Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1849

Search results for: molecular epidemiology

1849 Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Molecular Epidemiology: An Overview

Authors: Asho Ali

Abstract:

Tuberculosis is a disease of grave concern which infects one-third of the global population. The high incidence of tuberculosis is further compounded by the increasing emergence of drug resistant strains including multi drug resistant (MDR). Global incidence MDR-TB is ~4%. Molecular epidemiological studies, based on the assumption that patients infected with clustered strains are epidemiologically linked, have helped understand the transmission dynamics of disease. It has also helped to investigate the basis of variation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains, differences in transmission, and severity of disease or drug resistance mechanisms from across the globe. This has helped in developing strategies for the treatment and prevention of the disease including MDR.

Keywords: Mycobcaterium tuberculosis, molecular epidemiology, drug resistance, disease

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1848 Analysis of Non-Coding Genome in Streptococcus pneumoniae for Molecular Epidemiology Typing

Authors: Martynova Alina, Lyubov Buzoleva

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Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative agent of pneumonias and meningitids throught all the world. Having high genetic diversity, this microorganism can cause different clinical forms of pneumococcal infections and microbiologically it is really difficult diagnosed by routine methods. Also, epidemiological surveillance requires more developed methods of molecular typing because the recent method of serotyping doesn't allow to distinguish invasive and non-invasive isolates properly. Non-coding genome of bacteria seems to be the interesting source for seeking of highly distinguishable markers to discriminate the subspecies of such a variable bacteria as Streptococcus pneumoniae. Technically, we proposed scheme of discrimination of S.pneumoniae strains with amplification of non-coding region (SP_1932) with the following restriction with 2 types of enzymes of Alu1 and Mn1. Aim: This research aimed to compare different methods of typing and their application for molecular epidemiology purposes. Methods: we analyzed population of 100 strains of S.pneumoniae isolated from different patients by different molecular epidemiology methods such as pulse-field gel electophoresis (PFGE), restriction polymorphism analysis (RFLP) and multilolocus sequence typing (MLST), and all of them were compared with classic typing method as serotyping. The discriminative power was estimated with Simpson Index (SI). Results: We revealed that the most discriminative typing method is RFLP (SI=0,97, there were distinguished 42 genotypes).PFGE was slightly less discriminative (SI=0,95, we identified 35 genotypes). MLST is still the best reference method (SI=1.0). Classic method of serotyping showed quite weak discriminative power (SI=0,93, 24 genotypes). In addition, sensivity of RFLP was 100%, specificity was 97,09%. Conclusion: the most appropriate method for routine epidemiology surveillance is RFLP with non-coding region of Streptococcsu pneumoniae, then PFGE, though in some cases these results should be obligatory confirmed by MLST.

Keywords: molecular epidemiology typing, non-coding genome, Streptococcus pneumoniae, MLST

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1847 Molecular Epidemiologic Distribution of HDV Genotypes among Different Ethnic Groups in Iran: A Systematic Review

Authors: Khabat Barkhordari

Abstract:

Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a RNA virus that needs the function of hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its propagation and assembly. Infection by HDV can occur spontaneously with HBV infection and cause acute hepatitis or develop as secondary infection in HBV suffering patients. Based on genome sequence analysis, HDV has several genotypes which show broad geographic and diverse clinical features. The aim of current study is determine the molecular epidemiology of hepatitis delta virus genotype in patients with positive HBsAg among different ethnic groups of Iran. This systematic review study reviews the results of different studies which examined 2000 Iranian patients with HBV infection from 2010 to 2015. Among 2000 patients in this study, 16.75 % were containing anti-HDV antibody and HDV RNA was found in just 1.75% cases. All of positive cases also have genotype I.

Keywords: HDV, genotype, epidemiology, distribution

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1846 Clostridium Difficile in Western Australian Native Animals: Prevalence and Molecular Epidemiology

Authors: Karla Cautivo, Thomas Riley, Daniel Knight

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Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in hospitalised humans. C. difficile colonises the gastrointestinal tract, causes disease in a variety of animal species and can persist as a spore in diverse environments. Genetic overlap between C. difficile strains from human, animal and environmental sources suggests CDI has a zoonotic or foodborne aetiology. In Australia, C. difficile PCR ribotype RT014 (MLST clade 1) and several ST11 (MLST clade 5) RTs are found commonly in livestock. The high prevalence and diversity of ST11 strains in Australian production animals indicates Australia might be the ancestral home for this lineage. This project describes for the first time the ecology of C. difficile in Australian native animals, providing insights into the prevalence, molecular epidemiology and evolution of C. difficile in this unique environment and a possible role in CDI in humans and animals in Australia. Faecal samples were collected from wild/captive reptiles (n=37), mammals (n=104) and birds (n=102) in Western Australia in 2020/21. Anaerobic enrichment culture was performed, and C. difficile isolates were characterised by PCR ribotyping and toxin gene profiling. Seventy isolates of C. difficile were recovered (prevalence of C. difficile in faecal samples 28%, n=68/243); 27 unique RTs were identified, 5 were novel. The prevalence of C. difficile was similar for reptiles and mammals, 46% (n=17/37) and 43%(n=45/104), respectively, but significantly lower in birds (7.8%, n=8/102; p<0.00001 for both reptiles and mammals). Of the 57 isolates available for typing, RT237 (clade 5) and RT002 (clade 2) were the most prevalent, 15.8% (n=9/57) and 14% (n=8/57), respectively. The high prevalence of C. difficile in reptiles and mammals, particularly clade 5 strains, supported by previous studies of C. difficile in Australian soils, suggest that Australia might be the ancestral home of MLST clade 5.

