Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 60

Search results for: Mike T. Wei

60 Wind Wave Modeling Using MIKE 21 SW Spectral Model

Authors: Pouya Molana, Zeinab Alimohammadi

Abstract:

Determining wind wave characteristics is essential for implementing projects related to Coastal and Marine engineering such as designing coastal and marine structures, estimating sediment transport rates and coastal erosion rates in order to predict significant wave height (H_s), this study applies the third generation spectral wave model, Mike 21 SW, along with CEM model. For SW model calibration and verification, two data sets of meteorology and wave spectroscopy are used. The model was exposed to time-varying wind power and the results showed that difference ratio mean, standard deviation of difference ratio and correlation coefficient in SW model for H_s parameter are 1.102, 0.279 and 0.983, respectively. Whereas, the difference ratio mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficient in The Choice Experiment Method (CEM) for the same parameter are 0.869, 1.317 and 0.8359, respectively. Comparing these expected results it is revealed that the Choice Experiment Method CEM has more errors in comparison to MIKE 21 SW third generation spectral wave model and higher correlation coefficient does not necessarily mean higher accuracy.

Keywords: MIKE 21 SW, CEM method, significant wave height, difference ratio

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59 Development of an Automatic Calibration Framework for Hydrologic Modelling Using Approximate Bayesian Computation

Authors: A. Chowdhury, P. Egodawatta, J. M. McGree, A. Goonetilleke

Abstract:

Hydrologic models are increasingly used as tools to predict stormwater quantity and quality from urban catchments. However, due to a range of practical issues, most models produce gross errors in simulating complex hydraulic and hydrologic systems. Difficulty in finding a robust approach for model calibration is one of the main issues. Though automatic calibration techniques are available, they are rarely used in common commercial hydraulic and hydrologic modelling software e.g. MIKE URBAN. This is partly due to the need for a large number of parameters and large datasets in the calibration process. To overcome this practical issue, a framework for automatic calibration of a hydrologic model was developed in R platform and presented in this paper. The model was developed based on the time-area conceptualization. Four calibration parameters, including initial loss, reduction factor, time of concentration and time-lag were considered as the primary set of parameters. Using these parameters, automatic calibration was performed using Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC). ABC is a simulation-based technique for performing Bayesian inference when the likelihood is intractable or computationally expensive to compute. To test the performance and usefulness, the technique was used to simulate three small catchments in Gold Coast. For comparison, simulation outcomes from the same three catchments using commercial modelling software, MIKE URBAN were used. The graphical comparison shows strong agreement of MIKE URBAN result within the upper and lower 95% credible intervals of posterior predictions as obtained via ABC. Statistical validation for posterior predictions of runoff result using coefficient of determination (CD), root mean square error (RMSE) and maximum error (ME) was found reasonable for three study catchments. The main benefit of using ABC over MIKE URBAN is that ABC provides a posterior distribution for runoff flow prediction, and therefore associated uncertainty in predictions can be obtained. In contrast, MIKE URBAN just provides a point estimate. Based on the results of the analysis, it appears as though ABC the developed framework performs well for automatic calibration.

Keywords: automatic calibration framework, approximate bayesian computation, hydrologic and hydraulic modelling, MIKE URBAN software, R platform

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58 A Comparison between the Results of Hormuz Strait Wave Simulations Using WAVEWATCH-III and MIKE21-SW and Satellite Altimetry Observations

Authors: Fatemeh Sadat Sharifi

Abstract:

In the present study, the capabilities of WAVEWATCH-III and MIKE21-SW for predicting the characteristics of wind waves in Hormuz Strait are evaluated. The GFS wind data (Global Forecast System) were derived. The bathymetry of gride with 2 arc-minute resolution, also were extracted from the ETOPO1. WAVEWATCH-III findings illustrate more valid prediction of wave features comparing to the MIKE-21 SW in deep water. Apparently, in shallow area, the MIKE-21 provides more uniformities with altimetry measurements. This may be due to the merits of the unstructured grid which are used in MIKE-21, leading to better representations of the coastal area. The findings on the direction of waves generated by wind in the modeling area indicate that in some regions, despite the increase in wind speed, significant wave height stays nearly unchanged. This is fundamental because of swift changes in wind track over the Strait of Hormuz. After discussing wind-induced waves in the region, the impact of instability of the surface layer on wave growth has been considered. For this purpose, the average monthly mean air temperature has been used. The results in cold months, when the surface layer is unstable, indicates an acceptable increase in the accuracy of prediction of the indicator wave height.

