Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 488

Search results for: herbal tea supplement

488 Nutrition Bio-Shield Superfood: Healthy and Live Herbal Supplement for Immune System Enhancement

Authors: Azam Bayat, Aref Khalkhali, Ali Reza Mahjoub

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Healthy and viable herbal supplement were prepared from wheat by a green route. This organic biomaterial was named Nutrition Bio-shield Superfood (NBS). The NBS supplement had various vitamins, macro and micro molecules, and ingredients. In this study, 20 small Balb/C labile specimens were used in a weighing 30 ± 5 range. The samples were randomly divided into different groups, then the groups were divided into 5 groups. According to the results of this study, the mean number of white blood cells and neutrophil percentage in the experimental group receiving healthy and live dietary supplement showed a significant increase at the 5% probability level in all three groups received 50, 100 and 150 mg/ kg body weight of the mouse compared to the control group. In general, the dietary supplement increases the level of immunity.

Keywords: healthy and live herbal supplement, biomaterial, immune system, enhancement

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487 Bioactive Chemical Markers Based Strategy for Quality Control of Herbal Medicines

Authors: Zhenzhong Yang

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Herbal medicines are important supplements to chemical drugs and usually consist of a complex mixture of constituents. The current quality control strategy of herbal medicines is mainly based on chemical markers, which largely failed to owe to the markers, not reflecting the herbal medicines’ multiple mechanisms of action. Herein, a bioactive chemical markers based strategy was proposed and applied to the quality assessment and control of herbal medicines. This strategy mainly includes the comprehensive chemical characterization of herbal medicines, bioactive chemical markers identification, and related quantitative analysis methods development. As a proof-of-concept, this strategy was applied to a Panax notoginseng derived herbal medicine. The bioactive chemical markers based strategy offers a rational approach for quality assessment and control of herbal medicines.

Keywords: bioactive chemical markers, herbal medicines, quality assessment, quality control

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486 The Prevalence of Herbal Medicine Practice and Associated Factors among Cancer Patients Receiving Palliative Care at Mobile Hospice Mbarara

Authors: Harriet Nalubega, Eddie Mwebesa

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In Uganda, over 90% of people use herbal remedies. Herbal medicine use has been associated with delayed clinical appointments, presentation with advanced cancers, financial constraints, and misdiagnosis. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of herbal medicine use and practices amongst cancer patients receiving Palliative Care at Mobile Hospice Mbarara (MHM) and the associated challenges. This was a mixed-methods prospective study conducted in 2022 at MHM, where patients were interviewed, and a questionnaire was completed. 87% of the patients had used herbal medicine. Of these, 83% were female, and 59% had not received formal education. 27% of patients had used herbal remedies for a year or more. 51% of patients who were consuming herbs stopped using them after starting palliative care treatment. Motivations for herbal medicine use were in the hope for a cure in 59%, for pain relief in 30%, and peer influence in 10%. There is a high prevalence of herbal medicine use in Palliative Care. Female gender and lack of formal education were disproportionately associated with herbal remedy use. Most patients consume herbal remedies in search of a cure or to relieve severe pain. Education of cancer patients about herbal remedy use may improve treatment outcomes in Palliative Care.

Keywords: prevalence, herbal medicine, cancer patients, palliative care

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485 An Investigation of the Use of Visible Spectrophotometric Analysis of Lead in an Herbal Tea Supplement

Authors: Salve Alessandria Alcantara, John Armand E. Aquino, Ma. Veronica Aranda, Nikki Francine Balde, Angeli Therese F. Cruz, Elise Danielle Garcia, Antonie Kyna Lim, Divina Gracia Lucero, Nikolai Thadeus Mappatao, Maylan N. Ocat, Jamille Dyanne L. Pajarillo, Jane Mierial A. Pesigan, Grace Kristin Viva, Jasmine Arielle C. Yap, Kathleen Michelle T. Yu, Joanna J. Orejola, Joanna V. Toralba

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Lead is a neurotoxic metallic element that is slowly accumulated in bones and tissues especially if present in products taken in a regular basis such as herbal tea supplements. Although sensitive analytical instruments are already available, the USP limit test for lead is still widely used. However, because of its serious shortcomings, Lang Lang and his colleagues developed a spectrophotometric method for determination of lead in all types of samples. This method was the one adapted in this study. The actual procedure performed was divided into three parts: digestion, extraction and analysis. For digestion, HNO3 and CH3COOH were used. Afterwards, masking agents, 0.003% and 0.001% dithizone in CHCl3 were added and used for the extraction. For the analysis, standard addition method and colorimetry were performed. This was done in triplicates under two conditions. The 1st condition, using 25µg/mL of standard, resulted to very low absorbances with an r2 of 0.551. This led to the use of a higher concentration, 1mg/mL, for condition 2. Precipitation of lead cyanide was observed and the absorbance readings were relatively higher but between 0.15-0.25, resulting to a very low r2 of 0.429. LOQ and LOD were not computed due to the limitations of the Milton-Roy Spectrophotometer. The method performed has a shorter digestion time, and used less but more accessible reagents. However, the optimum ratio of dithizone-lead complex must be observed in order to obtain reliable results while exploring other concentration of standards.

