Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 474

Search results for: nutrition

474 Effective Nutrition Label Use on Smartphones

Authors: Vladimir Kulyukin, Tanwir Zaman, Sarat Kiran Andhavarapu

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Research on nutrition label use identifies four factors that impede comprehension and retention of nutrition information by consumers: label’s location on the package, presentation of information within the label, label’s surface size, and surrounding visual clutter. In this paper, a system is presented that makes nutrition label use more effective for nutrition information comprehension and retention. The system’s front end is a smartphone application. The system’s back end is a four node Linux cluster for image recognition and data storage. Image frames captured on the smartphone are sent to the back end for skewed or aligned barcode recognition. When barcodes are recognized, corresponding nutrition labels are retrieved from a cloud database and presented to the user on the smartphone’s touchscreen. Each displayed nutrition label is positioned centrally on the touchscreen with no surrounding visual clutter. Wikipedia links to important nutrition terms are embedded to improve comprehension and retention of nutrition information. Standard touch gestures (e.g., zoom in/out) available on mainstream smartphones are used to manipulate the label’s surface size. The nutrition label database currently includes 200,000 nutrition labels compiled from public web sites by a custom crawler. Stress test experiments with the node cluster are presented. Implications for proactive nutrition management and food policy are discussed.

Keywords: mobile computing, cloud computing, nutrition label use, nutrition management, barcode scanning

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473 Information Processing and Visual Attention: An Eye Tracking Study on Nutrition Labels

Authors: Rosa Hendijani, Amir Ghadimi Herfeh

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Nutrition labels are diet-related health policies. They help individuals improve food-choice decisions and reduce intake of calories and unhealthy food elements, like cholesterol. However, many individuals do not pay attention to nutrition labels or fail to appropriately understand them. According to the literature, thinking and cognitive styles can have significant effects on attention to nutrition labels. According to the author's knowledge, the effect of global/local processing on attention to nutrition labels have not been previously studied. Global/local processing encourages individuals to attend to the whole/specific parts of an object and can have a significant impact on people's visual attention. In this study, this effect was examined with an experimental design using the eye-tracking technique. The research hypothesis was that individuals with local processing would pay more attention to nutrition labels, including nutrition tables and traffic lights. An experiment was designed with two conditions: global and local information processing. Forty participants were randomly assigned to either global or local conditions, and their processing style was manipulated accordingly. Results supported the hypothesis for nutrition tables but not for traffic lights.

Keywords: eye-tracking, nutrition labelling, global/local information processing, individual differences

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472 Effects of Maternal Nutrition at Different Stages of Pregnancy in Bali Cows on Growth Performance of the Offspring to Weaning

Authors: D. P. Rahardja, A. L. Toleng, M. Yusuf

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The objective of this study was to investigate the life-long effect of in utero nutrition fed at different stages of pregnancy in Bali cows (n = 40): (U1) without in utero nutrition (0 – parturition, negative control); (U2) 0 – 90 d of gestation; (U3) 90 - 180 d of gestation; (U4) 180 d – parturition; and (U5) in utero nutrition along gestation period (0 d to parturition – positive control) on the growth performance of the offspring to weaning age. The results indicated that effect of maternal nutrition on male and female offspring were particularly indicated by the growth performance of both the male and female offspring from birth to weaning.

Keywords: Bali cows, birth weight, maternal nutrition, pre-weaning daily gain, weaning weight

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471 Investigation of Supply and Demand Trends in Diabetes Nutrition Counseling

Authors: Maedeh Gharazi

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Distinguishing proof of entrepreneurial open doors in the field of nutrition counseling is a focal issue in utilizing nutrition experts and addressing the needs of patients with chronic diseases better. To this end, this review has been directed keeping in mind the end goal to investigate the supply and interest patterns of diabetes sustenance advising as a fundamental stride toward recognizing the entrepreneurial open doors for nutrition advisors in Tehran, Iran. To execute this expressive overview concentrate on, a survey in light of Likert scale was sent via email to 100 dynamic experts in the field of nutrition counseling services in Tehran, of whom 52 reacted to its inquiries. At that point, the mean estimations of members' reactions were ascertained utilizing SPSS programming and contrasted to each other. The outcome acquired in view of members' reactions uncovered that the requirement for "healthful guiding as a treatment group" was basically not met in diverse age, training and salary gatherings of diabetic patients. Along these lines, nutrition counseling as a treatment group can be considered as a suitable field for entrepreneurial exercises.

Keywords: nutrition counseling, chronic diseases, diabetes, likert scale, SPSS programming

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470 A Review on the Importance of Nursing Approaches in Nutrition of Children with Cancer

Authors: Ş. Çiftcioğlu, E. Efe

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In recent years, cancer has been at the top of diseases that cause death in children. Adequate and balanced nutrition plays an important role in the treatment of cancer. Cancer and cancer treatment is affecting food intake, absorption and metabolism, causing nutritional disorders. Appropriate nutrition is very important for the cancerous child to feel well before, during and after the treatment. There are various difficulties in feeding children with cancer. These are the cancer-related factors. Other factors are environmental and behavioral. As health professionals who spend more time with children in the hospital, nurses should be able to support the children on nutrition and help them to have balanced nutrition. This study aimed to evaluate the importance of nursing approaches in the nutrition of children with cancer. This article is planned as a review article by searching the literature on this field. Anorexia may develop due to psychogenic causes or chemotherapeutic agents or accompanying infections and nutrient uptake may be reduced.  In addition, stomatitis, mucositis, taste and odor changes in the mouth, the feeling of nausea, vomiting and diarrhea can also reduce oral intake and result in significant losses in the energy deficit. In assessing the nutritional status of children with cancer, determining weight loss and good nutrition is essential anamnesis of a child.  Some anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests should be used to evaluate the nutrition of the child. The nutritional status of pediatric cancer patients has been studied for a long time and malnutrition, in particular under nutrition, in this population has long been recognized. Yet, its management remains variable with many malnourished children going unrecognized and consequently untreated. Nutritional support is important to pediatric cancer patients and should be integrated into the overall treatment of these children.