Keywords: numerical modeling, WAVEWATCH-III, Strait of Hormuz, MIKE21-SW

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
57 Mike Hat: Coloured-Tape-in-Hat as a Head Circumference Measuring Instrument for Early Detection of Hydrocephalus in an Infant

Authors: Nyimas Annissa Mutiara Andini

Abstract:

Every year, children develop hydrocephalus during the first year of life. If it is not treated, hydrocephalus can lead to brain damage, a loss in mental and physical abilities, and even death. To be treated, first, we have to do a proper diagnosis using some examinations especially to detect hydrocephalus earlier. One of the examination that could be done is using a head circumference measurement. Increased head circumference is a first and main sign of hydrocephalus, especially in infant (0-1 year age). Head circumference is a measurement of a child's head largest area. In this measurement, we want to get the distance from above the eyebrows and ears and around the back of the head using a measurement tape. If the head circumference of an infant is larger than normal, this infant might potentially suffer hydrocephalus. If early diagnosis and timely treatment of hydrocephalus could be done most children can recover successfully. There are some problems with early detection of hydrocephalus using regular tape for head circumference measurement. One of the problem is the infant’s comfort. We need to make the infant feel comfort along the head circumference measurement to get a proper result of the examination. For that, we can use a helpful stuff, like a hat. This paper is aimed to describe the possibility of using a head circumference measuring instrument for early detection of hydrocephalus in an infant with a mike hat, coloured-tape-in-hat. In the first life, infants’ head size is about 35 centimeters. First three months after that infants will gain 2 centimeters each month. The second three months, infant’s head circumference will increase 1 cm each month. And for the six months later, the rate is 0.5 cm per month, and end up with an average of 47 centimeters. This formula is compared to the WHO’s head circumference growth chart. The shape of this tape-in-hat is alike an upper arm measurement. This tape-in-hat diameter is about 47 centimeters. It contains twelve different colours range by age. If it is out of the normal colour, the infant potentially suffers hydrocephalus. This examination should be done monthly. If in two times of measurement there still in the same range abnormal of head circumference, or a rapid growth of the head circumference size, the infant should be referred to a pediatrician. There are the pink hat for girls and blue hat for boys. Based on this paper, we know that this measurement can be used to help early detection of hydrocephalus in an infant.

Keywords: head circumference, hydrocephalus, infant, mike hat

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
56 Bathymetric Change of Brahmaputra River and Its Influence on Flooding Scenario

Authors: Arup Kumar Sarma, Rohan Kar

Abstract:

The development of physical model of River like Brahmaputra, which finds its origin in the Chema Yundung glacier of Tibet and flows through India and Bangladesh, is always expensive and very much time consuming. With the advancement of computational technique, mathematical modeling has found wide application. MIKE 21C is one such commercial software, developed by Danish Hydraulic Institute (DHI), with the depth-averaged approach and a two-dimensional curvilinear finite-difference model, which is capable of modeling hydrodynamic and morphological processes with some limitations. The main purpose of this study are to generate bathymetry of the River Brahmaputra starting from “Sadia” at upstream to “Dhubri,” at downstream stretching a distance of approximately 695 km, for four different years: 1957, 1971, 1977, and 1981 over the grid generated in the MIKE 21C and to carry out the hydrodynamic simulation for these years to analyze the effect of bathymetry change on the surface water elevation. The study has established that bathymetric change can influence the flood level significantly in some of the river reaches and therefore the modification or updating of regular bathymetry is very much essential for the reliable flood routing in alluvial rivers.

Keywords: bathymetry, brahmaputra river, hydrodynamic model, surface water elevation

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55 Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) for the Management of Stormwater on the Cape Flats, Cape Town

Authors: Benjamin Mauck, Kevin Winter

Abstract:

The city of Cape Town in South Africa, has shown consistent economic and population growth in the last few decades and that growth is expected to continue to increase into the future. These projected economic and population growth rates are set to place additional pressure on the city’s already strained water supply system. Thus, given Cape Town’s water scarcity, increasing water demands and stressed water supply system, coupled with global awareness around the issues of sustainable development, environmental protection and climate change, alternative water management strategies are required to ensure water is sustainably managed. Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) is an approach to sustainable urban water management that attempts to assign a resource value to all forms of water in the urban context, viz. stormwater, wastewater, potable water and groundwater. WSUD employs a wide range of strategies to improve the sustainable management of urban water such as the water reuse, developing alternative available supply sources, sustainable stormwater management and enhancing the aesthetic and recreational value of urban water. Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is one WSUD strategy which has proven to be a successful reuse strategy in a number of places around the world. MAR is the process where an aquifer is intentionally or artificially recharged, which provides a valuable means of water storage while enhancing the aquifers supply potential. This paper investigates the feasibility of implementing MAR in the sandy, unconfined Cape Flats Aquifer (CFA) in Cape Town. The main objective of the study is to assess if MAR is a viable strategy for stormwater management on the Cape Flats, aiding the prevention or mitigation of the seasonal flooding that occurs on the Cape Flats, while also improving the supply potential of the aquifer. This involves the infiltration of stormwater into the CFA during the wet winter months and in turn, abstracting from the CFA during the dry summer months for fit-for-purpose uses in order to optimise the recharge and storage capacity of the CFA. The fully-integrated MIKE SHE model is used in this study to simulate both surface water and groundwater hydrology. This modelling approach enables the testing of various potential recharge and abstraction scenarios required for implementation of MAR on the Cape Flats. Further MIKE SHE scenario analysis under projected future climate scenarios provides insight into the performance of MAR as a stormwater management strategy under climate change conditions. The scenario analysis using an integrated model such as MIKE SHE is a valuable tool for evaluating the feasibility of the MAR as a stormwater management strategy and its potential to contribute towards improving Cape Town’s water security into the future.