Keywords: Clostridium difficile, zoonosis, molecular epidemiology, ecology and evolution

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1845 Molecular Epidemiology of Circulating Adenovirus Types in Acute Conjunctivitis Cases in Chandigarh, North India

Authors: Mini P. Singh, Jagat Ram, Archit Kumar, Tripti Rungta, Jasmine Khurana, Amit Gupta, R. K. Ratho

Abstract:

Introduction: Human adenovirus is the most common agent involved in viral conjunctivitis. The clinical manifestations vary with different serotypes. The identification of the circulating strains followed by phylogenetic analysis can be helpful in understanding the origin and transmission of the disease. The present study aimed to carry out molecular epidemiology of the adenovirus types in the patients with conjunctivitis presenting to the eye centre of a tertiary care hospital in North India. Materials and Methods: The conjunctival swabs were collected from 23 suspected adenoviral conjunctivitis patients between April-August, 2014 and transported in viral transport media. The samples were subjected to nested PCR targeting hexon gene of human adenovirus. The band size of 956bp was eluted and 8 representative positive samples were subjected to sequencing. The sequences were analyzed by using CLUSTALX2.1 and MEGA 5.1 software. Results: The male: female ratio was found to be 3.6:1. The mean age of presenting patients was 43.95 years (+17.2). Approximately 52.1% (12/23) of patients presented with bilateral involvement while 47.8% (11/23) with unilateral involvement of the eye. Human adenovirus DNA could be detected in 65.2% (15/23) of the patients. The phylogenetic analysis revealed presence of serotype 8 in 7 patients and serotype 4 in one patient. The serotype 8 sequences showed 99-100% identity with Tunisian, Indian and Japanese strains. The adenovirus serotype 4 strains had 100% identity with strains from Tunisia, China and USA. Conclusion: Human adenovirus was found be an important etiological agent for conjunctivitis in our set up. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the predominant circulating strains in our epidemic keratoconjunctivitis were serotypes 8 and 4.

Keywords: conjunctivitis, human adenovirus, molecular epidemiology, phylogenetics

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1844 Metagenomics-Based Molecular Epidemiology of Viral Diseases

Authors: Vyacheslav Furtak, Merja Roivainen, Olga Mirochnichenko, Majid Laassri, Bella Bidzhieva, Tatiana Zagorodnyaya, Vladimir Chizhikov, Konstantin Chumakov

Abstract:

Molecular epidemiology and environmental surveillance are parts of a rational strategy to control infectious diseases. They have been widely used in the worldwide campaign to eradicate poliomyelitis, which otherwise would be complicated by the inability to rapidly respond to outbreaks and determine sources of the infection. The conventional scheme involves isolation of viruses from patients and the environment, followed by their identification by nucleotide sequences analysis to determine phylogenetic relationships. This is a tedious and time-consuming process that yields definitive results when it may be too late to implement countermeasures. Because of the difficulty of high-throughput full-genome sequencing, most such studies are conducted by sequencing only capsid genes or their parts. Therefore the important information about the contribution of other parts of the genome and inter- and intra-species recombination to viral evolution is not captured. Here we propose a new approach based on the rapid concentration of sewage samples with tangential flow filtration followed by deep sequencing and reconstruction of nucleotide sequences of viruses present in the samples. The entire nucleic acids content of each sample is sequenced, thus preserving in digital format the complete spectrum of viruses. A set of rapid algorithms was developed to separate deep sequence reads into discrete populations corresponding to each virus and assemble them into full-length consensus contigs, as well as to generate a complete profile of sequence heterogeneities in each of them. This provides an effective approach to study molecular epidemiology and evolution of natural viral populations.

Keywords: poliovirus, eradication, environmental surveillance, laboratory diagnosis

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1843 Epidemiology and Jeopardy Aspect of Febrile Neutropenia Patients by Means of Infectious Maladies

Authors: Pouya Karimi, Ramin Ghasemi Shayan

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Conclusions of the sort and setting of observational treatment for immunocompromised patients with fever are confused by the qualities of the hidden disease and the impacts of medications previously got, just as by changing microbiological examples and patterns in sedate obstruction at national and institutional levels. A few frameworks have been proposed to recognize patients who could profit by outpatient anti-infection treatment from patients who require hospitalization. Useful contemplations may choose whether the fundamental checking during the time of neutropenia can be accomplished.

Keywords: microbiology, infectious, neutropenia, epidemiology

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1842 Towards an Enhanced Compartmental Model for Profiling Malware Dynamics

Authors: Jessemyn Modiini, Timothy Lynar, Elena Sitnikova

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We present a novel enhanced compartmental model for malware spread analysis in cyber security. This paper applies cyber security data features to epidemiological compartmental models to model the infectious potential of malware. Compartmental models are most efficient for calculating the infectious potential of a disease. In this paper, we discuss and profile epidemiologically relevant data features from a Domain Name System (DNS) dataset. We then apply these features to epidemiological compartmental models to network traffic features. This paper demonstrates how epidemiological principles can be applied to the novel analysis of key cybersecurity behaviours and trends and provides insight into threat modelling above that of kill-chain analysis. In applying deterministic compartmental models to a cyber security use case, the authors analyse the deficiencies and provide an enhanced stochastic model for cyber epidemiology. This enhanced compartmental model (SUEICRN model) is contrasted with the traditional SEIR model to demonstrate its efficacy.