Keywords: cancer treatment, children, complication, nutrition, nursing approaches

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469 Influence of Parent’s Food Habits on Nutrition Behaviours of Children under 7 Years in Tehran, Iran

Authors: Katayoun Bagheri, Farzad Berahmandpour

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Several studies about food habits in diverse population show, early living years play significant role in building of current food habits. Suitable nutrition in children is also influenced by parent’s food habits. The aim of study is to survey the role of parent’s food habits to form of nutrition behaviours in children under 7 years in Tehran - Iran. The study is a Descriptive study. The participants were 19 children under 7 years with their mothers from a kindergarten in the central Tehran. The sampling method was random sampling. The data was collected by food habits questionnaires and implementation of consultation meetings with the mothers. The data analysis was qualitative analysis. The findings show that 79% children and their parents have eaten enough and variety breakfast, but food choices of children were depended on food choices of parents. In the other meals, the majority of children enjoyed to eat dinner (58%), because the more families could eat dinner together. According to mother opinions, the children enjoy eating macaroni, chicken, fried potatoes, chips and fruit juices. The researchers argue that mother’s role is unavoidable in the food preferences among children. Fortunately, the results believe that children tend to drink simple milk (79%). Moreover, their parents lead them to chocolate milk consumption (42%) instead of other flavored milk. Finally, despite popular belief claim that mothers influence on nutrition behavior of children, but the study argues that the fathers have more effects on children’s nutrition behaviours. In conclusion, it seems that the general trainings about promoting healthy nutrition behavior for parents by mass media can improve nutrition habits and behaviours of pre school children.

Keywords: food habits, parents, nutrition behaviours, children, promoting nutrition

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468 Effective and Innovative Health Promotion Interventions for Promoting Life-Long Opportunities through Better Health and Nutrition Beginning from Early Childhood

Authors: Nadeesha Sewwandi, Dilini Shashikala, Rajarathnam Kanapathy, Shivakumaran Viyasan, Saman Kumara, Duminda Guruge

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Introduction: Nutrition is fundamental for good health and development during the early years of life. This study describes how rural community does interventions for improving the nutrition and health of children less than 5 year ages using health promotion approach and this study was conducted with children society and mothers groups in a rural village called Welankulama in Sri Lanka. Methodology: The details got from Public Health Midwife in this village showed there were malnourished children under 5 years age. So, we discussed this problem with the children society, mothers groups and identified the determinants with them. Then they wanted to address some of the determinants that they prioritized from their discussions. ‘Evening school’ was a new place to this village to do collective feeding for small children. ‘Mobile library’ was another new concept in this village and nutrition books, evidence collection were there to read for villagers. Mothers marked the foods given to their kids in a book called ‘Nutrition book’. And also mothers tend to mark the level of eating foods to motivate their children in a ‘Hapana calendar’. Results: In terms of results, malnourished children under 5 years age got reduced and the number of children having illnesses got reduced. Marking nutrition book and ‘Hapana calendar’ were become as trend among mothers. Apart from the above, there was good improvement of physical, social and emotional wellbeing of children. Children who received early stimulation with nutrition supplements had better outcomes than children who only received nutrition supplements, thereby amplifying the impact of nutrition. Conclusion: Health promotion interventions are helped to change nutritional behaviors of early childhood in rural community and it makes children healthier and better able to learn.

Keywords: early childhood, nutrition, determinants, health promotion process

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467 Design of an Automatic Bovine Feeding Machine

Authors: Huseyin A. Yavasoglu, Yusuf Ziya Tengiz, Ali Göksenli

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In this study, an automatic feeding machine for different type and class of bovine animals is designed. Daily nutrition of a bovine consists of grass, corn, straw, silage, oat, wheat and different vitamins and minerals. The amount and mixture amount of each of the nutrition depends on different parameters of the bovine. These parameters are; age, sex, weight and maternity of the bovine, also outside temperature. The problem in a farm is to constitute the correct mixture and amount of nutrition for each animal. Faulty nutrition will cause an insufficient feeding of the animal concluding in an unhealthy bovine. To solve this problem, a new automatic feeding machine is designed. Travelling of the machine is performed by four tires, which is pulled by a tractor. The carrier consists of eight bins, which each of them carries a nutrition type. Capacity of each unit is 250 kg. At the bottom of each chamber is a sensor measuring the weight of the food inside. A funnel is at the bottom of each chamber by which open/close function is controlled by a valve. Each animal will carry a RFID tag including ID on its ear. A receiver on the feeding machine will read this ID and by given previous information by the operator (veterinarian), the system will detect the amount of each nutrition unit which will be given to the selected animal for feeding. In the system, each bin will open its exit gate by the help of the valve under the control of PLC (Programmable Logic Controller). The amount of each nutrition type will be controlled by measuring the open/close time. The exit canals of the bins are collected in a reservoir. To achieve a homogenous nitration, the collected feed will be mixed by a worm gear. Further the mixture will be transported by a help of a funnel to the feeding unit of the animal. The feeding process can be performed in 100 seconds. After feeding of the animal, the tractor pulls the travelling machine to the next animal. By the help of this system animals can be feeded by right amount and mixture of nutrition

