Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 451

Search results for: rice

451 Experimental Study on Effects of Addition of Rice Husk on Coal Gasification

Authors: M. Bharath, Vasudevan Raghavan, B. V. S. S. S. Prasad, S. R. Chakravarthy

Abstract:

In this experimental study, effects of addition of rice husk on coal gasification in a bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, operating at atmospheric pressure with air as gasifying agent, are reported. Rice husks comprising of 6.5% and 13% by mass are added to coal. Results show that, when rice husk is added the methane yield increases from volumetric percentage of 0.56% (with no rice husk) to 2.77% (with 13% rice husk). CO and H2 remain almost unchanged and CO2 decreases with addition of rice husk. The calorific value of the synthetic gas is around 2.73 MJ/Nm3. All performance indices, such as cold gas efficiency and carbon conversion, increase with addition of rice husk.

Keywords: bubbling fluidized bed reactor, calorific value, coal gasification, rice husk

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
450 The Effect of Electric Field Distributions on Grains and Insect for Dielectric Heating Applications

Authors: S. Santalunai, T. Thosdeekoraphat, C. Thongsopa

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This paper presents the effect of electric field distribution which is an electric field intensity analysis. Consideration of the dielectric heating of grains and insects, the rice and rice weevils are utilized for dielectric heating analysis. Furthermore, this analysis compares the effect of electric field distribution in rice and rice weevil. In this simulation, two copper plates are used to generate the electric field for dielectric heating system and put the rice materials between the copper plates. The simulation is classified in two cases, which are case I one rice weevil is placed in the rice and case II two rice weevils are placed at different position in the rice. Moreover, the probes are located in various different positions on plate. The power feeding on this plate is optimized by using CST EM studio program of 1000 watt electrical power at 39 MHz resonance frequency. The results of two cases are indicated that the most electric field distribution and intensity are occurred on the rice and rice weevils at the near point of the probes. Moreover, the heat is directed to the rice weevils more than the rice. When the temperature of rice and rice weevils are calculated and compared, the rice weevils has the temperature more than rice is about 41.62 Celsius degrees. These results can be applied for the dielectric heating applications to eliminate insect.

Keywords: capacitor copper plates, electric field distribution, dielectric heating, grains

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
449 Evaluation of Toxic Elements in Thai Rice Samples

Authors: W. Srinuttrakul, V. Permnamtip

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Toxic elements in rice samples are great concern in Thailand because rice (Oryza sativa) is a staple food for Thai people. Furthermore, rice is an economic crop of Thailand for export. In this study, the concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in rice samples collected from the paddy fields in the northern, northeastern and southern regions of Thailand were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The mean concentrations of As, Cd and Pb in 55 rice samples were 0.112±0.056, 0.029±0.037 and 0.031±0.033 mg kg-1, respectively. All rice samples showed As, Cd and Pb lower than the limit data of Codex. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of As, Cd, and Pb from rice consumption were 0.026±0.013, 0.007±0.009 and 0.007±0.008 mg day-1, respectively. The percentage contribution to Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) values of As, Cd and Pb for Thai male (body weight of 69 kg) was 17.6%, 9.7%, and 2.9%, respectively, and for Thai female (body weight of 57 kg) was 21.3%, 11.7% and 3.5%, respectively. The findings indicated that all studied rice samples are safe for consumption.

Keywords: arsenic, cadmium, ICP-MS, lead, rice

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
448 Cadmium Contamination in Rice Cultivation in the City of Savadkooh in Iran

Authors: Ghazal Banitahmasb, Nazanin Khakipour

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Potential contamination of rice by heavy metals such as Copper, Cobalt, Cadmium, Arsenic, Chromium, Mercury, Nickel, Lead and Magnesium in soil, water and pesticides affect the quality and nutritional properties of rice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contamination of rice cultivated in the city of Savadkooh to Cadmium and its comparison with international standards. With the study on different areas of Savadkooh(a city in Mazanaran Province) 7 samples of rice with the soil in which they were grown was taken for sampling. According to the results of all rice grown in Savadkooh city there are some Cadmium but the amount measured is less than specified in the national standard, and is safe for consumers to use.

Keywords: cadmium, heavy metals, rice, Savadkooh

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
447 Improvement of Monacolin K. and Decreasing of Citrinin Content in Korkor 6 (RD 6) Red Yeast Rice

Authors: Emon Chairote, Panatda Jannoey, Griangsak Chairote

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A strain of Monascus purpureus CMU001 was used to prepared red yeast rice from Thai glutinous rice Korkor 6 (RD 6). Adding of different amounts of histidine (156, 312, 625, and 1250 mg in 100 g of rice grains)) under aerobic and air limitation (air-lock) condition were used in solid fermentation. Determination of the yield as well as monacolin K content was done. Citrinin content was also determined in order to confirm the safety use of prepared red yeast rice. It was found that under air-lock condition with 1250 mg of histidine addition gave the highest yield of 37.40 g of dried red yeast rice prepared from 100 g of rice. Highest 5.72 mg content of monacolin K was obtained under air-lock condition with 312 mg histidine addition. In the other hand, citrinin content was found to be less than 24462 ng/g of all dried red yeast rice samples under the experimental methods used in this work.

