Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 75

Search results for: Denial Sadighi

75 DOS and DDOS Attacks

Authors: Amin Hamrahi, Niloofar Moghaddam

Abstract:

Denial of Service is for denial-of-service attack, a type of attack on a network that is designed to bring the network to its knees by flooding it with useless traffic. Denial of Service (DoS) attacks have become a major threat to current computer networks. Many recent DoS attacks were launched via a large number of distributed attacking hosts in the Internet. These attacks are called distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks. To have a better understanding on DoS attacks, this article provides an overview on existing DoS and DDoS attacks and major defense technologies in the Internet.

Keywords: denial of service, distributed denial of service, traffic, flooding

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
74 Boko Haram Insurgence and Denial of War Crime against Civilians in the Northeast, Nigeria

Authors: Aleburu Rufus Edeki

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The activities of Boko Haram terrorist group have become worrisome in Nigeria. Boko Haram killed innocent civilians, destroyed schools, churches, military barracks, police stations, and other government establishments. The federal government of Nigerian Military engaged in counter-insurgency to curtail the activities of Boko Haram militant. The engagement of the military led to mass killing across the Northeast region. The reported cases of mass-killing led to petition written to the International Criminal Court by the civil society organization as a result of denial by the military authorities of their involvement. The investigation carried out by the International Criminal Court awash by denial of military involvement in war crimes. As a result of this denial, the ICC called for further investigation of war crimes by the military. This study was carried out among fifty-eight participants. In-depth interviews were conducted among the following participants: civilians 41; human rights commission 5 and civil society 12. This study revealed that professional ethics is associated with denial of military involvement in mass killing in the region. This study also revealed that denial is associated with personality. It was also found that social attributes such as trauma, shame, ostracism, criticism, and punishment are found with denial. It is therefore concluded in this study that protection is needed for war actors, so that situation of denial is minimal in post-conflict truth findings.

Keywords: Boko Haram, crime, insurgence, war

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73 The Impact of Plants on Relaxation of Patients in Hospitals, Case Study: District 6th, Tehran

Authors: Hashem Hashemnejad, Abbas Yazdanfar, Mahzad Mohandes Tarighi, Denial Sadighi

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One of the factors that can have a positive influence on the mental health is the presence of trees and flowers. Research shows that even a glance at nature can evoke positive feelings in the person and reduce his tension and stress. According to the historical, cultural, religious, and individual background in each geographical district, the relaxing or spiritual impact of certain kinds of flowers can be evaluated. In this paper, using a questionnaire, the amount of relaxing impact of prevalent trees and flowers of the district on the patients was examined. The results showed that cedar and pomegranate trees and jasmine and rose in flowers, respectively, relax the patients.

Keywords: plants, patients, mental health, relaxing

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72 Towards a Security Model against Denial of Service Attacks for SIP Traffic

Authors: Arellano Karina, Diego Avila-Pesántez, Leticia Vaca-Cárdenas, Alberto Arellano, Carmen Mantilla

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Nowadays, security threats in Voice over IP (VoIP) systems are an essential and latent concern for people in charge of security in a corporate network, because, every day, new Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks are developed. These affect the business continuity of an organization, regarding confidentiality, availability, and integrity of services, causing frequent losses of both information and money. The purpose of this study is to establish the necessary measures to mitigate DoS threats, which affect the availability of VoIP systems, based on the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). A Security Model called MS-DoS-SIP is proposed, which is based on two approaches. The first one analyzes the recommendations of international security standards. The second approach takes into account weaknesses and threats. The implementation of this model in a VoIP simulated system allowed to minimize the present vulnerabilities in 92% and increase the availability time of the VoIP service into an organization.

Keywords: Denial-of-Service SIP attacks, MS-DoS-SIP, security model, VoIP-SIP vulnerabilities

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
71 Application Layer Distributed Denial of Service Attack Detection Using Machine Learning

Authors: Songyuan Sui, Chen Zhu

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Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks are regarded as one of the most network threats nowadays. The attackers dominate a large portion of network traffic from multiple nodes to launch the DDoS attacks. With the improvement of a large number of defense methods for the network layer and the increasing popularity of many application scenarios focusing on the application layer, defense against application-layer DDoS attacks is becoming more and more important. This paper presented a literature review about machine learning-based DDoS detection on three popular application scenarios. It illustrated the fact that application-layer DDoS attacks detection is important but overlooked to some extent. We also performed an experimental analysis of five machine learning models for application-layer DDoS detection specifically. These results indicated that application layer servers could use typical machine learning models with fewer resources cost and better performance to detect application-layer DDoS attacks automatically.