Keywords: bovine, feeding, nutrition, transportation, automatic

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466 The Phenomenon of Nutrition as a 'Trading Zone' Approach in the Paradigm Shift between Humoral Theory and Modern Medicine

Authors: Dilay Merve Temur

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How knowledge is produced and how scientific knowledge progress are questions that science philosophers have investigated for centuries. When the scientific and technological developments reached the 20th century, Kuhn proposed a completely new view among all the approaches. In this article, firstly, Kuhn's theory is represented. Secondly, the criticisms of Kuhn's theory directed to him are examined, and Galison's proposal for the trade area term of the incommensurability thesis is shared. The interaction of Humoral Theory with nutrition has been illustrated extensively, and the transition to modern medicine has been described historically by including scientific and technological developments in the field of medicine. This paper will seek to see how the concept of nutrition is positioned as a trading zone within the medicine paradigm, which has experienced a revolution within the framework of the paradigm concept introduced by Kuhn.

Keywords: food studies, incommensurability, nutrition and dietetics, trading zone

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465 Nutrition Budgets in Uganda: Research to Inform Implementation

Authors: Alexis D'Agostino, Amanda Pomeroy

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Background: Resource availability is essential to effective implementation of national nutrition policies. To this end, the SPRING Project has collected and analyzed budget data from government ministries in Uganda, international donors, and other nutrition implementers to provide data for the first time on what funding is actually allocated to implement nutrition activities named in the national nutrition plan. Methodology: USAID’s SPRING Project used the Uganda Nutrition Action Plan (UNAP) as the starting point for budget analysis. Thorough desk reviews of public budgets from government, donors, and NGOs were mapped to activities named in the UNAP and validated by key informants (KIs) across the stakeholder groups. By relying on nationally-recognized and locally-created documents, SPRING provided a familiar basis for discussions to increase credibility and local ownership of findings. Among other things, the KIs validated the amount, source, and type (specific or sensitive) of funding. When only high-level budget data were available, KIs provided rough estimates of the percentage of allocations that were actually nutrition-relevant, allowing creation of confidence intervals around some funding estimates. Results: After validating data and narrowing in on estimates of funding to nutrition-relevant programming, researchers applied a formula to estimate overall nutrition allocations. In line with guidance by the SUN Movement and its three-step process, nutrition-specific funding was counted at 100% of its allocation amount, while nutrition sensitive funding was counted at 25%. The vast majority of nutrition funding in Uganda is off-budget, with over 90 percent of all nutrition funding is provided outside of the government system. Overall allocations are split nearly evenly between nutrition-specific and –sensitive activities. In FY 2013/14, the two-year study’s baseline year, on- and off-budget funding for nutrition was estimated to be around 60 million USD. While the 60 million USD allocations compare favorably to the 66 million USD estimate of the cost of the UNAP, not all activities are sufficiently funded. Those activities with a focus on behavior change were the most underfunded. In addition, accompanying qualitative research suggested that donor funding for nutrition activities may shift government funding into other areas of work, making it difficult to estimate the sustainability of current nutrition investments.Conclusions: Beyond providing figures, these estimates can be used together with the qualitative results of the study to explain how and why these amounts were allocated for particular activities and not others, examine the negotiation process that occurred, and suggest options for improving the flow of finances to UNAP activities for the remainder of the policy tenure. By the end of the PBN study, several years of nutrition budget estimates will be available to compare changes in funding over time. Halfway through SPRING’s work, there is evidence that country stakeholders have begun to feel ownership over the ultimate findings and some ministries are requesting increased technical assistance in nutrition budgeting. Ultimately, these data can be used within organization to advocate for more and improved nutrition funding and to improve targeting of nutrition allocations.

Keywords: budget, nutrition, financing, scale-up

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464 Nutrition Role in the Management of Psychiatric Disorders

Authors: Abeer Mohammed, Nevein Mustafa Elashery, Mona Hassan Abdel Aal, Ereny Wilson Nagib

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The Aim of the current study is to investigate nutrition role in the management of psychiatric disorders. Research Design: A quasi- experimental research design was utilized for this study. Setting The study was conducted at outpatient clinic at Institute of Psychiatry affiliated to Ain Shams University hospitals, using a convenient sample of 50 psychiatric patients with depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders. Tools: data were collected through; first, an interview questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics, second, nutrition assessment tools Third, nutrition risk assessment. Fourth, nutrition management program Results showed that there were highly statistically significant improvements in modified nutritional supplements for patients with depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders' patients after conducting the nutrition management program. Regarding psychiatric patients’ knowledge about healthy food, healthy nutritional habits, and patients’ awareness & readiness for change, there were highly statistically significant improvements. Concerning signs and symptoms of psychiatric disorders, there were highly statistically significant improvements for depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and obsessive-compulsive patients after conducting the management program. In conclusion, the nutrition management program was effective in improving symptoms associated with, depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders. The study recommended that nurses should have more contribution in counseling psychiatric patients, and their families about healthy diet and healthy habits. Further research should recommend studying the effectiveness of herbs on enhancing mental health for psychiatric patients.