Keywords: managed aquifer recharge, stormwater management, cape flats aquifer, MIKE SHE

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54 A Modelling Study to Compare the Storm Surge along Oman Coast Due to Ashobaa and Nanauk Cyclones

Authors: R. V. Suresh Reddi, Vishnu S. Das, Mathew Leslie

Abstract:

The weather systems within the Arabian Sea is very dynamic in terms of monsoon and cyclone events. The storms generated in the Arabian Sea are more likely to progress in the north-west or west direction towards Oman. From the database of Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), the number of cyclones that hit the Oman coast or pass within close vicinity is noteworthy and therefore they must be considered when looking at coastal/port engineering design and development projects. This paper provides a case study of two cyclones, i.e., Nanauk (2014) and Ashobaa (2015) to assess the impact on storm surge off the Oman coast. These two cyclones have been selected since they are comparable in terms of maximum wind, cyclone duration, central pressure and month of occurrence. They are of similar strength but differ in track, allowing the impact of proximity to the coast to be considered. Of the two selected cyclones, Ashobaa is the 'extreme' case with close proximity while Nanauk remains further offshore and is considered as a more typical case. The available 'best-track' data from JTWC is obtained for the 2 selected cyclones, and the cyclone winds are generated using a 'Cyclone Wind Generation Tool' from MIKE (modelling software) from DHI (Danish Hydraulic Institute). Using MIKE 21 Hydrodynamic model powered by DHI the storm surge is estimated at selected offshore locations along the Oman coast.

Keywords: costal engineering, cyclone, storm surge, modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
53 Validating Quantitative Stormwater Simulations in Edmonton Using MIKE URBAN

Authors: Mohamed Gaafar, Evan Davies

Abstract:

Many municipalities within Canada and abroad use chloramination to disinfect drinking water so as to avert the production of the disinfection by-products (DBPs) that result from conventional chlorination processes and their consequential public health risks. However, the long-lasting monochloramine disinfectant (NH2Cl) can pose a significant risk to the environment. As, it can be introduced into stormwater sewers, from different water uses, and thus freshwater sources. Little research has been undertaken to monitor and characterize the decay of NH2Cl and to study the parameters affecting its decomposition in stormwater networks. Therefore, the current study was intended to investigate this decay starting by building a stormwater model and validating its hydraulic and hydrologic computations, and then modelling water quality in the storm sewers and examining the effects of different parameters on chloramine decay. The presented work here is only the first stage of this study. The 30th Avenue basin in Southern Edmonton was chosen as a case study, because the well-developed basin has various land-use types including commercial, industrial, residential, parks and recreational. The City of Edmonton has already built a MIKE-URBAN stormwater model for modelling floods. Nevertheless, this model was built to the trunk level which means that only the main drainage features were presented. Additionally, this model was not calibrated and known to consistently compute pipe flows higher than the observed values; not to the benefit of studying water quality. So the first goal was to complete modelling and updating all stormwater network components. Then, available GIS Data was used to calculate different catchment properties such as slope, length and imperviousness. In order to calibrate and validate this model, data of two temporary pipe flow monitoring stations, collected during last summer, was used along with records of two other permanent stations available for eight consecutive summer seasons. The effect of various hydrological parameters on model results was investigated. It was found that model results were affected by the ratio of impervious areas. The catchment length was tested, however calculated, because it is approximate representation of the catchment shape. Surface roughness coefficients were calibrated using. Consequently, computed flows at the two temporary locations had correlation coefficients of values 0.846 and 0.815, where the lower value pertained to the larger attached catchment area. Other statistical measures, such as peak error of 0.65%, volume error of 5.6%, maximum positive and negative differences of 2.17 and -1.63 respectively, were all found in acceptable ranges.

Keywords: stormwater, urban drainage, simulation, validation, MIKE URBAN

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52 Investigation of Projected Organic Waste Impact on a Tropical Wetland in Singapore

Authors: Swee Yang Low, Dong Eon Kim, Canh Tien Trinh Nguyen, Yixiong Cai, Shie-Yui Liong

Abstract:

Nee Soon swamp forest is one of the last vestiges of tropical wetland in Singapore. Understanding the hydrological regime of the swamp forest and implications for water quality is critical to guide stakeholders in implementing effective measures to preserve the wetland against anthropogenic impacts. In particular, although current field measurement data do not indicate a concern with organic pollution, reviewing the ways in which the wetland responds to elevated organic waste influx (and the corresponding impact on dissolved oxygen, DO) can help identify potential hotspots, and the impact on the outflow from the catchment which drains into downstream controlled watercourses. An integrated water quality model is therefore developed in this study to investigate spatial and temporal concentrations of DO levels and organic pollution (as quantified by biochemical oxygen demand, BOD) within the catchment’s river network under hypothetical, projected scenarios of spiked upstream inflow. The model was developed using MIKE HYDRO for modelling the study domain, as well as the MIKE ECO Lab numerical laboratory for characterising water quality processes. Model parameters are calibrated against time series of observed discharges at three measurement stations along the river network. Over a simulation period of April 2014 to December 2015, the calibrated model predicted that a continuous spiked inflow of 400 mg/l BOD will elevate downstream concentrations at the catchment outlet to an average of 12 mg/l, from an assumed nominal baseline BOD of 1 mg/l. Levels of DO were decreased from an initial 5 mg/l to 0.4 mg/l. Though a scenario of spiked organic influx at the swamp forest’s undeveloped upstream sub-catchments is currently unlikely to occur, the outcomes nevertheless will be beneficial for future planning studies in understanding how the water quality of the catchment will be impacted should urban redevelopment works be considered around the swamp forest.

Keywords: hydrology, modeling, water quality, wetland

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51 The Effects of Climate Change and Upstream Dam Development on Sediment Distribution in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta

Authors: Trieu Anh Ngoc, Nguyen Quang Kim

Abstract:

Located at the downstream of the Mekong Delta, the Vietnamese Mekong Delta is well-known as 'rice bowl' of Vietnam. The Vietnamese Mekong Delta experiences widespread flooding annually where is habitat for about 17 million people. The economy of this region mainly depends on the agricultural productivities. The suspended sediment load in the Mekong River plays an important role in carrying contaminants and nutrients to the delta and changing the geomorphology of the delta river system. In many past decades, flooding and suspended sediment were considered as indispensable factors in agricultural cultivations. Although flooding in the wet season caused serious inundation in paddy field and affected livelihoods, it is an effective facility for flushing acid and saline to this area - alluvial soil heavily contaminated with acid and salt intrusion. In addition, sediment delivery to this delta contained rich-nutrients distributed and deposited on the fields through flooding process. In recent decades, the changing of flow and sediment transport have been strongly and clearly occurring due to upstream dam development and climate change. However, effects of sediment delivery on agricultural cultivations were less attention. This study investigated the impacts of upstream flow on sediment distribution in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta. Flow fluctuation and sediment distribution were simulated by the Mike 11 model, including hydrodynamics model and advection-dispersion model. Various scenarios were simulated based on anticipated upstream discharges. Our findings indicated that sediment delivery into the Vietnamese Mekong Delta come from not only Tien River but also border of Cambodia floodplains. Sediment distribution in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta is dramatically changed by the distance from the main rivers and the secondary channels. The dam development in the upstream is one of the major factors leading a decrease in sediment discharge as well as sediment deposition. Moreover, sea level rise partially contributed to decrease in sediment transport and change of sediment distribution between upstream and downstream of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta.

Keywords: sediment transport, sea level rise, climate change, Mike Model

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
50 Numerical Modeling of Storm Swells in Harbor by Boussinesq Equations Model

Authors: Mustapha Kamel Mihoubi, Hocine Dahmani

Abstract:

The purpose of work is to study the phenomenon of agitation of storm waves at basin caused by different directions of waves relative to the current provision thrown numerical model based on the equation in shallow water using Boussinesq model MIKE 21 BW. According to the diminishing effect of penetration of a wave optimal solution will be available to be reproduced in reduced model. Another alternative arrangement throws will be proposed to reduce the agitation and the effects of the swell reflection caused by the penetration of waves in the harbor.

Keywords: agitation, Boussinesq equations, combination, harbor

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
49 Fuzzy Set Approach to Study Appositives and Its Impact Due to Positional Alterations

Authors: E. Mike Dison, T. Pathinathan

Abstract:

Computing with Words (CWW) and Possibilistic Relational Universal Fuzzy (PRUF) are the two concepts which widely represent and measure the vaguely defined natural phenomenon. In this paper, we study the positional alteration of the phrases by which the impact of a natural language proposition gets affected and/or modified. We observe the gradations due to sensitivity/feeling of a statement towards the positional alterations. We derive the classification and modification of the meaning of words due to the positional alteration. We present the results with reference to set theoretic interpretations.

Keywords: appositive, computing with words, possibilistic relational universal fuzzy (PRUF), semantic sentiment analysis, set-theoretic interpretations

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
48 Computer Simulation Studies of Aircraft Wing Architectures on Vibration Responses

Authors: Shengyong Zhang, Mike Mikulich

Abstract:

Vibration is a crucial limiting consideration in the analysis and design of airplane wing structures to avoid disastrous failures due to the propagation of existing cracks in the material. In this paper, we build CAD models of aircraft wings to capture the design intent with configurations. Subsequent FEA vibration analysis is performed to study the natural vibration properties and impulsive responses of the resulting user-defined wing models. This study reveals the variations of the wing’s vibration characteristics with respect to changes in its structural configurations. Integrating CAD modelling and FEA vibration analysis enables designers to improve wing architectures for implementing design requirements in the preliminary design stage.

