Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 399

Search results for: adolescents

399 A Comparison of Anger State and Trait Anger Among Adolescents with and without Visual Impairment

Authors: Sehmus Aslan, Sibel Karacaoglu, Cengiz Sevgin, Ummuhan Bas Aslan

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Objective: Anger expression style is an important moderator of the effects on the person and person’s environment. Anger and anger expression have become important constructs in identifying individuals at high risk for psychological difficulties. To our knowledge, there is no information about anger and anger expression of adolescents with visual impairment. The aim of this study was to compare anger and anger expression among adolescents with and without visual impairment. Methods: Thirty-eight adolescents with visual impairment (18 female, 20 male) and 44 adolescents without visual impairment (22 female, 24 male), in totally 84 adolescents aged between 12 to 15 years, participated in the study. Anger and anger expression of the participants assessed with The State-Trait Anger Scale (STAS). STAS, a self-report questionnaire, is designed to measure the experience and expression of anger. STAS has four subtitles including continuous anger, anger in, anger out and anger control. Reliability and validity of the STAS have been well established among adolescents. Mann-Whitney U Test was used for statistical analysis. Results: No significant differences were found in the scores of continuous anger and anger out between adolescents with and without visual impairment (p < 0.05). On the other hand, there were differences in scores of anger control and anger in between adolescents with and without visual impairment (p>0.05). The score of anger control in adolescents with visual impairment were higher compared with adolescents without visual impairment. Meanwhile, the adolescents with visual impairment had lower score for anger in compared with adolescents without visual impairment. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that there is no difference in anger level among adolescents with and without visual impairment meanwhile there is difference in anger expression.

Keywords: adolescent, anger, impaired, visual

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398 Awareness of Students and Teachers towards AIDS and AIDS Education

Authors: Anjan Saikia

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1000 school going adolescents and 200 teachers from 16 schools of Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts of Assam were surveyed to assess and compare their awareness regarding HIV/AIDS and AIDS Education. An awareness test was administered containing 38 items for adolescents and 40 items for teachers in the test. Observations revealed that the majority of school-going adolescents are poor in their HIV/AIDS and AIDS education awareness. It shows that the school going adolescents of Tinsukia district are better in HIV/AIDS and AIDS education awareness than the school going adolescents of Dibrugarh district while comparing the sex and district wise variables.

Keywords: awareness, AIDS, ADS education, adolescents

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397 The Effectiveness of Psychodrama in the Reduction of Social Anxiety Disorder among Male Adolescents

Authors: Saeed Dehnavi, Zahra Hadadi, Marzieh Rezabeigi, Nader Monirpoor

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This study has been performed with the goal of investigating the effectiveness of psychodrama in the reduction of social anxiety among the male adolescents in Kermanshah. 210 adolescents (13-14 year-olds) from four junior high schools in Kermanshah filled Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents (LSAS-CA) (Masia-Warner, Klien & Liebowitz, 2003). 30 of the adolescents who obtained the highest scores in LSAS-CA scale were chosen as the sample and were randomly assigned as experimental group (15 people) and control group (15 people). The experimental group participated in two-hour sessions of psychodrama twice a week for 6 weeks. The control group received no intervention. The findings of this study showed a significant reduction in the symptoms of social anxiety among the adolescents in experimental group in comparison to that of the control group. Also a three-month follow-up confirmed the stability of the results. Adolescents’ interactions in the psychodrama group, talking about their problems to the group, and achieving appropriate solutions by themselves are the useful factors of this intervention.

Keywords: psychodrama, social anxiety disorder, adolescents, male adolescents

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396 Understanding Parental Style and Its Effect on the Wellbeing of Adolescents with Epilepsy

Authors: Arthy Vinayakam, Emilda Judith Ezhil Rajan

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Adolescents with epilepsy living in developing country like India face many difficulties on stigma towards the disease. The psychological wellbeing of adolescents who are living with epilepsy has a varied influence on their daily activities and decision-making. Parental involvement with adolescents has always been a subject of caution. The dynamics in adolescents with epilepsy is much varied as their parental aspects has been known to have an impact on their education, socialization and wellbeing. The current study aims to identify the effect of parental styles, how they tend to effect the perception of self-concept that relate to the stigma in adolescents with epilepsy. A sample of 30 adolescents with epilepsy and their parents were taken; a control group of 30 adolescents and their parents were also taken. The General Health Questionnaire -12 was used as a screening for both groups to be included in the study. Parents were evaluated with Parenting Practices Questionnaire (PPQ). Adolescents were administered the Epilepsy Stigma Scale (ESS), Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSS) and Adolescent Wellbeing Scale (AWS). Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data. The findings of the study highlight the challenges of both parent and their influence on adolescent’s wellbeing. The findings also establish the impact of parenting style on the stigma in adolescents having epilepsy and how this influences their self-concept whereby their emotional strength.