Keywords: nutrition, role, management, psychiatric disorders

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463 Nutrition Program Planning Based on Local Resources in Urban Fringe Areas of a Developing Country

Authors: Oktia Woro Kasmini Handayani, Bambang Budi Raharjo, Efa Nugroho, Bertakalswa Hermawati

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Obesity prevalence and severe malnutrition in Indonesia has increased from 2007 to 2013. The utilization of local resources in nutritional program planning can be used to program efficiency and to reach the goal. The aim of this research is to plan a nutrition program based on local resources for urban fringe areas in a developing country. This research used a qualitative approach, with a focus on local resources including social capital, social system, cultural system. The study was conducted in Mijen, Central Java, as one of the urban fringe areas in Indonesia. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques are used to determine participants. A total of 16 participants took part in the study. Observation, interviews, focus group discussion, SWOT analysis, brainstorming and Miles and Huberman models were used to analyze the data. We have identified several local resources, such as the contributions from nutrition cadres, social organizations, social financial resources, as well as the cultural system and social system. The outstanding contribution of nutrition cadres is the participation and creativity to improve nutritional status. In addition, social organizations, like the role of the integrated health center for children (Pos Pelayanan Terpadu), can be engaged in the nutrition program planning. This center is supported by House of Nutrition to assist in nutrition program planning, and provide social support to families, neighbors and communities as social capitals. The study also reported that cultural systems that show appreciation for well-nourished children are a better way to improve the problem of balanced nutrition. Social systems such as teamwork and mutual cooperation can also be a potential resource to support nutritional programs and overcome associated problems. The impact of development in urban areas such as the introduction of more green areas which improve the perceived status of local people, as well as new health services facilitated by people and companies, can also be resources to support nutrition programs. Local resources in urban fringe areas can be used in the planning of nutrition programs. The expansion of partnership with all stakeholders, empowering the community through optimizing the roles of nutrition care centers for children as our recommendation with regard to nutrition program planning.

Keywords: developing country, local resources, nutrition program, urban fringe

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462 The Magnification of Early Detect Nutrition Case through Local Potential Utilization in Urban Region, Indonesia

Authors: Oktia Woro Kasmini Handayani, Sri Ratna Rahayu, Efa Nugroho, Bertakalswa Hermawati

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The double burden of nutrition problem must be faced by Indonesia as developing country. The implemented program did not improve the nutritional status, therefore need to consider to utilize local potential. The objective of this research was to find out the effectivity of magnification model of early detect through local potential utilization in urban region, Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia. The research used an experimental design with the quantitative-qualitative approach. The population was all toddlers under five within the research region, sample determination by purposive sampling, as many as 216 toddlers. Quantitative data analysis used effectively criteria by Sugiono. Qualitative data was analyzed using NVivo. The optimization of local potential in the effort of nutrition status improvement shows number of nutrition case found was increased 225% (very effective), number of cases treated was increased 175% (very effective), number of cases counselled was increased 200% (effective), and number of cases that have improvement increase 75% (effective). The local potential need to be utilized in the effort of nutrition program improvement one of it is through the community empowerment, particularly health care and health high education institution as partner.

Keywords: early detection, nutrition status, local potential, health cadre

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461 Study of the Influence of Non Genetic Factors Affecting over Nutrition Students in Ayutthaya Province, Thailand

Authors: Thananyada Buapian

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Overnutrition is emerging as a morbid disease in developing and Westernized countries. Because of its comorbidity diseases, it is cost-effective to prevent and manage this disease earlier. In Thailand, this alarming disease has long been studied, but the prevalence is still higher than that in the past. Physicians should recognize it well and have a definite direction to face and combat this dangerous disease. Rapid changes in the tremendous figure of overnutrition students indicate that genetic factors are not the primary determinants since human genes have remained unchanged for a century. This study aims to assess the prevalence of overnutrition students and to investigate the non-genetic factors affecting over nutrition students. A cross-sectional school-based survey was conducted. A two-stage sampling was adopted. Respondents included 1,850 students in grades 4 to 6 in Ayutthaya Province. An anthropometric measurement and questionnaire were developed. Childhood over nutrition was defined as a weight-for-height Z-score above +2SD of NCHS/WHO references. About thirty three percent of the children were over nutrition in Ayutthaya province. Stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis showed that 8 statistically significant non genetic factors explain the variation of childhood over nutrition by 18 percent. Sex is the prime factor to explain the variation of childhood over nutrition, followed by duration of light physical activities, duration of moderate physical activities, having been breastfed, the presence of a healthy role model of the caregiver, number of siblings, birth order, and occupation of the caregiver, respectively. Non genetic factors, especially the subjects’ demographic and physical activities, as well as the caregivers’ background and family environment, should be considered in viable approach to remedy this health imbalance in children.