Keywords: anomaly detection, application layer, distributed denial of service, machine learning

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70 Minimization of Denial of Services Attacks in Vehicular Adhoc Networking by Applying Different Constraints

Authors: Amjad Khan

Abstract:

The security of Vehicular ad hoc networking is of great importance as it involves serious life threats. Thus to provide secure communication amongst Vehicles on road, the conventional security system is not enough. It is necessary to prevent the network resources from wastage and give them protection against malicious nodes so that to ensure the data bandwidth availability to the legitimate nodes of the network. This work is related to provide a non conventional security system by introducing some constraints to minimize the DoS (Denial of services) especially data and bandwidth. The data packets received by a node in the network will pass through a number of tests and if any of the test fails, the node will drop those data packets and will not forward it anymore. Also if a node claims to be the nearest node for forwarding emergency messages then the sender can effectively identify the true or false status of the claim by using these constraints. Consequently the DoS(Denial of Services) attack is minimized by the instant availability of data without wasting the network resources.

Keywords: black hole attack, grey hole attack, intransient traffic tempering, networking

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69 Vulnerable Paths Assessment for Distributed Denial of Service Attacks in a Cloud Computing Environment

Authors: Manas Tripathi, Arunabha Mukhopadhyay

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In Cloud computing environment, cloud servers, sometimes may crash after receiving huge amount of request and cloud services may stop which can create huge loss to users of that cloud services. This situation is called Denial of Service (DoS) attack. In Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack, an attacker targets multiple network paths by compromising various vulnerable systems (zombies) and floods the victim with huge amount of request through these zombies. There are many solutions to mitigate this challenge but most of the methods allows the attack traffic to arrive at Cloud Service Provider (CSP) and then only takes actions against mitigation. Here in this paper we are rather focusing on preventive mechanism to deal with these attacks. We analyze network topology and find most vulnerable paths beforehand without waiting for the traffic to arrive at CSP. We have used Dijkstra's and Yen’s algorithm. Finally, risk assessment of these paths can be done by multiplying the probabilities of attack for these paths with the potential loss.

Keywords: cloud computing, DDoS, Dijkstra, Yen’s k-shortest path, network security

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68 Network Security Attacks and Defences

Authors: Ranbir Singh, Deepinder Kaur

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Network security is an important aspect in every field like government offices, Educational Institute and any business organization. Network security consists of the policies adopted to prevent and monitor forbidden access, misuse, modification, or denial of a computer network. Network security is very complicated subject and deal by only well trained and experienced people. However, as more and more people become wired, an increasing number of people need to understand the basics of security in a networked world. The history of the network security included an introduction to the TCP/IP and interworking. Network security starts with authenticating, commonly with a username and a password. In this paper, we study about various types of attacks on network security and how to handle or prevent this attack.

Keywords: network security, attacks, denial, authenticating

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67 Anti-architecture and Spaces of Marginality against a Hidden Genocide

Authors: Edwin E. Dilone Berumen

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After having waged war and perpetrating acts of genocide against humanity since the birth of what could be called originality, aestheticism and orthodoxy are now dead. This is a reality often rejected by the masses and those at the apex of societal constructs for two very different reasons. The first is to create an architecture where all ideas are safeguarded against all forms of criticism in so-called “safe spaces,” either virtual or tangible. The second is to create architectures of domination and repression that create dogma and inquisition any opposition in a popular massacre. Both are predicated upon ideologies of denial towards the self. This very day, architecture is built against the “other” in towers that repeatedly peer outdoors and target those found outside in marginal space. One may belong to one or the other, but never in the margin. Marginal space is, therefore, anti-architecture, the opposite of architecture and its established role in concealment, denial, and genocide. To clarify, anti-architecture is not simply the reciprocal of explicit space, interior vs. exterior space, but rather the mediation between what can be called spaces of influence and spaces that are influenced. The mediation between utopia and reality. Suggested amongst these designs is an architecture that becomes outwardly and in desire of criticism as much as it desires to do the same unto the occupant. An architecture entirely unapologetic, however, also welcoming to those that seek it out. The marginal space intrinsically becomes a place of expansion and transit that completely transforms the way a space is perceived. Exterior and interior are no longer places to be, but only spaces in addition to circulation. Timelessness is no longer apparent, overtaken by wants of temporariness and the need to continuously understand and change. Stagnation is to be avoided at all costs. Using methods outlining how spaces of acceptance and acceptance of spaces might be visualized, the aim of this exploration: to understand the basis of erasure through hierarchical analysis and its relationship with genocide, to understand levels of concealment, denial and the role choice involves itself, examining current examples in architecture, and suggesting an alternative approach to perceptions surrounded by the superficiality of space fixated upon elimination of the “other.”