Keywords: aircraft wing, CAD modelling, FEA, vibration analysis

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47 Critical Realism as a Bridge between Critical Pedagogy and Queer Theory

Authors: Mike Seal

Abstract:

This paper explores the traditions of critical and queer pedagogy, its intersections, tensions and paradoxes. Critical pedagogy, with a materialist realist ontology, and queer theory, which is often post-modern, post-structural and anti-essential, may not seem compatible. Similarly, there are tensions between activist orientations, often enacted through essential sexual identities, and a queer approach that questions such identities and subjectivities. It will argue that critical realism gives us a bridge between critical and queer pedagogy in preserving a realist materialist ontology, where economic forces are real, and independent of consciousness and hermeneutic constructions of them. At the same time, it offers an epistemology that does not necessitate a binary view of the roles of the oppressed, liberator, or even oppressor. It accepts that our knowledge is contingent, partial and contestable, but has the potential, and enough validity, to demand action and potentially inform the actions of others.

Keywords: critical pedagogy, queer pedagogy, critical realsim, heteronormativity

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46 Thermoelectrical Properties of Cs Doped BiCuSeO as Promising Oxide Materials for Thermoelectric Energy Converter

Authors: Abdenour Achour, Kan Chen, Mike Reece, Zhaorong Huang

Abstract:

Here we report the synthesis of pure and cost effective of BiCuSeO by a flux method in air, and the enhancement of the thermoelectric performance by Cs doping. The comparison between our synthesis and the usual vacuum furnace method has been studied for the pristine oxyselenides BiCuSeO. We report for very high Seebeck coefficients up to 516 μV K⁻¹ at room temperature with the electrical conductivity of 5.20 S cm⁻¹ which lead to a high power factor of 140 µWm⁻¹K⁻². We also report at the high temperatures the lowest thermal conductivity value of 0.42 µWm⁻¹K⁻¹. Upon doping with Cs, enhanced electrical conductivity coupled with a moderate Seebeck coefficient lead to a power factor of 338 µWm⁻¹K⁻² at 682 K. Moreover, it shows a very low thermal conductivity in the temperature range of 300 to 682 K (0.75 to 0.35 Wm⁻¹K⁻¹). By optimizing the power factor and reducing the thermal conductivity, this results in a high ZT of ~ 0.66 at 682 K for Bi0.995Cs0.005CuSeO.

Keywords: BiCuSeO, Cs doping, thermoelectric, oxyselenide

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45 Oil Reservoirs Bifurcation Analysis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Fractal Characterization Approach of Makelekese MS-25 Field

Authors: Leonard Mike McNelly Longwa, Divine Kusosa Musiku, D. Nahum Kabeya

Abstract:

In this paper the bifurcation analysis of oilfield in Democratic Republic of Congo is presented in order to enhance petroleum production in an intense tectonic evolution characterized by distinct compressive and extensive phases and the digenetic transformation in the reservoirs during burial geological configuration. The use of porous media in Makelekese MS-25 field has been established to simulate the boundaries within 3 sedimentary basins open to exploration including the coastal basin with an area of 5992 km2, a central basin with an area of 800,000 km2, the western branch of the East African Rift in which there are 50,000 km2. The fractal characterization of complex hydro-dynamic fractures in oilfield is developed to facilitate oil production process based on reservoirs bifurcation model.

Keywords: reservoir bifurcation, fractal characterisation, permeability, conductivity, skin effect

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44 Oil Reservoirs Bifurcation Analysis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Fractal Characterization Approach of Makelekese MS-25 Field

Authors: Leonard Mike McNelly Longwa, Divine Kusosa Musiku, Dieudonne Nahum Kabeya

Abstract:

In this paper, the bifurcation analysis of oilfields in the Democratic Republic of Congo is presented in order to enhance petroleum production in an intense tectonic evolution characterized by distinct compressive and extensive phases and the digenetic transformation in the reservoirs during burial geological configuration. The use of porous media in the Makelekese MS-25 field has been established to simulate the boundaries within 3 sedimentary basins open to exploration including the coastal basin with an area of 5992 km², a central basin with an area of 800,000 km², the western branch of the East African Rift in which there are 50,000 km². The fractal characterization of complex hydro-dynamic fractures in oilfields is developed to facilitate the oil production process based on the reservoirs bifurcation model.

Keywords: reservoir bifurcation, fractal characterization, permeability, conductivity, skin effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
43 Measuring Banking Risk

Authors: Mike Tsionas

Abstract:

The paper develops new indices of financial stability based on an explicit model of expected utility maximization by financial institutions subject to the classical technology restrictions of neoclassical production theory. The model can be estimated using standard econometric techniques, like GMM for dynamic panel data and latent factor analysis for the estimation of co-variance matrices. An explicit functional form for the utility function is not needed and we show how measures of risk aversion and prudence (downside risk aversion) can be derived and estimated from the model. The model is estimated using data for Eurozone countries and we focus particularly on (i) the use of the modeling approach as an “early warning mechanism”, (ii) the bank- and country-specific estimates of risk aversion and prudence (downside risk aversion), and (iii) the derivation of a generalized measure of risk that relies on loan-price uncertainty.