Keywords: epilepsy, parenting style, stigma, wellbeing

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395 Adolescents’ Role in Family Buying Decision Making

Authors: Harleen Kaur, Deepika Jindal Singla

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Buying decision making is a complicated process, in which consumer’s decision is under the impact of others. The buying decision making is directed in a way that they have to act as customers in the society. Media and family are key socialising agents for adolescents’. Moreover, changes in the socio-cultural environment in India necessitate that adolescents’ influence in family’s buying decision-making should be investigated. In comparison to Western society, Indian is quite different, when compared in terms of family composition and structure, behaviour, values and norms which effect adolescents’ buying decision-making.

Keywords: adolescents, buying behavior, Indian urban families, consumer socialization

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
394 The Relationship between Adaptive Behavior Levels of Autistic Adolescents and Life Satisfaction of Caregivers

Authors: E. Ozkan, G. Bumin

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The aim of the study is to examine the relationship between adaptive behavior levels of autistic adolescents and life satisfaction of caregivers. Material and Methods: 22 adolescents between 10 and 18 years of age and 22 caregivers between 30 and 60 years of age participated in the study. Sociodemographic information form and Life Satisfaction Scale were administered to the caregivers when the socio-demographic information form, Adaptive Behavior Scale (ABS-S: 2) were applied to the autistic adolescents participating in the study. Results and Discussion: Thirteen of the autistic adolescents participating in the study (59.1%) were male, 9 (40.9%) were female and the mean age was 11,95 ± 3,76. Twenty-one of the caregivers (95,45%) were female, 1 (4.54%) were male and the mean age was 40,95 ± 8,94. In the study, it was determined that there was a significant relationship between the adaptive behavior levels of the autistic adolescents and the life satisfaction of caregivers (p < 0.01). In addition, in autistic adolescents, there was a significant relationship between ABS-S:2' all other subparameters except menstruation, counts and time subparameters and life satisfaction of caregivers (p < 0.05). According to the study, the increase in the life skills of the autistic adolescents affects the life satisfaction of caregivers positively. It should be noted that while the practice of ergotherapy is planned, the independent living skills training given to the autistic adolescents plays an important role in improving the life satisfaction of caregivers.

Keywords: autism, adaptive behavior, caregiver, quality of life

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393 Uderstanding Females' Perspective of Healthy Parental Involvement in Their University's Lives

Authors: Mona Bakry Abdel Meguid Abdelaal

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Despite growing evidence that parental involvement in their adolescents’ lives affects the way they perceive the community around them, little effort has been made to address the importance of this relationship and how it affect the adolescents' interaction with their environment. Adolescents are influenced by their parents while they are growing up and this socialization process services to shape the adolescents sense of self, influencing not only how adolescents feel about themselves, but affecting how they interact with their surroundings. In order to effectively understand this issue, it is important to understand the adolescents’ understanding of healthy parental involvement in their lives, in addition to the obstacles that hinder their communication styles with their parents. Understanding parental involvement in their adolescents’ lives will provide further understanding of the role that social work can perform in this field. The rationale for undertaking this study grew out of the literature on adolescents’ studies in addition to the researchers’ interaction with freshmen female students, who are still in the adolescent stage, in the university. The primary purpose of this study was to understand female adolescents’ awareness of healthy parental involvement in their freshmen year in the university life, as well as obstacles that might hinder that healthy involvement. Using semi-structured interview with a purposive sample of the first year female students in the university, the study managed to determine if the type of parental involvement and parental emotional responsiveness between the adolescents and their parents affects the way they interact with their environment, in addition, to determine the obstacles that hamper the communication between adolescents and their parents.

Keywords: adolescents, parental involvement, interaction, university life

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392 Patterns of Problem Behavior of Out-Of-School Adolescents and Gender Difference in South Korea

Authors: Jaeyoung Lee, Minji Je

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Objectives: The adolescents not attending school are named out-of-school adolescents. They are more vulnerable to health management and are likely to be exposed to a number of risk factors. This study was conducted to investigate the problem behavior of out-of-school adolescents and analyze the difference caused by gender. Methods: In this study, the problem behaviors of out-of-school adolescents, the vulnerable class, were defined in 8 types and based on this definition, the survey on run away from home, drop out, prostitution, violence, internet game addiction, theft, drug addiction, and smoking was conducted. The study was conducted in a total of 507 out-of-school adolescents, including 342 males, and 165 females. The type, frequency and start time of the 8 problem behaviors were identified. The collected data were analyzed with chi-square test and t-test using SPSS statistics 22. Results: Among the problem behaviors of the subjects, violence ( =17.41, p < .001), internet game addiction ( =16.14, p < .001), theft ( =22.48, p < .001), drug addiction ( =4.17, p=.041), and smoking ( =3.90, p=.048) were more significantly high in male out-of-school adolescents than female out-of-school adolescents. In addition, the frequency of the problem behavior was higher in male out-of-school adolescents with statistical significance than in female out-of-school adolescents (t=5.08, p= < .001). In terms of the start time of the problem behavior, only internet game addiction was higher in male out-of-school adolescents with the statistical significance than in female out-of-school adolescents ( =6.22, p=.032). No statistically significant difference was found in other problem behaviors (p > .05). Conclusions: In this study, it was found that gender difference in problem behaviors of out-of-school adolescents exists, and its frequency and difference of types were identified. When the social countermeasures were provided for those adolescents, a distinguished approach is required depending on the patterns of problem behavior and gender. When preparing policy alternatives and interventions for out-of-school adolescents, it is required to reflect the results of this study.

