Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 70

Search results for: antidiabetic

70 Condensed Benzo, Pyrido, Pyrimidino-Imidazole Derivatives as Antidiabetic Agents

Authors: Fatima Doganc, Hakan Goker

Abstract:

Benzimidazole moiety is an important pharmacophore and privileged structure for the medicinal chemists, since it exhibits various important biological activities. Some clinically used drugs have benzimidazole moiety, such as omeprazole, astemizole, albendazole and domperidone. 2-(4-tert-Butylphenyl)benzimidazole, is a PGC-1α transcriptional regulator shown to have beneficial effects in diabetic mice. We planned to modify the structure of this compound for developing new antidiabetic drug candidates. Hence, a series of guanidino or amidino, benzo/pyrido/pyrimidino-imidazole derivatives were freshly prepared. Mass, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 2D-NMR spectroscopy techniques were used for the new derivatives to clarify their structures and their purity was controlled through the elemental analysis. Antidiabetic activity studies of the synthesized compounds are under the investigation.

Keywords: antidiabetic agents, benzimidazole, imidazopyridine, imidazopyrimidine

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69 Synthesis, Molecular-Docking, and Biological Evaluation of Thiazolopyrimidine Carboxylates as Potential Antidiabetic and Antibacterial Agents

Authors: Iram Batool, Aamer Saeed, Irfan Zia Qureshi, Ayesha Razzaq, Saima Kalsoom

Abstract:

Heterocyclic compounds analogues and their derivatives have attracted strong interest in medicinal chemistry due to their biological and pharmacological properties. A series of new thiazolopyrimidine carboxylates were conveniently synthesized by one-pot three-component reaction of ethyl acetoacetate, 2-aminothiazole and benzaldehyde substituted with electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups in order to find some more potent antidiabetic and antibacterial drugs. The structures of synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopy. An in vitro antidiabetic effect was evaluated in adult male BALB/c mice and antibacterial activities were tested against Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis, Bordetella bronchiseptica and Escherichia coli. Some of the tested compounds proved to possess good to excellent activities more than the reference drugs. An in silico molecular docking was also performed on synthesized compounds. The current study is expected to provide useful insights into the design of antidiabetic and antibacterial drugs and understanding the mechanism by which such drugs interact with RNA and diabetes target and exert their biochemical action.

Keywords: antidiabetic, antibacterial, MOE docking, thiazolopyrimidine

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68 Cedrela Toona Roxb.: An Exploratory Study Describing Its Antidiabetic Property

Authors: Kinjal H. Shah, Piyush M. Patel

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Diabetes mellitus is considered to be a serious endocrine syndrome. Synthetic hypoglycemic agents can produce serious side effects including hematological effects, coma, and disturbances of the liver and kidney. In addition, they are not suitable for use during pregnancy. In recent years, there have been relatively few reports of short-term side effects or toxicity due to sulphonylureas. Published figures and frequency of side effects in large series of patient range from about 1 to 5%, with symptoms severe enough to lead to the withdrawal of the drug in less than 1 to 2%. Adverse effects, in general, have been of the following type: allergic skin reactions, gastrointestinal disturbances, blood dyscrasias, hepatic dysfunction, and hypoglycemia. The associated disadvantages with insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents have led to stimulation in the research for locating natural resources showing antidiabetic activity and to explore the possibilities of using traditional medicines with proper chemical and pharmacological profiles. Literature survey reveals that the inhabitants of Abbottabad district of Pakistan use the dried leaf powder along with table salt and water orally for treating diabetes, skin allergy, wounds and as a blood purifier, where they pronounced the plant locally as ‘Nem.' The detailed phytochemical investigation of the Cedrela toona Roxb. leaves for antidiabetic activity has not been documented. Hence, there is a need for phytochemical investigation of the leaves for antidiabetic activity. The collection of fresh leaves and authentification followed by successive extraction, phytochemical screening, and testing of antidiabetic activity. The blood glucose level was reduced maximum in ethanol extract at 5th and 7th h after treatment. Blood glucose was depressed by 8.2% and 10.06% in alloxan – induced diabetic rats after treatment which was comparable to the standard drug, Glibenclamide. This may be due to the activation of the existing pancreatic cells in diabetic rats by the ethanolic extract.