Keywords: cybersecurity, epidemiology, cyber epidemiology, malware

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1841 Morphological and Molecular Studies (ITS1) of Hydatid Cysts in Slaughtered Sheep in Mashhad Area

Authors: G. R. Hashemi Tabar, G. R. Razmi, F. Mirshekar

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Echinococcus granulosus have ten strains from G1 to G9. Each strain is related to special intermediated host. The morphology, epidemiology, treatment and control in these strains are different. There are many morphological and molecular methods to differentiate of Echinococcus strains. However, using both methods were provided better information about identification of each strain. The aim of study was to identify Echinococcus granulosus strain of hydrated cysts in slaughtered sheep using morphological and molecular methods in Mashhad area. In the present study, the infected liver and lung with hydatid cysts were collected and transferred to laboratory. The hydatid cyst liquid was extracted and morphological characters of rostellar hook protosclocies were measured using micrometer ocular. The total length of large blade length of large hooks, total length of small and blade length of small hooks, and number of hooks per protoscolex were 23± 0.3μm, 11.7±0.5 μm, 19.3±1.1 μm,8±1.1 and 33.7±0.7 μm, respectively. In molecular section of the study, DNA each samples was extracted with MBST Kit and development of PCR using special primers (EgF, EgR) which amplify fragment of ITS1 gen. The PCR product was digested with Bsh1236I enzyme. Based on pattern of PCR-RLFP results (four band forming), G1, G2 and G3 strain of Echinococcus granulosus were obtained. Differentiation of three strains was done using sequencing analysis and G1 strain was diagnosed. The agreement between the molecular results with morphometric characters of rosetellar hook was confirmed the presence of G1 strain of Echinococcus in the slaughtered sheep of Mashhad area.

Keywords: Echinococcus granulosus, Hydatid cyst, PCR, sheep

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1840 Survey of Epidemiology and Mechanisms of Badminton Injury Using Medical Check-Up and Questionnaire of School Age Badminton Players

Authors: Xiao Zhou, Kazuhiro Imai, Xiaoxuan Liu

Abstract:

Badminton is one type of racket sports that requires repetitive overhead motion, with the shoulder in abduction/external rotation and requires players to perform jumps, lunges, and quick directional changes. These characteristics could be stressful for body regions that may cause badminton injuries. Regarding racket players including badminton players, there have not been any studies that have utilized medical check-up to evaluate epidemiology and mechanism of injuries. In addition, epidemiology of badminton injury in school age badminton players is unknown. The first purpose of this study was to investigate the badminton injuries, physical fitness parameters, and intensity of shoulder pain using medical check-up so that the mechanisms of shoulder injuries might be revealed. The second purpose of this study was to survey the distribution of badminton injuries in elementary school age players so that injury prevention can be implemented as early as possible. The results of this study revealed that shoulder pain occurred in all players, and present shoulder pain players had smaller weight, greater shoulder external rotation (ER) gain, significantly thinner circumference of upper limbs and greater trunk extension. Identifying players with specific of these factors may enhance the prevention of badminton injury. This study also shows that there are high incidences of knee, ankle, plantar, and shoulder injury or pain in elementary school age badminton players. Injury prevention program might be implemented for elementary school age players.

Keywords: badminton injury, epidemiology, medical check-up, school age players

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1839 Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment of Leishmaniasis in Afghanistan

Authors: Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, Layegheh Daliri

Abstract:

Introduction: Leishmaniasis occurs in infectious diseases of Leishmania protozoa in Afghanistan, anthroponotic leishmaniasis and common cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL). Anthroponotic skin leishmania tropica may cause urban diseases and transmitted by Phlebotomus Sergenti. In different parts of Afghanistan, different species of Leishmania are observed. We report the epidemiological characteristics of prevention and treatment in this study. Methods: This study examines the epidemiology and prevention of religious diseases in Afghanistan. Knowledge gaps were analyzed and collected with our own data. Results: In Afghanistan, most of the Lishmania Tropic seekers are Four species of Leishmania in northern Afghanistan, including Leishmania Tropica, L. Major and L. Donovani, cause skin lesions, but L. Donovani and L. infantum are visible. Even combined prevention can significantly reduce the amount of infection. Conclusion: Skinny, as well as visceral leishmaniasis, can occur among the returnees from Afghanistan. Unusual and poor skin lesions can be created by L. Donovani. In most pathogenic areas, the transmission of common diseases between humans and animals. Home dogs are the main reservoir, transferring in some areas such as India and Sudan.

Keywords: leishmania donovani, leishmania tropica, treatment, disease, epidemiology

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1838 History and Epidemiology of Foot and Mouth Disease in Afghanistan: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Arash Osmani, Ian Robertson, Ihab Habib, Ahmad Aslami

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Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is endemic in Afghanistan. A retrospective study of data collected through passive surveillance of outbreaks of FMD from 1995 to 2016 was undertaken. A total of 1471 outbreaks were reported between 1995 and 2008. Of 7776 samples originating from 34 provinces tested between 2009 and 2016 4845 (62.3%) tested positive. The prevalence varied significantly between years (2009 and 2016) (P < 0.001); however, the number of outbreaks did not differ significantly (P = 0.24) between 1995 and 2008. During this period, there was a strong correlation between the number of outbreaks reported and the number of districts with infected animals (r = 0.74, P = 0.002). Serotype O was the predominant serotype detected, although serotypes A and Asia1 were also detected. Cattle were involved in all outbreaks reported. Herat province in the north-west (bordering Iran), Nangarhar province in the east (bordering Pakistan) and Kabul province in the centre of the country had infections detected in all years of the study. The findings from this study provide valuable direction for further research to understand the epidemiology of FMD in Afghanistan.