Keywords: addictive behavior, adolescent, gender, problem behavior

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391 The Effect of Peer Pressure and Leisure Boredom on Substance Use Among Adolescents in Low-Income Communities in Capetown

Authors: Gaironeesa Hendricks, Shazly Savahl, Maria Florence

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The aim of the study is to determine whether peer pressure and leisure boredom influence substance use among adolescents in low-income communities in Cape Town. Non-probability sampling was used to select 296 adolescents between the ages of 16–18 from schools located in two low-income communities. The measurement tools included the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test, the Resistance to Peer Influence and Leisure Boredom Scales. Multiple regression revealed that the combined influence of peer pressure and leisure boredom predicted substance use, while peer pressure emerged as a stronger predictor than leisure boredom on substance use among adolescents.

Keywords: substance use, peer pressure, leisure boredom, adolescents, multiple regression

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390 Predictors of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Egyptian Obese Adolescents

Authors: Moushira Zaki, Wafaa Ezzat, Yasser Elhosary, Omnia Saleh

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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased in conjunction with obesity. The accuracy of risk factors for detecting NAFLD in obese adolescents has not undergone a formal evaluation. The aim of this study was to evaluate predictors of NAFLD among Egyptian female obese adolescents. The study included 162 obese female adolescents. All were subjected to anthropometry, biochemical analysis and abdominal ultrasongraphic assessment. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was diagnosed according to the IDF criteria. Significant association between presence of MS and NAFLD was observed. Obese adolescents with NAFLD had significantly higher levels of ALT, triglycerides, fasting glucose, insulin, blood pressure and HOMA-IR, whereas decreased HDL-C levels as compared with obese cases without NAFLD. Receiver–operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis shows that ALT is a sensitive predictor for NAFLD, confirming that ALT can be used as a marker of NAFLD.

Keywords: obesity, NAFLD, predictors, adolescents, Egyptians, risk factors, prevalence

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389 Behavior, Temperament and Food Intake of Urban Indian Adolescents

Authors: Preeti Khanna, Bani T. Aeri

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Background: Recent studies have indicated challenges that hamper health and wellbeing of a vast majority of adolescents in developing countries. Many modifiable factors like behavior and temperament related to food intake among adolescents have not been adequately explored. The aim of the proposed research is to study the impact of behavior and temperament on food intake and diet quality of adolescents. Objectives: In the present study data on dietary behavior and anthropometry of adolescent boys & girls (aged 13-16 years) studying in public schools of Delhi will be gathered to ascertain the quality of diet among adolescent boys and girls and to study the effect of behavior and temperament on diet quality of adolescents. Methods: In total, 400 adolescents will participate in this cross-sectional study. Weight and height of adolescents will be measured and BMI will be calculated. Information will be obtained on their socio-demographic profile and various factors influencing their Food Choices and diet quality such as body image perception, Behavior, temperament, locus of control and parental influence. Expected results: Several direct effects of adolescent traits and behavior on food intake will be observed. Maturational patterns and gender differences in behavior traits will be assessed. By profiling of the behavior and temperament traits, we will have a better understanding of impact of these factors on weight and eating behaviors in overweight/obese or even underweight adolescents. Conclusions: The proposed study will highlight the association of behavioral factors with nutritional status of adolescents. It will also serve as a strategic approach for the obesity prevention and health management policies designed for adolescents.

Keywords: behaviour, temperament, food intake, adolescents

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388 Quality of Life of Mothers of Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Based on Lazarus-Folkman's Coping

Authors: Simin Hosseinian, Roghieh Nooripour

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Introduction: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a major neuropsychiatric disorder diagnosis in children, adolescents. This study was aimed to investigate the quality of life of mothers of adolescents with ADHD based on Lazarus-Folkman's coping. Method: Due to this purpose, 120 mothers were selected with convenience sampling method that referred to counseling centers with their adolescents with ADHD for treatment of their adolescents and then they completed Iranian Quality of Life Questionnaire and The Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ). Data were analyzed by the Pearson correlation and stepwise regression methods with SPSS-19. Results: The result showed that there was a positive significant relationship between quality of life and self-controlling and also a negative relationship between quality of life and accepting responsibility (p < 0.05). Conclusion: According to these findings, we can suggest suitable intervention for mothers who have adolescents with ADHD and enhance their quality of life.