Keywords: aestheticism, anti-architecture, denial, genocide, margin, safe space

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66 Smart Security Concept in the East Mediterranean: Anti Asymmetrical Area Denial (A3D)

Authors: Serkan Tezgel

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The two qualities of the sea, as a medium of transportation and as a resource, necessitate maritime security for economic stability and good order at sea. The borderless nature of the sea makes it one of the best platforms to contribute to regional peace and international order. For this reason, the establishment of maritime security in East Mediterranean will enhance the security-peace-democracy triangle in the region. This paper proposes the application of the Smart Security Concept in the East Mediterranean. Smart Security aims to secure critical infrastructure, such as hydrocarbon platforms, against asymmetrical threats. The concept is based on Anti Asymmetrical Area Denial (A3D) which necessitates limiting freedom of action of maritime terrorists and piracy by founding safe and secure maritime areas through sea lines of communication using short range capabilities. Smart Security is a regional maritime cooperation concept for the narrow seas. Cooperation and interoperability are essential attributes of this regional security concept. Therefore, multinational excellence centers such as Multinational Maritime Security Center of Excellence-Aksaz in Turkey, which will determine necessary capabilities and plan/coordinate workshops, training and exercises, are bound to be the principal characteristic of Smart Security concept and similar regional concepts. Smart Security, a crucial enabler of energy and regional security, can provide an enduring approach for operating in the challenging environment of narrow seas and for countering asymmetrical threats.

Keywords: security, cooperation, asymmetrical, area denial

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
65 SIP Flooding Attacks Detection and Prevention Using Shannon, Renyi and Tsallis Entropy

Authors: Neda Seyyedi, Reza Berangi

Abstract:

Voice over IP (VOIP) network, also known as Internet telephony, is growing increasingly having occupied a large part of the communications market. With the growth of each technology, the related security issues become of particular importance. Taking advantage of this technology in different environments with numerous features put at our disposal, there arises an increasing need to address the security threats. Being IP-based and playing a signaling role in VOIP networks, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) lets the invaders use weaknesses of the protocol to disable VOIP service. One of the most important threats is denial of service attack, a branch of which in this article we have discussed as flooding attacks. These attacks make server resources wasted and deprive it from delivering service to authorized users. Distributed denial of service attacks and attacks with a low rate can mislead many attack detection mechanisms. In this paper, we introduce a mechanism which not only detects distributed denial of service attacks and low rate attacks, but can also identify the attackers accurately. We detect and prevent flooding attacks in SIP protocol using Shannon (FDP-S), Renyi (FDP-R) and Tsallis (FDP-T) entropy. We conducted an experiment to compare the percentage of detection and rate of false alarm messages using any of the Shannon, Renyi and Tsallis entropy as a measure of disorder. Implementation results show that, according to the parametric nature of the Renyi and Tsallis entropy, by changing the parameters, different detection percentages and false alarm rates will be gained with the possibility to adjust the sensitivity of the detection mechanism.

Keywords: VOIP networks, flooding attacks, entropy, computer networks

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64 Mitigating Denial of Service Attacks in Information Centric Networking

Authors: Bander Alzahrani

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Information-centric networking (ICN) using architectures such as Publish-Subscribe Internet Routing Paradigm (PSIRP) is one of the promising candidates for a future Internet, has recently been under the spotlight by the research community to investigate the possibility of redesigning the current Internet architecture to solve many issues such as routing scalability, security, and quality of services issues.. The Bloom filter-based forwarding is a source-routing approach that is used in the PSIRP architecture. This mechanism is vulnerable to brute force attacks which may lead to denial-of-service (DoS) attacks. In this work, we present a new forwarding approach that keeps the advantages of Bloom filter-based forwarding while mitigates attacks on the forwarding mechanism. In practice, we introduce a special type of forwarding nodes called Edge-FW to be placed at the edge of the network. The role of these node is to add an extra security layer by validating and inspecting packets at the edge of the network against brute-force attacks and check whether the packet contains a legitimate forwarding identifier (FId) or not. We leverage Certificateless Aggregate Signature (CLAS) scheme with a small size of 64-bit which is used to sign the FId. Hence, this signature becomes bound to a specific FId. Therefore, malicious nodes that inject packets with random FIds will be easily detected and dropped at the Edge-FW node when the signature verification fails. Our preliminary security analysis suggests that with the proposed approach, the forwarding plane is able to resist attacks such as DoS with very high probability.

Keywords: bloom filter, certificateless aggregate signature, denial-of-service, information centric network

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63 An Approach to Integrated Water Resources Management, a Plan for Action to Climate Change in India

Authors: H. K. Ramaraju

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World is in deep trouble and deeper denial. Worse, the denial is now entirely on the side of action. It is well accepted that climate change is a reality. Scientists say we need to cap temperature increases at 2°C to avoid catastrophe, which means capping emissions at 450 ppm .We know global average temperatures have already increased by 0.8°C and there is enough green house gas in the atmosphere to lead to another 0.8°C increase. There is still a window of opportunity, a tiny one, to tackle the crisis. But where is the action? In the 1990’s, when the world did even not understand, let alone accept, the crises, it was more willing to move to tackle climate change. Today we are in reverse in gear. The rich world has realized it is easy to talk big, but tough to take steps to actually reduce emissions. The agreement was that these countries would reduce so that the developing World could increase. Instead, between 1990 and 2006, their carbon dioxide emissions increased by a whopping 14.5 percent, even green countries of Europe are unable to match words with action. Stop deforestation and take a 20 percent advantage in our carbon balance sheet, with out doing anything at home called REDD (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation) and push for carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies. There are warning signs elsewhere and they need to be read correctly and acted up on , if not the cases like flood –act of nature or manmade disaster. The full length paper orient in proper understanding of the issues and identifying the most appropriate course of action.