Keywords: foot and mouth disease, retrospective, epidemiology, Afghanistan

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1837 Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Influenza a(H3N2) Virus Circulating during the 2010-2011 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ghazanfar Ali, Fahad N Almajhdi

Abstract:

This study provides data on the viral diagnosis and molecular epidemiology of influenza A(H3N2) virus isolated in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Nasopharyngeal aspirates from 80 clinically infected patients in the peak of the 2010-2011 winter seasons were processed for viral diagnosis by RT-PCR. Sequencing of entire HA and NA genes of representative isolates and molecular epidemiological analysis were performed. A total of 06 patients were positive for influenza A, B and respiratory syncytial viruses by RT-PCR assays; out of these only one sample was positive for influenza A(H3N2) by RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA and NA gene sequences showed identities higher than 99-98.8 % in both genes. They were also similar to reference isolates in HA sequences (99 % identity) and in NA sequences (99 % identity). Amino acid sequences predicted for the HA gene were highly identical to reference strains. The NA amino acid substitutions identified did not include the oseltamivir-resistant H275Y substitution. Conclusion: Viral isolation and RT-PCR together were useful for diagnosis of the influenza A (H3N2) virus. Variations in HA and NA sequences are similar to those identified in worldwide reference isolates and no drug resistance was found.

Keywords: influenza A (H3N2), genetic characterization, viral isolation, RT-PCR, Saudi Arabia

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1836 Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Capripoxviruses from Outbreak in Iran 2021

Authors: Maryam Torabi, Habibi, Abdolahi, Mohammadi, Hassanzadeh, Darban Maghami, Baghi

Abstract:

Sheeppox Virus (SPPV) and goatpox virus (GTPV) are considerable diseases of sheep, and goats, caused by viruses of the Capripoxvirus (CaPV) genus. They are responsible for economic losses. Animal mortality, morbidity, cost of vaccinations, and restrictions in animal products’ trade are the reasons of economic losses. Control and eradication of CaPV depend on early detection of outbreaks so that molecular detection and genetic analysis could be effective to this aim. This study was undertaken to molecularly characterize SPPV and GTPV strains that have been circulating in Iran. 120 skin papules and nodule biopsies were collected from different regions of Iran and were examined for SPPV, GTPV viruses using TaqMan Real -Time PCR. Some of these amplified genes were sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were constructed. Out of the 120 samples analysed, 98 were positive for CaPV by Real- Time PCR (81.6%), and most of them wereSPPV. then 10 positive samples were sequenced and characterized by amplifying the ORF 103CaPV gene. sequencing and phylogenetic analysis for these positive samples revealed a high percentage of identity with SPPV isolated from different countries in Middle East. In conclusions, molecular characterization revealed nearly complete identity with all recent SPPVs strains in local countries that requires further studies to monitor the virus evolution and transmission pathways to better understand the virus pathobiology that will help for SPPV control.

Keywords: molecular epidemiology, Real-Time PCR, phylogenetic analysis, capripoxviruses

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1835 Molecular Detection of Tuberculosis in Dogs in the Three North-Eastern States Assam, Mizoram and Nagaland of India

Authors: A. G. Barua, Uttam Rajkhowa, Pranjal Moni Nath, Nur Abdul Kadir

Abstract:

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is one of the most closely-related intracellular bacterial pathogens, grouped as the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC). MTB, the primary agent of human tuberculosis (TB), can develop clinical TB in animals as 75 percent of canine mycobacterial infection is caused by close contact with an infected human being. In the present study, molecular detection of TB in dogs in three North-eastern states of India, Assam Mizoram, and Nagaland was carried out. So far, there has been a lack of systematic study in these regions, hampered by slow diagnostic methods and poor infrastructure. In an attempt to rectify this situation, molecular epidemiology was carried out for nine months to detect canine TB in a sample of 340 dogs. Isolation of DNA was done with swabs (throat/nasal), nodules of lungs and fluids from 100 suspected dogs and the molecular study were carried out with the help of conventional and real-time PCR. Post-mortem study was also carried out. Our results showed that the prevalence of clinical TB in dogs from a high-risk setting was 1 percent. However, the prevalence of immunological sensitization to M. tuberculosis antigen in dogs living in contact with sputum smeared positive TB cases was almost 50 percent. The latter setting had the maximum impact in terms of TB transmission. During the study period, a survey with a standard questionnaire was carried out in the TB hospitals to study reverse zoonosis. It was observed that an infected human being was one of the major risk factors for dogs to contract the infection. This observation was drawn by examining the probable airborne transmission from humans to their pets or strays. The present study helped to discover the nuances of TB transmission more clearly and systematically as compared to other sporadic tests to detect MTB in canine.

Keywords: Assam and Nagaland, canine TB, India, molecular detection, tuberculosis

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1834 Molecular Characterization of Echinococcus granulosus through Amplification of 12S rRNA Gene and Cox1 Gene Fragments from Cattle in Chittagong, Bangladesh

Authors: M. Omer Faruk, A. M. A. M. Zonaed Siddiki, M. Fazal Karim, Md. Masuduzzaman, S. Chowdhury, Md. Shafiqul Islam, M. Alamgir Hossain

Abstract:

The dog tapeworms Echinococcus granulosus develop hydatid cysts in various organs in human and domestic animals worldwide including Bangladesh. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the genotype of E. granulosus isolated from cattle using 12S rRNA and Cytochrome oxidase 1 (COX 1) genes. A total of 43 hydatid cyst samples were collected from 390 examined cattle samples derived from slaughterhouses. Among them, three cysts were fertile. Genomic DNA was extracted from germinal membrane and/or protoscoleces followed by PCR amplification of mitochondrial 12S rRNA and Cytochrome oxidase 1 gene fragments. The sequence data revealed existence of G1 (64.28%) and possible G3 (21.43%) genotypes for the first time in Bangladesh. The study indicates that common sheep strain G1 is the dominant subtype of E. granulosus in Chittagong region of Bangladesh. This will increase our understanding of the epidemiology of hydatidosis in the southern part of the country and will be useful to plan suitable control measures in the long run.