Keywords: financial stability, banking, expected utility maximization, sub-prime crisis, financial crisis, eurozone, PIIGS

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42 Numerical Modeling of Waves and Currents by Using a Hydro-Sedimentary Model

Authors: Mustapha Kamel Mihoubi, Hocine Dahmani

Abstract:

Over recent years much progress has been achieved in the fields of numerical modeling shoreline processes: waves, currents, waves and current. However, there are still some problems in the existing models to link the on the first, the hydrodynamics of waves and currents and secondly, the sediment transport processes and due to the variability in time, space and interaction and the simultaneous action of wave-current near the shore. This paper is the establishment of a numerical modeling to forecast the sediment transport from development scenarios of harbor structure. It is established on the basis of a numerical simulation of a water-sediment model via a 2D model using a set of codes calculation MIKE 21-DHI software. This is to examine the effect of the sediment transport drivers following the dominant incident wave in the direction to pass input harbor work under different variants planning studies to find the technical and economic limitations to the sediment transport and protection of the harbor structure optimum solution.

Keywords: swell, current, radiation, stress, mesh, mike21, sediment

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41 Pre-Soaking Application of Salicylic Acid on Four Wheat Cultivars under Saline Concentrations

Authors: Saad M. Howladar, Mike Dennett

Abstract:

The effect of salinity (0-200 mMNaCl) on wheat growth (leaf and tiller numbers, and fresh and dry weights) underseed soaking (6 and 24 hs) insalicylic acid (SA) was investigated. The impact of salinity was less pronounced in salt tolerant cultivars (Sakha 93 and S24) than Paragon and S24. Chlorophyll content was increased as a response to salinity stress. It was raised in 100 mMNaCl more than 200 mMNaCl. The same trend was found in 24 hs soaking, except chlorophyll content in Paragon and S24 under 200 mMNaCl was more than 100 mMNaCl. SA application induced a positive effect on growth parameters in some cultivars, particularly Paragon under saline and non-saline condition. Soaking for 6 hs was more effective than 24 hs soaking, especially in Paragon and Sakha 93. SA supply caused a slight effect on chlorophyll content but this was not significant and there was no significant difference between both soaking hs. The effect of SA on growth parameters and chlorophyll content depends on cultivar genotype and SA concentration.

Keywords: salinity, salicylic acid, growth parameters, chlorophyll content, wheat cultivars

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40 Effect of Pre-treatment with Salicylic Acid on Vegetative Growth and Yield Components of Wheat under Salinity

Authors: Saad M. Howladar, Mike Dennett

Abstract:

At first harvest, results showed that salinity (tap water, 100 and 200 mM NaCl) induced a significant decrease in all growth parameters in both Yecora Rojo and Paragon cultivars. The greatest effect of salinity was a decrease in leaf area. The same tendency was observed with specific leaf area, and total fresh and dry weights and their components. Green leaf and tiller numbers were reduced by the same extent in both cultivars. The corresponding final harvest, all growth parameters also reduced with increased salinity. Yield and yield components were also reduced by salinity with similar effects in both cultivars. Chlorophyll fluorescence, expressed as Fv/Fm, and gas exchange parameters were decreased significantly with increase in salinity in both cultivars. In contrast, seed protein content was increased significantly with increase in salinity. Salicylic acid (SA) application induced no significant improvements in growth parameters and yield components.

Keywords: salinity, salicylic acid, growth, chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange, yield

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39 Effect of Pre-Treatment with Salicylic Acid on Vegetative Growth and Yield Components of Saudi’s Wheat under Salinity

Authors: Saad Howladar, Mike Dennett

Abstract:

At first harvest, results showed that salinity (tap water, 100 and 200 mM NaCl) induced a significant decrease in all growth parameters in both Yecora Rojo and Paragon cultivars. The greatest effect of salinity was a decrease in leaf area. The same tendency was observed with specific leaf area, and total fresh and dry weights and their components. Green leaf and tiller numbers were reduced by the same extent in both cultivars. The corresponding final harvest, all growth parameters also reduced with increased salinity. Yield and yield components were also reduced by salinity with similar effects in both cultivars. Chlorophyll fluorescence, expressed as Fv/Fm, and gas exchange parameters were decreased significantly with increase in salinity in both cultivars. In contrast, seed protein content was increased significantly with increase in salinity. Salicylic acid (SA) application induced no significant improvements in growth parameters and yield components.

