framework that can guide future research in this field. The findings emphasize the need for a holistic approach in achieving sustainability goals. The data collection for this review involved identifying relevant articles from the Scopus and Web of Science databases. The selection of articles was made based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The PRISMA protocol guided the systematic analysis of the selected articles, including summarizing and systematizing their content. This study addressed the question of how circularity is conceptualized and related to both the circular economy and long-term sustainability. It aimed to identify the interconnections between these concepts and bridge the gap in the existing literature. The review provided a comprehensive analysis of the interconnections between the circular economy, circularity, and sustainability. It presented a conceptual framework that can guide practitioners in implementing circular economy strategies and serve as a basis for future research. By integrating these concepts, scholars, and professionals can enhance the theoretical and practical methods in pursuit of a more sustainable future. The findings emphasize the importance of taking a holistic approach to achieve sustainability goals and highlight conceptual gaps that can be addressed in future studies.

Keywords: circularity, circular economy, sustainability, innovation

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2887 Managing the Baltic Sea Region Resilience: Prevention, Treatment Actions and Circular Economy

Authors: J. Burlakovs, Y. Jani, L. Grinberga, M. Kriipsalu, O. Anne, I. Grinfelde, W. Hogland


The worldwide future sustainable economies are oriented towards the sea: the maritime economy is becoming one of the strongest driving forces in many regions as population growth is the highest in coastal areas. For hundreds of years sea resources were depleted unsustainably by fishing, mining, transportation, tourism, and waste. European Sustainable Development Strategy is identifying and developing actions to enable the EU to achieve a continuous, long-term improvement of the quality of life through the creation of sustainable communities. The aim of this paper is to provide insight in Baltic Sea Region case studies on implemented actions on tourism industry waste and beach wrack management in coastal areas, hazardous contaminants and plastic flow treatment from waste, wastewaters and stormwaters. These projects mentioned in study promote successful prevention of contaminant flows to the sea environments and provide perspectives for creation of valuable new products from residuals for future circular economy are the step forward to green innovation winning streak.

Keywords: resilience, hazardous waste, phytoremediation, water management, circular economy

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2886 Leveraging Laser Cladding Technology for Eco-Friendly Solutions and Sustainability in Equipment Refurbishment

Authors: Rakan A. Ahmed, Raja S. Khan, Mohammed M. Qahtani


This paper explores the transformative impact of laser cladding technology on the circular economy, emphasizing its role in reducing environmental impact compared to traditional welding methods. Laser cladding, an innovative manufacturing process, optimizes resource efficiency and sustainability by significantly decreasing power consumption and minimizing material waste. The study explores how laser cladding operates within the framework of the circular economy, promoting energy efficiency, waste reduction, and emissions control. Through a comparative analysis of energy and material consumption between laser cladding and conventional welding methods, the paper highlights the significant strides in environmental conservation and resource optimization made possible by laser cladding. The findings highlight the potential for this technology to revolutionize industrial practices and propel a more sustainable and eco-friendly manufacturing landscape.

Keywords: laser cladding, circular economy, carbon emission, energy

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