Keywords: antidiabetic, Cedrela toona Roxb., phytochemical screening, blood glucose

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67 Antidiabetic Effect of Methanolic Leaves Extract and Isolated Constituents from Saraca Asoca

Authors: Sunil Kumar

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Background: The present study was performed to investigate the antidiabetic effect of the constituents isolated from Sarca asoca by enzyme inhibitory activity. Methods: The dried leaves of Sarca asoca were defatted with petroleum ether and further the same amount plant materials were extracted with methanol. The dried methanol extract was subjected to fractionation and chromatographic separation, which led to the isolation of kaemferol, β-sitosterol and quercetin stigmasterol. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic studies as well as by comparison with the data available in the literature. The compounds were evaluated for in vitro enzyme inhibition effect. Results: The isolated compounds kaemferol, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol showed 45.32, 40.5 and 41.23% α-amylase inhibition respectively and 43.45, 39.29 and 32.43% α-glucosidase inhibition respectively at the conc. of 50 µg/kg. Conclusion: The compounds isolated from Sarca asoca showed in vitro and in vivo antidiabetic activity. So, Euphorbia hirta is a beneficial plant for management of diabetic disorders.

Keywords: diabetes, quercetin, sitosterol, stigmasterol

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66 In vivo Antidiabetic and in vitro Antioxidant Activity of Myrica salicifolia Hochst. ex A. Rich. (Myricaceae) Root Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

Authors: Yohannes Kelifa, Gomathi Periasamy, Aman Karim

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Introduction: Diabetes mellitus has become a major public health and economical problem across the globe. Modern antidiabetic drugs have a number of limitations, and scientific investigation of traditional herbal remedies used for diabetes may provide novel leads for the development of new antidiabetic drugs that can be used as alternative or complementary to available antidiabetic allopathic medications. Though Myrica salicifolia Hochst. ex A. Rich. is used for the management of diabetes in Ethiopian traditional medicine, there was no previous scientific evidence about its antidiabetic effect to the authors’ knowledge. This study was undertaken to evaluate the antidiabetic activity the root extracts of Myrica salicifolia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Methods: Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (150 mg/kg) in male mice. Diabetic mice were treated with oral doses of M. salicifolia root extracts at 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg, and its fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous) at a dose of 400 mg/kg daily for 15 days. Fasting blood glucose level (BGL) was measured at 0, 5th,10th, and 15th day. The free radical scavenging activity of the crude extract was determined using in vitro by DPPH assay. The statistical significance was assessed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison tests. Results were considered significant when p < 0.05. Results: Daily administration of the M. salicifolia 80% methanol root extracts (at three different doses (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05, p < 0.01 and p < 0.001) reduced fasting BGL compared with diabetic control. The aqueous and butanol fractions at a dose of 400 mg/kg resulted in maximum reduction of fasting BGL by 42.39%, and 52.13%, respectively at the 15th day in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Free radical scavenging activity of the 80% methanol extract of M. salicifolia was comparable to ascorbic acid. The IC50 values of the crude extract and ascorbic acid (a reference compound) were found to be 4.54 μg/ml and 4.39 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: These findings demonstrated that the methanolic extracts of M. salicifolia root and its fractions (n-butanol and aqueous) exhibit a significant antihyperglycemic activity in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Furthermore, the result of the present study indicates that M. salicifolia root extract is a potential source of natural antioxidants.

Keywords: antidiabetic, diabetes mellitus, DPPH, mice, Myrica salicifolia, streptozotocin

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65 Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Potential of Fruit and Vegetable Peels

Authors: E. Chiam, E. Koh, W. Teh, M. Prabhakaran

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Fruits and vegetables (F&V) are widely eaten for their nutritional value and associated health benefits being an immense source of bioactive compounds. However, F&V peels are often discarded, and it accounts for a higher proportion of food waste. Incorporation of F&V peels as functional ingredients can add more value to food due to the higher amounts of phytochemicals present in them. In this research, methanolic extracts of different F&V peels, namely apple, orange, kiwi, grapefruit, dragon fruit, pomelo, and pumpkin are investigated for their total phenolic content (TPC) by Folin-Ciocalteau (FC) assay and the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and phosphomolybdenum assay using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Evaluation of the α-glucosidase inhibitory assay was carried out during this study to determine the antidiabetic potential of F&V peels. Results of our study showed that grapefruit peels contained the highest total phenolic content of 477.81 ± 0.01 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram dry weight of the sample, and kiwi peel had the highest antioxidant capacity (90.51 ± 0.10 % inhibition of DPPH radical) among the different F&V peels studied. Fruit peels exhibited high α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Comparing fruit peels with vegetable peels, it was found that fruit peels had high total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and anti-diabetic potential compared to vegetable peels.