Keywords: salinity, salicylic acid, growth, chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
38 Integrating Individual and Structural Health Risk: A Social Identity Perspective on the HIV/AIDS Pandemic in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Orla Muldoon, Tamaryn Nicolson, Mike Quayle, Aisling O'Donnell

Abstract:

Psychology most often considers the role of experience and behaviour in shaping health at the individual level. On the other hand epidemiology has long considered risk at the wider group or structural level. Here we use the social identity approach to integrate group-level risk with individual level behaviour. Using a social identity approach we demonstrate that group or macro-level factors impact implicitly and profoundly in everyday ways at the level of individuals, via social identities. We illustrate how identities related to race, gender and inequality intersect to affect HIV/AIDS risk and AIDS treatment behaviours; how social identity processes drive stigmatising consequences of HIV and AIDS, and promote positive and effective interventions. We conclude by arguing that the social identity approach offers the field an explanatory framework that conceptualizes how social and political forces intersect with individual identity and agency to affect human health.

Keywords: social identity approach, HIV/AIDS, Africa, HIV risk, race, gender

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37 Being ‘Sciencey’: Scottish, South-Asian and Muslim Young People

Authors: Saima Salehjee, Mike Watts

Abstract:

In our school-based world, we are commonly confronted by young people for whom the study of science is an unpalatable ‘other world’: they simply do not see themselves as science (sciencey) people. To be clear, we are not interested in all young people becoming career scientists – although some small modicum of that would be quite agreeable. We are, though, keen to form or transform (trans(form)) their appreciations of science and retain open minds on matters scientific to develop the feeling of being ‘sciencey’ with or without the aspiration of becoming scientists. Our discussion in this paper draws upon research undertaken in a co-education primary- and lower-secondary school in Scotland, and our arguments chart the trans(formations) of thirty under-representative and under-researched Scottish South-Asian Muslim students (aged 11-13) over a school term. We use science identity theory as the basis for our analysis: what it means to be ‘sciencey’ and whether (or not) structural forces have impacted their decision of being ‘sciencey’. This work offers new insights into how Scottish, South-Asian, and Muslim students perceive and engage with in and out of school science and highlight some science nudges aimed to support their development of being ‘sciencey’.

Keywords: science identity, science nudges, transformative moments, south-Asian, Muslim, scottish, sciencey

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
36 Climate Change and Food Security: Effects of Ozone on Crops in North-West Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Nauman Ahmad, Patrick Büker, Sofia Khalid, Leon Van Den Berg, Hamid Ullah Shah, Abdul Wahid, Lisa Emberson, Sally A. Power, Mike Ashmore

Abstract:

Although ozone is well-documented to affect crop yields in the densely populated Indo-Gangetic Plain, there is little knowledge of its effects around cities in more remote areas of South Asia. We surveyed crops around the city of Peshawar, Pakistan for visible injury, linking this to passive measurements of ozone concentrations. Foliar injury was found in the field on potato, onion and cotton when the mean monthly ozone concentration reached 35-55ppb. The symptoms on onion were reproduced in ozone fumigation experiments, which also showed that daytime ozone concentrations of 60ppb and above significantly reduce the growth of Pakistani varieties of both spinach (Beta vulgaris) and onion. Aphid infestation on spinach was also reduced at these elevated ozone concentrations. The ozone concentrations in Peshawar are comparable to those through many parts of northern south Asia, where ozone may therefore be a significant threat to sensitive vegetable crops in peri-urban regions.

Keywords: ozone, air pollution, vegetable crops, peshawar, south asia

Procedia PDF Downloads 607
35 Antifungal Nature of Bacillus Subtilis in Controlling Post Harvest Fungal Rot of Yam

Authors: Ifueko Oghogho Ukponmwan, Mike O. Orji

Abstract:

This study investigated the antifungal activity of Bacilluss subtilis in the control of postharvest fungal rot of white yam (Dioscorea spp). Bacillus subtilis was isolated from the soil and fungi (Aspergillus spp, Mucor and yeasts) were isolated from rotten yam. The organisms were paired in yam nutrient agar (YNA) and yam Sabourraud dextrose agar media. In the yam dextrose agar media (YSDA) plates, the Bacillus grew rapidly and established itself and restricted the growth of the fungi organisms, but there was no zone of inhibition. This behaviour of Bacillus on the plates of YSDA was also observed in the yams where the fungi caused rot but the rot was suppressed by the presence of the Bacillus as compared to the degree of rot observed in the control that had only spoilage fungi. The control yam showed greater rot than other yams that contained a combination of Bacillus and fungi. The t-Test analysis showed that the difference in the rot between the treated samples and the control sample is significant and this implies that the presence of Bacillus significantly reduced the growth of fungi in the samples (yams). It was revealed from this study that Bacillus subtilis treatment can be successfully used to preserve white yams in storage. Its fast growth and early establishment in the sample accounts for its antifungal strength.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis, rot, fungi, yam

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
34 An Analysis of Innovative Cloud Model as Bridging the Gap between Physical and Virtualized Business Environments: The Customer Perspective

Authors: Asim Majeed, Rehan Bhana, Mak Sharma, Rebecca Goode, Nizam Bolia, Mike Lloyd-Williams