Keywords: catastrophe, deforestation, emissions, waste water

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62 Ambivilance, Denial, and Adaptive Responses to Vulnerable Suspects in Police Custody: The New Limits of the Sovereign State

Authors: Faye Cosgrove, Donna Peacock

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This paper examines current state strategies for dealing with vulnerable people in police custody and identifies the underpinning discourses and practices which inform these strategies. It has previously been argued that the state has utilised contradictory and conflicting responses to the control of crime, by employing opposing strategies of denial and adaptation in order to simultaneously both display sovereignty and disclaim responsibility. This paper argues that these contradictory strategies are still being employed in contemporary criminal justice, although the focus and the purpose have now shifted. The focus is upon the ‘vulnerable’ suspect, whose social identity is as incongruous, complex and contradictory as his social environment, and the purpose is to redirect attention away from negative state practices, whilst simultaneously displaying a compassionate and benevolent countenance in order to appeal to the voting public. The findings presented here result from intensive qualitative research with police officers, with health care professionals, and with civilian volunteers who work within police custodial environments. The data has been gathered over a three-year period and includes observational and interview data which has been thematically analysed to expose the underpinning mechanisms from which the properties of the system emerge. What is revealed is evidence of contemporary state practices of denial relating to the harms of austerity and the structural relations of vulnerability, whilst simultaneously adapting through processes of ‘othering’ of the vulnerable, ‘responsibilisation’ of citizens, defining deviance down through diversionary practices, and managing success through redefining the aims of the system. The ‘vulnerable’ suspect is subject to individual pathologising, and yet the nature of risk is aggregated. ‘Vulnerable’ suspects are supported in police custody by private citizens, by multi-agency partnerships, and by for-profit organisations, while the state seeks to collate and control services, and thereby to retain a veneer of control. Late modern ambivalence to crime control and the associated contradictory practices of abjuration and adjustment have extended to state responses to vulnerable suspects. The support available in the custody environment operates to control and minimise operational and procedural risk, rather than for the welfare of the detained person, and in fact, the support available is discovered to be detrimental to the very people that it claims to benefit. The ‘vulnerable’ suspect is now subject to the bifurcated logics employed at the new limits of the sovereign state.

Keywords: custody, policing, sovereign state, vulnerability

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61 Factor Structure of the Korean Version of Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire (MEAQ)

Authors: Juyeon Lee, Sungeun You

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Experiential avoidance is one’s tendency to avoid painful internal experience, unwanted adverse thoughts, emotions, and physical sensations. The Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire (MEAQ) is a measure of experiential avoidance, and the original scale consisted of 62 items with six subfactors including behavioral avoidance, distress aversion, procrastination, distraction/suppression, repression/denial, and distress endurance. The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure of the MEAQ in a Korean sample. Three hundred community adults and university students aged 18 to 35 participated in an online survey assessing experiential avoidance (MEAQ and Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II; AAQ-II), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9; PHQ-9), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disoder-7; GAD-7), negative affect (Positive and Negative Affect Scale; PANAS), neuroticism (Big Five Inventory; BFI), and quality of life (Satisfaction with Life Scale; SWLS). Factor analysis with principal axis with direct oblimin rotation was conducted to examine subfactors of the MEAQ. Results indicated that the six-factor structure of the original scale was adequate. Eight items out of 62 items were removed due to insufficient factor loading. These items included 3 items of behavior avoidance (e.g., “When I am hurting, I would do anything to feel better”), 2 items of repression/denial (e.g., “I work hard to keep out upsetting feelings”), and 3 items of distress aversion (e.g., “I prefer to stick to what I am comfortable with, rather than try new activities”). The MEAQ was positively associated with the AAQ-II (r = .47, p < .001), PHQ-9 (r = .37, p < .001), GAD-7 (r = .34, p < .001), PANAS (r = .35, p < .001), and neuroticism (r = .24, p < .001), and negatively correlated with the SWLS (r = -.38, p < .001). Internal consistency was good for the MEAQ total (Cronbach’s α = .90) as well as all six subfactors (Cronbach’s α = .83 to .87). The findings of the study support the multidimensional feature of experiential avoidance and validity of the MEAQ in a sample of Korean adults.