Keywords: ADHD, mother, adolescent, quality of life, Lazarus-Folkman

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387 Heavy Metals among Female Adolescents Attending Secondary Schools in Kano, Nigeria

Authors: I. Yunusa, M. A. Ibrahim, A. H. Yakasai, L. U. S. Ezeanyika

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This study was conducted to examine the level of heavy metals among 192 apparently healthy female adolescents randomly selected from three different boarding secondary schools in the urban area of the most populated city in north-western part of Nigeria. Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was used to determine the plasma levels of the heavy metals which include cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). Our findings revealed the following mean±SD values for each of the heavy metal; 0.11±0.01µg Cd/L, 0.09 ± 0.02µg Co/L, 0.19 ± 0.02 µg Cr/L, 0.91 ± 0.02 µg Cu/L, 1.53 ± 0.31 µg Fe/L, 0.01 ± 0.04 µg Mn/L, 0.3.8 ± 0.04µg Mo/L, 0.04±0.01µg Ni/L, 0.04 ± 0.01µg Pb/L and 2.80 ± 0.24µg Zn/L respectively. It was concluded that toxicity from heavy metals did not exist among female adolescents.

Keywords: heavy metals, female, adolescents, Nigeria

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386 Peer-Mediated Intervention for Social Communication Difficulties in Adolescents with Autism: Literature Review and Research Recommendations

Authors: Christine L. Cole

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Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) often experience social-communication difficulties that negatively impact their social interactions with typical peers. However, unlike other age and disability groups, there is little intervention research to inform best practice for these students. One evidence-based strategy for younger students with ASD is peer-mediated intervention (PMI). PMI may be particularly promising for use with adolescents, as peers are readily available and natural experts for encouraging authentic high school conversations. This paper provides a review of previous research that evaluated the use of PMI to improve the social-communication skills of students with ASD. Specific intervention features associated with positive student outcomes are identified and recommendations for future research are provided. Adolescents with ASD are targeted due to the critical importance of social conversation at the high school level.

Keywords: autism, peer-mediation, social communication, adolescents

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385 Sport and Psychological Need Satisfaction: A Cross Sectional Study Applied to Children and Adolescents with Disabilities

Authors: Isabel Stolz, Vera Tillmann, Volker Anneken

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The relationship between sport participation and psychological need satisfaction was examined by an analysis of interest and involvement in the sport of 937 children and adolescents with disabilities and their self-perceived need satisfaction. The Children’s intrinsic need-satisfaction Scale (CINSS) has been used to measure sport-related need satisfaction in this cross-sectional study. CINSS scores for the dimensions competence, autonomy and relatedness of the study’s participants were generally located in higher score levels. Significant relations between interest and involvement in sport and higher levels of psychological need satisfaction were found in the questioned children and adolescents. Examining the results of each need, the competence-dimension displayed a particular relevance for an increased sport-related lifestyle. The further results showed a negative correlation between children’s need satisfaction and a lack of confidence of participating in sport. A negative correlation was also found between children’s need satisfaction and experiencing difficulties in making contact with others. Despite the general interest in sport and the wish to participate in another sporting activity, the participation of the questioned children and adolescents in organized sport is comparatively low and decreases with age. Participation in sport seems to be beneficial to children and adolescents with disabilities’ psychological need satisfaction. This research highlights the positive impact of sport on psychological need satisfaction of children and adolescents with disabilities and emphasizes the demand for greater participation in organized sport for children and adolescents with disabilities.

Keywords: children and adolescents, health, physical activity, sport

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384 A Study on the Effect of Socioeconomic Status on Adolescents' Health Promoting Behaviors: Mediating Effect of Family-Based Activity

Authors: Sue Lynn Kim, Sang-Gyun Lee, Joan P. Yoo

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Although adolescents in low socioeconomic status (SES) have been reported to less engage in health promoting behaviors (HPB), the specific mechanism between their SES and HPB has not been extensively studied. Considering the Korean education system which focuses only on college entrance exams while lacking of interest in students’ health, and unique traits of adolescents, such as ego-centric thinking, family members can significantly contribute to develop and enhance adolescents’ HPB. Based on the review of related literature and previous researches, this study examined the mediating effect of family-based activities on the relationship between SES and adolescents' HPB. 636 adolescents (4th graders in elementary and 1st graders in middle school) and their parents from the 1st year survey of Seoul Education & Health Welfare Panel were analyzed by AMOS 19.0 utilizing structural equation modeling. Analytic results show that adolescents in low SES were less likely to engage in family-based activities as well as HPB. This association between SES and HPB was partially mediated by family-based activities. Based on the findings, we suggest that special education programs to enhance HPB should be required in schools and community organizations especially for adolescents in low SES who may have difficulties in doing family-based activities due to parents’ low income and insufficient leisure time. In addition, family-based activities should be encouraged to enhance HPB by raising parents' awareness about the importance of family-based activities on their children's HPB.