Keywords: red yeast rice, Thai glutinous rice, monacolin K., citrinin

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446 Potassium Fertilization Improves Rice Yield in Aerobic Production System by Decreasing Panicle Sterility

Authors: Abdul Wakeel, Hafeez Ur Rehman, Muhammad Umair Mubarak

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Rice is the second most important staple food in Pakistan after wheat. It is not only a healthy food for the people of all age groups but also a source of foreign exchange for Pakistan. Instead of bright history for Basmati rice production, we are suffering from multiple problems reducing yield and quality as well. Rice lodging and water shortage for an-aerobic rice production system is among major glitches of it. Due to water shortage an-aerobic rice production system has to be supplemented or replaced by aerobic rice system. Aerobic rice system has been adopted for production of non-basmati rice in many parts of the world. Also for basmati rice, significant efforts have been made for aerobic rice production, however still has to be improved for effective recommendations. Among two major issues for aerobic rice, weed elimination has been solved to great extent by introducing suitable herbicides, however, low yield production due weak grains and panicle sterility is still elusive. It has been reported that potassium (K) has significant role to decrease panicle sterility in cereals. Potassium deficiency is obvious for rice under aerobic rice production system due to lack of K gradient coming with irrigation water and lowered indigenous K release from soils. Therefore it was hypothesized that K application under aerobic rice production system may improve the rice yield by decreasing panicle sterility. Results from pot and field experiments confirm that application of K fertilizer significantly increased the rice grain yield due to decreased panicle sterility and improving grain health. The quality of rice was also improved by K fertilization.

Keywords: DSR, Basmati rice, aerobic, potassium

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
445 Effects of Pretreated Rice Bran on Wheat Dough Performance and Barbari Bread Quality

Authors: E. Ataye-Salehi, P. Taghinia, Z. Sheikholeslami

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In this research, roasted and sonicated rice bran were added at 0, 5%, 10%, and 15% (w/w) in wheat flour for the production of Barbari bread (semi-voluminous Iranian bread). Dough's rheological properties and textural and sensory characteristics of bread were investigated. The results showed that water absorption, development time and the degree of dough softening were increased, but dough stability was decreased by adding pretreated rice bran. Adding pretreated rice bran was increased, the moisture content and L* value of bread crust. The texture of samples which contained 10% pretreated rice bran during 3 hours after baking was less stiff than of control. But 48 hours after baking there was no significant difference between samples which contained 5%, 10% of rice bran and the sample without rice bran. Finally, the samples with 10% rice bran were selected as the best productive samples in this research by panelists.

Keywords: Barbari bread, rice bran, roasting, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
444 Impact of Pretreated Rice Bran on Wheat Dough Performance and Barbari Bread Quality

Authors: P. Taghinia, E. Ataye-Salehi, Z. Sheikholeslami

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In this research, roasted and sonicated rice bran were added at 0, 5%, 10%, and 15% (w/w) in wheat flour for the production of Barbari breead (semi-voluminous Iranian bread). Dough's rheological properties and textural and sensory characteristics of bread were investigated. The results showed that water absorption, development time and the degree of dough softening were increased but dough stability was decreased by adding pretreated rice bran. Adding pretreated rice bran was increased, the moisture content and L* value of bread crust. The texture of samples which contained 10% pretreated rice bran during 3 hours after baking was less stiff than of control, but 48 hours after baking there was no significant difference between samples which contained 5%, 10% of rice bran and the sample without rice bran. Finally, the samples with 10% rice bran were selected as the best productive samples in this research by panelists.