Keywords: polyphenolics, fruit peels, antioxidant, antidiabetic

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64 Evaluation of Physical Parameters and in-Vitro and in-Vivo Antidiabetic Activity of a Selected Combined Medicinal Plant Extracts Mixture

Authors: S. N. T. I. Sampath, J. M. S. Jayasinghe, A. P. Attanayake, V. Karunaratne

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Diabetes mellitus is one of the major public health posers throughout the world today that incidence and associated with increasing mortality. Insufficient regulation of the blood glucose level might be serious effects for health and its necessity to identify new therapeutics that have ability to reduce hyperglycaemic condition in the human body. Even though synthetic antidiabetic drugs are more effective to control diabetes mellitus, there are considerable side effects have been reported. Thus, there is an increasing demand for searching new natural products having high antidiabetic activity with lesser side effects. The purposes of the present study were to evaluate different physical parameters and in-vitro and in-vivo antidiabetic potential of the selected combined medicinal plant extracts mixture composed of leaves of Murraya koenigii, cloves of Allium sativum, fruits of Garcinia queasita and seeds of Piper nigrum. The selected plants parts were mixed and ground together and extracted sequentially into the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Solvents were evaporated and they were further dried by freeze-drying to obtain a fine powder of each extract. Various physical parameters such as moisture, total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash were evaluated using standard test procedures. In-vitro antidiabetic activity of combined plant extracts mixture was screened using enzyme assays such as α-amylase inhibition assay and α-glucosidase inhibition assay. The acute anti-hyperglycaemic activity was performed using oral glucose tolerance test for the streptozotocin induced diabetic Wistar rats to find out in-vivo antidiabetic activity of combined plant extracts mixture and it was assessed through total oral glucose tolerance curve (TAUC) values. The percentage of moisture content, total ash content, acid insoluble ash content and water soluble ash content were ranged of 7.6-17.8, 8.1-11.78, 0.019-0.134 and 6.2-9.2 respectively for the plant extracts and those values were less than standard values except the methanol extract. The hexane and ethyl acetate extracts exhibited highest α-amylase (IC50 = 25.7 ±0.6; 27.1 ±1.2 ppm) and α-glucosidase (IC50 = 22.4 ±0.1; 33.7 ±0.2 ppm) inhibitory activities than methanol extract (IC50 = 360.2 ±0.6; 179.6 ±0.9 ppm) when compared with the acarbose positive control (IC50 = 5.7 ±0.4; 17.1 ±0.6 ppm). The TAUC values for hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts and glibenclamide (positive control) treated rats were 8.01 ±0.66; 8.05 ±1.07; 8.40±0.50; 5.87 ±0.93 mmol/L.h respectively, whereas in diabetic control rats the TAUC value was 13.22 ±1.07 mmol/L.h. Administration of plant extracts treated rats significantly suppressed (p<0.05) the rise in plasma blood glucose levels compared to control rats but less significant than glibenclamide. The obtained results from in-vivo and in-vitro antidiabetic study showed that the hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of selected combined plant mixture might be considered as a potential source to isolate natural antidiabetic agents and physical parameters of hexane and ethyl acetate extracts will helpful to develop antidiabetic drug with further standardize properties.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, in-vitro antidiabetic assays, medicinal plants, standardization

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63 A Comparative Study of Anti-Diabetic Activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Artemisia absinthium and Combination with Difference Ratio

Authors: Ikram Mohamed Eltayeb, Ustina Saeed Barsoumbolice

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Cinnamomum zeylanicum belong to the family Lauraceae and Artemisia absinthium belong to the family Asteraceae. Both were traditionally used as antiemetic, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic. In Sudan, the mixtures of the two plants were traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia. It is mainly classified into two major groups, type-1 and type-2. Type-2 is a combination of resistance to insulin action and an inadequate compensatory insulin secretory response. The treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM) with synthetic drugs have many side effects so many researches were conducted to overcome or reduce this side effects by using alternative medicine. The objective of this study is to investigate and compare the anti-diabetic activity of C. zeylanicum and A. absinthium and their combination with difference ratio. C. zeylanicum and A. absinthium were extracted by 96% ethanol using Soxhlet apparatus. Thirty-two rats were divided into eight groups; each group contains four rats. 1st group was administered with distilled water at dose of 10ml/kg, 2nd group had received glucose only at dose of 2g/kg intraperitoneal, the standard group (3rd group) had received Glibenclamide orally at dose of 0.45mg/kg, 4th group received 100 mg C. zeylanicum + 300 mg A. absinthium with a ratio of (25:75), 5th group received 300 mg C. zeylanicum + 100 mg A. absinthium with a ratio of (75:25), 6th group received 200 mg C. zeylanicum + 200 mg A. absinthiumwith a ratio of (50:50), 7th group received 400 mg of A. absinthium, 8th group received 400 mg of C. zeylanicum. Then the blood samples were taken Retro-orbitally at 0, 1, 2 and 4 hours and the glucose level was measured. Each plant alone and their combination with different ratios shows antidiabetic effect. The significant activity was shown by A. absinthium extract (400 mg/kg), combination of ratio of (75:25) A. absinthium: C. zeylanicum(400mg/kg) and then C. zeylanicum(400mg/kg) with p-value 0.001, 0.022, 0.030 respectively, the activity was found to be increased with time. The other combinations showed less activity with p-value > 0.05. The result concludes that the good antidiabetic activity was performed by A. absinthium alone and its activity decreased by increase combination ratio with C. zeylanicum. Which maybe explains by the antagonistic effect between the compounds of C. zeylanicum and A. absinthium.