Keywords: family-based activity, health promoting behaviors, socioeconomic status, HPB

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383 Causes of Institutionalization of Children and Adolescents in a Shelter in Brazil

Authors: Eduardo Guilherme, Sabrina Duarte

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Shelters or orphanages are institutions responsible for ensuring the physical and mental integrity of children and adolescents who had their rights violated or neglected, whether from a social-leavers, is at personal risk to which they were exposed or the negligence of its parents; in Brazil about twenty thousand children and adolescents living in about five hundred registered shelters that receive funds from the federal government. We evaluated the records of institutionalized children and adolescents from the foundation of municipal shelter in Rio Negro/Parana State, Brazil since June/2000 to February/2015. Institutionalization of the causes cited were: lack of family/guardian material resources, abandonment by parents/guardians, domestic violence, substance abuse of parents/guardians, street experience, orphans and others. In Brazil, poverty and extreme poverty are closely related to the institutionalization of causes of children and adolescents. Census data in 2010, the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) indicate that 40% of Brazilians living in poverty are girls and boys up to 14 years in a total of approximately 23 million individuals. Poverty denies children and adolescents their rights, representing a vulnerability which predisposes to some causes of shelter.

Keywords: Brazil, shelter, orphanages, institutionalization

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382 Self-Concept and Self-Esteem of Adolescents in Lubango, Angola: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Miguel Maria, Tchilissila A. Simoes

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The end of a long period of civil wars in Angola (1975-2002) paved the way for growing scientific research in the field of psychology, allowing us to broaden our knowledge on the Angolan population throughout their individual and family development. In this study, we aimed to assess the index of self-concept and self-esteem of adolescents from private and public secondary schools in Lubango, Angola. One hundred adolescents, between 16 and 18 years old (M = 17.2 years, SD = 0.81), completed the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale 2 (Piers, 1984) and the Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC; Harter, 1985). Our results pointed out lower values of self-esteem and self-concept compared to international samples. Moreover, the level of education and the type of school attended did not seem to influence the level of participants' self-concept and self-esteem. These results contributed to enrich the literature on Angolan adolescents and propels intervention programs to enhance the self-concept and self-esteem of these individuals.

Keywords: African adolescents, post-war societies, self-esteem, self-concept

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381 Perceived Ethnic Discrimination, Aggression, and School Connectedness among Adolescents in Finland

Authors: Isik Z. Ulubas, Kaj Bjorkqvist

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The relationships between perceived ethnic discrimination, peer aggression and school connectedness are being examined among 1,000 adolescents in Ostrobothnia, Finland with an online questionnaire. The study aims at investigating perceived ethnic discrimination in school environment by peers and teachers, and within society in general. Six types of aggressive behavior are measured: physical, verbal, indirect, and cyber aggression, in addition to both verbal and physical sexual harassment. High perceived ethnic discrimination is expected to be related with high aggression and low school connectedness. Adolescents who have special diet and clothing because of their cultural or religious background are expected to score higher on perceived ethnic discrimination and lower school connectedness. Adolescents who have lower domestic language skills (Finnish/Swedish) are expected to show lower school connectedness and higher perceived ethnic discrimination.

Keywords: adolescents, aggression, ethnic discrimination, school connectedness

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380 Relationship of Teachers' Personality and Peer Pressure on Adolescents' Personality Development in Mainland Local Government Area, Lagos State, Nigeria

Authors: Solomon Olusegun Olugbenro

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The purpose of this study is to ascertain the relationship of teachers' personalty and peer pressure on adolescents' personalty in mainland local government, Lagos State, Nigeria. The research design for this study was survey. A representative fraction of the population of mainland local government of lagos was used as sample. One hundred and fifty (150) teenagers whose age ranged from 11-19 from six randomly selected public and private secondary schools in mainland local government area of lagos were used. A four-point likert type questionnaire was constructed for eliciting data for this study. Data were analysed using t-test. The study revealed that there is a significant relationship between teachers' and adolescents' personality development. The study also revealed that there is significant relationship between peer pressure and adolescents' personality development. It was recommended that teachers should be role models to students as they manipulate environmental factors to assist adolescents in their personality development.