Keywords: non genetic factors, non-genetic, over nutrition, over nutrition students

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460 Impact of Financial and Nutrition Support on Blood Health, Dietary Intake, and Well-Being among Female Student-Athletes

Authors: Kaila A. Vento

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Within the field of sports science, financial situations have been reported as a key barrier in purchasing high-quality foods. A lack of proper nutrition leads to insecurities of health, impairs training, and diminishes optimal performances. Consequently, insufficient nutrient intake, disordered eating patterns, and eating disorders may arise, leading to poor health and well-being. Athletic scholarships, nutrition resources, and meal programs are available, yet are disproportionally allocated, favoring male sports, Caucasian athletes, and higher sport levels. Direct athlete finances towards nutrition at various sport levels and the role race influences aid received has yet to be examined. Additionally, a diverse female athlete population is missing in the sports science literature, specifically in nutrition. To address this gap, the current project assesses how financial and nutrition support and nutrition knowledge impacts physical health, dietary intake, and overall quality of life of a diverse sample of female athletes at the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), National Junior Collegiate Athletic Association (NJCAA), and cub sport levels. The project will identify differences in financial support in relation to race, as well. Approximately (N = 120) female athletes will participate in a single 30-minute lab visit. At this visit, body composition (i.e., height, weight, body mass index, and fat percent), blood health indicators (fasted blood glucose and lipids), and resting blood pressure are measured. In addition, three validated questionnaires pertaining to nutrition knowledge (Sports Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire; SNKQ), dietary intake (Rapid Eating Assessment for Participants; REAP), and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief; WHOQL-B) are gathered. Body composition and blood health indicators will be compared with the results of self-reported sports nutrition knowledge, dietary intake, and quality of life questionnaires. It is hypothesized that 1) financial and nutrition support and nutrition knowledge will differ between the sport levels and 2) financial and nutrition support and nutrition knowledge will have a positive association with quality of dietary intake and blood health indicators, 3) financial and nutrition support will differ significantly among racial background across the various competition levels, and 4) dietary intake will influence blood health indicators and quality of life. The findings from this study could have positive implications on athletic associations' policies on equity of financial and nutrition support to improve the health and safety of all female athletes across several sport levels.

Keywords: athlete, equity, finances, health, resources

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459 Transition of Nutrition Style and Obesity: A Kuwaiti Case Study

Authors: Othman Saleh Al-Razgan

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Obesity establishes an epidemic along with an array of comorbidities and this call for careful clinical assessment, to identify causal factors and comprehensive management. In Kuwait, this epidemic reflects the progressive, socio-economic and age-related issues, along with the shift of nutrition from traditional to modern-style. The current research attempts to narrate the obesity and related health issues in Kuwait, with a special emphasis on the magnitude of the issue in Kuwait, nutrition transition over the past three decades, change in life-style, and possible solution for this issue.

Keywords: clinical assessment, comorbidities, obesity, socio-economic

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458 Management of Nutrition Education in Spa Resorts in Poland

Authors: Joanna Wozniak-Holecka, Sylwia Jaruga-Sekowska

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There are 45 statutory spa and treatment areas in Poland, and the demand for spa and treatment services increases year by year. Within each type of spa treatment facilities, nutritional education services are provided. During spa treatment, the patient learns the principles of rational nutrition and applied diet therapy. It should help him develop proper eating habits, which will also follow at home. However, the nutrition education system of spa resort patients should be considered as very imperfect and requiring a definite systemic correction. It has, at the same time, a wide human and infrastructure base, which guarantees to obtain positive reinforcement in the scope of undertaken activities and management. Unfortunately, this advantage is not fully used. The aim of the project was to assess the quality of implemented nutritional education and to assess the diet of patients in spa treatment entities from a nationwide perspective. The material for the study was data obtained as part of an in-depth interview conducted among nutrition department managers (25 interviews) and a survey addressed to patients (600 questionnaires) of a selected group of spa resorts from across the country about the implementation of nutritional education in institutions. Also, decade menus for the basic diet, easily digestible diet and diet with limitation of easily digestible carbohydrates (a total of 1,120 menus) were obtained for the study. Almost 2/3 of respondents (73.2%) were overweight or obese, but only 32.8% decided on an easily digestible or low-energy diet during the treatment. Most of the surveyed patients rated the nutrition in spa resorts as satisfactory. Classes on nutrition education were carried out mainly by a dietitian (65% of meetings), the other educators were doctors and nurses. The meetings (95%) were of a group nature and lasted only 30 minutes on average. The subjects of the classes concerned the principles of proper nutrition and composition of meals, a nutrition pyramid and a diet adapted to a given disease. The assessed menus did not meet the nutrition standards and, therefore, did not provide patients with the correct quality of nutrition. The norm of protein, fat, vitamin A, B12, phosphorus, iron and sodium was exceeded, while vitamin D, folic acid, magnesium and zinc were not enough than recommended. The study allowed to conclude that there is a large discrepancy between the recommendations presented during the nutrition education classes and the quality of diet implemented in the examined institutions. The project may contribute to the development of effective educational tools in nutrition, especially about a specific group of chronically ill patients.

Keywords: diet, management, nutritional education, spa resort

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457 An Extended Model for Sustainable Food and Nutrition Security in the Agrifood Sector

Authors: Ioannis Manikas

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The increased consumer demand for environmentally friendly production and distribution practices and the stricter environmental regulations turned environmental aspects into important criteria in business decision-making. On the other hand, Food and Nutrition Security (FNS) has evolved dramatically during the last decades in theory and practice serving as a reference point for exchanging experiences among all agents involved in programs and projects to fostering policy and strategy development. Global pressures make it more important than ever to gain a better understanding of the contribution that agrifood businesses make to FNS and to examine ways to make them more resilient in an increasingly globalized and uncertain world. This study extends the standard three-dimensional model of sustainability to include two more dimensions: A technological dimension and a policy/political dimension. Apart from the economic, environmental and social dimensions regularly used in sustainability literature, the extended model will accurately represent the measures and policies addressing food and nutrition security.