Keywords: antidiabetic, Artemisia absinthium , cinnamomum zeylanicum, combination

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62 Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Potential of Aqueous Extract of Jasminum humile Leaves in Nicotinamide/Streptozotocin induced Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) Rat

Authors: Parminder Nain, Jaspreet kaur, Vipin Saini, Sunil Sharma

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Jasminum humile commonly known as yellow Jasmine or Pili chameli, is a medicinal plant used in Ayurveda for treating various diseases, one of which is diabetes mellitus. The current study aimed to establish the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of aqueous extract of Jasminum humile leaves (AEJHL) in nicotinamide/streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats. Phytochemical screening, HPLC analysis, and acute toxicity study of AEJHL were carried out. Male albino wistar rats (n=42) were divided into seven equal groups. Rats with moderate diabetes having hyperglycemia (blood glucose 250-400 mg/dl) were taken for the experiment. Various concentrations of aqueous extract of Jasminum humile leaves (50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.), and glibenclamide (1mg/kg, p.o.) were orally administered to diabetic rats for 45 days. The effect of AEJHL on blood glucose, plasma insulin and biochemical parameters such as hemoglobin, total protein, serum creatinine, serum urea, alkaline phosphate, Glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), as well as total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were also studied. The antioxidant effect of AEJHL was determined by analyzing hepatic and renal antioxidant markers, like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced Glutathione (GSH), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in diabetic rats. After 45-days oral administration of aqueous extract of Jasminum humile leaves significantly (p<0.05) reduced blood sugar and increase plasma insulin level and also reverse all above biochemical parameters and antioxidant enzyme level at dose dependent manner. These findings provide in vivo evidence that the aqueous extract of Jasminum humile leaves possess significant antidiabetic and antioxidant potential in nicotinamide/streptozotocin-induced type-2 diabetes mellitus in rats.

Keywords: antidiabetic, antioxidant, jasminum humile, nicotinamide/streptozotocin, type-2 diabetic

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61 Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipaemic Effects of Aqueous Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Extract on Alloxan Diabetic Rabbits

Authors: Khalil Abdullah Ahmed Khalil, Elsadig Mohamed Ahmed

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Extracts of various plants material capable of decreasing blood sugar have been tested in experimental animal models and their effects confirmed. Neem or Margose (Azadirachta Indica) is an indigenous plant believed to have antiviral, antifungal, antidiabetic and many other properties. This paper deals with a comparative study of the effect of aqueous Neem leaves extract alone or in combination with glibenclamide on alloxan diabetic rabbits. Administration of crude aqueous Neem extract (CANE) alone (1.5 ml/kg/day), as well as the combination of CANE (1.5 ml/kg/day) with glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg/day) significantly, decreased (P<0.05) the concentrations of serum lipids, blood glucose and lipoprotein VLDL(very low-density lipoproteins) and LDL(low-density lipoproteins) but significantly increased (P<0.05) the concentration of HDL(high-density lipoprotein). The change was observed significantly greater when the treatment was given in combination of CANE and glibenclamid than with CANE alone.