Keywords: Barbari bread, rice bran, roasting, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
443 Cooking Attributes of Rice Stored under Varying Temperature and Moisture Regimes

Authors: Lakshmi E. Jayachandran, Manepally Rajkumar, Pavuluri Srinivasa Rao

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The objective of this research was to study the changes in eating quality of rice during storage under varying temperature and moisture regimes. Paddy (IR-36) with high amylose content (27%) was stored at a temperature range between 10 to 40°C and moisture content from 9 to 18% (d.b.) for 6 months. Drastic changes in color and parameters representing cooking qualities, cooked rice texture, and surface morphology occurred after 4 months of storage, especially at elevated temperature conditions. Head rice yield was stable throughout the storage except at extreme conditions of temperature and moisture content. Yellowing of rice was prominent at combinations of high temperature and moisture content, both of which had a synergistic effect on the b* values of rice. The cooking time, length expansion ratio and volume expansion ratio of all the rice samples increased with prolonged storage. The texture parameter, primarily, the hardness, cohesiveness, and adhesiveness of cooked rice samples were higher following storage at elevated temperature. Surface morphology was also significantly affected in stored rice as compared to fresh rice. Storage of rice at 10°C with a grain moisture content of 10% for 2 months gave cooked rice samples with good palatability and minimal cooking time. The temperature was found to be the most prominent storage parameter for rough rice, followed by moisture content and storage duration, influencing the quality of rice.

Keywords: rice, cooking quality, storage, surface morphology

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
442 Salinity Effects on Germination of Malaysian Rice Varieties and Weedy Rice Biotypes

Authors: M. Kamal Uddin, H. Mohd Dandan, Ame H. Alidin

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Germination and seedling growth of plant species are reduced in saline due to an external osmotic potential. An experiment was conducted at the laboratory, Faculty of Sustainable Agriculture, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, to compare the salt effect on seed germination and growth of weedy rice and cultivated rice. Seeds (10 in each) were placed in petri dishes. Five salinity levels 0 (distilled water), 4, 8, 12 and 16 dSm-1 (NaCl) were applied. The number of germinated seeds was recorded daily. The final germination percentage, germination index (GI), seedling vigour index (SVI) mean germination time (MGT), shoot and root dry weight were estimated. At highest salinity (16 dSm-1) germination percentage was higher (100%) in weedy rice awn and weedy rice compact. Lowest germination percentage was in MR219 and TQR-8 (50-60%). Mean germination time (MGT) was found higher in all weedy rice biotypes compared to cultivated rice. At highest salinity (16dSm-1) weedy rice open produced the highest MGT (9.92) followed by weedy rice compact (9.73) while lowest MGT was in MR219 (9.48). At highest salinity (16dSm-1) germination index was higher in weedy rice awn (11.71) and compact type (9.62). Lowest germination index was in MR219 (5.90) and TQR-8 (8.94). At the highest salinity (16 dSm−1), seedling vigor index was highest in weedy rice awn (6.06) followed by weedy rice compact (5.26); while lowest was in MR219 (2.11) followed by MR269 (3.82).On the basis of Germination index, seedling vigor index and growth related results it could be concluded that weedy rice awn, compact and open biotypes were more salt tolerant compared to other cultivated rice MR219, MR269, and TQR-8.

Keywords: germination, salinity, rice and weedy rice, sustainable agriculture

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441 'Bemo' (Beras Moringa) as Commodity Innovation Cost of Food Ingredients: In Dealing with Afta Competition

Authors: Isma Alfia Novita

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Indonesia is one country with the largest agricultural producer in the world but still can not meet the needs of the national rice. In addition, Indonesia was ranked the second-largest rice importer after the Philippines. Indonesia's rice consumption reached 102 kg per capita, or almost twice the average global rice consumption is only 60 kg per capita per year. One of the government's efforts in developing national food consumption is to invite people to improve diversification and food security. This is done considering the diet of Indonesia is still high consumption of rice. Therefore, this program made innovations Rice Moringa namely imitation rice with the addition of Moringa (Moringa oleifera). Moringa is a plant that is widely grown and easily found. In addition, Moringa has many benefits because it contains vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, calcium, protein, and potassium. Based on the analysis of the nutrient content, it is known that the Moringa leaves have good potential to maintain the balance of nutrients in the body

Keywords: imitation rice, Moringa oliefera, Moringa, AFTA

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
440 Feasibility Study of Potential and Economic of Rice Straw VSPP Power Plant in Thailand

Authors: Sansanee Sansiribhan, Anusorn Rattanathanaophat, Chirapan Nuengchaknin

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The potential feasibility of a 9.5 MWe capacity rice straw power plant project in Thailand was studied by evaluating the rice straw resource. The result showed that Thailand had a high rice straw biomass potential at the provincial level, especially, the provinces in the central, northeastern and western Thailand, which could feasibly develop plants. The economic feasibility of project was also investigated. The financial feasibility is also evaluated based on two important factors in the project, i.e., NPV ≥ 0 and IRR ≥ 11%. It was found that the rice straw power plant project at 9.5 MWe was financially feasible with the cost of fuel in the range of 30.6-47.7 USD/t.