Keywords: food and nutrition security, sustainability, food safety, resilience

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456 Knowledge and Eating Behavior of Teenage Pregnancy

Authors: Udomporn Yingpaisuk, Premwadee Karuhadej

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The purposed of this research was to study the eating habit of teenage pregnancy and its relationship to the knowledge of nutrition during pregnancy. The 100 samples were derived from simple random sampling technique of the teenage pregnancy in Bangkae District. The questionnaire was used to collect data with the reliability of 0.8. The data were analyzed by SPSS for Windows with multiple regression technique. Percentage, mean and the relationship of knowledge of eating and eating behavior were obtained. The research results revealed that their knowledge in nutrition was at the average of 4.07 and their eating habit that they mentioned most was to refrain from alcohol and caffeine at 82% and the knowledge in nutrition influenced their eating habits at 54% with the statistically significant level of 0.001.

Keywords: teenage pregnancy, knowledge of eating, eating behavior, alcohol, caffeine

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455 Developing the P1-P7 Management and Analysis Software for Thai Child Evaluation (TCE) of Food and Nutrition Status

Authors: S. Damapong, C. Kingkeow, W. Kongnoo, P. Pattapokin, S. Pruenglamphu

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As the presence of Thai children double burden malnutrition, we conducted a project to promote holistic age-appropriate nutrition for Thai children. Researchers developed P1-P7 computer software for managing and analyzing diverse types of collected data. The study objectives were: i) to use software to manage and analyze the collected data, ii) to evaluate the children nutritional status and their caretakers’ nutrition practice to create regulations for improving nutrition. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, called P1-P7. P1, P2 and P5 were for children and caretakers, and others were for institutions. The children nutritional status, height-for-age, weight-for-age, and weight-for-height standards were calculated using Thai child z-score references. Institution evaluations consisted of various standard regulations including the use of our software. The results showed that the software was used in 44 out of 118 communities (37.3%), 57 out of 240 child development centers and nurseries (23.8%), and 105 out of 152 schools (69.1%). No major problems have been reported with the software, although user efficiency can be increased further through additional training. As the result, the P1-P7 software was used to manage and analyze nutritional status, nutrition behavior, and environmental conditions, in order to conduct Thai Child Evaluation (TCE). The software was most widely used in schools. Some aspects of P1-P7’s questionnaires could be modified to increase ease of use and efficiency.

Keywords: P1-P7 software, Thai child evaluation, nutritional status, malnutrition

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454 Corresponding Effect of Mycorhizal fungi and Pistachio on Absorption of Nutrition and Resistance on Salinity in Pistacia vera, L.

Authors: Hamid Mohammadi, S. H. Eftekhar Afzali

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The irregular usage of chemical fertilizer cause different types of water and soil pollution and problems in health of human in past decades and organic fertilizer has been considered more and more. Mycorrhizal fungi have symbiosis with plant families and significantly effect on plant growth. Proper management of these symbiosis causes to reduce the usage of chemical fertilizers and absorb nutrition especially phosphor. Pistacia vera is endemic in Iran and is one of the most important products for this country. Considering special circumstances of pistachio orchards according to increasing salinity of water and soil and mismanagement of fertilizer reveals the necessity of the usage of Mycorrhizal fungi in these orchards.

Keywords: pistachio, mycorhiza, nutrition, salinity

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453 Influence of Facilities, Equipment and Nutrition on Athletes Performance at the West African Universities Games Competitions

Authors: Abdulai Afolabi Ahmed

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The research was undertaken to examine the influence of sports facilities, equipment, and nutrition on athletes' performance in West-Africa Universities Games (WAUG) with the objectives of finding the areas of success and failure. Relevant literatures were reviewed. The survey research design was adopted for the study. Availability of facilities, equipment and nutrition questionnaire (AFENQ) was administered on hundred (n-100) participants - athletes from five Nigerian Universities from South-West, Nigeria which included Federal University of Technology, Akure, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Lagos State University, Oyo, Olabisi Onabanjo University Ago-Awoye and Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti. Nigeria. The tests re-test reliability value obtained from the instrument using Pearson Product Moment Correlation co-efficient of 0.86 was used to analyze the result. While the questionnaire collected was subjected to influential descriptive statistics of multiple regression to analyse the data. The results of the data showed that facilities, equipment, and nutrition variables when taken together effectively predict the performance of the athletes during WAUG competitions. The implication is that sports organizers should provide sports resources for the improved performance of the athletes, and that, university managers should employ nutritionist to plan and prepare food for the university athletes before and after major competitions.