Keywords: avoidance, experiential avoidance, factor structure, MEAQ

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60 Cooperative Agents to Prevent and Mitigate Distributed Denial of Service Attacks of Internet of Things Devices in Transportation Systems

Authors: Borhan Marzougui

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Road and Transport Authority (RTA) is moving ahead with the implementation of the leader’s vision in exploring all avenues that may bring better security and safety services to the community. Smart transport means using smart technologies such as IoT (Internet of Things). This technology continues to affirm its important role in the context of Information and Transportation Systems. In fact, IoT is a network of Internet-connected objects able to collect and exchange different data using embedded sensors. With the growth of IoT, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks is also growing exponentially. DDoS attacks are the major and a real threat to various transportation services. Currently, the defense mechanisms are mainly passive in nature, and there is a need to develop a smart technique to handle them. In fact, new IoT devices are being used into a botnet for DDoS attackers to accumulate for attacker purposes. The aim of this paper is to provide a relevant understanding of dangerous types of DDoS attack related to IoT and to provide valuable guidance for the future IoT security method. Our methodology is based on development of the distributed algorithm. This algorithm manipulates dedicated intelligent and cooperative agents to prevent and to mitigate DDOS attacks. The proposed technique ensure a preventive action when a malicious packets start to be distributed through the connected node (Network of IoT devices). In addition, the devices such as camera and radio frequency identification (RFID) are connected within the secured network, and the data generated by it are analyzed in real time by intelligent and cooperative agents. The proposed security system is based on a multi-agent system. The obtained result has shown a significant reduction of a number of infected devices and enhanced the capabilities of different security dispositives.

Keywords: IoT, DDoS, attacks, botnet, security, agents

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59 Real Time Detection of Application Layer DDos Attack Using Log Based Collaborative Intrusion Detection System

Authors: Farheen Tabassum, Shoab Ahmed Khan

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The brutality of attacks on networks and decisive infrastructures are on the climb over recent years and appears to continue to do so. Distributed Denial of service attack is the most prevalent and easy attack on the availability of a service due to the easy availability of large botnet computers at cheap price and the general lack of protection against these attacks. Application layer DDoS attack is DDoS attack that is targeted on wed server, application server or database server. These types of attacks are much more sophisticated and challenging as they get around most conventional network security devices because attack traffic often impersonate normal traffic and cannot be recognized by network layer anomalies. Conventional techniques of single-hosted security systems are becoming gradually less effective in the face of such complicated and synchronized multi-front attacks. In order to protect from such attacks and intrusion, corporation among all network devices is essential. To overcome this issue, a collaborative intrusion detection system (CIDS) is proposed in which multiple network devices share valuable information to identify attacks, as a single device might not be capable to sense any malevolent action on its own. So it helps us to take decision after analyzing the information collected from different sources. This novel attack detection technique helps to detect seemingly benign packets that target the availability of the critical infrastructure, and the proposed solution methodology shall enable the incident response teams to detect and react to DDoS attacks at the earliest stage to ensure that the uptime of the service remain unaffected. Experimental evaluation shows that the proposed collaborative detection approach is much more effective and efficient than the previous approaches.

Keywords: Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS), Collaborative Intrusion Detection System (CIDS), Slowloris, OSSIM (Open Source Security Information Management tool), OSSEC HIDS

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58 Girl Child Education: A Veritable Tool to Gender Equality and Empowerment

Authors: Egena Obaje Innocent

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In Africa generally and Nigeria in particular one the major setbacks for the girl-child is her deprivation or denial if you like to equal opportunity to education. In most Nigerian communities which are male dominated parents make no pretense of their preference of the male children when it come to the choice of who to send to school between the male and female child. Indeed, certain inhibiting cultural and religious practices are the root cause of this annually. It is against this background that this paper looked at the phenomenon the girl-child education, causes of the negligent its effects on the girl child and nation remedies and conclusion.

Keywords: education, empowerment, girl child, gender equality

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57 The Effects of Three Pre-Reading Activities (Text Summary, Vocabulary Definition, and Pre-Passage Questions) on the Reading Comprehension of Iranian EFL Learners

Authors: Leila Anjomshoa, Firooz Sadighi

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This study investigated the effects of three types of pre-reading activities (vocabulary definitions, text summary and pre-passage questions) on EFL learners’ English reading comprehension. On the basis of the results of a placement test administered to two hundred and thirty English students at Kerman Azad University, 200 subjects (one hundred intermediate and one hundred advanced) were selected.Four texts, two of them at intermediate level and two of them at advanced level were chosen. The data gathered was subjected to the statistical procedures of ANOVA. A close examination of the results through Tukey’s HSD showed the fact that the experimental groups performed better than the control group, highlighting the effect of the treatment on them. Also, the experimental group C (text summary), performed remarkably better than the other three groups (both experimental & control). Group B subjects, vocabulary definitions, performed better than groups A and D. The pre-passage questions group’s (D) performance showed higher scores than the control condition.

Keywords: pre-reading activities, text summary, vocabulary definition, and pre-passage questions, reading comprehension

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56 A Review of Security Attacks and Intrusion Detection Schemes in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

Authors: Maleh Yassine, Ezzati Abdellah

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Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are currently used in different industrial and consumer applications, such as earth monitoring, health related applications, natural disaster prevention, and many other areas. Security is one of the major aspects of wireless sensor networks due to the resource limitations of sensor nodes. However, these networks are facing several threats that affect their functioning and their life. In this paper we present security attacks in wireless sensor networks, and we focus on a review and analysis of the recent Intrusion Detection schemes in WSNs.