Keywords: power plant, project feasibility, rice straw, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
439 Social Media as a Distribution Channel for Thailand’s Rice Berry Product

Authors: Phutthiwat Waiyawuththanapoom, Wannapong Waiyawuththanapoom, Pimploi Tirastittam

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Nowadays, it is a globalization era which social media plays an important role to the lifestyle as an information source, tools to connect people together and etc. This research is object to find out about the significant level of the social media as a distribution channel to the agriculture product of Thailand. In this research, the agriculture product is the Rice Berry which is the cross-bred unmilled rice producing dark violet grain, is a combination of Hom Nin Rice and Thai Jasmine/ Fragrant Rice 105. Rice Berry has a very high nutrition and nice aroma so the product is in the growth stage of the product cycle. The problem for the Rice Berry product in Thailand is the production and the distribution channel. This study is to confirm that the social media is another option as the distribution channel for the product which is not a mass production product. This will be the role model for the other niche market product to select the distribution channel.

Keywords: distribution, social media, rice berry, distribution channel

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
438 Effect of Roasting Treatment on Milling Quality, Physicochemical, and Bioactive Compounds of Dough Stage Rice Grains

Authors: Chularat Leewuttanakul, Khanitta Ruttarattanamongkol, Sasivimon Chittrakorn

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Rice during grain development stage is a rich source of many bioactive compounds. Dough stage rice contains high amounts of photochemical and can be used for rice milling industries. However, rice grain at dough stage had low milling quality due to high moisture content. Thermal processing can be applied to rice grain for improving milled rice yield. This experiment was conducted to study the chemical and physic properties of dough stage rice grain after roasting treatment. Rice were roasted with two different methods including traditional pan roasting at 140 °C for 60 minutes and using the electrical roasting machine at 140 °C for 30, 40, and 50 minutes. The chemical, physical properties, and bioactive compounds of brown rice and milled rice were evaluated. The result of this experiment showed that moisture content of brown and milled rice was less than 10 % and amylose contents were in the range of 26-28 %. Rice grains roasting for 30 min using electrical roasting machine had high head rice yield and length and breadth of grain after milling were close to traditional pan roasting (p > 0.05). The lightness (L*) of rice did not affect by roasting treatment (p > 0.05) and the a* indicated the yellowness of milled rice was lower than brown rice. The bioactive compounds of brown and milled rice significantly decreased with increasing of drying time. Brown rice roasted for 30 minutes had the highest of total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, α-tocopherol, and ɤ-oryzanol content. Volume expansion and elongation of cooked rice decreased as roasting time increased and quality of cooked rice roasted for 30 min was comparable to traditional pan roasting. Hardness of cooked rice as measured by texture analyzer increased with increasing roasting time. The results indicated that rice grains at dough stage, containing a high amount of bioactive compounds, have a great potential for rice milling industries and the electrical roasting machine can be used as an alternative to pan roasting which decreases processing time and labor costs.

Keywords: bioactive compounds, cooked rice, dough stage rice grain, grain development, roasting

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
437 Agronomic Manipulation in Cultivation Practices of Scented Rice: For Sustainable Crop Production

Authors: Damini Thawait, S. K. Dwivedi, Amit K. Patel, Samaptika Kar

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The experiment was carried out at Raipur during season of 2012 to find out the optimum planting patterns for scented rice cultivation. The treatment (T2) planting of two to three seedlings hill-1 transplanted in the spacing of 25 cm from plant to plant and 25 cm from row to row recorded significantly good grain quality i.e. higher head rice recovery (41.41) along with higher gain length (8.05).

Keywords: rice, scented, quality, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
436 Small Scale Batch Anaerobic Digestion of Rice Straw

Authors: V. H. Nguyen, A. Castalone, C. Jamieson, M. Gummert

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Rice straw is an abundant biomass resource in Asian countries that can be used for bioenergy. In continuously flooded rice fields, it can be removed without reducing the levels of soil organic matter. One suitable bioenergy technology is anaerobic digestion (AD), but it needs to be further verified using rice straw as a feedstock. For this study, a batch AD system was developed using rice straw and cow dung. It is low cost, farm scale, with the batch capacity ranging from 5 kg to 200 kg of straw mixed with 10% of cow dung. The net energy balance obtained was from 3000 to 4000 MJ per ton of straw input at 15-18% moisture content. Net output energy obtained from biogas and digestate ranged from 4000 to 5000 MJ per ton of straw. This indicates AD as a potential solution for converting rice straw from a waste to a clean fuel, reducing the environmental footprint caused by current disposal practices.