Keywords: neem, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, cholesterol

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60 Antidiabetic Potential of Pseuduvaria monticola Bark Extract on the Pancreatic Cells, NIT-1 and Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

Authors: Hairin Taha, Aditya Arya, M. A. Hapipah, A. M. Mustafa

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Plants have been an important source of medicine since ancient times. Pseuduvaria monticola is a rare montane forest species from the Annonaceae family. Traditionally, the plant was used to cure symptoms of fever, inflammation, stomach-ache and also to reduce the elevated levels of blood glucose. Scientifically, we have evaluated the antidiabetic potential of the Pseuduvaria monticola bark methanolic extract on certain in vitro cell based assays, followed by in vivo study. Results from in vitro models displayed PMm upregulated glucose uptake and insulin secretion in mouse pancreatic β-cells. In vivo study demonstrated the PMm down-regulated hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress and elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in type 2 diabetic rat models. Altogether, the study revealed that Pseuduvaria monticola might be used as a potential candidate for the management of type 2 diabetes and its related complications.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes, Pseuduvaria monticola, insulin secretion, glucose uptake

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59 Pharmacognostical, Phytochemical and Biological Studies of Leaves and Stems of Hippophae Salicifolia

Authors: Bhupendra Kumar Poudel, Sadhana Amatya, Tirtha Maiya Shrestha, Bharatmani Pokhrel, Mohan Prasad Amatya

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Background: H. salicifolia is a dense, branched, multipurpose, deciduous, nitrogen fixing, thorny willow-like small to moderate tree, restricted to the Himalaya. Among the two species of Nepal (Hippophae salicifolia and H. tibetana), it has been traditionally used as food additive, anticancer (bark), and treating toothache, tooth inflammation (anti-inflammatory) and radiation injury; while people of Western Nepal have largely undermined its veiled treasure by using it for fuel, wood and soil stabilization only. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to explore biological properties (analgesic, antidiabetic, cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties of this plant. Methodology: The transverse section of leaves and stems were viewed under microscope. Extracts obtained from soxhlation subjected to tests for phytochemical and biological studies. Rats (used to study antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties) and mice (used to study analgesic, CNS depressant, muscle relaxant and locomotor properties) were assumed to be normally distributed; then ANOVA and post hoc tukey test was used to find significance. The data obtained were analyzed by SPSS 17 and Excel 2007. Results and Conclusion: Pharmacognostical analysis revealed the presence of long stellate trichomes, double layered vascular bundle 5-6 in number and double layered compact sclerenchyma. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts was found to exhibit the positive reaction tests for glycoside, steroid, tannin, flavonoid, saponin, coumarin and reducing sugar. The brine shrimp lethality bioassay tested in 1000, 100 and 10 ppm revealed cytotoxic activity inherent in methanol, water, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts with LC50 (μg/ml) values of 61.42, 99.77, 292.72 and 277.84 respectively. The cytotoxic activity may be due to presence of tannins in the constituents. Antimicrobial screening of the extracts by cup diffusion method using Staphylococcus aereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa against standard antibiotics (oxacillin, gentamycin and amikacin respectively) portrayed no activity against the microorganisms tested. The methanol extract of the stems and leaves showed various pharmacological properties: and antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic [chemical writhing method], CNS depressant, muscle relaxant and locomotor activities in a dose-dependent fashion, indicating the possibility of the presence of different constituents in the stems and leaves responsible for these biological activities. All the effects when analyzed by post hoc tukey test were found to be significant at 95% confidence level. The antidiabetic activity was presumed to be due to flavonoids present in extract. Therefore, it can be concluded that this plant’s secondary metabolites possessed strong antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity which could be isolated for further investigation.

Keywords: Hippophae salicifolia, constituents, antidiabetic, inflammatory, brine shrimp

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58 Beneficial Effect of Lupeol in Diabetes Induced Oxidative Damage

Authors: Rajnish Gupta, R. S. Gupta

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Present research was aimed to investigate antidiabetic and antioxidant status of Lupeol in streptozotocin induced diabetes. Rats were divided into following groups mainly: control, diabetic, normal group as well as diabetic treated with Lupeol at 25 and 35 mg/kg b.wt./day for 21 days, diabetic group treated with glibenclamide. Tissue (pancreas, kidney and liver) as well as serum biochemical parameters were analysed for any abnormal behavior. Lupeol administration reduced diabetes onset with significant improvement in serum insulin level also strengthened by increase in β-Cell counts. A significant decrease was observed in serum glucose level. Furthermore, Lupeol treatment increased the antioxidant enzymes, glycolytic enzymes and also protein levels with a decrease in the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive oxygen species and gluconeogenic enzymes. Present study proves that Lupeol administration significantly reinstated serum and tissue biochemical parameters and thus strengthening its antidiabetic potential.