Keywords: herbal tea supplement, lead-dithizone complex, standard addition, visible spectroscopy

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484 A Saudi Herbal Database: An Approach for Organizing the Rich Herbal Resource of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Syed Asif Hassan, Tabrej Khan

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The use of traditional medicines for the treatment of various diseases as well as maintaining a healthy lifestyle has gained a significant acceptance across the globe. The increasing popularity of Herbal Medicine can be owed to the fact that is relatively inexpensive and has lesser side effects as compared to general medicines. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has a rich heritage of herbal medicine for overages. However, the information about essential traditional herbs of Arabian origin and their implication in the treatment of various diseases are not well documented in an organized manner. Therefore, the requirement of a local platform (database system) for herbal medicines of Arab origin is the need of the day. In this context, various questionnaire and surveys were conducted over a period of 6 months. The surveys were targeted to identify a range of herbal remedies used by the communities of Saudi Arabia e.g., pharmacists and local people. The survey leads us to identify many of the mysterious local medicinal herbs used for the treatment of various ailments and thus reveals a unique insight into the natural herbal resource of Saudi Arabia. The information of the herbal medicines will be further used to develop a Saudi herbal database system using the principles of waterfall method. An interactive dynamic electronic web portal of the herbal database system will be built using MySQL and PHP for accessing the information available in the Saudi herbal database system. The web portal will be a step forward in creating awareness among the Arab nationals of their rich herbal heritage.

Keywords: Saudi herbal medicine, community survey, database system and design, MySQL, PHP

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
483 Nutraceuticals of Chemical Synthesis: Special Glycans as Prebiotics for the Holobiont

Authors: M. Menapace

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Introduction: Herbal remedies express the idea of natural products used as pharmacotherapy or supplementation in case of need. Whether they are obtained directly by plants or synthesised chemically, prebiotics are considered nutraceuticals of natural origin, i.e., products made available for health reasons and self-medication. Methods: A literature review has been performed by screening manuscripts with prebiotics as herbal nutraceuticals (including chemically synthesized compounds, such as human milk oligosaccharides [HMO]) and evaluating the chemical structure of fibers in diverse food sources (principally herbals). Results: An examination of recent literature led to the fundamental concept of the holobiont as key in understanding the importance of prebiotics for the nonhost part of the metaorganism (microbiota) called a human being. This multispecies entity requires prebiotic fibers to avoid a state of disequilibrium (dysbiosis) that fosters diseases. Conclusions: Numerous human-derived glycans (special oligosaccharides that mimic in structure and function not only blood type antigens but also herbal fibers) have been identified as essential for the maintenance of the equilibrium (eubiosis) within the human holobiont in the modern age. These products are planned to be used not just as additions to baby milk formulas but as food supplements for the health of adults. In the context of alternative medicine, human-derived glycan-based supplements may represent the next step on the road to complete well-being.

Keywords: glycans, herbal remedy, prebiotics, food supplement

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482 The Effects of Spirulina (Spiruvit Supplement) on Healthy Weight Control

Authors: F. Berahmandpour, K. Bagheri

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Introduction: Spirulina is nutritious blue - green algae which are used as supplement or a preservative in many foods. The studies about the algae argue that the Spirulina can improve immune system, increase fat utilization, reduce oxidative stress and promote endurance at high-intensity exercise. The purpose of study is to assess the effects of Spirulina supplement on healthy weight control. Method: the study is a cross-sectional study which had 30 participants. The participants were men and women who referred to the nutrition and diet therapy clinic (in west of Tehran / Iran) for control weight. The sampling was a purposeful sampling. The participants were divided into three groups, and they were surveyed for 4 weeks. In the first group, 10 participants were used Spirulia supplement (dose: 500mg of Spiruvit Supplement as tablet / 3 times per day) without any special diet. The second group was 10 participants who received Spirulia supplement (dose 500mg of Spiruvit Supplement as tablet / 3 times per day) with a weight loss exercise program and without any special diet. The third group was 10 participants who used Spirulia supplement (dose 500mg of Spiruvit Supplement as tablet / 3 times per day) with an optimum weight loss diet. Results and Discussion: The results show that there were not any significant loss weights in first group. In while, the participants of second group argued that the Spirulina supplement had positive effects on their mud and physical body; however the clinical results showed that the loss weight had fixed tilt in this group. The significant results of study were related to the third group, because the participations could continuous loss weight during 4 weeks. However, the optimum weight loss diets were effective effects on weight loss in this group, but the researchers found that Spirulina supplement could improve loss weight with set of hormonal system (especially in women with menopause). Conclusion: The study is concluded that the Spirulina as a supplement (Spiruvit Supplement) can be an effective effect on healthy weight control, if it is used with a nutritious healthy weight loss diet. In fact, the effect of Spirulina can be related to powerful antioxidant effects and improvable hormonal system in the body.

Keywords: diet, healthy weight control, spirulina, spiruvit supplement

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481 Design and Development of Herbal Formulations: Challenges and Solutions

Authors: B. Sathyanarayana

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As per the report of World Health Organization, more than 80% of world population uses medicines made from herbal and natural materials. They have stood the test of time for their safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects. Quality assurance and control measures, such as national quality specification and standards for herbal materials, good manufacturing practices (GMP) for herbal medicines, labelling, and licensing schemes for manufacturing, imports and marketing, should be in place in every country where herbal medicines are regulated. These measures are vital for ensuring the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines. In the case of herbal products challenge begins at the stage of designing itself except the classical products. Selection of herbal ingredients, officinal parts to be used, proportions are vital. Once the formulation is designed one should take utmost care to produce the standardized product of assured quality and safety. Quality control measures should cover the validation of quality and identity of raw materials, in process control (as per SOP and GMP norms) and at the level of final product. Quality testing, safety and efficacy studies of the final product are required to ensure the safe and effective use of the herbal products in human beings. Medicinal plants being the materials of natural resource are subjected to great variation making it really difficult to fix quality standards especially in the case of polyherbal preparations. Manufacturing also needs modification according to the type of ingredients present. Hence, it becomes essential to develop Standard operative Procedure for a specific herbal product. Present paper throws a light on the challenges that are encountered during the design and development of herbal products.