Keywords: rice straw, anaerobic digestion, biogas, bioenergy

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
435 Effects of Application of Rice Husk Charcoal-Coated Urea and Rice Straw Compost on Growth, Yield, and Properties of Lowland Rice

Authors: D. A. S. Gamage, B. F. A. Basnayake, W.A.J.M. De Costa

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Rice is the staple food of Sri Lankans thus; rice cultivation is the major agricultural activity of the country. The application of inorganic fertilizer has become a burden to the country. The excessive application of organic and inorganic fertilizers can potentially lead to deterioration of the quality of water. In mixing both urea and rice husk charcoal and rice straw compost in soils causes a slow release of nitrogen fertilizer, thus reducing the cost of importations of nitrogen based fertilizers per unit area of cultivation. Objective of this study was to evaluate rice husk charcoal coated urea as a slow releasing fertilizer and compare the total N,P, K, organic matter in soil and yield of rice production. Five treatments were used for twenty pots (pot size 30 cm diameter and 45 cm height) each replicated four times as: inorganic fertilizer only (Urea, TSP and MOP) (Treatment 1); rice husk charcoal coated urea, TSP and MOP (Treatment 2); inorganic fertilizer (Urea, TSP and MOP) with rice straw compost only (Treatment 3); rice husk charcoal urea, TSP and MOP with rice straw compost (Treatment 4); and no fertilizer as the control (Treatment 5). Rice grain yield was significantly higher in treatment 4 where rice husk charcoal coated urea, TSP and MOP with rice straw compost. The lowest yield was observed in control (treatment 5). The lower the value of the nitrogen to phosphorous ratio in soil, it indicates higher uptake of phosphorous. Charcoal can be used as a soil amendment and organic fertilizer, but adjustment of pH was required at high application rates. K content of soil of treatment 3 and 4 were the highest with compared to the treatment 1. Rice husk charcoal coated urea can potentially be used as a slow releasing nitrogen fertilizer.

Keywords: charcoal, rice husk, nitrogen to phosphorous ratio, soil amendment

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
434 Assessment Of Factors Affecting Sustainability of Rice (Oryza sativa) Processing and Marketing in Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: A. M. Omoare, O. O. Sofowora, W. O. Oyediran

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The study was carried out to assess the factors affecting the sustainability of rice processing and marketing in Ogun State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select one hundred and twenty (120) respondents for the study. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the objectives while hypotheses were analyzed with Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The result showed that most (85%) of the respondents was less than 50 years old and had been in rice business for more than 6 years. The majority (66.67%) of the respondents got their capitals from cooperative societies. All (100%) the respondents used rice as household food security and source of income. However, efficient rice processing and marketing were affected by inadequate manpower capacity development and inputs. There was a positive and significant relationship between socio-economic characteristics and processing techniques (p < 0.05). It is hereby recommended that extension service providers should introduce improved rice processing systems to the rice millers traders in the study area.

Keywords: sustainability, rice processing, marketing, constraints, millers traders

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433 The Effectivity of Lime Juice on the Cooked Rice's Shelf-Life

Authors: Novriyanti Lubis, Riska Prasetiawati, Nuriani Rahayu

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The effectivity of lime juice on the cooked rice’s shelf-life was investigated. This research was proposed to get the optimal condition, such as concentration lime juice as the preservatives, and shelf-life cooked rice’s container to store using rice warmer. The effectivity was analysed total colony bacteriology, and physically. The variation of lime juice’s concentration that have been used were 0%, 0,46%, 0,93%, 1,40%, and 1,87%. The observation of cooked rice’s quality was done every 12 hours, including colour, smell, flavour, and total colony every 24 hours. Based on the result of the research considered from the cooked rice’s quality through observing the total of the colony bacteriology and physically, it showed the optimum concentrate which is effective preserve the cooked rise’s level concentrate was 0.93%.

Keywords: bacteriology, cooked rice's, lime juice, preservative

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
432 Strategy in Controlling Rice-Field Conversion in Pangkep Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Authors: Nurliani, Ida Rosada

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The national rice consumption keeps increasing along with raising income of the households and the rapid growth of population. However, food availability, particularly rice, is limited. Impacts of rice-field conversion have run cumulatively, as we can see on potential losses of rice and crops production, as well as work opportunity that keeps increasing year-by-year. Therefore, it requires policy recommendation to control rice-field conversion through economic, social, and ecological approaches. The research was a survey method intended to: (1) Identify internal factors; quality and productivity of the land as the cause of land conversion, (2) Identify external factors of land conversion, value of the rice-field and the competitor’s land, workforce absorption, and regulation, as well as (3) Formulate strategies in controlling rice-field conversion. Population of the research was farmers who applied land conversion at Pangkep Regency, South Sulawesi. Samples were determined using the incidental sampling method. Data analysis used productivity analysis, land quality analysis, total economic value analysis, and SWOT analysis. Results of the research showed that the quality of rice-field was low as well as productivity of the grains (unhulled-rice). So that, average productivity of the grains and quality of rice-field were low as well. Total economic value of rice-field was lower than the economic value of the embankment. Workforce absorption value on rice-field was higher than on the embankment. Strategies in controlling such rice-field conversion can be done by increasing rice-field productivity, improving land quality, applying cultivation technique of specific location, improving the irrigation lines, and socializing regulation and sanction about the transfer of land use.