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate and explore the underlying causes of security concerns of customers emerged when WHSmith transformed its physical system to virtualized business model through NetSuite. NetSuite is essentially fully integrated software which helps transforming the physical system to virtualized business model. Modern organisations are moving away from traditional business models to cloud based models and consequently it is expected to have a better, secure and innovative environment for customers. The vital issue of the modern age race is the security when transforming virtualized through cloud based models and designers of interactive systems often misunderstand privacy and even often ignore it, thus causing concerns for users. The content analysis approach is being used to collect the qualitative data from 120 online bloggers including TRUSTPILOT. The results and finding provide useful new insights into the nature and form of security concerns of online users after they have used the WHSmith services offered online through their website. Findings have theoretical as well as practical implications for the successful adoption of cloud computing Business-to-Business model and similar systems.

Keywords: innovation, virtualization, cloud computing, organizational flexibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
33 First 1000 Days of Life: Mothers' Economic Hardship of Caring for Their Babies

Authors: Athena Pedro, Laura Bradfield, Mike Dare, Zandile Bantwana, Ashley Nayman

Abstract:

The purpose of the research was to explore mother’s unique experience and knowledge of mothering in the first 1000 day of their child’s life, from birth to age 2. The study used a qualitative research methodology with an exploratory research design. A sample of 12 mothers was used, comprising different racial backgrounds from low income areas in the Western Cape. The data was collected by means of semi-structured, in-depth interviews, which were transcribed verbatim, analysed using Braun’s and Clark’s (2006) six phases of thematic analysis. Some of the findings revealed that the mothers who participated in the study were consistently unable to feed their children and themselves due to profound and extreme situations of poverty, stress, and lack of infrastructural support. These mothers residing in low-income communities are not adequately supported both financially and socially and are often unable to meet the needs of their infants within the first 1000 days. Given the consequential nature of this period, it is imperative that mothers are able to access such support. Single mothers especially are in need of social and financial support. Appropriate interventions are required to assist mothers generally but more specifically, mothers who have children within the first 1000 days of life. By implementing appropriate interventions to address these needs, it will assist mothers to ensure optimal developmental growth of their children. This will positively impact the developmental trajectory of children in South Africa.

Keywords: caring, economic hardship, first one thousand days, mothers

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
32 Natural Fibre Composite Structural Sections for Residential Stud Wall Applications

Authors: Mike R. Bambach

Abstract:

Increasing awareness of environmental concerns is leading a drive towards more sustainable structural products for the built environment. Natural fibres such as flax, jute and hemp have recently been considered for fibre-resin composites, with a major motivation for their implementation being their notable sustainability attributes. While recent decades have seen substantial interest in the use of such natural fibres in composite materials, much of this research has focused on the materials aspects, including fibre processing techniques, composite fabrication methodologies, matrix materials and their effects on the mechanical properties. The present study experimentally investigates the compression strength of structural channel sections of flax, jute and hemp, with a particular focus on their suitability for residential stud wall applications. The section geometry is optimised for maximum strength via the introduction of complex stiffeners in the webs and flanges. Experimental results on both natural fibre composite channel sections and typical steel and timber residential wall studs are compared. The geometrically optimised natural fibre composite channels are shown to have compression capacities suitable for residential wall stud applications, identifying them as a potentially viable alternative to traditional building materials in such application, and potentially other light structural applications.

Keywords: channel sections, natural fibre composites, residential stud walls, structural composites

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
31 Integration from Laboratory to Industrialization for Hybrid Printed Electronics

Authors: Ahmed Moulay, Mariia Zhuldybina, Mirko Torres, Mike Rozel, Ngoc Duc Trinh, Chloé Bois

Abstract:

Hybrid printed electronics technology (HPE) provides innovative opportunities to enhance conventional electronics applications, which are often based on printed circuit boards (PCB). By combining the best of both performance from conventional electronic components and the flexibility from printed circuits makes it possible to manufacture HPE at high volumes using roll-to-roll printing processes. However, several challenges must be overcome in order to accurately integrate an electronic component on a printed circuit. In this presentation, we will demonstrate the integration process of electronic components from the lab scale to the industrialization. Both the printing quality and the integration technique must be studied to define the optimal conditions. To cover the parameters that influence the print quality of the printed circuit, different printing processes, flexible substrates, and conductive inks will be used to determine the optimized printing process/ink/substrate system. After the systems is selected, an electronic component of 2.5 mm2 chip size will be integrated to validate the functionality of the printed, electronic circuit. Critical information such as the conductive adhesive, the curing conditions, and the chip encapsulation will be determined. Thanks to these preliminary results, we are able to demonstrate the chip integration on a printed circuit using industrial equipment, showing the potential of industrialization, compatible using roll-to-roll printing and integrating processes.

Keywords: flat bed screen-printing, hybrid printed electronics, integration, large-scale production, roll-to-roll printing, rotary screen printing

Procedia PDF Downloads 88