Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 50

Search results for: anthocyanin

50 Beneficiation of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell as Energy Saving from Apple Skin with TiO2 Electrolysis

Authors: Astari Indarsari, Bastian B. Purba, Muhammad Fadlilah


In Indonesian climates that have the tropic climate, one of the potential energy sources is coming from solar energy. From the solar energy, we can convert it into the others energy, such as electrical energy. In this topic, we want to do the research about Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). The materials that we use as sensitizer is anthocyanin that we extract from apple skin, because the anthocyanin is one of the most effective as a sensitizer for DSSC. The variable in this research is pH. The pH that we used are pH 0,5; pH 1; pH 1,5; pH 2; pH 2,5. The method is electrolysis, and we use TiO2 as sensitized material. The hypothesis from this research is the smaller pH can make higher the efficiency of the absorbent of the solar energy.

Keywords: anthocyanin, TiO2, DSSC, apple skin

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49 Optimization of Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction of Antioxidants and Phenolic Compounds from Coleus Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Reihaneh Ahmadzadeh Ghavidel


Free radicals such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) have detrimental effects on human health through several mechanisms. On the other hand, antioxidant molecules reduce free radical generation in biologic systems. Synthetic antioxidants, which are used in food industry, have also negative impact on human health. Therefore recognition of natural antioxidants such as anthocyanins can solve these problems simultaneously. Coleus (Solenostemon scutellarioides) with red leaves is a rich source of anthocyanins compounds. In this study we evaluated the effect of time (10, 20 and 30 min) and temperature (40, 50 and 60° C) on optimization of anthocyanin extraction using surface response method. In addition, the study was aimed to determine maximum extraction for anthocyanin from coleus plant using ultrasound method. The results indicated that the optimum conditions for extraction were 39.84 min at 69.25° C. At this point, total compounds were achieved 3.7451 mg 100 ml⁻¹. Furthermore, under optimum conditions, anthocyanin concentration, extraction efficiency, ferric reducing ability, total phenolic compounds and EC50 were registered 3.221931, 6.692765, 223.062, 3355.605 and 2.614045, respectively.

Keywords: anthocyanin, antioxidant, coleus, extraction, sonication

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48 Optimized Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Using Natural Dye and Counter Electrode from Robusta Coffee Beans Peel Waste

Authors: Tomi Setiawan, Wahyu Y. Subekti, Siti S. Nur'Adya, Khusnul Ilmiah


Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) is one type of solar cell, where solar cells function to convert light energy become the electrical energy. DSSC has two important parts of dye and counter electrode. Anthocyanin compounds in the coffee beans peel can be potential as natural dye and also counter electrodes as activated carbon in the DSSC system. The purpose of this research is to find out how to isolate Anthocyanin, manufacture of counter electrode, and to know the efficiency of counter electrode produced from the coffee pulp waste in DSSC prototype. In this research we used 2 x 2 cm FTO glass coated carbon paste with a thickness variation of 100 μL, 200 μL and 300 μL as counter electrode and other FTO glass coated with TiO₂ paste as work electrode, then two FTO glasses are connected to form a sandwich-liked structure and add Triiodide electrolyte solution in its gap, thus forming a DSSC prototype. The results showed that coffee pulp waste contains anthocyanin of 12.23 mL/80gr and it can produce activated carbon. The characterization performed shows that the UV-Vis Anthocyanin result is at wavelength of ultra violet area that is 219,50 nm with absorbance value equal to 1,469, and maximum wavelength at visible area is 720,00 nm with absorbance value equal to 0,013. The functional groups contained in the anthocyanin are O-H groups at wave numbers 3385.60 cm⁻¹, C = O groups at wave numbers 1618.63 cm⁻¹, and C-O-C groups at 1065.40 cm⁻¹ wave numbers. Morphological characterization using the SEM shows the activated carbon surface area becomes larger and evenly distributed. Voltage obtained on Counter Electrode 100 μL variation of 395mV, 200 μL of 334mV 100 μL of 254mV.

Keywords: DSSC, anthocyanin, counter electrode, solar cell, coffee pulp

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47 Anthocyanins as Markers of Enhanced Plant Defence in Maize (Zea Mays L.) Exposed to Copper Stress

Authors: Fadime Eryılmaz Pehlivan


Anthocyanins are important plant pigments having roles in many physiological and ecological functions; that are controlled by numerous regulatory factors. The accumulation of anthocyanins in Z. mays cause the plants stems to exhibit red coloration when encountering gradually increasing copper treatments (1, 5, and 10 mM of Cu in a period of 5 days) on maize seedlings. Stress injury was measured in terms of chlorophyll (a and b), carotenoid and anthocyanin contents, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Carotenoid and anthocyanin contents dramatically increased by increasing concentrations of Cu stress. MDA and H2O2 levels were found to significantly increase at high Cu treatments (5 and 10 mM of Cu). Chlorophyll content was observed to be highest at 1 mM Cu and then decreased at 5 and 10 mM of Cu. In addition, significant increases were determined in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) under high Cu concentrations, while glutathione S-transferase (GST) and peroxidase (POX) activities showed no change. Treatments above 5 and 10 mM of Cu triggered copper stress in maize seedlings. The results of this study provide evidence that maize seedlings represent a high tolerance to gradually increasing copper treatments. Improved copper tolerance may relate to high anthocyanin, and carotenoid content besides antioxidant enzyme activity may improve the metal chelating ability of anthocyanin pigments. Data presented in this study may also contribute to a better understanding of phytoremediation studies in maize exposed to high copper contenting soils.