Keywords: wireless sensor networks, security attack, denial of service, IDS, cluster-based model, signature based IDS, hybrid IDS

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55 An Enhanced Digital Forensic Model for Internet of Things Forensic

Authors: Tina Wu, Andrew Martin

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The expansion of the Internet of Things (IoT) brings a new level of threat. Attacks on IoT are already being used by criminals to form botnets, launch Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) and distribute malware. This opens a whole new digital forensic arena to develop forensic methodologies in order to have the capability to investigate IoT related crimes. However, existing proposed IoT forensic models are still premature requiring further improvement and validation, many lack details on the acquisition and analysis phase. This paper proposes an enhanced theoretical IoT digital forensic model focused on identifying and acquiring the main sources of evidence in a methodical way. In addition, this paper presents a theoretical acquisition framework of the different stages required in order to be capable of acquiring evidence from IoT devices.

Keywords: acquisition, Internet of Things, model, zoning

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54 Examining Cyber Crime and Its Impacts on E-Banking in Nigeria

Authors: Auwal Nata'ala

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The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has had impacts in almost every area human endeavor. From business, industries, banks to none profit organizations. ICT has simplified business process such as sorting, summarizing, coding, updating and generating a report in a real-time processing mode. However, the use of these ICT facilities such as computer and internet has also brought unintended consequences of criminal activities such as spamming, credit card frauds, ATM frauds, phishing, identity theft, denial of services and other related cyber crimes. This study sought to examined cyber-crime and its impact on the banking institution in Nigeria. It also examined the existing policy framework and assessed the success of the institutional countermeasures in combating cyber crime in the banking industry. This paper X-ray’s cyber crimes, policies issues and provides insight from a Nigeria perspective.

Keywords: cyber crimes, e-banking, policies, ICT

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53 Science School Was Burned: A Case Study of Crisis Management in Thailand

Authors: Proud Arunrangsiwed

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This study analyzes the crisis management and image repair strategies during the crisis of Mahidol Wittayanusorn School (MWIT) library burning. The library of this school was burned by a 16-year-old-male student on June 6th, 2010. This student blamed the school that the lesson was difficult, and other students were selfish. Although no one was in the building during the fire, it had caused damage to the building, books and electronic supplies around 130 million bahts (4.4 million USD). This event aroused many discourses arguing about the education system and morality. The strategies which were used during crisis were denial, shift the blame, bolstering, minimization, and uncertainty reduction. The results of using these strategies appeared after the crisis. That was the numbers of new students, who registered for the examination to get into this school in the later years, have remained the same.

Keywords: school, crisis management, violence, image repair strategies, uncertainty, burn

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52 Mental Health and Secondary Trauma in Service Providers Working with Refugees

Authors: Marko Živanović, Jovana Bjekić, Maša Vukčević Marković

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Professionals and volunteers involved in refugee protection and support are on a daily basis faced with people who have experienced numerous traumatic experiences and, as such, are subjected to secondary traumatization (ST). The aim of this study was to provide insight into risk factors for ST in helpers working with refugees in Serbia. A total of 175 participants working with refugees fulfilled: Secondary Traumatization Questionnaire, checklist of refugees’ traumatic experiences, Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (HSCL) assessing depression and anxiety symptoms, quality of life questionnaire (MANSA), HEXACO personality inventory, and COPE assessing coping mechanisms. In addition, participants provided information on work-related problems. Qualitative analysis of answers to the question about most difficult part of their job has shown that burnout-related issues are clustered around three recurrent topics that can be considered as the most prominent generators of stress, namely: ‘lack of organization and cooperation’, ‘not been able to do enough’, and ‘hard to take it and to process it’. Factor analysis (Maximum likelihood extraction, Promax rotation) have shown that ST comprises of two correlated factors (r = .533, p < .01), namely Psychological deficits and Intrusions. Results have shown that risk factor for ST could be find in three interrelated sources: 1) work-related problems; 2) personality-related risk factors and 3) clients’ traumatic experiences. Among personality related factors, it was shown that risk factor for Intrusions could be find in – high Emotionality (β = .221, p < .05), and Altruism (β = .322, p < .01), while low Extraversion (β = -.365, p < .01) represents risk factor for Psychological deficits. In addition, usage of maladaptive coping mechanisms –mental disengagement (r = .253, p < .01), behavioral disengagement (r = .274, p < .01), focusing on distress and venting of emotions (r = .220, p < .05), denial (r = .164, p < .05), and substance use (r = .232, p < .01) correlate with Psychological deficits while Intrusions corelate with Mental disengagement (r = .251, p < .01) and denial (r = .183, p < .05). Regarding clients’ traumatic experiences it was shown that both quantity of traumatic events in country of origin (for Deficits r = .226, p < .01; for Intrusions r = .174, p < .05) and in transit (for Deficits r = .288, p < .01), as well as certain content-related features of such experiences (especially experiences which are severely dislocated from ‘everyday reality’) are related to ST. In addition, Psychological deficits and Intrusions have shown to be accompanied by symptoms of depression (r = .760, p < .01; r = .552, p < .01) and anxiety (r = .740, p < .01; r = .447, p < .01) and overall lower life quality (r = -.454, p < .01; r = .256, p < .01). Results indicate that psychological vulnerability of persons who are working with traumatized individuals can be found in certain personality traits, and usage of maladaptive coping mechanisms, which disable one to deal with work-related issues, and to cope with quantity and quality of traumatic experiences they were faced with, affecting ones’ psychological well-being. Acknowledgement: This research was funded by IRC Serbia.