Keywords: herbal product, challenges, quality, safety, efficacy

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480 High-Performance Thin-layer Chromatography (HPTLC) Analysis of Multi-Ingredient Traditional Chinese Medicine Supplement

Authors: Martin Cai, Khadijah B. Hashim, Leng Leo, Edmund F. Tian

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Analysis of traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM) supplements has always been a laborious task, particularly in the case of multi‐ingredient formulations. Traditionally, herbal extracts are analysed using one or few markers compounds. In the recent years, however, pharmaceutical companies are introducing health supplements of TCM active ingredients to cater to the needs of consumers in the fast-paced society in this age. As such, new problems arise in the aspects of composition identification as well as quality analysis. In most cases of products or supplements formulated with multiple TCM herbs, the chemical composition, and nature of each raw material differs greatly from the others in the formulation. This results in a requirement for individual analytical processes in order to identify the marker compounds in the various botanicals. Thin-layer Chromatography (TLC) is a simple, cost effective, yet well-regarded method for the analysis of natural products, both as a Pharmacopeia-approved method for identification and authentication of herbs, and a great analytical tool for the discovery of chemical compositions in herbal extracts. Recent technical advances introduced High-Performance TLC (HPTLC) where, with the help of automated equipment and improvements on the chromatographic materials, both the quality and reproducibility are greatly improved, allowing for highly standardised analysis with greater details. Here we report an industrial consultancy project with ONI Global Pte Ltd for the analysis of LAC Liver Protector, a TCM formulation aimed at improving liver health. The aim of this study was to identify 4 key components of the supplement using HPTLC, following protocols derived from Chinese Pharmacopeia standards. By comparing the TLC profiles of the supplement to the extracts of the herbs reported in the label, this project proposes a simple and cost-effective analysis of the presence of the 4 marker compounds in the multi‐ingredient formulation by using 4 different HPTLC methods. With the increasing trend of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) bringing natural products and health supplements into the market, it is crucial that the qualities of both raw materials and end products be well-assured for the protection of consumers. With the technology of HPTLC, science can be incorporated to help SMEs with their quality control, thereby ensuring product quality.

Keywords: traditional Chinese medicine supplement, high performance thin layer chromatography, active ingredients, product quality

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479 Critical Assessment of Herbal Medicine Usage and Efficacy by Pharmacy Students

Authors: Anton V. Dolzhenko, Tahir Mehmood Khan

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An ability to make an evidence-based decision is a critically important skill required for practicing pharmacists. The development of this skill is incorporated into the pharmacy curriculum. We aimed in our study to estimate perception of pharmacy students regarding herbal medicines and their ability to assess information on herbal medicines professionally. The current Monash University curriculum in Pharmacy does not provide comprehensive study material on herbal medicines and students should find their way to find information, assess its quality and make a professional decision. In the Pharmacy course, students are trained how to apply this process to conventional medicines. In our survey of 93 undergraduate students from year 1-4 of Pharmacy course at Monash University Malaysia, we found that students’ view on herbal medicines is sometimes associated with common beliefs, which affect students’ ability to make evidence-based conclusions regarding the therapeutic potential of herbal medicines. The use of herbal medicines is widespread and 95.7% of the participated students have prior experience of using them. In the scale 1 to 10, students rated the importance of acquiring herbal medicine knowledge for them as 8.1±1.6. More than half (54.9%) agreed that herbal medicines have the same clinical significance as conventional medicines in treating diseases. Even more, students agreed that healthcare settings should give equal importance to both conventional and herbal medicine use (80.6%) and that herbal medicines should comply with strict quality control procedures as conventional medicines (84.9%). The latter statement also indicates that students consider safety issues associated with the use of herbal medicines seriously. It was further confirmed by 94.6% of students saying that the safety and toxicity information on herbs and spices are important to pharmacists and 95.7% of students admitting that drug-herb interactions may affect therapeutic outcome. Only 36.5% of students consider herbal medicines as s safer alternative to conventional medicines. The students use information on herbal medicines from various sources and media. Most of the students (81.7%) obtain information on herbal medicines from the Internet and only 20.4% mentioned lectures/workshop/seminars as a source of such information. Therefore, we can conclude that students attained the skills on the critical assessment of therapeutic properties of conventional medicines have a potential to use their skills for evidence-based decisions regarding herbal medicines.