Keywords: anthocyanin, copper, maize , antioxidant

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46 Purple Sweet Potato Anthocyanin Attenuates the Fat-Induced Mortality in Drosophila Melanogaster

Authors: Lijun Wang, Zhen-Yu Chen


A high-fat diet induces the accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides, accelerates the ageing process and causes a greater mortality in Drosophila melanogaster. The purple sweet potato is rich in antioxidant anthocyanin. The present study was to examine if supplementation of purple sweet potato anthocyanin (PSPA) could reduce the mortality of fruit flies fed a high-fat diet. Results showed that the mean lifespan of fruit fly was shortened from 56 to 35 days in a dose-dependent manner when lard in the diet increased from 0% to 20%. PSPA supplementation attenuated partially the lard-induced mortality. The maximum lifespan and 50% survival time were 49 and 27 days for the 10% lard control flies, in contrast, they increased to 57 and 30 days in the PSPA-supplemented fruit flies. PSPA-supplemented diet significantly up-regulated the mRNA of superoxide dismutase, catalase and Rpn11, compared with those in the control lard diet. In addition, PSPA supplementation could restore the climbing ability of fruit flies fed a 10% lard diet. It was concluded that the lifespan-prolonging activity of PSPA was most likely mediated by modulating the genes of SOD, CAT and Rpn11.

Keywords: purple sweet potato, anthocyanin, high-fat diet, oxidative stress

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45 Effects of Microwave Heating Rate on the Color, Total Anthocyanin Content and Total Phenolics of Elderberry Juice during Come-up-Time

Authors: Balunkeswar Nayak, Hanjun Cao, Xinruo Zhang


Elderberry could protect human health from oxidative stress, and reduce aging and certain cardiovascular diseases due to the presence of bioactive phytochemicals with high antioxidant capacity. However, these bioactive phytochemicals, such as anthocyanins and other phenolic acids, are susceptible to degradation during processing of elderberries to juice, jam, and powder due to intensity and duration of thermal exposure. The effects of microwave heating rate during come-up-times, using a domestic 2450 MHz microwave, on the color, total anthocyanin content and total phenolics on elderberry juice was studied. With a variation of come-up-time from 30 sec to 15 min at different power levels (10–50 % of total wattage), the temperature of elderberry juice vary from 40.6 °C to 91.5 °C. However, the color parameters (L, A, and B), total anthocyanin content (using pH differential method) and total phenolics did not vary significantly when compared to the control samples.

Keywords: elderberry, microwave, color, thermal exposure

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44 Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Topical Anthocyanins by Complexation and Niosomal Encapsulation

Authors: Aroonsri Priprem, Sucharat Limsitthichaikoon, Suttasinee Thappasarapong


Anthocyanins are natural pigments with effective UV protection but their topical use could be limited due to their physicochemical characteristics. An attempt to overcome such limitations by complexation of 2 major anthocyanin-rich sources, C. ternatea, and Z. mays, for investigation on potential use as topical anti-inflammatory. Cell studies indicate no cytotoxicity of the anthocyanin complex (AC) up to 1 mg/ml tested in HaCaT and human forehead fibroblasts by MTT. Croton oil-induced ear edema in Wistar rats suggests an effective dose of 5 mg/cm2 of AC as a topical anti-inflammatory in comparison to 0.5 mg/cm2 of fluocinolone acetonide. Niosomal encapsulation of the AC significantly prolonged the anti-inflammatory activity particularly at 8 h after topical application (p = 0.0001). The AC was not cytotoxic and its anti-inflammatory and activity was dose-dependent and prolonged by niosomal encapsulation. It has also shown to promote collagen type 1 production in cell culture. Thus, AC could be a potential candidate for topical anti-inflammatory agent from natural resources.

Keywords: anthocyanin complex, ear edema, inflammation, niosomes, skin

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43 Assessing Digestive Enzymes Inhibitory Properties of Anthocyanins and Procyanidins from Apple, Red Grape, Cinnamon

Authors: Pinar Ercan, Sedef N. El


The goals of this study were to determine the total anthocyanin and procyanidin contents and their in vitro bioaccessibilities of apple, red grape and cinnamon by a static in vitro digestion method reported by the COST FA1005 Action INFOGEST, as well as in vitro inhibitory effects of these food samples on starch and lipid digestive enzymes. While the highest total anthocyanin content was found in red grape (164.76 ± 2.51 mg/100 g), the highest procyanidin content was found in cinnamon (6432.54±177.31 mg/100 g) among the selected food samples (p<0.05). The anthocyanin bioaccessibilities were found as 10.23±1 %, 8.23±0.64 %, and 8.73±0.70 % in apple, red grape, and cinnamon, respectively. The procyanidin bioaccessibilities of apple, red grape, and cinnamon were found as 17.57±0.71 %, 14.08±0.74 % and 18.75±1.49 %, respectively. The analyzed apple, red grape and cinnamon showed the inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (IC50 544.27±21.94, 445.63±15.67, 1592±17.58 μg/mL, respectively), α-amylase (IC50 38.41±7.26, 56.12±3.60, 3.54±0.86 μg/mL, respectively), and lipase (IC50 52.65±2.05, 581.70±54.14, 49.63±2.72 μg/mL, respectively). Red grape sample showed the highest inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase, cinnamon showed the highest inhibitory activity against α-amylase and lipase according to IC50 (concentration of inhibitor required to produce a 50% inhibition of the initial rate of reaction) and Catechin equivalent inhibition capacity (CEIC50) values. This study reported that apple, grape and cinnamon samples can inhibit the activity of digestive enzymes in vitro. The consumption of these samples would be used in conjunction with a low-calorie diet for body weight management.

Keywords: anthocyanin, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, lipase, procyanidin

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42 Anthocyanin Complex: Characterization and Cytotoxicity Studies

Authors: Sucharat Limsitthichaikoon, Kedsarin Saodaeng, Aroonsri Priprem, Teerasak Damrongrungruang


Complexation of anthocyanins to mimic natural copigmentation process was investigated. Cyanidin-rich extracts from Zea mays L. CeritinaKulesh. anddelphinidin-rich extracts from ClitoriaternateaL. were used to form 4 anthocyanin complexes, AC1, AC2, AC3, and AC4, in the presence of several polyphenols and a trace metal. Characterizations of the ACs were conducted by UV, FTIR, DSC/TGA and morphological observations. Bathochromic shifts of the UV spectra of 4 formulas of ACs were observed at peak wavelengths of about 510-620 nm by 10 nm suggesting complex formation.FTIR spectra of the ACs indicate shifts of peaks from 1,733 cm-1 to 1,696 cm-1 indicating interactions and a decrease in the peak areas within the wavenumber of 3,400-3,500 cm-1 indicating changes in hydrogen bonding.Thermal analysis of all of the ACs suggests increases in melting temperature after complexation. AC with the highest melting temperature was morphologically observed by SEM and TEM to be crystal-like particles within a range of 50 to 200 nm. Particle size analysis of the AC by laser diffraction gave a range of 50-600 nm, indicating aggregation. This AC was shown to have no cytotoxic effect on cultured HGEPp0.5 and HGF (all p> 0.05) by MTT. Therefore, complexation of anthocyanins was simple and self-assembly process, potentially resulting in nanosized particles of anthocyanin complex.