Keywords: Echinococcus granulosus, Cox1, 12S rRNA, molecular characterization, Bangladesh

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1833 Molecular Characterization, Host Plant Resistance and Epidemiology of Bean Common Mosaic Virus Infecting Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

Authors: N. Manjunatha, K. T. Rangswamy, N. Nagaraju, H. A. Prameela, P. Rudraswamy, M. Krishnareddy

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The identification of virus in cowpea especially potyviruses is confusing. Even though there are several studies on viruses causing diseases in cowpea, difficult to distinguish based on symptoms and serological detection. The differentiation of potyviruses considering as a constraint, the present study is initiated for molecular characterization, host plant resistance and epidemiology of the BCMV infecting cowpea. The etiological agent causing cowpea mosaic was identified as Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) on the basis of RT-PCR and electron microscopy. An approximately 750bp PCR product corresponding to coat protein (CP) region of the virus and the presence of long flexuous filamentous particles measuring about 952 nm in size typical to genus potyvirus were observed under electron microscope. The characterized virus isolate genome had 10054 nucleotides, excluding the 3’ terminal poly (A) tail. Comparison of polyprotein of the virus with other potyviruses showed similar genome organization with 9 cleavage sites resulted in 10 functional proteins. The pairwise sequence comparison of individual genes, P1 showed most divergent, but CP gene was less divergent at nucleotide and amino acid level. A phylogenetic tree constructed based on multiple sequence alignments of the polyprotein nucleotide and amino acid sequences of cowpea BCMV and potyviruses showed virus is closely related to BCMV-HB. Whereas, Soybean variant of china (KJ807806) and NL1 isolate (AY112735) showed 93.8 % (5’UTR) and 94.9 % (3’UTR) homology respectively with other BCMV isolates. This virus transmitted to different leguminous plant species and produced systemic symptoms under greenhouse conditions. Out of 100 cowpea genotypes screened, three genotypes viz., IC 8966, V 5 and IC 202806 showed immune reaction in both field and greenhouse conditions. Single marker analysis (SMA) was revealed out of 4 SSR markers linked to BCMV resistance, M135 marker explains 28.2 % of phenotypic variation (R2) and Polymorphic information content (PIC) value of these markers was ranged from 0.23 to 0.37. The correlation and regression analysis showed rainfall, and minimum temperature had significant negative impact and strong relationship with aphid population, whereas weak correlation was observed with disease incidence. Path coefficient analysis revealed most of the weather parameters exerted their indirect contributions to the aphid population and disease incidence except minimum temperature. This study helps to identify specific gaps in knowledge for researchers who may wish to further analyse the science behind complex interactions between vector-virus and host in relation to the environment. The resistant genotypes identified are could be effectively used in resistance breeding programme.

Keywords: cowpea, epidemiology, genotypes, virus

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1832 Hospital Acquired Bloodstream Infections Among Patients With Hematological and Solid Malignancies: Epidemiology, Causative Pathogens and Mortality

Authors: Marah El-Beeli, Abdullah Balkhair, Zakaryia Al Muharmi, Samir Al Adawi, Mansoor Al-Jabri, Abdullah Al Rawahi, Hazaa Al Yahyae, Eman Al Balushi, Yahya M. Al-Farsi

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The health care service and the anticancer chemotherapeutics has changed the natural history of cancer into manageable chronic disease and improve the cancer patient’s lifestyle and increase the survival time. Despite that, still, infection is the major dilemma opposing the cancer patient either because of the clinical presentation of the cancer type and impaired immune system or as a consequence of anticancer therapy. This study has been conducted to1) track changes in the epidemiology of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections among patients with malignancies in the last five years. 2) To explore the causative pathogens and 3) the outcome of HA-BSIs in patients with a different types of malignancies. An ampi-directional study (retrospective and prospective follow up) of patients with malignancies admitted at Sultan Qaboos University hospital (570-bed tertiary hospital) during the study period (from January 2015 to December 2019). The cumulative frequency and prevalence rates of HA-BSIs by patients and isolates were calculated. In addition, the cumulative frequency of participants with single versus mixed infections and types of causative micro-organisms of HA-BSIs were obtained. A total of 1246 event of HA-BSIs has occurred during the study period. Nearly the third (30.25%) of the HA-BSI events was identified among 288 patients with malignancies. About 20% of cases were mixed infections (more than one isolate). Staphylococcus spp were the predominant isolated pathogen (24.7%), followed by Klebsiella spp (15.8%), Escherichia spp (13%), and Pseudomonas spp (9.3%). About half (51%) of cases died in the same year, and (64%) of the deaths occur within two weeks after the infection. According to the observations, no changes in the trends of epidemiology, causative pathogens, morbidity, and mortality rates in the last five years.

Keywords: epidemiology, haematological malignancies, hospital acquired bloodstream infections, solid malignancies

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1831 Thick Disc Molecular Gas Fraction in NGC 6946

Authors: Narendra Nath Patra

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Several recent studies reinforce the existence of a thick molecular disc in galaxies along with the dynamically cold thin disc. Assuming a two-component molecular disc, we model the disc of NGC 6946 as a four-component system consists of stars, HI, thin disc molecular gas, and thick disc molecular gas in vertical hydrostatic equilibrium. Following, we set up the joint Poisson-Boltzmann equation of hydrostatic equilibrium and solve it numerically to obtain a three-dimensional density distribution of different baryonic components. Using the density solutions and the observed rotation curve, we further build a three-dimensional dynamical model of the molecular disc and consecutively produce simulated CO spectral cube and spectral width profile. We find that the simulated spectral width profiles distinguishably differs for different assumed thick disc molecular gas fraction. Several CO spectral width profiles are then produced for different assumed thick disc molecular gas fractions and compared with the observed one to obtain the best fit thick disc molecular gas fraction profile. We find that the thick disc molecular gas fraction in NGC 6946 largely remains constant across its molecular disc with a mean value of 0.70 +/- 0.09. We also estimate the amount of extra-planar molecular gas in NGC 6946. We find 60% of the total molecular gas is extra-planar at the central region, whereas this fraction reduces to ~ 35% at the edge of the molecular disc. With our method, for the first time, we estimate the thick disc molecular gas fraction as a function of radius in an external galaxy with sub-kpc resolution.