Keywords: evidence-based decision, pharmacy education, student perception, traditional medicines

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478 Evaluation of Chromium Fortified-Parboiled Rice Coated with Herbal Extracts: Resistant Starch, and Glycemic Index

Authors: Wisnu Adi Yulianto, Chatarina Lilis Suryani, Mamilisti Susiati, Hendy Indra Permana

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Parboiled rice was developed to produce rice that has low glycemic index, especially for diabetics. Yet, parboiled rice is not enough because diabetics also lack of chromium. The sign of chromium (Cr) deficiency in diabetics is impaired glucose tolerance. Cr fortification was done for increasing Cr content in rice. Naturally-occurring compounds that have been proven to improve insulin sensitivity include Cr and polyphenol found in cinnamon, pandan and bay leaf. This research aimed to evaluate content of resistant starch and glycemic index of Cr - fortified - parboiled rice (Cr-PR) coated with herbal extracts. Variety of unhulled rice and forticant used in the experiment were Ciherang and CrCl3, respectively. Three herbal extracts used were cinnamon, pandan and bay leaf. Each concentration of herbal extracts in the amount of 3%, 6%, and 9% were added in the coating substance to coat Cr-PR. Resistant starch (RS) content was determined by enzymatic process through glucooxydase method. Testing of the GI was conducted on 18 non-diabetic volunteers. RS content of Cr-PR coated with herbal extracts ranged between 8.27 – 8.84 % (dry weight). Cr-PR coated with all herbal extracts of 3% concentration had higher RS content than the ones with herbal extracts of 6% and 9% concentration (P <0.05). Value of the rice GI ranged 29 - 40. The lowest GI (29-30) was attained by the rice coated with enrichment of 6-9% cinnamon extract.

Keywords: coating, Cr-fortified-parboiled rice, glycemic index, herbal extracts, resistant starch

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477 Development and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Herbal Mouthwash Including Methanolic Extracts of Beautea monosperma and Cordia obliqua

Authors: Reenu Yadav, S. K. Yadav

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Herbal therapy has been used for daily oral health care to prevent, treat or cure oral conditions from halitosis to periodontal diseases. The importance of mouth and teeth cleanliness has been recognized from the earliest days of civilization to the 21st century. In the present study, leaves and seeds of Cordia obliqua and barks and twigs of Beautea monosperma, which is used traditionally for oral diseases was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity tests indicated that the methanolic extract exhibited stronger activities against the commonly encountered oral bacterial and fungal pathogens. The mouthwash formulation prepared and it is compared with marketed formulation HiOra. The results indicated that the herbal mouthwash could inhibit the growth of oral pathogens and may prevent plaque and other periodontal diseases caused by dental pathogens.

Keywords: herbal mouthwash, bio medicine, life sciences, herbal extracts

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476 Nutritional Supplement Usage among Disabled Athletes

Authors: Aylin Hasbay Büyükkaragöz, Zehra Büyüktuncer, Tuğçe Nur Balcı, Nevin Ergun

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Purpose: Nutritional supplement usage is widespread among athletes all over the world. However, the usage among disabled athletes is not well-known. This study aimed to evaluate dietary supplement use in disabled athletes, their motivation for consuming supplements, sources of information, and their side effect. Methods: A total of 75 Turkish National Team's disabled athletes (38 female, 37 male) from 5 sport branches (soccer, weight lifting, shooting, table tennis and basketball), aged 13- 55 years, were participated in the study. Nutritional supplement usage was inquired using a questionnaire by a dietitian at their preparation camps. Results: A total of 22.7% of the athletes (18.4% and 27% of, respectively females and males) used some type of dietary supplements. Protein (35.3%), amino acid (29.4%), carnitine (29.4%), creatine (23.5%) and glucosamine (23.5%) were mostly preferred nutritional supplements by all athletes. The most common supplements use was obtained among weightlifters (71.4%), followed by the athletes of soccer (23.5%), table tennis (15.4%), and basketball (6.7%). No nutritional supplement usage was observed among shooters. Total of 41.2% consumers declared more than one reason for taking nutritional supplements. The main motivation for supplement usage was improving athletic performance (63.5%). Other reasons were weight loss, weight gain, muscle development, health protection and nutritional support. Athletes were more likely to get recommendation about nutritional supplement usage from team coaches (48.9%). Of 35.6% athletes reported that they made their own decision about using supplements. Other information sources were health professional, family member, friend and sale manager of sport retail store. Only 3 of 17 athletes reported side effects which were increased urine output, weight gain, loss of appetite and intestinal gas. Conclusions: Nutritional supplement usage was not common among disabled athletes. However, getting information from incompetent sources is disquieting. Considering their health problems, accurate information from competent sources should be provided to disabled athletes. Moreover, long term effects of nutritional supplements among disabled athletes should be examined in further studies.

Keywords: disabled athletes, ergogenic aid, nutritional supplement, vitamin supplementation

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
475 Acute Myocardial Infarction Associated with Ingestion of Herbal Mixtures Containing Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: A Case Study

Authors: M. Hakami, A. Jammaly, I. Attafi, M. Oraiby, M. Jeraiby

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We reviewed an unusual case of a 65-year-old male taking an herbal mixture containing compounds with anticholinesterase activity for a long period of time, presented with acute my myocardial infarction and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome followed by death. Clinically, there are findings correlated with anticholinesterase activity, such as bilateral miosis, diaphoresis, vomiting and fasciculation without a history of any toxic ingestion or exposure. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry screening studies identified the presence of thymol, anethole in the herbal extract and butylated hydroxytoluene in the blood sample. Hence, with this case report, we intend to highlight the necessity of evaluating the long-term use of the herbal mixture.