Keywords: anthocyanins, complexation, purple corn cops, butterfly pea, physicochemical characteristics, cytotoxicity

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41 Analysis of Active Compounds in Thai Herbs by near Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: Chaluntorn Vichasilp, Sutee Wangtueai


This study aims to develop a new method to detect active compounds in Thai herbs (1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) in mulberry leave, anthocyanin in Mao and curcumin in turmeric) using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRs). NIRs is non-destructive technique that rapid, non-chemical involved and low-cost determination. By NIRs and chemometrics technique, it was found that the DNJ prediction equation conducted with partial least square regression with cross-validation had low accuracy R2 (0.42) and SEP (31.87 mg/100g). On the other hand, the anthocyanin prediction equation showed moderate good results (R2 and SEP of 0.78 and 0.51 mg/g) with Multiplication scattering correction at wavelength of 2000-2200 nm. The high absorption could be observed at wavelength of 2047 nm and this model could be used as screening level. For curcumin prediction, the good result was obtained when applied original spectra with smoothing technique. The wavelength of 1400-2500 nm was created regression model with R2 (0.68) and SEP (0.17 mg/g). This model had high NIRs absorption at a wavelength of 1476, 1665, 1986 and 2395 nm, respectively. NIRs showed prospective technique for detection of some active compounds in Thai herbs.

Keywords: anthocyanin, curcumin, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), near infrared spectroscopy (NIRs)

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40 Effect of Solvents in the Extraction and Stability of Anthocyanin from the Petals of Caesalpinia pulcherrima for Natural Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

Authors: N. Prabavathy, R. Balasundaraprabhu, S. Shalini, Dhayalan Velauthapillai, S. Prasanna, N. Muthukumarasamy


Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) has become a significant research area due to their fundamental and scientific importance in the area of energy conversion. Synthetic dyes as sensitizer in DSSC are efficient and durable but they are costlier, toxic and have the tendency to degrade. Natural sensitizers contain plant pigments such as anthocyanin, carotenoid, flavonoid, and chlorophyll which promote light absorption as well as injection of charges to the conduction band of TiO2 through the sensitizer. But, the efficiency of natural dyes is not up to the mark mainly due to instability of the pigment such as anthocyanin. The stability issues in vitro are mainly due to the effect of solvents on extraction of anthocyanins and their respective pH. Taking this factor into consideration, in the present work, the anthocyanins were extracted from the flower Caesalpinia pulcherrima (C. pulcherrimma) with various solvents and their respective stability and pH values are discussed. The usage of citric acid as solvent to extract anthocyanin has shown good stability than other solvents. It also helps in enhancing the sensitization properties of anthocyanins with Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorods. The IPCE spectra show higher photovoltaic performance for dye sensitized TiO2nanorods using citric acid as solvent. The natural DSSC using citric acid as solvent shows a higher efficiency compared to other solvents. Hence citric acid performs to be a safe solvent for natural DSSC in boosting the photovoltaic performance and maintaining the stability of anthocyanins.

Keywords: Caesalpinia pulcherrima, citric acid, dye sensitized solar cells, TiO₂ nanorods

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39 Responses of Grain Yield, Anthocyanin and Antioxidant Capacity to Water Condition in Wetland and Upland Purple Rice Genotypes

Authors: Supaporn Yamuangmorn, Chanakan Prom-U-Thai


Wetland and upland purple rice are the two major types classified by its original ecotypes in Northern Thailand. Wetland rice is grown under flooded condition from transplanting until the mutuality, while upland rice is naturally grown under well-drained soil known as aerobic cultivations. Both ecotypes can be grown and adapted to the reverse systems but little is known on its responses of grain yield and qualities between the 2 ecotypes. This study evaluated responses of grain yield as well as anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity between the wetland and upland purple rice genotypes grown in the submerged and aerobic conditions. A factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with two factors of rice genotype and water condition were carried out in three replications. The two wetland genotypes (Kum Doi Saket: KDK and Kum Phayao: KPY) and two upland genotypes (Kum Hom CMU: KHCMU and Pieisu1: PES1) were used in this study by growing under submerged and aerobic conditions. Grain yield was affected by the interaction between water condition and rice genotype. The wetland genotypes, KDK and KPY grown in the submerged condition produced about 2.7 and 0.8 times higher yield than in the aerobic condition, respectively. The 0.4 times higher grain yield of upland genotype (PES1) was found in the submerged condition than in the aerobic condition, but no significant differences in KHCMU. In the submerged condition, all genotypes produced higher yield components of tiller number, panicle number and percent filled grain than in the aerobic condition by 24% and 32% and 11%, respectively. The thousand grain weight and spikelet number were affected by water condition differently among genotypes. The wetland genotypes, KDK and KPY, and upland genotype, PES1, grown in the submerged condition produced about 19-22% higher grain weight than in the aerobic condition. The similar effect was found in spikelet number which the submerged condition of wetland genotypes, KDK and KPY, and the upland genotype, KHCMU, had about 28-30% higher than the aerobic condition. In contrast, the anthocyanin concentration and antioxidant capacity were affected by both the water condition and genotype. Rice grain grown in the aerobic condition had about 0.9 and 2.6 times higher anthocyanin concentration than in the submerged condition was found in the wetland rice, KDK and upland rice, KHCMU, respectively. Similarly, the antioxidant capacity of wetland rice, KDK and upland rice, KHCMU were 0.5 and 0.6 times higher in aerobic condition than in the submerged condition. There was a negative correlation between grain yield and anthocyanin concentration in wetland genotype KDK and upland genotype KHCMU, but it was not found in the other genotypes. This study indicating that some rice genotype can be adapted in the reverse ecosystem in both grain yield and quality, especially in the wetland genotype KPY and upland genotype PES1. To maximize grain yield and quality of purple rice, proper water management condition is require with a key consideration on difference responses among genotypes. Increasing number of rice genotypes in both ecotypes is needed to confirm their responses on water management.