Keywords: mental health, refugees, secondary traumatization, traumatic experiences

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51 Secure Optimized Ingress Filtering in Future Internet Communication

Authors: Bander Alzahrani, Mohammed Alreshoodi

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Information-centric networking (ICN) using architectures such as the Publish-Subscribe Internet Technology (PURSUIT) has been proposed as a new networking model that aims at replacing the current used end-centric networking model of the Internet. This emerged model focuses on what is being exchanged rather than which network entities are exchanging information, which gives the control plane functions such as routing and host location the ability to be specified according to the content items. The forwarding plane of the PURSUIT ICN architecture uses a simple and light mechanism based on Bloom filter technologies to forward the packets. Although this forwarding scheme solve many problems of the today’s Internet such as the growth of the routing table and the scalability issues, it is vulnerable to brute force attacks which are starting point to distributed- denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks. In this work, we design and analyze a novel source-routing and information delivery technique that keeps the simplicity of using Bloom filter-based forwarding while being able to deter different attacks such as denial of service attacks at the ingress of the network. To achieve this, special forwarding nodes called Edge-FW are directly attached to end user nodes and used to perform a security test for malicious injected random packets at the ingress of the path to prevent any possible attack brute force attacks at early stage. In this technique, a core entity of the PURSUIT ICN architecture called topology manager, that is responsible for finding shortest path and creating a forwarding identifiers (FId), uses a cryptographically secure hash function to create a 64-bit hash, h, over the formed FId for authentication purpose to be included in the packet. Our proposal restricts the attacker from injecting packets carrying random FIds with a high amount of filling factor ρ, by optimizing and reducing the maximum allowed filling factor ρm in the network. We optimize the FId to the minimum possible filling factor where ρ ≤ ρm, while it supports longer delivery trees, so the network scalability is not affected by the chosen ρm. With this scheme, the filling factor of any legitimate FId never exceeds the ρm while the filling factor of illegitimate FIds cannot exceed the chosen small value of ρm. Therefore, injecting a packet containing an FId with a large value of filling factor, to achieve higher attack probability, is not possible anymore. The preliminary analysis of this proposal indicates that with the designed scheme, the forwarding function can detect and prevent malicious activities such DDoS attacks at early stage and with very high probability.

Keywords: forwarding identifier, filling factor, information centric network, topology manager

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50 Taxonomy of Threats and Vulnerabilities in Smart Grid Networks

Authors: Faisal Al Yahmadi, Muhammad R. Ahmed

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Electric power is a fundamental necessity in the 21st century. Consequently, any break in electric power is probably going to affect the general activity. To make the power supply smooth and efficient, a smart grid network is introduced which uses communication technology. In any communication network, security is essential. It has been observed from several recent incidents that adversary causes an interruption to the operation of networks. In order to resolve the issues, it is vital to understand the threats and vulnerabilities associated with the smart grid networks. In this paper, we have investigated the threats and vulnerabilities in Smart Grid Networks (SGN) and the few solutions in the literature. Proposed solutions showed developments in electricity theft countermeasures, Denial of services attacks (DoS) and malicious injection attacks detection model, as well as malicious nodes detection using watchdog like techniques and other solutions.

Keywords: smart grid network, security, threats, vulnerabilities

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49 A Polyphonic Look at Trends

Authors: Turquesa Topper

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The reflection focuses on recording and explaining the considerations, conceptualizations and methodological approach with which from the University, that is to say, from the academic field, the study of Trends is addressed with the intention of training professionals in the area, an area that requires disciplinary boundaries and builds a polyphonic vision. When referring to the objective of our Laboratory the detection of aesthetic trends of consumption, we find ourselves in the requirement to define our object: trends, aesthetic trends of consumption, more specifically. The pages cover a conception of trends from a theoretical framework that incorporates contributions from linguistics, semiotics, sociology, cultural studies and project disciplines, in order to consolidate a polyphonic look. The text investigates in the pre-discursive aspect of the trends, in the circulation of the notion of style and in the dynamics of affirmation - denial as the constitutive dynamics of Fashion linked to any process of innovation. From such inquiry, it is presented to Fashion as a system that operates directly on the construction of socio-individual identities unfolding through the liquefaction of signs in trends.