Keywords: cholinesterase inhibitors, thymole, anethole, butylatedhydroxytoluene, cardiac toxicity, myocardial infarction

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474 Use of DNA Barcoding and UPLC-MS to Authenticate Agathosma spp. in South African Herbal Products

Authors: E. Pretorius, A. M. Viljoen, M. van der Bank

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Introduction: The phytochemistry of Agathosma crenulata and A. betulina has been studied extensively, while their molecular analysis through DNA barcoding remains virtually unexplored. This technique can confirm the identity of plant species included in a herbal product, thereby ensuring the efficacy of the herbal product and the accuracy of its label. Materials and methods: Authentic Agathosma reference material of A. betulina (n=16) and A. crenulata (n=10) were obtained. Thirteen commercial products were purchased from various health shops around Johannesburg, South Africa, using the search term “Agathosma” or “Buchu.” The plastid regions matK and ycf1 were used to barcode the Buchu products, and BRONX analysis confirmed the taxonomic identity of the samples. UPLC-MS analyses were also performed. Results: Only (30/60) 60% of the traded samples tested from 13 suppliers contained A. betulina in their herbal products. Similar results were also obtained for the UPLC-MS analysis. Conclusion: In this study, we demonstrate the application of DNA barcoding in combination with phytochemical analysis to authenticate herbal products claiming to contain Agathosma plants as an ingredient in their products. This supports manufacturing efforts to ensure that herbal products that are safe for the consumer.

Keywords: Buchu, substitution, barcoding, BRONX algorithm, matK, ycf1, UPLC-MS

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473 Quantitative Determination of Heavy Metals in Some Commonly Consumed Herbal Medicines in Kano State, Nigeria

Authors: Aliyu Umar, Mohammed Yau, Faruruwa M. Dahiru, Saed Garba

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Evaluation of heavy metals in twelve commonly consumed herbal medicines/preparations in Kano State, Nigeria, was carried out. The samples comprised of five unregistered powdered medicines, namely, Zuwo, (ZW); Rai Dorai, (RD); Miyar Tsanya, (MTS); Bagaruwar Makka, (BM); and Madobiya, (M); five unregistered liquid herbal medicinal concussions for pile (MB), yellow fever (MS), typhoid (MT), stomach pain (MC), sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); and two registered herbal medicines; Alif Powder (AP) and Champion Leaf (CL). The heavy metals evaluation was carried out using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and the result revealed the concentrations (ppm) ranges of the heavy metals as follows: Cadmium (0.0045 – 0.1601), Chromium (0.0418 – 0.2092), Cobalt (0.0038 – 0.0760), Copper (0.0547 – 0.2465), Iron (0.1197 – 0.3592), Manganese (0.0123 – 1.4462), Nickel (0.0073 – 0.0960), Lead (0.185 – 0.0927) and Zinc (0.0244 – 0.2444). Comparing the results obtained in this work with the standards of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and permissible limits of other countries, the concentrations of heavy metals in the herbal medicine/preparations are within the allowed permissible limits range in herbal medicines and their use could be safe.

Keywords: Kano state, herbal medicines, registered, unregistered

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472 Herbal Medicines Used for the Cure of Jaundice among the Some Tribal Populations of Madhya Pradesh, India

Authors: Awdhesh Narayan Sharma

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The use of herbal medicines for the cure of various ailments among the tribal population is as old as human origin itself. Most of the tribal populations of Madhya Pradesh inhabit in remote and inaccessible ecological setup. From long back, tribals and forests are interrelated to each other. They use an enormous range of wild plants for their basic needs and medicines. The tribal developed a unique understanding with wild plants, herbs, etc., and earned specialized knowledge of disease pattern and curative therapy-through hard experiences, common sense, trial, and error methods. They have passed this knowledge through traditions, taboos, totems, folklore by words of mouth from generation to generation. Here, an attempt has been made to study the possible aspects of herbal medicine for the cure of Jaundice among the tribal populations of Madhya Pradesh, India, through primary data as well as available secondary data. The data have been collected from the 305 Bharias of Patalkot, Madhya Pradesh, India, and included available secondary source of data by various investigators. It may be concluded that a sizable herbal medicinal plants' wealth exists in Madhya Pradesh, India, which still awaits for scientific exploration. The existing herbal medicines used for the cure of jaundice need an extensive investigation from the pharmaceutical point of view.

Keywords: Bharias, herbal medicine, tribal, Madhya Pradesh

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471 In vitro Anti-Gonococcal, Anti-Inflammatory and HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Activities of the Herbal Mixture

Authors: T. E. Tshikalange, B. C. Mophuting

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Traditional medicine often consists of complex ingredients prepared from a mixture of plant species. These herbal mixtures are used in the treatment of various ailments such as sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. The present study was carried out to determine the biological activities of the herbal mixture used traditionally in the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. This herbal mixture consists of four plant species from families Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Fabaceae, and Myrtaceae. Five crude extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, methanol, water and boiled) of the herbal mixture were investigated for anti-gonococcal, anti-inflammatory, and reverse transcriptase activities. The anti-inflammatory activity of the plant extracts was determined by measuring the extract inhibitory effect on the pro-inflammatory enzyme lipoxygenase. The extracts were also tested for anti-HIV activity against recombinant HIV-1 enzyme using non-radioactive HIV-RT colorimetric assay. The boiled extract exhibited good anti-inflammatory activity with an IC₅₀ of 87 µg/ml compared to that of the positive control quercetin (IC₅₀= 92 µg/ml). All the other extracts showed little or no activity. Hexane extract was the only extract that showed reverse transcriptase extract inhibitory effect with an IC₅₀ of 74 µg/ml. Anti-gonococcal and cytotoxicity investigations are underway. The preliminary results support the use of herbal mixture by traditional healers.