Keywords: purple rice, water condition, anthocyanin, grain yield

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38 The Influence of the Variety and Harvesting Date on Haskap Composition and Anti-Diabetic Properties

Authors: Aruma Baduge Kithma Hansanee De Silva


Haskap (Lonicera caerulea L.), also known as blue honeysuckle, is a recently commercialized berry crop in Canada. Haskap berries are rich in polyphenols, including anthocyanins, which are known for potential health-promoting effects. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) is the most prominent anthocyanin of haskap berries. Recent literature reveals the efficacy of C3G in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), which has become an increasingly common health issue around the world. The T2D is characterized as a metabolic disorder of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. It has been demonstrated that C3G has anti-diabetic effects in various ways, including improvement in insulin sensitivity, and inhibition of activities of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes, including alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of variety and harvesting date on haskap composition, biological properties, and antidiabetic properties. The polyphenolic compounds present in four commercially grown haskap cultivars, Aurora, Rebecca, Larissa and Evie among five harvesting stages (H1-H5), were extracted separately in 80% ethanol and analyzed to characterize their phenolic profiles. The haskap berries contain different types of polyphenols including flavonoids and phenolic acids. Anthocyanin is the major type of flavonoid. C3G is the most prominent type of anthocyanin, which accounts for 79% of total anthocyanin in all extracts. The variety Larissa at H5 contained the highest average C3G content, and its ethanol extract had the highest (1212.3±63.9 mg/100g FW) while, Evie at H1 contained the lowest C3G content (96.9±40.4 mg/100g FW). The average C3G content of Larissa from H1 – H5 varies from 208 – 1212 mg/100g FW. Quarcetin-3-Rutinoside (Q3Rut) is the major type of flavonol and highest is observed in Rebecca at H4 (47.81 mg/100g FW). The haskap berries also contained phenolic acids, but approximately 95% of the phenolic acids consisted of chlorogenic acid. The cultivar Larissa has a higher level of anthocyanin than the other four cultivars. The highest total phenolic content is observed in Evie at H5 (2.97±1.03 mg/g DW) while the lowest in Rebecca at H1 (1.47±0.96 mg/g DW). The antioxidant capacity of Evie at H5 was higher (14.40±2.21 µmol TE/ g DW) among other cultivars and the lowest observed in Aurora at H3 (5.69±0.34 µmol TE/ g DW). Furthermore, Larissa H5 shows the greatest inhibition of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes including alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase. In conclusion Larissa, at H5 demonstrated highest polyphenol composition and antidiabetic properties.

Keywords: anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, haskap, type 2 diabetes

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37 Fluorescence Sensing as a Tool to Estimate Palm Oil Quality and Yield

Authors: Norul Husna A. Kasim, Siva K. Balasundram


The gap between ‘actual yield’ and ‘potential yield’ has remained a problem in the Malaysian oil palm industry. Ineffective maturity assessment and untimely harvesting have compounded this problem. Typically, the traditional method of palm oil quality and yield assessment is destructive, costly and laborious. Fluorescence-sensing offers a new means of assessing palm oil quality and yield non-destructively. This work describes the estimation of palm oil quality and yield using a multi-parametric fluorescence sensor (Multiplex®) to quantify the concentration of secondary metabolites, such as anthocyanin and flavonoid, in fresh fruit bunches across three different palm ages (6, 9, and 12 years-old). Results show that fluorescence sensing is an effective means of assessing FFB maturity, in terms of palm oil quality and yield quantifications.

Keywords: anthocyanin, flavonoid fluorescence sensor, palm oil yield and quality

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36 Plackett-Burman Design for Microencapsulation of Blueberry Bioactive Compounds

Authors: Feyza Tatar, Alime Cengiz, Dilara Sandikçi, Muhammed Dervisoglu, Talip Kahyaoglu


Blueberries are known for their bioactive properties such as high anthocyanin contents, antioxidant activities and potential health benefits. However, anthocyanins are sensitive to environmental conditions during processes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of spray drying conditions on the blueberry microcapsules by Plackett-Burman experimental design. Inlet air temperature (120 and 180°C), feed pump rate (20% and 40%), DE of maltodextrin (6 and 15 DE), coating concentration (10% and 30%) and source of blueberry (Duke and Darrow) were independent variables, tested at high (+1) and low (-1) levels. Encapsulation efficiency (based on total phenol) of blueberry microcapsules was the dependent variable. In addition, anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, water solubility, water activity and bulk density were measured for blueberry powders. The antioxidant activity of blueberry powders ranged from 72 to 265 mmol Trolox/g and anthocyanin content was changed from 528 to 5500 mg GAE/100g. Encapsulation efficiency was significantly affected (p<0.05) by inlet air temperature and coating concentration. Encapsulation efficiency increased with increasing inlet air temperature and decreasing coating concentration. The highest encapsulation efficiency could be produced by spray drying at 180°C inlet air temperature, 40% pump rate, 6 DE of maltodextrin, 13% maltodextrin concentration and source of duke blueberry.