Keywords: adolescents, behavior, development, peer pressure, personality, relationship, significant, teachers

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379 Patterns and Extent of Self-Medication Practice among Adolescents in Selected Public Secondary Schools in IFE Central Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria

Authors: Olajumoke A. Ojeleye

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The study assessed the patterns and extent of self-medication practice among adolescents in selected public senior secondary schools in Ife Central Local Government Area of Osun State. The objectives of the study were to find out the patterns of self-medication among adolescents, to elucidate whether age or gender has any effect on the self-medication patterns of adolescent, to ascertain to what extent adolescents indulge in self-medication, to examine the sources of drug information of these adolescents and also to examine the sources of these drugs. A cross-sectional design was employed for the study. A self-administered questionnaire tested for validity was used to collect data. Multistage sampling technique was used and 238 adolescents participated in the study. Data collection took two weeks and was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Results were presented using descriptive (e.g. frequency counts) and inferential statistics (e.g. chi-square). Results showed that more females (55.9%) than males (44.1%) practiced self-medication. Although the results showed that there is a low prevalence rate (33.6%) of self-medication among adolescents, chemists served as both the source of information on how to use the drug as well as the source of the drugs. Also, adolescents under study will only self-medicate in medical conditions such as malaria or wound/injuries but will prefer to see a doctor for conditions such as abdominal pain, infections or allergic reactions. It was recommended that government officials responsible for regulating and controlling of drugs should be more active in ensuring that safe drugs are made available over the counter and the consumer be given adequate information about the use of drugs and when to consult the doctor.

Keywords: adolescents, drugs, patterns, self-medication

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378 The Impact of Personal Identity on Self-Esteem among Muslim Adolescents

Authors: Nadia Ayub

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The purpose of the study was to explore the impact of personal identity on self-esteem among adolescents. Two hypotheses were tested in the study, i.e., personal identity effects on self-esteem; and gender difference in the variables of personal identity and self-esteem. The total of 300 (150 female; 150 male) adolescents participated in the study. Personal identity scale (Ayub, N., In Press), and self-esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1985) were administered. The findings of the study suggest that positive personal identity impact on self-esteem and gender difference was found on the variables of personal identity and self-esteem. In conclusion, the results of the study are beneficial for researchers, policymakers, psychologists. The strong positive personal identity and self-esteem help in healthy mental development not only in adolescence but throughout the life of individuals.

Keywords: personal identity, self-esteem, adolescents, positive psychology

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377 Achievement Goal Orientations of Schooling Adolescents in Bayelsa State, Nigeria: Implications for Sustainable Development

Authors: Iniye Irene Wodi, Allen A. Agih

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Goal theory perspective as an emerging trend in students’ motivation explores reasons why students engage in achievement related behaviour. While previous research typifies students’ goal orientations into two dimensions of mastery and performance orientations in various other parts of the world, not much has been done in this regard in Nigeria and specifically in Bayelsa state to the best of the researcher’s knowledge. To this end, the study explores the achievement goal orientations of schooling adolescents in Bayelsa State. The sample of the study consists of 220 schooling adolescents drawn from four urban schools in the state. A modified form of the Patterns of Adaptive learning survey (PALS) questionnaire was used to elicit data. Results indicated that schooling adolescents in Bayelsa state are mastery as well as performance oriented. The students also did not differ in goal orientations by gender. The implications of this for sustainable development were highlighted.

Keywords: achievement goals, goal orientations, schooling adolescents, sustainable development

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376 Predicting the Effects of Counseling Psychology on the Sexual Risk Behavior of In-School Adolescents: Implication for National Development

Authors: Olusola Joseph Adesina, Adebayo Adeyinka Salako

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The study adopted a descriptive research design. Two hundred (200) in-school adolescents were purposely selected in Afijio Local Government Area of Oyo State. Two hypotheses were also raised to pilot the study. The researchers developed an instrument which was validated by psychological experts, the instrument tagged counseling psychology and sexual risk behavior questionnaire (CPSRBQ)(r = 0.78). The results were analysed using t-test at 0.05 level of significance. The result showed that there is a significant relationship between counseling psychology and sexual risk behavior of in-school adolescents. It was also noticed that there is a significant difference in the sexual risk behavior of male and female adolescents. Based on the findings, it was recommended that more counselors are still needed in Nigeria schools. There is need for restructuring Nigeria Curriculum most especially on sex education and related diseases. Lastly, adolescents should be more exposed to seminars on HIV/AIDS, sex education enlightenment programmes and marital counseling.