Keywords: land conversion, quality of rice-field, productivity, land economic value.

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431 Physicochemical Characteristics of Rice Starch Chainat 1 Variety by Physical Modification

Authors: Orose Rugchati, Sarawut Wattanawongpitak

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The Chainat 1 variety (CN1) of rice, which generally has high amylose starch, is distributed in the lower part of Northern Thailand. CN1 rice starch can be used in both food and non-food products. In this research, the CN1 rice starch from the wet-milling process was prepared by Pre-Gelatinization (Heat-Moisture Treatments, HMT) under different conditions: percentage of moisture contents (20% and 30%) and duration time in minutes (0, 30, 60, and 90) at a specific temperature 110°C. The physicochemical characteristics of CN1 rice starch modification, such as amylose content, viscosity, swelling, and solubility property, were evaluated and compared with native CN1 rice starch. The results showed that modification CN1 rice starch tends to have some characteristics better than native starch. The appearance color and starch granule of modified CN1 by HMT have more effective characteristics than native starch when increased duration time. The duration time and moisture content are significant factors to the CN1 starch characteristic by HMT. Moreover, physical modification of CN1 starch by HMT can be described as a modified rice starch providing in many applications and the advantage of biodegradability development.

Keywords: physicochemical characteristics, physical modification, pre-gelatinization, Heat-Moisture Treatments, rice starch, Chainat 1 variety (CN1)

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430 Identification of Salt Responsive Proteins in Rice Leaf Sheath (Oryza sativa L.) with Nanoliquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Kanlaya Kong-Ngern, Chutima Homwonk, Sittiruk Roytrakul

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In this research, we compared the proteomic profile of two rice leaf sheaths under salt stress, Thai moderately salt tolerant rice (Leaung Anan), and high salt tolerant rice (Pokkali). Seeds were grown in hydroponic culture for 21 days before NaCl was introduced initially at the level of 12 dS m⁻¹ for 10 days. Then the leaf sheath proteomes were analyzed by 1D-SDS-PAGE and NanoLC-MS/MS. In this study, 873 proteins were detected. Among these proteins, 219 proteins were known proteins and the other proteins were unnamed and unknown proteins. By using Mev software, we found that only 31 proteins in treated plants of both rice cultivars significantly expressed, 21 proteins were up-regulated and 10 proteins were down-regulated. Interestingly, the intensity of the 3 proteins in the Leaung Anan more expressed than in the Pokkali. The results indicate that the up-regulated proteins were more expressed in less tolerant rice may play an important role in helping rice to survive under salt stress.

Keywords: mass spectrometry, proteomics, rice leaf sheaths, salt stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
429 Impact of Emerging Nano-Agrichemicals on the Simultaneous Control of Arsenic and Cadmium in Rice Paddies

Authors: Xingmao Ma, Wenjie Sun

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Rice paddies are frequently co-contaminated by arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd), both of which demonstrate a high propensity for accumulation in rice grains and cause global food safety and public health concern. Even though different agricultural management strategies have been explored for their simultaneous control in rice grains, a viable solution is yet to be developed. Interestingly, several nanoagrichemicals, such as the zinc nanofertilizer and copper nanopesticide have displayed strong potential to reduce As or Cd accumulation in rice tissues. In order to determine whether these nanoagrichemicals can lower the accumulation of both As and Cd in rice, a series of bench studies were performed. Our results show that zinc oxide nanoparticles at 100 mg/Kg significantly lowered both As, and Cd in rice roots and shoots in flood irrigated rice seedlings, while equivalent amount of zinc ions only reduced As concentration in rice shoots. Zinc ions significantly increased Cd concentration in rice shoots by almost 30%. The results demonstrate a unique 'nano-effect' of zinc oxide nanoparticles, which is ascribed to the slow releasing of zinc ions from nanoparticles and the formation of different transformation products in these two treatments. We also evaluated the effect of nanoscale soil amendment, silicon oxide nanoparticles (SiO₂NPs) on the simultaneous reduction in both flooding and alternate wet and dry irrigation scheme. The effect of SiO₂NPs on As and Cd accumulation in rice tissues was strongly affected by the irrigation scheme. While 2000 mg/kg of SiO₂NPs significantly reduced As in rice roots and insignificantly reduced As in rice shoots in flooded rice, it increased As concentration in rice shoots in alternate wet and dry irrigation. In both irrigation scenarios, SiO₂NPs significantly reduced Cd concentration in rice roots, but only reduced Cd concentration in rice shoots in alternate wet and dry irrigation. Our results demonstrate a marked effect of nanoagrichemicals on the accumulation of As and Cd in rice and can be a potential solution to simultaneously control both in certain conditions.