Keywords: blueberry, microencapsulation, Plackett-Burman design, spray drying

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35 Moderate Electric Field and Ultrasound as Alternative Technologies to Raspberry Juice Pasteurization Process

Authors: Cibele F. Oliveira, Debora P. Jaeschke, Rodrigo R. Laurino, Amanda R. Andrade, Ligia D. F. Marczak


Raspberry is well-known as a good source of phenolic compounds, mainly anthocyanin. Some studies pointed out the importance of these bioactive compounds consumption, which is related to the decrease of the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The most consumed raspberry products are juices, yogurts, ice creams and jellies and, to ensure the safety of these products, raspberry is commonly pasteurized, for enzyme and microorganisms inactivation. Despite being efficient, the pasteurization process can lead to degradation reactions of the bioactive compounds, decreasing the products healthy benefits. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to evaluate moderate electric field (MEF) and ultrasound (US) technologies application on the pasteurization process of raspberry juice and compare the results with conventional pasteurization process. For this, phenolic compounds, anthocyanin content and physical-chemical parameters (pH, color changes, titratable acidity) of the juice were evaluated before and after the treatments. Moreover, microbiological analyses of aerobic mesophiles microorganisms, molds and yeast were performed in the samples before and after the treatments, to verify the potential of these technologies to inactivate microorganisms. All the pasteurization processes were performed in triplicate for 10 min, using a cylindrical Pyrex® vessel with a water jacket. The conventional pasteurization was performed at 90 °C using a hot water bath connected to the extraction cell. The US assisted pasteurization was performed using 423 and 508 W cm-2 (75 and 90 % of ultrasound intensity). It is important to mention that during US application the temperature was kept below 35 °C; for this, the water jacket of the extraction cell was connected to a water bath with cold water. MEF assisted pasteurization experiments were performed similarly to US experiments, using 25 and 50 V. Control experiments were performed at the maximum temperature of US and MEF experiments (35 °C) to evaluate only the effect of the aforementioned technologies on the pasteurization. The results showed that phenolic compounds concentration in the juice was not affected by US and MEF application. However, it was observed that the US assisted pasteurization, performed at the highest intensity, decreased anthocyanin content in 33 % (compared to in natura juice). This result was possibly due to the cavitation phenomena, which can lead to free radicals formation and accumulation on the medium; these radicals can react with anthocyanin decreasing the content of these antioxidant compounds in the juice. Physical-chemical parameters did not present statistical differences for samples before and after the treatments. Microbiological analyses results showed that all the pasteurization treatments decreased the microorganism content in two logarithmic cycles. However, as values were lower than 1000 CFU mL-1 it was not possible to verify the efficacy of each treatment. Thus, MEF and US were considered as potential alternative technologies for pasteurization process, once in the right conditions the application of the technologies decreased microorganism content in the juice and did not affected phenolic and anthocyanin content, as well as physical-chemical parameters. However, more studies are needed regarding the influence of MEF and US processes on microorganisms’ inactivation.

Keywords: MEF, microorganism inactivation, anthocyanin, phenolic compounds

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34 Gethuk Marillo: The New Product Development of Anti-Cancer Snacks Utilizing Xanthones and Anthocyanin in Mangosteen Pericarp and Tamarillo Fruit

Authors: Desi Meriyanti, Delina Puspa Rosana Firdaus, Ristia Rinati


Nowadays, the presence of free radicals become a big concern due to its negative impact to the body, which can triggers the formation of degenerative diseases such as cancer, heart disease cardiovascular, diabetic mellitus and others. Free radical oxidation can be prevented by the presence of antioxidants. Naturally, the human body produces its own antioxidants. Because of the free radicals exposure are so intense, especially from the environment, it is necessary to supply antioxidants needed from outside, through the consumption of functional foods with high antioxidant content. Gethuk is one of the traditional snacks in Indonesia. Gethuk is made from cassava with minimal processing such as boiling, destructing, and forming. Gethuk is classified as a familiar snack in the community, so it has a potential for developing, especially into a functional food. The low content of antioxidants in gethuk can be overcome with the development of a product called Gethuk Marillo. Gethuk Marillo is gethuk with the addition of natural antioxidants from mangosteen pericarp extract which has a high content of xanthones, these compounds are classified into flavonoids and act as antioxidants in the body. Gethuk Marillo served along with tamarillo fruit sauce which is also high in antioxidants such as anthocyanin. The combination between 300 grams gethuk Marillo and sauce contain flavonoid about 31% of human antioxidant needs per day. Gethuk Marillo called as a functional food because of high flavonoids content which can prevent degenerative diseases namely cancer, as many studies that the xanthone and anthocyanins compounds can effectively prevent the formation of cancer cells in human body.

Keywords: Gethuk marillo, xanthones, anthocyanin, high antioxidants, anti-cancer

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33 Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Nine Genotypes of Thai Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Authors: Pitchaon Maisuthisakul, Ladawan Changchub


Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a staple diet in Thailand. Rice cultivation is traditional occupation of Thailand which passed down through generations. The 1 Rai 1 san project is new agricultural theory according to sufficient economy using green technology without using chemical substances. This study was conducted to evaluate total phenolics using HPLC and colorimetric methods including total anthocyanin content of Thai rice extracting by simulated gastric and intestinal condition and to estimate antioxidant capacity using DPPH and thiocyanate methods. Color and visible spectrum of rice grains were also investigated. Rice grains were classified into three groups according to their color appearance. The light brown grain genotypes are Sin Lek, Jasmine 105, Lao Tek and Hawm Ubon. The red group is Sang Yod and Red Jasmine. Genotypes Kum, Hawm Kanya and Hawm Nil are black rice grains. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside was found in only black rice genotypes, whereas chlorogenic acid was found in all rice grains. The black rice had higher phenolic content than red and light brown samples. Phenolic acids constitute a small portion of phenolic compounds after digestion in human and contribute to the antioxidant activity of Thai rice grains. Anthocyanin contents of all rice extracts ranged from 45.9 to 442.1 mg CGE/kg. All rice extracts showed the antioxidant efficiency lower than ferulic acid. Genotype Kum and Hawm nil exhibited the ability of antioxidant efficiency higher than α-tocopherol. Interestingly, the visible spectrum of only black rice genotypes showed the maximum peak at 530-540 nm. The results suggest that consumption of black rice gives more health benefits of grain to consumer.