Keywords: oxidative stress, pterostilbene, thiobarbituric acid, reactive oxygen species

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57 Phytochemical and Biological Evaluation of Derris scandens

Authors: Devarakonda Ramadevi, Dasari Rambabu, K. Suresh Babu, Battu Ganga Rao, Lakshmi Sirisha Kotikalapudi

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The phytochemical and biological evaluation of the whole plant of Derris scandens is belonging to the family fabaceae. The dried plant of D.scandens was procured from the tirumala. The completely dried powder of the whole plant was taken and ground to a coarse powder which was then subjected to Soxhlet extraction with hexane and chloroform successively for 36 hrs. Chloroform extract was filtered and concentrated by using rotary evaporator an about 100g extract was obtained. The chloroform extract was subjected to column chromatographed over silicagel. From the column chromatography seven compounds were isolated named as osajin, scandinone, scandenone, 4,5,7-tri hydroxy biprenyl isoflavone, derris isoflavone-A, scandenin and isoscandinone. D.scandens resulting in the isolation of seven compounds in the plant was confirmed by spectral data (1H NMR, 13C NMR, ESI-MS and FTIR). The isolated compounds were screened for antioxidant activity, antidiabetic activity, α-glucosidase (inhibitory activity) and anti-bacterial activity. The isolated seven compounds were tested for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity. All the seven compounds showed good α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and moderate antioxidant activity.

Keywords: Derris scandens, phytochemical, antioxident, antidiabetic, antibacterial activity

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56 Antidiabetic Evaluation of Pig (Sus scrofa) Bile on Alloxan-Induced BALB/c Mice

Authors: John Lyndon C. Lunnay

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This study discerns to evaluate the antidiabetic efficacy of pig bile on alloxan-induced BALB/c mice. The experimental animals were divided and selected using RCBD into 5 groups (n= 4): T1 (negative control), T2 (1ml/kg), T3 (2ml/kg), T4 (3ml/kg) and T5 (Glibenclamide). Hyperglycemia was induced by injecting 1% alloxan monohydrate intraperitoneally. A glucose tolerance test was performed using a 2g/kg glucose solution, and blood glucose levels were measured at different time intervals. 14 days of monitoring was also done to ensure effectivity and efficacy of the different treatments. Bodyweight was also determined. Results show that administration of treatments on test animals significantly reverted the blood glucose levels of mice in 60 minutes and 120 minutes using an oral glucose tolerance test. After 14 days of monitoring, normal blood glucose levels were seen significantly on T2 (1ml/kg), T3 (2ml/kg), T4 (3ml/kg), and T5 (Glibenclamide), which only suggests the efficacy of pig bile on lowering glucose levels on alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Bodyweight analysis shows no significant difference. Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT) shows comparable efficacy and effectivity between T4 (3ml/kg) and T5 (Glibenclamide) on lowering BGL at different day and time intervals.

Keywords: pig bile, BALB/c mice, blood glucose, Gllibenclamide

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55 Antidiabetic Effect of Aqueous Extract of Cedrus deodara Roxb. Heartwood in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Sourabh Jain, Vikas Jain, Dharmendar Kumar

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The present study investigated the antidiabetic potential of Cedrus deodara heart wood aqueous extract. Aqueous extract of Cedrus deodara was found to reduce blood sugar level in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Reduction in blood sugar could be seen from 5th day after continuous administration of the extract and on 21st day sugar levels were found to be reduced by 40.20%. Oxidative stress produced by alloxan was found to be significantly lowered by the administration of Cedrus deodara aqueous extract (500 mg/kg). This was evident from a significant decrease in lipid per oxidation level in liver induced by alloxan. The level of Glutathione, Catalase, Superoxide dismutase and Glutathione-S-Transferase in liver, kidney and pancreas tissue were found to be increased significantly after drug administration. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the Cedrus deodara aqueous extract effectively and significantly reduced the oxidative stress induced by alloxan and produced a reduction in blood sugar level.

Keywords: Cedrus deodara, heartwood, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory

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54 Hypoglycaemic and Hypolipidemic Activity of Cassia occidentalis Linn. Stem Bark Extract in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes

Authors: Manjusha Choudhary

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Objective: Cassia occidentalis Linn. belongs to Family Caesalpiniaceae is a common weed scattered from the foothills of Himalayas to West Bengal, South India, Burma, and Sri Lanka. It is used widely in folklore medicine in India as laxative, expectorant, analgesic, anti-malarial, hepatoprotective, relaxant, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic. The present study was carried out to investigate the hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic extract of Cassia occidentalis stem bark. Methods: Stem bark extract of Cassia occidentalis (SBCO) was administered orally at 250 and 500 mg/kg doses to normal and streptozotocin (STZ) induced type-2 diabetic mice. Various parameters like fasting blood glucose (FBG) level, serum cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), total protein, urea, creatinine, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) levels and physical parameters like change in body weight, food intake, water intake were performed for the evaluation of antidiabetic effects. Results: Both the doses of extract caused a marked decrease in FBG levels in STZ induced type 2 diabetic mice. Administration of SBCO led to the decrease in the blood glucose, food intake, water intake, organ weight, SGOT, SGPT levels with significant value and increased the levels of TG, HDL cholesterol, creatinine, cholesterol, total protein with a significant value (p < 0.05-0.01). The decrease in body weight induced by STZ was restored to normal with a significant value (p < 0.01) at both doses. Conclusion: Present study reveals that SBCO possess potent hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic activities and supports the folklore use of the stem bark of plant as antidiabetic agent.