Keywords: arsenic, cadmium, rice, nanoagrichemicals

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
428 Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Nine Genotypes of Thai Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Authors: Pitchaon Maisuthisakul, Ladawan Changchub

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Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a staple diet in Thailand. Rice cultivation is traditional occupation of Thailand which passed down through generations. The 1 Rai 1 san project is new agricultural theory according to sufficient economy using green technology without using chemical substances. This study was conducted to evaluate total phenolics using HPLC and colorimetric methods including total anthocyanin content of Thai rice extracting by simulated gastric and intestinal condition and to estimate antioxidant capacity using DPPH and thiocyanate methods. Color and visible spectrum of rice grains were also investigated. Rice grains were classified into three groups according to their color appearance. The light brown grain genotypes are Sin Lek, Jasmine 105, Lao Tek and Hawm Ubon. The red group is Sang Yod and Red Jasmine. Genotypes Kum, Hawm Kanya and Hawm Nil are black rice grains. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside was found in only black rice genotypes, whereas chlorogenic acid was found in all rice grains. The black rice had higher phenolic content than red and light brown samples. Phenolic acids constitute a small portion of phenolic compounds after digestion in human and contribute to the antioxidant activity of Thai rice grains. Anthocyanin contents of all rice extracts ranged from 45.9 to 442.1 mg CGE/kg. All rice extracts showed the antioxidant efficiency lower than ferulic acid. Genotype Kum and Hawm nil exhibited the ability of antioxidant efficiency higher than α-tocopherol. Interestingly, the visible spectrum of only black rice genotypes showed the maximum peak at 530-540 nm. The results suggest that consumption of black rice gives more health benefits of grain to consumer.

Keywords: rice, phenolic, antioxidant, anthocyanin

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
427 Response Surface Methodology for the Optimization of Paddy Husker by Medium Brown Rice Peeling Machine 6 Rubber Type

Authors: S. Bangphan, P. Bangphan, C. Ketsombun, T. Sammana

Abstract:

Optimization of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to study the effects of three factor (rubber of clearance, spindle of speed, and rice of moisture) in brown rice peeling machine of the optimal good rice yield (99.67, average of three repeats). The optimized composition derived from RSM regression was analyzed using Regression analysis and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). At a significant level α=0.05, the values of Regression coefficient, R2 adjust were 96.55% and standard deviation were 1.05056. The independent variables are initial rubber of clearance, spindle of speed and rice of moisture parameters namely. The investigating responses are final rubber clearance, spindle of speed and moisture of rice.

Keywords: brown rice, response surface methodology (RSM), peeling machine, optimization, paddy husker

Procedia PDF Downloads 454
426 Effect of Incineration Temperatures to Time on the Rice Husk Ash Silica Structure: A Comparative Study to the Literature with Experimental Work

Authors: Binyamien Rasoul, Friederike Gunzel, Imran Rafiq

Abstract:

Controlled burning of rice husk can produce amorphous rice husk ash (RHA) with high silica content which can significantly enhance the properties of concrete. This study has been undertaken to investigate the relationship between the incineration temperatures and time to produce RHA with ultimate reactivity. The rice husk samples were incinerated in an electrical muffle furnace at 350°C, 400°C, 425°C 450°C, 475°C, and 500°C for 60 and 90 minutes, respectively. The silica structure in the Rice Husk Ash (RHA) was determined using X-Ray diffraction analysis, while chemical properties obtained using X-Ray Fluorescence. The results show that RHA appeared to be totally amorphous when the husk incineration goes up to 425°C for 60 and even 90 minutes. However, with increased temperature to 450°C, 475°C and 500°C, traces of crystalline silica (quartz) were detected. However, cannot be taken into account as it does not effect on the ash structure. In conclusion, the result gives an idea of the temperature and the time required to produce ash from rice husk with totally amorphous form.