Keywords: rice, phenolic, antioxidant, anthocyanin

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32 The Effect of the Variety and Harvesting Date on Polyphenol Composition of Haskap (Lonicera caerulea L.) and Anti-diabetic Properties of Haskap Polyphenols

Authors: Aruma Baduge Kithma De Silva


Haskap (Lonicera caerulea L.), also known as blue honeysuckle, is a newly commercialized berry crop in Canada. Haskap berries are rich in polyphenols, including, anthocyanins, which are known for potential health-promoting properties. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) is the most abundant anthocyanin of haskap berries. The compound C3G has the ability to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), which has become an increasingly common health issue around the world. The T2D is characterized as a metabolic disorder of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. It has been demonstrated that C3G has anti-diabetic effects through several ways, including inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), reduction of gluconeogenesis, improvement in insulin sensitivity, and inhibition of activities of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, including α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of variety and harvests maturity of haskap on C3G, other fruit quality characteristics and anti-diabetic activities of haskap berries using in vitro studies. The polyphenols present in four commercially grown haskap cultivars, Aurora, Rebecca, Larissa, and Evie harvested at five harvesting dates (H1-H5) apart from 2-3 days, were extracted separately. High-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analyzes of polyphenols revealed that haskap berries contain predominantly anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and phenolic acids. The compound C3G was the most prominent anthocyanin, which is available in approximately 79% of total anthocyanin in four cultivars. The Larissa at H5 contained the highest C3G content. The antioxidant capacity of Evie at H5 was greater than other cultivars. Furthermore, Larissa H5 showed the greatest inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes including alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase. In conclusion, the haskap variety and harvesting date influenced the polyphenol composition and biological properties. The variety Larissa, at H5 harvesting date, contained the highest polyphenol content and the ability of inhibition of the carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme as well as DPP4 enzyme in order to reduce type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: anthocyanin, Haskap, type 2 diabetes, polyphenol

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31 Distribution of Antioxidants between Sour Cherry Juice and Pomace

Authors: Sonja Djilas, Gordana Ćetković, Jasna Čanadanović-Brunet, Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Slađana Stajčić, Jelena Vulić, Milica Vinčić


In recent years, interest in food rich in bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, increased the advantages of the functional food products. Bioactive components help to maintain health and prevention of diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular and many other degenerative diseases. Recent research has shown that the fruit pomace, a byproduct generated from the production of juice, can be a potential source of valuable bioactive compounds. The use of fruit industrial waste in the processing of functional foods represents an important new step for the food industry. Sour cherries have considerable nutritional, medicinal, dietetic and technological value. According to the production volume of cherries, Serbia ranks seventh in the world, with a share of 7% of the total production. The use of sour cherry pomace has so far been limited to animal feed, even though it can be potentially a good source of polyphenols. For this study, local variety of sour cherry cv. ‘Feketićka’ was chosen for its more intensive taste and deeper red color, indicating high anthocyanin content. The contents of total polyphenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins, as well as radical scavenging activity on DPPH radicals and reducing power of sour cherry juice and pomace were compared using spectrophotometrical assays. According to the results obtained, 66.91% of total polyphenols, 46.77% of flavonoids, 46.77% of total anthocyanins and 47.88% of anthocyanin monomers from sour cherry fruits have been transferred to juice. On the other hand, 29.85% of total polyphenols, 33.09% of flavonoids, 53.23% of total anthocyanins and 52.12% of anthocyanin monomers remained in pomace. Regarding radical scavenging activity, 65.51% of Trolox equivalents from sour cherries were exported to juice, while 34.49% was left in pomace. However, reducing power of sour cherry juice was much stronger than pomace (91.28% and 8.72% of Trolox equivalents from sour cherry fruits, respectively). Based on our results it can be concluded that sour cherry pomace is still a rich source of natural antioxidants, especially anthocyanins with coloring capacity, therefore it can be used for dietary supplements development and food fortification.

Keywords: antioxidants, polyphenols, pomace, sour cherry

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30 Effect of Convective Dryness Combined with Osmotic Dehydration, Blanching, Microwave and Ultrasonic Treatment on Bioactive Compounds and Rehydration Capacity of Dried Plums

Authors: Elena Corina Popescu, Magda Gabriela Bratu


Increasing interest in keeping bioactive compounds (anthocyanins, vitamin C) and dried fruit quality has motivated the researchers to investigate new combined drying technologies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of convective dryness combined with osmotic dehydration, blanching, microwave treatment and ultrasonic treatment on the quality of dried plums. Osmotic dehydration was achieved by maintaining plums for 1 h in sucrose solution (300Brix). For microwave treatment, the plums were kept at 400 W for 80 sec. For ultrasonic treatment, plums were immersed in distilled water and sonicated for 30 minutes at 40 kHz and 200 W. The blanching consists of immersing plums in hot water at 90°C for 20 seconds and cooling them rapidly. Conventional drying was carried out at 70°C for 630 minutes. Drying curves, drying rate, anthocyanin and vitamin C stability, acidity variation (expressed as malic acid), reducing sugar content, and rehydration capacity of dried plums were analyzed. Blanching led to the largest amount of evaporated water. Blanched plums have had 13.36% less water than sonicated ones. The lowest anthocyanal loss of 34.5% was obtained in osmotically dehydrated plums, and 2.93% vitamin C is found in the plums sonicated. There were no significant differences in regards acidity and reducing sugar. The plums blanched before drying have had a high capacity of rehydration.

Keywords: anthocyanin, dried plums, pretreatments, vitamin C

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29 Shelf Life and Overall Quality of Pretreated and Modified Atmosphere Packaged ‘Ready-To-Eat’ Pomegranate arils cv. Bhagwa Stored at 1⁰C