Keywords: athletes, equipment, extramural, influence, nutrition, performance

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452 Implementation of Nutrition Sensitive Agriculture in the Central Province of Zambia

Authors: G. Chipili, J. Msuya

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The Central Province of Zambia contains the majority of the nation’s malnourished children, despite being the most productive province in terms of Agriculture. Most studies in the province have not paid attention to the linkages between agriculture performance and nutrition outcomes of the population. In light of this knowledge gap, this study focused on the linkage between nutrition and agriculture. In 2010 the Ministry of Agriculture in the Central Province while working with Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Education started a pilot project in Kapiri-Mponshi on Orange-fleshed Sweet Potatoes and Orange Maize and educating farmers on the importance of crop diversity. The study assessed the extent to which the small scale farmers are implementing the best practices of nutrition-sensitive agriculture in the Central Province. This study sought to determine the association of crop diversity and nutritional status of children aged 6-59 months in Kapiri-Mposhi district in the Central Province of Zambia. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using a structured questionnaire. A total of 365 households were randomly sampled and the nutritional status of one child from each household assessed using anthropometric measurements. A total of 100 children were included in the study. Up to 21% of the children were stunted; 2% were wasted; and 9% underweight. There was a significant relationship between crops grown in households (ground nuts, maize and mangoes) and Z-scores for stunting (HAZ) and underweight (WAZ) (p< 0.05). This study has established that farmers may not diversify if they have high market demands on the staple.

Keywords: agriculture, crop diversity, children, nutrition

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451 Brilliant Candy Consists of Centella asiatica Extract and Soy Milk to Safe Nutrition Child of Indonesia

Authors: Hesti Ghassani, Tessa Septiadi

Abstract:

In the world we live on today, young generation highly influences the future of a nation. We have to concern that the condition of the country in 20 years later depending by the character of young adults these days. Therefore, it is important that we have to support and control the teenagers especially in one of developing countries in which I live in: Indonesia. Indonesia is a home to 240 million people. It diverse in languages, cultures, as well as attitudes. The differences among each individual lead us to think that there is something we have to take care of. It is necessary to pay attention to the nutrition consumed by the nation. We initiate to control the food consumed by young generation as early as a primary students. Nutrition affects the immune of the body, neuron system, and, most importantly brain. One of the nutrition that has to be fulfilled is milk. However, most of the population in Indonesia isn’t aware of the importance of consuming milk as their daily basis. We’ve formed an innovation called the Brilliant Candy which is affordable and rich in nutrition. So that is why the paper made by literature study to solve the problem with effective ways using available resources, practice and cheap. Brilliant Candy consists of Centella asiatica extract mixed with Soy milk. Centella asiatica contains of alkaloid which give the energy to brain and circulate oxygen. Based on the research of Sathya and Ganga, Centella asiatica can increase the intelligence. Indeed, Centella asiatica can relieve stress, and help us in staying focus. Soy milk is a kind of milk which come from extracted soybean. Soybean is rich in flafonoid. It has various advantages for our body. Which can also support child nutrition consumed. Soybean boosts immune system, helps digestive system, and in terms of food, soy bean exists as a source of nutrition. A method to get extraction of Centella asiatica is namely maserasi using ethanol. While making soybean milk with got the pollen of soybean. Both materials get mixed processed into hard candy with congelation of.

Keywords: Indonesia, Centella asiatica, Soy milk, alkaloid, flafonoid

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450 Effect of Phosphorus and Potassium Nutrition on Growth, Yield and Minerals Accumulation of Two Soybean Cultivars Differing in Phytate Contents

Authors: Taliman Nisar Ahmad, Hirofume Saneoka

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A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) nutrition on grain yield, phytic acid and grain quality of high-phytate (Akimaro) and low-phytate line. Phosphorus and potassium were applied as; P₁ (20 kg ha⁻¹) and P₂ (100 kg ha⁻¹), same as K₁ (20 kg ha⁻¹) and K₂ (100 kg ha⁻¹), respectively. Low-phytate soybean had the highest grain yield, and 75% increase was observed compared to the high-phytate under same treatments. Highly significant differences of seed phytate P were observed in both cultivars, and the phytate P in high-phytate was found 39% higher than low-phytate, whereas no significant differences observed in response to P and K treatment. Percentage of phytate P from total P in seeds was 28 to 35% in low-phytate and 72 to 81% in high-phytate in different treatments. The lipid content in low-phytate was found lowered compared to that of high-phytate. Crude protein in grains was also found significantly higher in PK combined. No significant difference was observed in seed calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and Zinc (Zn) in different treatments, but high-phytate showed 87% increase in seed Ca and 76% of Mg compared to low-phytate; however, low-phytate showed 82% increase in Zn content over high-phytate. The result illustrates that low-phytate soybean achieved higher grain yield and grain Pi in response to increased P and K nutrition. To achieve higher yield and quality seeds from the low-phytate soybean, it is recommended that proper phosphorus and potassium nutrition to be applied suggested in this study.

Keywords: phytic acid, low-phytate soybean, high-phytate soybean, P and K nutrition, protein content, soybean

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449 Maternal Nutrition Supplementation for Improving Progress and Outcome of Pregnancy in a Tribal Block of Maharashtra

Authors: Rajnish Gourh, Nitesh Sharma, Nikhil Patil

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Introduction: Adequate nutrition is essential for improving pregnancy and its outcomes. Failure to comply with the required daily intake of nutrition can lead to complications threatening both mother and child survival. Objectives: To provide access to nutritious diet to mothers in antenatal and post-natal stage for supporting a healthy progressive pregnancy, positive delivery outcome, and lactation and to promote regular consumption of the foods by the mothers and help overcome the dietary gap by nutrition education during pregnancy time. Methodology: Total of 95 ANC mothers were identified from Malvada PHC area, in Palghar district of Maharashtra. This short-term cohort intended for the proposed supplementation and education was targeted for follow-up until birth and six-months of post-natal period. In month of May 2016 to June 2017. Results: Average weight of women was observed 40.01kg, (SD- 5.024) at registered for ANC at Centre in the first month. In same month, average Haemoglobin level of women was observed 9.13gm/dl. Average increase in weight of women during pregnancy in month October 2016 was 48.83kg. Birth weight of 14 babies was less than 2 kgs. 13 babies with birth weight in range of 2.1kgs to 2.4kgs. 68 babies with birth weight in range of 2.5kg to 3kg and above. Conclusion: Importance of consumption of food, improving levels of nutrient intake and outcome of delivery was excellent.