Keywords: rice husk, rice husk ash, burning temperature, electric muffle furnace, pozzolanic reactivity, crystalline silica, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence

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425 Paddy/Rice Singulation for Determination of Husking Efficiency and Damage Using Machine Vision

Authors: M. Shaker, S. Minaei, M. H. Khoshtaghaza, A. Banakar, A. Jafari

Abstract:

In this study a system of machine vision and singulation was developed to separate paddy from rice and determine paddy husking and rice breakage percentages. The machine vision system consists of three main components including an imaging chamber, a digital camera, a computer equipped with image processing software. The singulation device consists of a kernel holding surface, a motor with vacuum fan, and a dimmer. For separation of paddy from rice (in the image), it was necessary to set a threshold. Therefore, some images of paddy and rice were sampled and the RGB values of the images were extracted using MATLAB software. Then mean and standard deviation of the data were determined. An Image processing algorithm was developed using MATLAB to determine paddy/rice separation and rice breakage and paddy husking percentages, using blue to red ratio. Tests showed that, a threshold of 0.75 is suitable for separating paddy from rice kernels. Results from the evaluation of the image processing algorithm showed that the accuracies obtained with the algorithm were 98.36% and 91.81% for paddy husking and rice breakage percentage, respectively. Analysis also showed that a suction of 45 mmHg to 50 mmHg yielding 81.3% separation efficiency is appropriate for operation of the kernel singulation system.

Keywords: breakage, computer vision, husking, rice kernel

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424 Prospective Use of Rice Husk Ash to Produce Concrete in India

Authors: Kalyan Kumar Moulick

Abstract:

In this paper the author studied the possibilities of using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) available in India; to produce concrete. The effect of RHA on concrete discussed. Traditional uses of Rice Husk in India pointed out and the advantages of using RHA in making concrete highlighted. Suggestion provided regarding prospective application of RHA concrete in India which in turn will definitely reduce the cost of concrete and environmental friendly due to utilization of waste and replacement of Cement.

Keywords: cement replacement, concrete, environmental friendly, rice husk ash

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
423 Evaluation of Chromium Fortified-Parboiled Rice Coated with Herbal Extracts: Resistant Starch, and Glycemic Index

Authors: Wisnu Adi Yulianto, Chatarina Lilis Suryani, Mamilisti Susiati, Hendy Indra Permana

Abstract:

Parboiled rice was developed to produce rice that has low glycemic index, especially for diabetics. Yet, parboiled rice is not enough because diabetics also lack of chromium. The sign of chromium (Cr) deficiency in diabetics is impaired glucose tolerance. Cr fortification was done for increasing Cr content in rice. Naturally-occurring compounds that have been proven to improve insulin sensitivity include Cr and polyphenol found in cinnamon, pandan and bay leaf. This research aimed to evaluate content of resistant starch and glycemic index of Cr - fortified - parboiled rice (Cr-PR) coated with herbal extracts. Variety of unhulled rice and forticant used in the experiment were Ciherang and CrCl3, respectively. Three herbal extracts used were cinnamon, pandan and bay leaf. Each concentration of herbal extracts in the amount of 3%, 6%, and 9% were added in the coating substance to coat Cr-PR. Resistant starch (RS) content was determined by enzymatic process through glucooxydase method. Testing of the GI was conducted on 18 non-diabetic volunteers. RS content of Cr-PR coated with herbal extracts ranged between 8.27 – 8.84 % (dry weight). Cr-PR coated with all herbal extracts of 3% concentration had higher RS content than the ones with herbal extracts of 6% and 9% concentration (P <0.05). Value of the rice GI ranged 29 - 40. The lowest GI (29-30) was attained by the rice coated with enrichment of 6-9% cinnamon extract.

Keywords: coating, Cr-fortified-parboiled rice, glycemic index, herbal extracts, resistant starch

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
422 Reducing Phytic Acid in Rice Grain by Targeted Mutagenesis of a Phospholipase D Gene

Authors: Muhammad Saad Shoaib Khan, Rasbin Basnet, Qingyao Shu

Abstract:

Phospholipids are one of the major classes of lipid comprising 10% of total grain lipid in rice. Phospholipids are the main phosphorus containing lipid in the rice endosperm, contributing to rice palatability and seed storage property. However, in the rice grain, the majority of phosphorus occur in the form of phytic acid and are highly abundant in the bran. Phytic acid, also known as hexaphosphorylated inositol (IP6), are strong chelating agents which reduces the bioavailability of essential dietary nutrients and are therefore less desirable by rice breeders. We used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate mutants of a phospholipase D gene (PLDα1), which is responsible for the degradation of phospholipids into phosphatidic acid (PA). In the mutants, we found a significant reduction in the concentration of phytic acid in the grain as compared to the wild-type. The biochemical analysis of the PLDα1 mutants showed that the decrease in production of phosphatidic acid is due to reduced accumulation of CDP-diacylglycerolderived phosphatidylinositol (PI), ultimately leading to lower accumulation of phytic acid in mutants. These results showed that loss of function of PLD in rice leads to lower production of phytic acid, suggesting the potential application of Ospldα1 in breeding rice with less phytic acid.

Keywords: CRISPR/Cas9, phospholipase D, phytic acid, rice

Procedia PDF Downloads 55