Keywords: sexually transmitted diseases, lipoxygenase, anti-inflammatory, herbal mixture

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470 Assessment of Mammary Gland Immunity and Therapeutic Potential of Topical Herbal Gel against Bovine Subclinical Mastitis

Authors: Mukesh N. Kher, Anju P. Kunjadia, Dev S. Nauriyal, Chaitanya G. Joshi, Navin R. Sheth, Vaibhav D. Bhatt

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In-vivo immunotherapeutic potential on cytokines production and antibacterial activity of a topical herbal gel was evaluated in two breeds of cattle in bovine subclinical mastitis. The response to treatment was evaluated by enumerating somatic cell count (SCC), determining total bacterial count and studying the expression of different cytokines like (interleukin 6, 8, 12, GMCSF, interferon–γ and TNF‑α). The pre‑ and post‑treatment SCC in mastitic quarters did not differ statistically-significantly. However, total bacterial count declined significantly from day 0 onwards in both the breeds. Significant differences (P < 0.01) were observed in all types of cytokines production on day 0, 5, and 21 post last treatments in both the breeds. The comparison of cytokine expression profiles between crossbred and Gir cattle affirmed a significant difference in expression of IL-6 and TNF-α. The topical herbal gel showed immunomodulatory and antimicrobial activities in subclinical mastitis, and therefore the work supports its use as substitute herbal therapy against subclinical mastitis in bovines.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, immunomodulation, herbal gel, subclinical mastitis

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
469 Combined Aerobic-Resistance Exercise Training and Broccoli Supplementation on Plasma Decitin-1 and Insulin Resistance in Men with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Mohammad Soltani, Ayoub Saeidi, Nikoo Khosravi, Hanieh Nohbaradar, Seyedeh Parya Barzanjeh, Hassane Zouhal

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Exercise training and herbs supplement represent have role in the treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, it is unclear combined effects of exercise training and herbs supplements on diabetic risk markers. This study aimed to determine the effect of 12 weeks of combined exercise and broccoli supplementation on decitin-1 and insulin resistance in men with type 2 diabetes. Forty-four type 2 diabetes men (age, 48.52 ± 4.36) were randomly allocated to training -supplement (TS, n = 11), training- placebo (TP, n = 11), supplement (S, n = 11) and control- placebo (CP, n = 11) groups. The combined exercise program included 12 weeks, three sessions per week, that each session contained 45 minutes of resistance training with intensity 60-70% of one maximal repetition and 30 minutes aerobic training (running) with intensity 60-70% of maximum heart rate. In addition supplement groups consumed 10 grams of Broccoli per day for 12 weeks. Plasma Decitin-1, HOMA-IR, Insulin, glucose and body composition were assessed before and after training. Plasma Dectin-1, HOMA-IR, glucose and BMI significantly decreased in TS, TP and S groups compared with CP group (P < .05). In addition Insulin and skeletal muscles mass showed significant increase in TS and TP groups compared with S and CP groups (P < .05). It is concluded that both combined exercise training (aerobic-resistance) or broccoli supplement can improve plasma Decitin-1 and insulin resistance in two diabetic patients however combine of exercise training and broccoli supplement have more effective on these markers.

Keywords: broccoli supplements, combined training, decitin-1, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes

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468 Toxicological Standardization of Heavy Metals and Microbial Contamination Haematinic Herbal Formulations Marketed in India

Authors: A. V. Chandewar, Sanjay Bais

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Backgound: In India, drugs of herbal origin have been used in traditional systems of medicines such as Unani and Ayurveda since ancient times. WHO limit for Escherichia coli is 101/gm cfu, for Staphylococus aureus 105/gm cfu, and for Pseudomonas aeruginosa 103/gm cfu and for Salmonella species nil cfu. WHO mentions maximum permissible limits in raw materials only for arsenic, cadmium, and lead, which amount to 1.0, 0.3, and 10 ppm, respectively. Aim: The main purpose of the investigation was to document evidence for the users, and practitioners of marketed haematinic herbal formulations. In the present study haematinic herbal formulations marketed in Yavatmal India were determined for the presence of microbial and heavy metal content. Method: The investigations were performed by using specific medias and atomic absorption spectrometry. Result: The present work indicates the presence of heavy metal contents in herbal formulations selected for study. It was found that arsenic content in formulations was below the permissible limit in all formulations. The cadmium and lead content in six formulations were above the permissible limits. Such formulations are injurious to health of patient if consumed regularly. The specific medias were used to determining the presence of Escherichia coli 4 samples, Staphylococcus aureus 3 samples, and P. aeruginosa 4 samples. The data indicated suggest that there is requirement of in process improvement to provide better quality for consumer health in order to be competitive in international markets. Summary/Conclusion: The presence of microbial and heavy metal content above WHO limits indicates that the GMP was not followed during manufacturing of herbal formulations marketed in India.