Keywords: fashion, methodology, narrative, trends

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48 Management and Agreement Protocol in Computer Security

Authors: Abdulameer K. Hussain

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When dealing with a cryptographic system we note that there are many activities performed by parties of this cryptographic system and the most prominent of these activities is the process of agreement between the parties involved in the cryptographic system on how to deal and perform the cryptographic system tasks to be more secure, more confident and reliable. The most common agreement among parties is a key agreement and other types of agreements. Despite the fact that there is an attempt from some quarters to find other effective agreement methods but these methods are limited to the traditional agreements. This paper presents different parameters to perform more effectively the task of the agreement, including the key alternative, the agreement on the encryption method used and the agreement to prevent the denial of the services. To manage and achieve these goals, this method proposes the existence of an control and monitoring entity to manage these agreements by collecting different statistical information of the opinions of the authorized parties in the cryptographic system. These statistics help this entity to take the proper decision about the agreement factors. This entity is called Agreement Manager (AM).

Keywords: agreement parameters, key agreement, key exchange, security management

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47 An Earth Mover’s Distance Algorithm Based DDoS Detection Mechanism in SDN

Authors: Yang Zhou, Kangfeng Zheng, Wei Ni, Ren Ping Liu

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Software-defined networking (SDN) provides a solution for scalable network framework with decoupled control and data plane. However, this architecture also induces a particular distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack that can affect or even overwhelm the SDN network. DDoS attack detection problem has to date been mostly researched as entropy comparison problem. However, this problem lacks the utilization of SDN, and the results are not accurate. In this paper, we propose a DDoS attack detection method, which interprets DDoS detection as a signature matching problem and is formulated as Earth Mover’s Distance (EMD) model. Considering the feasibility and accuracy, we further propose to define the cost function of EMD to be a generalized Kullback-Leibler divergence. Simulation results show that our proposed method can detect DDoS attacks by comparing EMD values with the ones computed in the case without attacks. Moreover, our method can significantly increase the true positive rate of detection.

Keywords: DDoS detection, EMD, relative entropy, SDN

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46 Lesbians, Gays and Bisexuals of Botswana: Progressive Steps by the Botswana Court of Appeal towards Recognition and Advancement of Fundamental Human Rights of the Most Vulnerable within Society

Authors: Tashwill Esterhuizen

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Throughout Africa, several countries continue to have laws which criminalise same-sex sexual activities, which increases the vulnerability of the LGBT community to stigma, discrimination, and persecution. These criminal provisions often form the basis upon which states deny LGBT activists the right to freely associate with other like-minded individuals and form organizations that protect their interests and advocate for the rights and aspirations of the LGBT community. Over the past year, however, there has been significant progress in the advancement of universal, fundamental rights of LGBT persons throughout Africa. In many instances, these advancements came about through the bravery of activists who have publically insisted (in environments where same-sex sexual practices are criminalised) that their rights should be respected. Where meaningful engagement with the State was fruitless, activists took their plight to the judiciary and have successfully sought to uphold the fundamental rights of LGBT persons, paving the way for a more inclusive and tolerant society. Litigation Progress: Botswana is a prime example. For several years, the State denied a group of LGBT activists their right to freely associate and form their organisation Lesbians, Gays, and Bisexuals of Botswana (LEGABIBO), which aimed to promote the interests of the LGBT community in Botswana. In March 2016, the Botswana Court of Appeal found that the government’s refusal to register LEGABIBO violated the activists’ right to associate freely. The Court held that the right freedom of association applies to all persons regardless of their sexual orientation or gender identity. It does not matter that the views of the organisation are unpopular or unacceptable amongst the majority. In particular, the Court rejected the government of Botswana’s contention that registering LEGABIBO would disturb public peace and is contrary to public morality. Quite remarkably, the Court of Appeal recognised that while LGBT individuals are a minority group within the country, they are nonetheless persons entitled to constitutional protections of their dignity, regardless of whether they are unacceptable to others on religious or any other grounds. Furthermore, the Court held that human rights and fundamental freedoms are granted to all, including criminals or social outcasts because the denial of an individual’s humanity is the denial of their human dignity. This is crucial observation by the Court of Appeal, as once it is accepted that human rights apply to all human beings, then it becomes much easier for vulnerable groups to assert their own rights. Conclusion: The Botswana Court of Appeal decision, therefore, represents significant progress in the promotion of the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons. The judgment has broader implications for many other countries which do not provide recognition of sexual minorities. It highlights the State’s duty to uphold basic rights and to ensure dignity, tolerance, and acceptance for marginalised persons.

Keywords: acceptance, freedom of association, freedom of expression, fundamental rights and freedoms, gender identity, human rights are universal, inclusive, inherent human dignity, progress, sexual orientation, tolerance

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