Authors: Sangram Dhumal, Anil Karale


The effect of different pretreatments and modified atmosphere packaging on the quality of minimally processed pomegranate arils of Bhagwa cultivar was evaluated during storage at 1⁰C for 16 days. Hand extracted pomegranate arils were pretreated with different antioxidants and surfactants viz., 100ppm sodium hypochlorite plus 0.5 percent ascorbic acid plus 0.5 percent citric acid, 10 and 20 percent honey solution, 0.1 percent nanosilver stipulated food grade hydrogen peroxide alone and in combination with 10 percent honey solution and control. The disinfected, rinsed and air-dried pomegranate arils were packed in polypropylene punnets (135g each) with different modified atmospheres and stored up to 16 days at 1⁰C. Changes in colour, pH, total soluble solids, sugars, anthocyanins, phenols, acidity, antioxidant activity, microbial and yeast and mold count over initial values were recorded in all the treatments under study but highest on those without antioxidant and surfactant treatments. Pretreated arils stored at 1⁰C recorded decrease in L*, b* value, pH, levels of non-reducing and total sugars, polyphenols, antioxidant activity and acceptability of arils and increase in total soluble solids, a* value, anthocyanins and microbial count. Increase in anthocyanin content was observed in modified atmosphere packaged pretreated arils stored at 1⁰C. Modified atmosphere packaging with 100 percent nitrogen recorded minimum changes in physicochemical and sensorial parameters with minimum microbial growth. Untreated arils in perforated punnets and with air (control) gave shelf life up to 6 days only. The pretreatment of arils with 10 percent honey plus 0.1 percent nanosilver stipulated food grade hydrogen peroxide and packaging in 100 percent nitrogen recorded minimum changes in physicochemical parameters. The treatment also restricted microbial growth and maintained colour, anthocyanin pigmentation, antioxidant activity and overall fresh like quality of arils. The same dipping treatment along with modified atmosphere packaging extended the shelf life of fresh ready to eat arils up to 14 to 16 days with enhanced acceptability when stored at 1⁰C.

Keywords: anthocyanin content, pomegranate, MAP, minimally processed, microbial quality, Bhagwa, shelf-life, overall quality

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28 Changes in Amounts of Glycyrrhizin and Phenolic Compounds of Glycrrhiza glabra L. Seedlings Treated by Copper and Zinc Oxide

Authors: Roya Razavizadeh, Razieh Soltaninejad, Hakimeh Oloumi


Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Licorice) is one of the oldest medicinal plants in Iran and secondary metabolites present in the plant root is used in food and pharmaceutical industries. With the use of heavy metals as elicitors, plant secondary metabolite production can be increased. In this study, the effects of the concentrations of 1 and 10 μM of zinc oxide and copper oxide on the contents of reducing sugars (as precursor of secondary metabolites), proline, glycyrrhizin, total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and anthocyanin in Glycyrrhiza glabra seedlings were investigated. Also, the correlation between the content of these metabolites in the treated seedlings was examined using Pearson's test. The amount of reducing sugars at concentration of 10 μM zinc oxide was decreased. Whereas, the amounts of proline and glycyrrhizin under treatment 1 and 10 μM copper oxide and 1 μM zinc oxide compared with the control plants was increased. The content of total phenolic compounds was increased with increasing concentrations of copper oxide. The highest amount of flavonoids was observed at concentrations of 1 and 10 μM copper oxide. Anthocyanin content was increased in concentration of 1 μM copper oxide. Also, the tannin content of the Glycyrrhiza glabra seedlings at concentrations of 10 μM zinc oxide was increased. Based on the result it seemed that at concentrations of 1 and 10 μM copper oxide the amount of glycyrrhizin, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins were significantly increased, whereas, zinc oxide had no significant impact on the levels of these metabolites.

Keywords: zinc oxide, copper oxide, phenolic compounds, licorice (glycyrrhiza glabra L.), glycyrrhizin

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27 Potential Growth of Tomato Plants in Induced Saline Soil with Rhizobacteria (PGPR)

Authors: Arfan Ali, Idrees Ahmad Nasir


The critical evaluation of tolerance in tomato plants against the induced saline soil were assessed by transcript analysis of genes coding for products potentially involved in stress tolerance. A reverse transcriptase PCR experiment was performed with Hsp90-1, MT2, and GR1like protein genes using RNA isolated from different tissues of tomato plants. Four strains of Bacillus magisterium were inoculated with 100 Mm & 200 Mm concentrations of salt. Eleven treatments each ten replica pots were installed in green house experiment and the parameters taken into account were morphological (length, weight, number of leaves, leaf surface area), chemical (anthocyanin, chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, carotenoids) and biological (gene expression). Results bare a response i.e. highest response of MT2 like gene was at 24 hpi and the highest levels of GR1 like protein transcript accumulation were detected at 36 hpi. The chemical and morphological parameters at diverse salt concentrations bequeath superlative response amongst strains which candidly flank on Zm7 and Zm4. Therefore, Bacillus magisterium Zm7 strains and somehow Zm4 strain can be used in saline condition to make plants tolerant. The overall performance of strains Zm7, Zm6, and Zm4 was found better for all studied traits under salt stress conditions. Significant correlations among traits root length, shoot length, number of leaves, leaf surface area, carotenoids, anthocyanin, chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b were found and suggested that the salt tolerance in tomato may be improved through the use of PGPR strains.

Keywords: Bacillus magisterium, gene expression glutathione reductase, metallothionein, PGPR, Rhizobacteria, saline

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26 A Comparative Study on the Phenolics Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Water Yam Landraces in Kerala, India

Authors: Anumol Jose, Sajana Nazar, M. R. Vishnu, M. Anilkumar


Water yam is an underutilized tropical tuber crop and a rich source of polyphenol compounds and acylated anthocyanins. There is an inverse relationship between the risk of chronic human diseases and the consumption of polyphenolic rich diet. Dioscorea alata is a plant species with several undocumented landraces. In this study, several landraces of water yam with distinct morphological features were collected from all over kerala. Distinct variation in morphological feature among landraces was tuber colour and only those landraces which expressed consistent morphological characters for constitutively two growing seasons were included in the study. Plants were categorized according to the L*a*b* colour attributes of tuber extracts. There were five categories, red, pink, orange, yellow and white. Total phenol, flavanoid and anthocyanin content of the tuber extracts were measured spectroscopically and correlated with antioxidant properties determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate free radical method and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Landraces showed statistically significant difference in all the parameters studied and strong correlation were observed between total phenol and antioxidant activity. Out of the five categories orange coloured tubers showed relatively high phenol and flavanoid content.Colour variations of tuber extracts correlated with anthocyanin quantity and polymeric nature of anthocyanins. This study helps to identify and categorize landraces of D.alata with potential health benefits and commercial applications. Distinct colour characteristics of tuber could be useful in the field of natural colorants. This study also aimed to document and preserve landraces of water yams for further study and research in this area.