Keywords: toxicological standardization, heavy metals, microbial contamination, haematinic herbal formulations

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467 Formulation and Characterization of Antimicrobial Chewing Gum Delivery of Some Herbal Extracts for Treatment of Periodontal Diseases

Authors: Reenu Yadav, Vidhi Guha, Udit N. Soni, Jay Ram Patel

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Chewing gums are mobile novel drug delivery systems, with a potential for administering drugs either for local action or for systemic absorption via the buccal route. An antimicrobial chewing gum delivery system of the methanolic extracts of Beatea monosperma (barks and twigs), Cordia obliqua (leaves and seeds) and Cuminun cyminum (seeds) against periodontal diseases caused by some oral pathogens, was designed and characterized on various parameters.The results of the study support the traditional application of the plants and suggest, plant extracts possess compounds with antimicrobial properties that can be used as potential antimicrobial agents and gums can be a good carrier of herbal extracts. Developed formulation will cure/protect from various periodontal diseases. Further development and evaluations chewing gums including the isolated compounds on the commercial scale and their clinical and toxicological studies are the future challenges.

Keywords: periodontal diseases, herbal chewing gum, herbal extracts, novel drug delivery systems

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466 Protecting Physicochemical Properties of Black Cumin Seed (Nigella sativa) Oil and Developing Value Added Products

Authors: Zeliha Ustun, Mustafa Ersoz

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In the study, a traditional herbal supplement black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) oil properties has been studied to protect the main quality parameters by a new supplement application. Black cumin seed and its oil is used as a dietary supplement and preferred traditional remedy in Africa, Asia and Middle East for centuries. Now it has been consuming by millions of people in America and Europe as natural supplements and/or phytotherapeutic agents to support immune system, asthma, allergic rinnitis etc. by the scientists’ advices. With the study, it is aimed to prove that soft gelatin capsules are a new and more practical way of usage for Nigella sativa oil that has a longer stability. With the study soft gelatin capsules formulation has been developed to protect cold pressed black cumin seed oil physicochemical properties for a longer period. The product design has been developed in laboratory and implemented in pilot scale soft gelatin capsule manufacturing. Physicochemical properties (peroxide value, free fatty acids, fatty acid composition, refractive index, iodine value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matters) of Nigella sativa oil soft gelatin capsules and Nigella sativa oil in liquid form in amber glass bottles have been compared and followed for 8 months. The main parameters for capsules and liquid form found that for free fatty acids 2.29±0.03, 3.92±0.11 % oleic acid, peroxide 23.11±1.18, 27.85±2.50 meqO2/kg, refractive index at 20 0C 1.4738±0.00, 1.4737±0.00, soap 0 ppm, moisture and volatility 0.32±0.01, 0.36±0.01 %, iodine value 123.00±0.00, 122.00±0.00 wijs, saponification value 196.25±0.46, 194.13±0.35 mg KOH/g and unsaponifiable matter 7.72±0.13, 6.88±0.36 g/kg respectively. The main fatty acids are found that linoleic acid 56.17%, oleic acid 24.64%, palmitic acid 11,94 %. As a result, it is found that cold pressed Nigella sativa oil soft gelatin capsules physicochemical properties are more stable than the Nigella sativa oil stored in glass bottles.

Keywords: black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) oil, cold press, nutritional supplements, soft gelatin capsule

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465 In-vitro Antioxidant Activity of Two Selected Herbal Medicines

Authors: S. Vinotha, I. Thabrew, S. Sri Ranjani

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Hot aqueous and methanol extracts of the two selected herbal medicines such are Vellarugu Chooranam (V.C) and Amukkirai Chooranam (A.C) were examined for total phenolic and flavonoid contents and in-vitro antioxidant activity using four different methods. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents in methanol extract of V.C were found to be higher (44.41±1.26 mg GAE⁄g; 174.44±9.32 mg QE⁄g) than in the methanol extract of A.C (20.56±0.67 mg GAE⁄g;7.21±0.85 mg QE⁄g). Hot methanol and aqueous extracts of both medicines showed low antioxidant activity in DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP methods and Iron chelating activity not found at highest possible concentration. V.C contains higher concentrations of total phenolic and flavonoid contents than A.C and can also exert greater antioxidant activity than A.C, although the activities demonstrated were lower than the positive control Trolox. The in-vitro antioxidant activity was not related with the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the methanol and aqueous extracts of both herbal medicines (A.C and V.C).

Keywords: activity, different extracts, herbal medicines, in-vitro antioxidant

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464 Treatment of Mycotic Dermatitis in Domestic Animals with Poly Herbal Drug

Authors: U. Umadevi, T. Umakanthan

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Globally, mycotic dermatitis is very common but there is no single proven specific allopathic treatment regimen. In this study, domestic animals with skin diseases of different age and breed from geographically varied regions of Tamil Nadu state, India were employed. Most of them have had previous treatment with native and allopathic medicines without success. Clinically, the skin lesions were found to be mild to severe. The trial animals were treated with poly herbal formulation (ointment) prepared using the indigenous medicinal plants – viz Andrographis paniculata, Lawsonia inermis and Madhuca longifolia. Allopathic antifungal drugs and ointments, povidone iodine and curabless (Terbinafine HCl, Ofloxacin, Ornidazole, Clobetasol propionate) were used in control. Comparatively, trial animals were found to have lesser course of treatment time and higher recovery rate than control. In Ethnoveterinary, this combination was tried for the first time. This herbal formulation is economical and an alternative for skin diseases.