Keywords: Cassia occidentalis, diabetes, folklore, herbs, hypoglycemia, streptozotocin

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53 Effect of Different Parameters in the Preparation of Antidiabetic Microparticules by Coacervation

Authors: Nawel Ouennoughi, Kamel Daoud

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During recent years, new pharmaceutical dosage forms were developed in the research laboratories and which consists of encapsulating one or more active molecules in a polymeric envelope. Several techniques of encapsulation allow obtaining the microparticles or the nanoparticles containing one or several polymers. In the industry, microencapsulation is implemented to fill the following objectives: to ensure protection, the compatibility and the stabilization of an active matter in a formulation, to carry out an adapted working, to improve the presentation of a product, to mask a taste or an odor, to modify and control the profile of release of an active matter to obtain, for example, prolonged or started effect. To this end, we focus ourselves on the encapsulation of the antidiabetic. It is an oral hypoglycemic agent belonging to the second generation of sulfonylurea’s commonly employed in the treatment of type II non-insulin-dependent diabetes in order to improve profile them dissolution. Our choice was made on the technique of encapsulation by complex coacervation with two types of polymers (gelatin and the gum Arabic) which is a physicochemical process. Several parameters were studied at the time of the formulation of the microparticles and the nanoparticles: temperature, pH, ratio of polymers etc. The microparticles and the nanoparticles obtained were characterized by microscopy, laser granulometry, FTIR and UV-visible spectrophotometry. The profile of dissolution obtained for the microparticles showed an improvement of the kinetics of dissolution compared to that obtained for the active ingredient.

Keywords: coacervation, gum Arabic, microencapsulation, gelatin

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52 The Effect of Radish (Raphanus Sativus L.) Leaves Ethanol Extract on Blood Glucose Levels in Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide-Induced Type-2 Diabetic Rats

Authors: Satria B. Mahathma, Asri Hendrawati

Abstract:

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder syndrome characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. The number of people with diabetes rose from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014. In general, almost 90% of the prevalence of DM is type 2 DM which marked by insulin resistance and decreased receptor sensitivity. Aside from conventional antidiabetic therapy, the utilization of medicinal plants as alternative medicine has beneficial effects in diabetic patients. Flavonoid contents in radish leaves such as quercetin, pelargonidin, and kaempferol are thought to have antidiabetic activity on decreasing blood glucose levels by tricyclic nucleotide modulation of pancreatic beta cells and ameliorating insulin resistance. This study aimed to determine the effect of variant concentration of radish leaves ethanol extract on blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. Method: This study used pretest-posttest control group design by using 16 male Wistar rats which were induced type-2 diabetic by streptozotocin 60 mg/kg BW-nicotinamide 120 mg/kg BW intraperitoneally. Rats who had developed type-2 DM later divided randomly into 4 groups; negative control received placebo, positive control received glibenclamide 5 mg/kg BW/day, rats intervention I and intervention II received 100% and 50% of radish leaves ethanol extract, respectively. Treatments were administered orally for four weeks. The blood glucose levels were measured using the Enzymatic Colorimetric Test “GOD-PAP”. Data were analyzed by the dependent t-test for pretest-posttest intervention difference and one-way ANOVA followed by post hoc test to determine the significant difference of each treatment to obtain the significant data. Result: The result revealed that intervention group had lower blood glucose levels mean than control group which the lowest was intervention II group (negative control: 540,9 ± 191,7 mg/dl, positive control: 494, 97 ± 64,91 mg/dl, intervention I: 301,92 ± 165,70 mg/dl, and intervention II group: 276,1 ± 139,02 mg/dl. Intervention II group had the highest antidiabetic activity, followed by the intervention I group with the amount of decrease in blood glucose levels were -151,85 ± 77,43 mg/dl and -11,08 ± 186,62 mg/dl, however negative and positive control group didn’t have antidiabetic activity. The dependent t-test result showed there is a significant difference in decreasing blood glucose levels in the intervention II pretest-posttest intervention (p=0,03) while the other group didn’t. Data analyzed by one-way ANOVA also revealed the intervention II group significantly declined blood glucose levels compared to the negative and positive control group (p = 0,033 and p=0,032, respectively). Conclusion: There is a significant effect of radish leaves ethanol extract on blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats with the optimal therapeutic effect at a concentration of 50%.