Keywords: galaxies: kinematics and dynamic, galaxies: spiral, galaxies: structure , ISM: molecules, molecular data

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1830 Zoonotic Dirofilaria Repens: Geographic Spread and New Avenues for Control

Authors: Francesco La Torre, Angela Di Cesare, Donato Traversa

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The mosquito-transmitted nematode Dirofilaria repens is the causative agent of subcutaneous filariosis in dogs, other animals and humans. Adults and circulating microfilariae may cause different forms of skin conditions, and various allergic reactions. The infection is distributed in several countries and spreading in several areas of Europe. The control of D. repens is pivotal to reduce the transmission in dogs and to minimize the risk of infection in humans, but only few information is available for the chemoprevention of subcutaneous filariosis of dogs. A recent clinical field study showed the efficacy and safety of a monthly administration of an oral formulation containing milbemycin oxime (Milbemax®, Novartis Animal Health) in the chemoprevention of D. repens infection in dogs. Most recent and focused insights into epidemiology and control of zoonotic canine subcutaneous filariosis are here discussed.

Keywords: Dirofilaria repens, epidemiology, zoonosis, control

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1829 Molecular Clustering and Velocity Increase in Converging-Diverging Nozzle in Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: Jeoungsu Na, Jaehawn Lee, Changil Hong, Suhee Kim

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A molecular dynamics simulation in a converging-diverging nozzle was performed to study molecular collisions and their influence to average flow velocity according to a variety of vacuum levels. The static pressures and the dynamic pressure exerted by the molecule collision on the selected walls were compared to figure out the intensity variances of the directional flows. With pressure differences constant between the entrance and the exit of the nozzle, the numerical experiment was performed for molecular velocities and directional flows. The result shows that the velocities increased at the nozzle exit as the vacuum level gets higher in that area because less molecular collisions.

Keywords: cavitation, molecular collision, nozzle, vacuum, velocity increase

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1828 Clinical and Molecular Characterization of Ichthyosis at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh KSA

Authors: Reema K. AlEssa, Sahar Alshomer, Abdullah Alfaleh, Sultan ALkhenaizan, Mohammed Albalwi

Abstract:

Ichthyosis is a disorder of abnormal keratinization, characterized by excessive scaling, and consists of more than twenty subtypes varied in severity, mode of inheritance, and the genes involved. There is insufficient data in the literature about the epidemiology and characteristics of ichthyosis locally. Our aim is to identify the histopathological features and genetic profile of ichthyosis. Method: It is an observational retrospective case series study conducted in March 2020, included all patients who were diagnosed with Ichthyosis and confirmed by histological and molecular findings over the last 20 years in King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Molecular analysis was performed by testing genomic DNA and checking genetic variations using the AmpliSeq panel. All disease-causing variants were checked against HGMD, ClinVar, Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD), and Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) databases. Result: A total of 60 cases of Ichthyosis were identified with a mean age of 13 ± 9.2. There is an almost equal distribution between female patients 29 (48%) and males 31 (52%). The majority of them were Saudis, 94%. More than half of patients presented with general scaling 33 (55%), followed by dryness and coarse skin 19 (31.6%) and hyperlinearity 5 (8.33%). Family history and history of consanguinity were seen in 26 (43.3% ), 13 (22%), respectively. History of colloidal babies was found in 6 (10%) cases of ichthyosis. The most frequent genes were ALOX12B, ALOXE3, CERS3, CYP4F22, DOLK, FLG2, GJB2, PNPLA1, SLC27A4, SPINK5, STS, SUMF1, TGM1, TGM5, VPS33B. Most frequent variations were detected in CYP4F22 in 16 cases (26.6%) followed by ALOXE3 6 (10%) and STS 6 (10%) then TGM1 5 (8.3) and ALOX12B 5 (8.3). The analysis of molecular genetic identified 23 different genetic variations in the genes of ichthyosis, of which 13 were novel mutations. Homozygous mutations were detected in the majority of ichthyosis cases, 54 (90%), and only 1 case was heterozygous. Few cases, 4 (6.6%) had an unknown type of ichthyosis with a negative genetic result. Conclusion: 13 novel mutations were discovered. Also, about half of ichthyosis patients had a positive history of consanguinity.

Keywords: ichthyosis, genetic profile, molecular characterization, congenital ichthyosis

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1827 Epidemiology of Bladder Malignancy in Patients Treated with Urethral Resection in Kurdistan Province

Authors: Heshmatollah Sofimajidpour, Mohammad Aziz Rasouli

Abstract:

Bladder cancer is the ninth most common cancer in the world and the fourth most common cancer in men in Iran, and the second most common genitourinary cancer after prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of bladder malignancy in patients treated with transurethral resection in Tohid Hospital in Sanandaj. In this cross-sectional study, data was extracted from321 medical records of patients with bladder malignancy treated by urethral resection. Patients 'information, including age, sex, place of residence, occupation, smoking history, histopathology, disease stage, and type of treatment, were extracted from patients' medical records from 2012-2017. The frequency and percentage of each variable were calculated using Stata software Ver. 14 and analyzed. The results of this study showed that the mean ± standard deviation of the age of the subjects was 65.6 ± 14 years. 264 people (82.2%) were men, and 247 people (76.9%) lived in the city. In terms of smoking and family history, 172 patients (53.6%) and 20 patients (6.2%) were reported, respectively. Most people were diagnosed with Transitional Cell carcinoma, and 210 patients (65.4%) were diagnosed with stage 1, and 8 patients (2.5%) were diagnosed with stage 4 of the disease. Regarding the type of treatment, TURBT was reported in 207 patients (64.5%), and TURBT and BCG in the bladder were reported in 74 patients (23%). The incidence of bladder cancer is increasing, although this increase may be due to improved cancer registration systems, as well as the use of new diagnostic methods and increased patient awareness, the risk of bladder cancer is increasing due to lifestyle changes, job encounters, and other risk factors. Therefore planning and identifying the causes of this cancer can be helpful in preventing it.