Keywords: allopathic drugs, dermatitis, domestic animals, poly herbal formulation

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463 The Marketing Strategies of Five-Star Rated Herbal Businesses of One Tambon One Product (OTOP) Entrepreneurs in Songkhla Province, Thailand

Authors: S. Lungtae, C. Noknoi

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The main purpose of this research is to analyze the marketing strategies of the various five-star rated herbal businesses of One Tambon One Product (OTOP) entrepreneurs in Songkhla province, Thailand. This includes the targeting, positioning and marketing mix in order to develop marketing strategies for OTOP entrepreneurs. The data were collected from the presidents of herbal-product enterprises in Songkhla province. The products of all these enterprises were selected as five-star herbal products for the OTOP project in 2012. In-depth interviews were conducted, and content analysis was used to analyze the data. The research found that the community enterprises should 1) increase the range of product sizes offered, 2) increase their distribution channels, 3) publicize more to inform consumers about their identities and products, 4) undertake promotional activities during the festival, and 5) choose salespeople who are knowledgeable about the features of their products.

Keywords: marketing mix, market positioning, marketing strategies, target market.

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
462 Prevention of COVID-19 Using Herbs and Natural Products

Authors: Nada Alqadri, Omaima Nasir

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Natural compounds are an important source of potential inhibitors; they have a lot of pharma potential with less adverse effects. The effective antiviral activities of natural products have been proved in different studies. The outbreak of COVID-19 in Wuhan, Hubei, in December 2019, coronavirus has had a significant impact on people's health and lives. Based on previous studies, natural products can be introduced as preventive and therapeutic agents in the fight against COVID-19; considering that no food or supplement has been authorized to prevent COVID-19, individuals continue to search for and consume specific herbs, foods, and commercial supplements for this purpose. This study will be aimed to estimate the uses of herbal and natural products during the COVID-19 infection to determine their usage reasons and evaluate their potential side effects. An online cross-sectional survey of different participants will be conducted and will be a focus on respondents’ chronic disease histories, socio-dmographic characteristics, and frequency and trends of using these products. Descriptive and univariate analyses will be performed to determine prevalence and associations between various products used and respondents’ socio-demographic data. Relationships will be tested using Pearson’s chi-square test or an exact probability test. Our main findings will give evidence of beneficial uses of natural products and herbal medicine as prophylactic and will be a vigorous approach to stop or at least slow down COVID-19 infection and transmission. This will be of great interest of public health, and the results of our study will lend health officials better control on the current pandemic.

Keywords: COVID-19, herbs, natural products, saudi arabia

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461 Leaf Image Processing: Review

Authors: T. Vijayashree, A. Gopal

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The aim of the work is to classify and authenticate medicinal plant materials and herbs widely used for Indian herbal medicinal preparation. The quality and authenticity of these raw materials are to be ensured for the preparation of herbal medicines. These raw materials are to be carefully screened, analyzed and documented due to mistaken of look-alike materials which do not have medicinal characteristics.

Keywords: authenticity, standardization, principal component analysis, imaging processing, signal processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
460 The Effect of a Test Pump Supplement on the Physiological and Functional Performance of Futsal Women

Authors: Samaneh Rahsepar, Mehrzad Moghadasi

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To evaluate the effect of Test Pump supplement on the physiological and functional performance of futsal women, twenty female futsal subjects were divided into two groups: placebo (n = 10) and supplement (n = 10) and were given buccal tablets for 7 days and 12 g daily supplement each day. The placebo group used starch powder during this period. Speed, agility with ball, agility without ball and dribbling time were measured before and after supplementation. In addition, the rate of heart rate and blood pressure changes were measured before and after the YOYO test. The results showed that the test pump had no significant effect on improving speed, agility with ball, agility without ball, dribbling time and heart rate changes and diastolic blood pressure, and only affect the maximum oxygen consumption and systolic blood pressure (P <0.05). In general, the use of the test-pump supplement does not have a significant effect on the physiological and functional performance of futsal women. The results of this study showed that the use of supplementary pump tests on women's futsal heart rate changes after loading period had a significant difference between the two groups in resting heart rate with heart rate after exercise and 5 minutes after exercise. However, it did not have a significant effect on the increase in heart rate. Supplementation significantly increased systolic blood pressure after exercise compared to resting blood pressure, as well as a significant increase in systolic blood pressure after exercise compared to resting systolic blood pressure and 5 minutes after exercise in both groups from the loading period. On the other hand, there was a significant difference in systolic blood pressure in both placebo and supplemented groups.

Keywords: test pump supplement, women, speed, dribble, agility, maximum oxygen consumption, cardiovascular

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459 Approximation of Selenium Content in Watermelons for Use as a Food Supplement

Authors: Roggers Mutwiri Aron

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Watermelons are fruits that belong to the family cucurbitaceous. There are many types of watermelons have been positively identified to exist in the world. A watermelon consists of four distinct parts namely; seeds, pink flesh, white flesh and peel. It also contains high content of water of approximately 90% that is rich in essential minerals such as, phosphorous, calcium, magnesium, and potassium, sodium trace amounts of copper, iron, zinc and selenium. Watermelons have substantial amounts of boron, iodine, chromium, silicon and molybdenum. The levels of nutrients in different parts of the watermelons may be different. Selenium has been found to be a very useful food supplement especially for people living with HIV/AIDS. An experimental study was carried out to estimate the amount Se in different parts of the watermelon. Analysis of sampled watermelons was conducted using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results of the study indicated that high content of Se was present in the seeds compared to the other parts. High content of Se was also found in the water contained in the watermelon seeds.

Keywords: food supplement, watermelons, HIV/AIDS, nutrition, fruits

Procedia PDF Downloads 78