Keywords: counseling psychology, sexual behavior, risk and adolescent, cognitive sciences

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375 Stress and Coping among Adolescents in Selected Schools in the Capital City of India

Authors: N. Mathew, A. Qureshi, D. C. Khakha, R. Sagar

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Adolescents in India, account for one-fifth of the total population and are a significant human resource. Present study was conducted to find out various life stressors of adolescents, coping strategies adopted by them and the impact of stress on adolescent mental health. A descriptive, cross sectional study conducted on schools in the south zone of Delhi, capital city of the country. Data was collected on 360 adolescents between the age group of 13-17 years on socio-demographic profile, Adolescent life event stress scale, brief cope and youth self report for ages 11-18. Adolescents had significantly higher stress on uncontrollable events such as family events, relocation events, accident events and ambiguous events as compared to controllable events such as sexual events, deviance events and autonomy events (p<0.01).Adolescent stress was significantly correlated with various demographic variables in the study. The most frequently used coping strategies by the adolescents were positive reframing, planning, active coping, and instrumental support. It has also been found that the stress has a significant impact on adolescent mental health in the form of either internalizing problems such as anxious, withdrawn and somatic problems or externalizing problems such as rule breaking and aggressive behaviors. Out of the total sample of 360 adolescents 150 were identified as having psycho-social morbidity, including 59 borderline cases and 91 high-risk cases Study pointed out the need for mental health screening among the adolescents and also indicated the need for mental health inputs in educational institutions.

Keywords: adolecents, stress, coping, mental health

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374 Prevalence and Correlates of Anemia in Adolescents in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Aljohara M. Alquaiz, Tawfik A. M. Khoja, Abdullah Alsharif, Ambreen Kazi, Ashry Gad Mohamed, Hamad Al Mane, Abdullah Aldiris, Shaffi Ahamed Shaikh

Abstract:

Objective: To determine the prevalence and correlates of anemia in male and female adolescents in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Design: A cross-sectional community based study setting: Five primary health care centers in Riyadh. Subjects: We invited 203 male and 292 female adolescents aged 13-18 years for interview, anthropometric measurements and complete blood count. Blood hemoglobin was measured with coulter cellular analysis system using light scatter method. Results: Using the WHO cut-off of Hb < 12gms/dl, 16.7%(34) males and 34%(100) females were suffering from anemia. The mean Hb (±SD) in males and females was 13.5(±1.4) and 12.3(±1.2) mg/dl, respectively. Mean(±SD) MCV, MCH, MCHC and RDW in male and female adolescents were 77.8(±6.2) vs76.4(±10.3)fL, 26.1(±2.7) vs25.5(±2.6)pg, 32.7(±2.4) vs32.2(±2.6)g/dL, 13.9(±1.4) vs13.6(±1.3)%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that positive family history of iron deficiency anemia(IDA)(OR 4.7,95%CI 1.7–12.2), infrequent intake (OR 3.7,95%CI 1.3–10.0) and never intake of fresh juices(OR 3.5,95%CI 1.4–9.5), 13 to 14 years age (OR 3.1,95%CI 1.2–9.3) were significantly associated with anemia in male adolescents; whereas in females: family history of IDA (OR 3.4, 95%CI 1.5–7.6), being over-weight(OR 3.0,95%CI 1.4–6.1), no intake of fresh juice (OR 2.6,95%CI 1.4–5.1), living in an apartment (OR 2.0, 95%CI 1.1-3.8) or living in small house (OR 2.5, 95%CI 1.2-5.3) were significantly associated with anemia. Conclusion: Anemia is more prevalent among Saudi female adolescents as compared to males. Important factors like positive family history of IDA, overweight, lack of fresh juice intake and low socioeconomic status are significantly associated with anemia in adolescents.

Keywords: adolescents, anemia, correlates, obesity

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373 Influence of Parenting Styles on Adolescents Self-Esteem

Authors: Olubukola Ajayi

Abstract:

INFLUENCE OF PARANTING STYLES ON ADOLECENST’ SELF-ESTEEM BY AJAYI OLUBUKOLA (PhD) DEPARTMRNT OF PSYCHOLOGY & BEHAVIOURAL STUDIES FACULTY OF THE SOCIAL SCIENCES EKITI STATE UNIVERSITY [email protected] , [email protected] ABSTRACT This study was designed to assess the influence of parenting styles on adolescents’ self-esteem. The study population comprised of adolescents selected from two secondary schools (Bishop Philip Academy and T.L. Oyeshina Model School) in Ibadan, Oyo State. A total number of 300 students whose ages range from 13-19 were used. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) developed by Rosenberg (1965) was used to measure Adolescents’ Self-Esteem. While Robinson (2001) Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire was used to measure how adolescents perceive their parents on four sub scales (Authoritative, Authoritarian, Uninvolved, Permissiveness).Three hypotheses were tested using Regression, One way ANOVA and Independent t-test. Result showed that parenting styles do not significantly influence Self-Esteem. Parents Work Status did not have a significant influence on Self-Esteem. The result also revealed no significant difference between Male and Female Self-Esteem. The findings were discussed in line with relevant empirical literatures, while conclusions and recommendations subsequently followed. Key Words: Parenting style, Adolescents, Self- esteem,

Keywords: AUTHORITATIVE, AUTHORITARIAN, UNINVOLVED, PERMISSIVENESS

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372 Developmental Trajectories and Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A Short Term Study

Authors: Hyang Lim, Sungwon Choi

Abstract:

Many previous studies in area of adolescents' depression have used a longitudinal design. The previous studies have found that the developmental trajectory of them is only one. But it needs to be examined whether the trajectory is applied to all adolescents. Some factors in their home and/or school have an effect on adolescents' depression and more likely to be specific groups. The present study was a longitudinal study aimed to identify the trajectories and to explore the predictors of adolescents' depression. The study used Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey (KCYPS) data. In this study, 2,351 second and third-year of middle school and first of high school students' data was analyzed by using semi-parametric group modeling (SGM). There were 5 trajectory groups for adolescents; low depressed stables, low depressed risers, moderately depressed decreases, moderately depressed stables, severe depressed decreases. The predictors of adolescents' depression were parental abuse, parental neglect, annual family income, parental academic background, friendship at school, and teacher-student relationship at school. All predictors had the significant difference across trajectory group profile for adolescents. The findings of the present study recommend to promote the socioeconomic status and to train social skill for the interpersonal relationship at the home and school. And the results suggest that the proper prevention programs for each group in the middle adolescents that target selected factors may be helpful in reducing the level of depression.

Keywords: adolescent, depression, KCYPS, school life, semi-parametric group-based modeling

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371 Effects of Cognitive Reframe on Depression among Secondary School Adolescents: The Moderating Role of Self-Esteem

Authors: Olayinka M. Ayannuga

Abstract:

This study explored the effect of cognitive reframe in reducing depression among Senior Secondary School Adolescents. It adopted a pre-test, post-test, control quasi-experimental research design with a 2x2 factorial matrix. Participants included 120 depressed adolescents randomly drawn from public Senior Secondary School Two (SSS.II) students in Lagos State, Nigeria. Sixty participants were randomly selected and assigned to the treatment and control groups. Participants in the Cognitive Reframe (CR) group were trained for 8 weeks, while those in the Control group were given a placebo. Two instruments were used for data collection namely: Self – Esteem Scale (SES: Rosenberg 1965: α = 0.85), and The Self Rating Depression Scale (SDS: Zung, 1972; α 0 = 0.87) were administered at pretest level. However, only the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) was re-administered at post-test to measure the effect of the intervention. The results revealed that there was a significant effect of cognitive reframe training programmes on secondary school adolescents’ depression, also there were significant effects of self-esteem on secondary school adolescents’ depression. The study showed that the technique is capable of reducing depression among adolescents. It was recommended, amongst others, that Counselling psychologists, Curriculum planners and Teachers could explore incorporating the contents of cognitive reframe into the secondary school curriculum for students’ capacity building to reduce depression tendencies.

Keywords: adolescents, cognitive reframe, depression, self – esteem

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370 Identifying Patterns of Seeking and Providing Help Online among Adolescents in Israel

Authors: Gali Pesin, Yuliya Lipshits-Braziler, Sima Amram-Vaknin, Moshe Tatar

Abstract:

The present study introduces four different patterns of seeking and providing help online among adolescents: (I) ‘Transceivers’ - adolescents who both seek as well as provide help online; (II) ‘Receivers’ - adolescents who seek help online, yet don’t provide it; (III) ‘Transmitters’ - adolescents who provide help online, yet don’t seek it; and (IV) ‘Idles’ - adolescents who refrain from seeking and providing help online. The study examined differences in seeking and providing help online between possible combinations of the four patterns, as well as gender differences within each pattern. Data was collected from 528 adolescents in Israel (59% were girls). Findings revealed that Transceivers are the largest group (45%) in this study, with higher representation of girls (65%). These adolescents seek help mainly around social difficulties, and they turn to peers who are both known and unknown to them. In addition, their preferred way to seek and provide help is through social network sites. Moreover, they often accept and give others emotional support. Receivers are the smallest group (5%) in this study. They turn to both known and unknown professionals more often than to friends and family. In addition, they seek help mostly around health and nutrition issues, and they usually receive instrumental support. For Receivers, the most important factor for seeking help online is anonymity, and the least important factor is familiarity with the help giver. Transmitters represent 16% of the adolescents in this study, with a greater representation of boys (52%). Their main reason to refrain from seeking help online is self-reliance. Nevertheless, these adolescents provide help to others online, mainly to those known to them through posting or responding to posts on social network sites. Idles represent 34% of the adolescents in this study. They refrain from seeking help online mainly due to their preference to seek help face to face, and due to their lack of trust in the internet or those using it. Idles and Transmitters are willing to seek help online mostly from friends and family. In addition, they are willing seek help online mainly regarding questions concerning military or civil service. They consider the most important facilitators for seeking help online as confidentiality and reliability. The present study’s main contribution is exploring the role of providing online help in understanding the adolescent behavior of seeking help online. In addition, the results of the present study have practical implications for the work of mental health providers, such as counseling psychologists and online mental health support.

Keywords: adolescents, counseling, online help-seeking, online help-providing

Procedia PDF Downloads 59