Keywords: delivery status, nutrition, pregnancy, education

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448 Nutrition Intervention for Spinal Cord Injury in Critical Care

Authors: Dina Muharib

Abstract:

Specific metabolic challenges are present following spinal cord injury. The acute stage is characterized by a reduction in metabolic activity, as well as a negative nitrogen balance that cannot be corrected, even with aggressive nutritional support. Metabolic demands need to be accurately monitored to avoid overfeeding. Enteral feeding is the optimal route following SCI. When oral feeding is not possible, nasogastric, followed by nasojejunal, then by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, if necessary, is suggested.

Keywords: SCI, energy, protein, nutrition assessment, eneral feeding, nitrogen balance

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447 A Mixed-Integer Nonlinear Program to Optimally Pace and Fuel Ultramarathons

Authors: Kristopher A. Pruitt, Justin M. Hill

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The purpose of this research is to determine the pacing and nutrition strategies which minimize completion time and carbohydrate intake for athletes competing in ultramarathon races. The model formulation consists of a two-phase optimization. The first-phase mixed-integer nonlinear program (MINLP) determines the minimum completion time subject to the altitude, terrain, and distance of the race, as well as the mass and cardiovascular fitness of the athlete. The second-phase MINLP determines the minimum total carbohydrate intake required for the athlete to achieve the completion time prescribed by the first phase, subject to the flow of carbohydrates through the stomach, liver, and muscles. Consequently, the second phase model provides the optimal pacing and nutrition strategies for a particular athlete for each kilometer of a particular race. Validation of the model results over a wide range of athlete parameters against completion times for real competitive events suggests strong agreement. Additionally, the kilometer-by-kilometer pacing and nutrition strategies, the model prescribes for a particular athlete suggest unconventional approaches could result in lower completion times. Thus, the MINLP provides prescriptive guidance that athletes can leverage when developing pacing and nutrition strategies prior to competing in ultramarathon races. Given the highly-variable topographical characteristics common to many ultramarathon courses and the potential inexperience of many athletes with such courses, the model provides valuable insight to competitors who might otherwise fail to complete the event due to exhaustion or carbohydrate depletion.

Keywords: nutrition, optimization, pacing, ultramarathons

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446 Evaluation of Nutrition Supplement on Body Composition during Catch-Up Growth, in a Pre-Clinical Model of Growth Restriction

Authors: Bindya Jacob

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The aim of the present study was to assess the quality of catchup growth induced by Oral Nutrition Supplement (ONS), in animal model of growth restriction due to under nutrition. Quality of catch-up growth was assessed by proportion of lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass (FM). Young SD rats were food restricted at 70% of normal caloric intake for 4 weeks; and re-fed at 120% of normal caloric intake for 4 weeks. Refeeding diet had 50% calories from animal diet and 50% from ONS formulated for optimal growth. After refeeding, the quantity and quality of catch-up growth were measured including weight, length, LBM and FM. During nutrient restriction, body weight and length of animals was reduced compared to healthy controls. Both LBM and FM were significantly lower than healthy controls (p < 0.001). Refeeding with ONS resulted in increase of weight and length, with significant catch-up growth compared to baseline (p < 0.001). Detailed examination of body composition showed that the catch-up in body weight was due to proportionate increase of LBM and FM, resulting in a final body composition similar to healthy controls. This data supports the use of well-designed ONS for recovery from growth restriction due to under nutrition, and return to normal growth trajectory characterized by normal ratio of lean and fat mass.

Keywords: catch up growth, body composition, nutrient restriction, healthy growth

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445 The Effect of Nutrition Education on Glycemic and Lipidemic Control in Iranian Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Samira Rabiei, Faezeh Askari, Reza Rastmanesh

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Objective: To evaluate the effects of nutrition education and adherence to a healthy diet on glycemic and lipidemic control in patients with T2DM. Material and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 494 patients with T2DM, aged 14-87 years from both sexes who were selected by convenience sampling from referees to Aliebneabitaleb hospital in Ghom. The participants were divided into two 247 person groups by stratified randomization. Both groups received a diet adjusted based on ideal body weight, and the intervention group was additionally educated about healthy food choices regarding diabetes. Information on medications, psychological factors, diet and physical activity was obtained from questionnaires. Blood samples were collected to measure FBS, 2 hPG, HbA1c, cholesterol, and triglyceride. After 2 months, weight and biochemical parameters were measured again. Independent T-test, Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, and Wilcoxon were used as appropriate. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratio of abnormal glycemic and lipidemic control according to the intervention. Results: The mean weight, FBS, 2 hPG, cholesterol and triglyceride after intervention were significantly lower than before that (p < 0.05). Discussion: Nutrition education plus a weigh reducer diet is more effective on glycemic and lipidemic control than a weight reducer diet, alone.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, nutrition education, glycemic control, lipid profile

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