Keywords: epidemiology, bladder malignancy, transurethral resection, urinary tract, kurdistan, iran

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1826 Epidemiology, Clinical, Immune, and Molecular Profiles of Microsporidiosis and Cryptosporidiosis among HIV/AIDS patients

Authors: Roger WUMBA

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites, with special emphasis on microsporidia and Cryptosporidium, as well as their association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) symptoms, risk factors, and other digestive parasites. We also wish to determine the molecular biology definitions of the species and genotypes of microsporidia and Cryptosporidium in HIV patients. In this cross-sectional study, carried out in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, stool samples were collected from 242 HIV patients (87 men and 155 women) with referred symptoms and risk factors for opportunistic intestinal parasites. The analysis of feces specimen were performed using Ziehl–Neelsen stainings, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunofluorescence indirect monoclonal antibody, nested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, and PCR amplification and sequencing. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were used to quantify the risk. Of the 242 HIV patients, 7.8%, 0.4%, 5.4%, 0.4%, 2%, 10.6%, and 2.8% had Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp., Isospora belli, pathogenic intestinal protozoa, nonpathogenic intestinal protozoa, and helminths, respectively. We found five genotypes of E. bieneusi: two older, NIA1 and D, and three new, KIN1, KIN2, and KIN3. Only 0.4% and 1.6% had Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis, respectively. Of the patients, 36.4%, 34.3%, 31%, and 39% had asthenia, diarrhea, a CD4 count of ,100 cells/mm³, and no antiretroviral therapy (ART), respectively. The majority of those with opportunistic intestinal parasites and C. hominis, and all with C. parvum and new E. bieneusi genotypes, had diarrhea, low CD4+ counts of ,100 cells/mm³, and no ART. There was a significant association between Entamoeba coli, Kaposi sarcoma, herpes zoster, chronic diarrhea, and asthenia, and the presence of 28 cases with opportunistic intestinal parasites. Rural areas, public toilets, and exposure to farm pigs were the univariate risk factors present in the 28 cases with opportunistic intestinal parasites. In logistic regression analysis, a CD4 count of ,100 cells/mm³ (OR = 4.60; 95% CI 1.70–12.20; P = 0.002), no ART (OR = 5.00; 95% CI 1.90–13.20; P , 0.001), and exposure to surface water (OR = 2.90; 95% CI 1.01–8.40; P = 0.048) were identified as the significant and independent determinants for the presence of opportunistic intestinal parasites. E. bieneusi and Cryptosporidium are becoming more prevalent in Kinshasa, Congo. Based on the findings, we recommend epidemiology surveillance and prevention by means of hygiene, the emphasis of sensitive PCR methods, and treating opportunistic intestinal parasites that may be acquired through fecal–oral transmission, surface water, normal immunity, rural area-based person–person and animal–human nfection, and transmission of HIV. Therapy, including ART and treatment with fumagillin, is needed.

Keywords: diarrhea, enterocytozoon bieneusi, cryptosporidium hominis, cryptosporidium parvum, risk factors, africans

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1825 Molecular Epidemiology of Egyptian Biomphalaria Snail: The Identification of Species, Diagnostic of the Parasite in Snails and Host Parasite Relationship

Authors: Hanaa M. Abu El Einin, Ahmed T. Sharaf El- Din

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Biomphalaria snails play an integral role in the transmission of Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent for human schistosomiasis. Two species of Biomphalaria were reported from Egypt, Biomphalaria alexandrina and Biomphalaria glabrata, and later on a hybrid of B. alexandrina and B. glabrata was reported in streams at Nile Delta. All were known to be excellent hosts of S. mansoni. Host-parasite relationship can be viewed in terms of snail susceptibility and parasite infectivity. The objective of this study will highlight the progress that has been made in using molecular approaches to describe the correct identification of snail species that participating in transmission of schistosomiasis, rapid diagnose of infection in addition to susceptibility and resistance type. Snails were identified using of molecular methods involving Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD), Polymerase Chain Reaction, Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP) and Species - specific- PCR. Molecular approaches to diagnose parasite in snails from Egypt: Nested PCR assay and small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. Also RAPD PCR for study susceptible and resistance phenotype. The results showed that RAPD- PCR, PCR-RFLP and species-specific-PCR techniques were confirmed that: no evidence for the presence of B. glabrata in Egypt, All Biomphalaria snails collected identified as B. alexandrina snail i-e B alexandrinia is a common and no evidence for hybridization with B. glabrata. The adopted specific nested PCR assay revealed much higher sensitivity which enables the detection of S. mansoni infected snails down to 3 days post infection. Nested PCR method for detection of infected snails using S. mansoni fructose -1,6- bisphosphate aldolase (SMALDO) primer, these primers are specific only for S. mansoni and not cross reactive with other schistosomes or molluscan aldolases Nested PCR for such gene is sensitive enough to detect one cercariae. Genetic variations between B. alexandrina strains that are susceptible and resistant to Schistosoma infec¬tion using a RAPD-PCR showed that 39.8% of the examined snails collected from the field were resistant, while 60.2% of these snails showed high infection rates. In conclusion the genetics of the intermediate host plays a more important role in the epidemiological control of schistosomiasis.