Keywords: the antioxidant property, anthocyanins, polyphenols, water yam

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25 Bio-Nano Mask: Antivirus and Antimicrobial Mouth Mask Coating with Nano-TiO2 and Anthocyanin Utilization as an Effective Solution of High ARI Patients in Riau

Authors: Annisa Ulfah Pristya, Andi Setiawan


Indonesia placed in sixth rank total Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) patient in the world and Riau as one of the province with the highest number of people with respiratory infection in Indonesia reached 37 thousand people. Usually society using a mask as prevention action. Unfortunately the commercial mouth mask only can work maximum for 4 hours and the pores are too large to filter out microorganisms and viruses carried by infectious droplets nucleated 1-5 μm. On the other hand, Indonesia is rich with Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and purple sweet potato anthocyanin pigment. Therefore, offered Bio-nano-mask which is a antimicrobial and antiviral mouth mask with Nano-TiO2 coating and purple sweet potato anthocyanins utilization as an effective solution to high ARI patients in Riau, which has the advantage of the mask surface can’t be attached by infectious droplets, self-cleaning and have anthocyanins biosensors that give visual response can be understood easily by the general public in the form of a mask color change from blue/purple to pink when acid levels increase. Acid level is an indicator of microorganisms accumulation in the mouth and surrounding areas. Bio-nano mask making process begins with the preparation (design, Nano-TiO2 liquid preparation, anthocyanins biosensors manufacture) and then superimposing the Nano-TiO2 on the outer surface of spunbond color using a sprayer, then superimposing anthocyanins biosensors film on the Meltdown surface, making bio nano-mask and it pack. Bio-nano mask has the advantage is effectively preventing pathogenic microorganisms and infectious droplets and has accumulated indicator microorganisms that color changes which easily observed by the common people though.

Keywords: anthocyanins, ARI, nano-TiO2 liquid, self cleaning

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24 Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Chemical and Antioxidant Properties of Iranian Native Fresh Barberry Fruit

Authors: Samira Berenji Ardestani, Hamid Reza Akhavan


Gamma irradiation greatly reduces the potential microbiological risk of fresh fruits, resulting in improved microbial safety as well as extending their shelf life. The effects of 0.5-2 kGy gamma doses on some physicochemical, microbial and sensory properties of fresh barberry fruits (Berberis vulgaris) during refrigerated storage for 40 days were evaluated. The total anthocyanin and total phenolic contents of barberry fruits decreased in a dose-dependent manner immediately after irradiation and after subsequent storage. In general, it is recommended that, according to the effect of gamma radiation on physicochemical, microbial and sensorial characteristics, doses of 1.25-2 kGy could be used.

Keywords: antioxidant property, barberry fruit, chemical properties, gamma irradiation

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23 Investigate Growth Behavior and Some Chemical Constituents of Cordyline Plants under Kinetin Spraying

Authors: Sami Ali Metwally, Bedour Helmy Aboleila, Nermeen Mahdy Taha, Sharbat Leithy Mohamed


At greenhouse of National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt. A pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of Kinetin spraying on growth and chemical constituents of cordyline plants. The present study shows a considerable difference in the growth parameters when treated with kinetin concentrations of 0, 100, 150 and 200 ppm compared with the control plants. It was found that, increasing levels of kinetin from zero to 200 ppm increased plant height, root length, stem diameter as well as leaves number, anthocyanin pigments and K%. On the other hand, application 200 ppm recorded decreased in nitrogen and phosphor percentage compared with the control. While application of 100 ppm kinetin significantly increased chlorophyll and protein content compared with the control plants.

Keywords: Cordaline, Kintine, growth parameters, ornamental plants

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22 Effect on Nutritional and Antioxidant Properties of Yellow Alkaline Noodles Substituted with Different Levels of Mangosteen (Garcinia Mangostana) Pericarp Powder

Authors: Mardiana Ahamad Zabidi, Nurain Abdul Karim, Nur Shazrinna Sazali


Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp is considered as agricultural waste and not fully utilized in food products. It is widely reported that mangosteen pericarp contains high antioxidant properties. The objective of this study is to develop novel yellow alkaline noodle (YAN) substituted with different levels of mangosteen pericarp powder (MPP). YAN formulation was substituted with different levels of MPP (0%, 5%, 10% and 15%). The effect on nutritional and antioxidant properties were evaluated. Higher substitution levels of MPP resulted in significant increase (p < 0.05) of ash, fibre, specific mineral elements, and antioxidant properties (total phenolic, total flavonoid, anthocyanin and DPPH) than control sample.

Keywords: antioxidant properties, Mangosteen pericarp, proximate composition, yellow alkaline noodle

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21 Evaluation of Bioactive Phenols in Blueberries from Different Cultivars

Authors: Christophe Gonçalves, Raquel P. F. Guiné, Daniela Teixeira, Fernando J. Gonçalves


Blueberries are widely valued for their high content in phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity, and hence beneficial for the human health. In this way, a study was done to determine the phenolic composition (total phenols, anthocyanins and tannins) and antioxidant activity of blueberries from three cultivars (Duke, Bluecrop, and Ozarblue) grown in two different Portuguese farms. Initially two successive extractions were done with methanol followed by two extractions with aqueous acetone solutions. These extracts obtained were then used to evaluate the amount of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity. The total phenols were observed to vary from 4.9 to 8.2 mg GAE/g fresh weight, with anthocyanin’s contents in the range 1.5-2.8 mg EMv3G/g and tannins contents in the range 1.5- 3.8 mg/g. The results for antioxidant activity ranged from 9.3 to 23.2 mol TE/g, and from 24.7 to 53.4 mol TE/g, when measured, respectively, by DPPH and ABTS methods. In conclusion it was observed that, in general, the cultivar had a visible effect on the phenols present, and furthermore, the geographical origin showed relevance either in the phenols contents or the antioxidant activity.

Keywords: anthocyanins, antioxidant activity, blueberry cultivar, geographical origin, phenolic compounds

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