Keywords: biomphalaria, molecular differentiation, parasite detection, schistosomiasis

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1824 Molecular Docking Assessment of Pesticides Binding to Bacterial Chitinases

Authors: Diana Larisa Vladoiu, Vasile Ostafe, Adriana Isvoran

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Molecular docking calculations reveal that pesticides provide favorable interactions with the bacterial chitinases. Pesticides interact with both hydrophilic and aromatic residues involved in the active site of the enzymes, their positions partially overlapping the substrate and the inhibitors locations. Molecular docking outcomes, in correlation with experimental literature data, suggest that the pesticides may be degraded or having an inhibitor effect on the activity of these enzymes, depending of the application dose and rate.

Keywords: chitinases, inhibition, molecular docking, pesticides

Procedia PDF Downloads 438
1823 Detection and Dissemination of Putative Virulence Genes from Brucella Species Isolated from Livestock in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

Authors: Rudzani Manafe, Ezekiel Green

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Brucella, has many different virulence factors that act as a causative agent of brucellosis, depending on the environment and other factors, some factors may play a role more than others during infection and as a result, play a role in becoming a causative agent for pathogenesis. Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus are considered to be pathogenic to humans. The genetic regularity of nine potential causes of virulence of two Brucella species in Eastern Cape livestock have been examined. A hundred and twenty isolates obtained from Molecular Pathogenesis and Molecular Epidemiology Research Group (MPMERG) were used for this study. All isolates were grown on Brucella agar medium. Nine primer pairs were used for the detection of virB2, virB5, vceC, btpA, btpB, prpA, betB, bpe275, and bspB virulence factors using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Approximately 100% was observed for genes BecC and BetB from B. arbotus. While the lowest gene observed was PrpA at 4.6% from B. arbotus. BetB was detected in 34.7%, while virB2 and prpA (0%) were not detected in B. melitensis. The results from this research suggest that most isolates of Brucella have virulence-related genes associated with disease pathogenesis. Finally, our findings showed that Brucella strains in the Eastern Cape Province are extremely virulent as virulence characteristics exist in most strains investigated.

Keywords: putative virulence genes, brucella, polymerase chain reaction, milk

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1822 Effect of Plasticizer Additives on the Mechanical Properties of Cement Composite: A Molecular Dynamics Analysis

Authors: R. Mohan, V. Jadhav, A. Ahmed, J. Rivas, A. Kelkar

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Cementitious materials are an excellent example of a composite material with complex hierarchical features and random features that range from nanometer (nm) to millimeter (mm) scale. Multi-scale modeling of complex material systems requires starting from fundamental building blocks to capture the scale relevant features through associated computational models. In this paper, molecular dynamics (MD) modeling is employed to predict the effect of plasticizer additive on the mechanical properties of key hydrated cement constituent calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH) at the molecular, nanometer scale level. Due to complexity, still unknown molecular configuration of CSH, a representative configuration widely accepted in the field of mineral Jennite is employed. The effectiveness of the Molecular Dynamics modeling to understand the predictive influence of material chemistry changes based on molecular/nanoscale models is demonstrated.

Keywords: cement composite, mechanical properties, molecular dynamics, plasticizer additives

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1821 A Five–Year Review Study of Epidemiology of Ocular and Adnexal Injuries Requiring Surgical Intervention in a Middle Eastern Area: Al Ain, UAE

Authors: Tahra AlMahmoud, Sameeha Mohamed Al Hadhrami, Mohamed Elhanan, Hanan Naser Alshamsi, Fikri Abu-Zidan

Abstract:

Background: To the best of the author(s)’ knowledge there are no epidemiological studies for traumatic eye injuries in UAE, neither data on groups at risk or mechanisms for ocular trauma. Purpose: To report the epidemiology of eye injuries that required hospital admission and surgery at a referral center at the eastern part of Abu Dhabi. Method: Retrospective charts review of all patients who had suffered an eye injury that required surgical intervention between 2012 and 2017 at Al Ain Hospital. Demographic data, place of occurrence, the cause of injury, visual acuity (VA) before and after treatment, number of admission days and follow up were extracted. Data were tabulated and presented as number (%), mean (SD), or median (range) as appropriate. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for VA outcome. Results: One hundred forty-one patients were identified, 96 eyes with open-globe and 48 other types of injuries. The mean age of the patients was 26±15.5 years, and 89% were male. Majority of injuries occurred at the workplace (50.4%) followed by home (31.2%). Trauma with a sharp object (24.1%), blunt object (16.3%), nail (11.3%), and hammer on metal (7.8%) were the most common etiologies of injury. Corneas injuries (48.2%) was the most frequent cause for visual acuity limitation followed by lens/cataract (23.4%). Among the traumatized eyes, 30 eyes (21.3%) retained intraocular foreign body, Mean admission days was 3.16± 2.81days (1-16) and a number of follow up visit was 3.17± 4.11times (0-26). Conclusion: Ocular trauma requiring surgical intervention is an area of concern in particular for occupations involving work with metals. This work may give insight into the value and necessity of implementing preventive measures.

Keywords: epidemiology, Middle Eastern area, occupational injury, ocular traumas

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1820 Application of Molecular Markers for Crop Improvement

Authors: Monisha Isaac

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Use of molecular markers for selecting plants with desired traits has been started long back. Due to their heritable characteristics, they are useful for identification and characterization of specific genotypes. The study involves various types of molecular markers used to select multiple desired characters in plants, their properties, and advantages to improve crop productivity in adverse climatological conditions for the purpose of providing food security to fast-growing global population. The study shows that genetic similarities obtained from molecular markers provide more accurate information and the genetic diversity can be better estimated from the genetic relationship obtained from the dendrogram. The information obtained from markers assisted characterization is more suitable for the crops of economic importance like sugarcane.

Keywords: molecular markers, crop productivity, genetic diversity, genotype

Procedia PDF Downloads 398