Keywords: blood glucose levels, medicinal plant, radish leaves, type-2 diabetes mellitus

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51 Antidiabetic Activity of Cedrus deodara Aqueous Extract and Its Relationship with Its Antioxidant Properties

Authors: Sourabh Jain, Vikas Jain, Dharmendra Kumnar

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The present study investigated the antidiabetic potential of Cedrus deodara heart wood aqueous extract and its relationship in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Aqueous extract of Cedrus deodara was found to reduce blood sugar level in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Reduction in blood sugar could be seen from 5th day after continuous administration of the extract and on 21st day sugar levels were found to be reduced by 40.20%. Oxidative stress produced by alloxan was found to be significantly lowered by the administration of Cedrus deodara aqueous extract (500 mg/kg). This was evident from a significant decrease in lipid per oxidation level in liver induced by alloxan. The level of Glutathione, Catalase, Superoxide dismutase and Glutathione-S-Transferase in liver, kidney and pancreas tissue were found to be increased significantly after drug administration. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the Cedrus deodara aqueous extract effectively and significantly reduced the oxidative stress induced by alloxan and produced a reduction in blood sugar level.

Keywords: Cedrus deodara, heartwood, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory

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50 The Antidiabetic Properties of Indonesian Swietenia mahagoni in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: T. Wresdiyati, S. Sa’diah, A. Winarto

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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease that can be indicated by the high level of blood glucose. The objective of this study was to observe the antidiabetic properties of ethanolic extract of Indonesian Swietenia mahagoni Jacq. seed on the profile of pancreatic superoxide dismutase and β-cells in the alloxan- experimental diabetic rats. The Swietenia mahagoni seed was obtained from Leuwiliang-Bogor, Indonesia. Extraction of Swietenia mahagoni was done by using ethanol with maceration methods. A total of 25 male Sprague dawley rats were divided into five groups; (a) negative control group, (b) positive control group (DM), (c) DM group that was treated with Swietenia mahagoni seed extract, (d) DM group that was treated with acarbose, and (e) non-DM group that was treated with Swietenia mahagoni seed extract. The DM groups were induced by alloxan (110 mg/kgBW). The extract was orally administrated to diabetic rats 500 mg/kg/BW/day for 28 days. The extract showed hypoglycemic effect, increased body weight, increased the content of superoxide dismutase in the pancreatic tissue, and delayed the rate of β-cells damage of experimental diabetic rats. These results suggested that the ethanolic extract of Indonesian Swietenia mahagoni Jacq. seed could be proposed as a potential anti-diabetic agent.

Keywords: beta cells, diabetes, hypoglycemic, rat, Swietenia mahagoni

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49 Glucose Uptake Rate of Insulin-Resistant Human Liver Carcinoma Cells (IR/HepG2) by Flavonoids from Enicostema littorale via IR/IRS1/AKT Pathway

Authors: Priyanka Mokashi, Aparna Khanna, Nancy Pandita

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder which will be the 7th leading cause of death by 2030. The current line of treatment for the diabetes mellitus is oral antidiabetic drugs (biguanides, sulfonylureas, meglitinides, thiazolidinediones and alpha-glycosidase inhibitors) and insulin therapy depending upon the type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. But, these treatments have their disadvantages, ranging from the developing of resistance to the drugs and adverse effects caused by them. Alternative to these synthetic agents, natural products provides a new insight for the development of more efficient and safe drugs due to their therapeutic values. Enicostema littorale blume (A. Raynal) is a traditional Indian plant belongs to the Gentianaceae family. It is widely distributed in Asia, Africa, and South America. There are few reports on Swrtiamarin, major component of this plant for its antidiabetic activity. However, the antidiabetic activity of flavonoids from E. littorale and their mechanism of action have not yet been elucidated. Flavonoids have a positive relationship with disease prevention and can act on various molecular targets and regulate different signaling pathways in pancreatic β-cells, adipocytes, hepatocytes and skeletal myofibers. They may exert beneficial effects in diabetes by (i) improving hyperglycemia through regulation of glucose metabolism in hepatocytes; (ii) enhancing insulin secretion and reducing apoptosis and promoting proliferation of pancreatic β-cells; (iii) increasing glucose uptake in hepatocytes, skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue (iv) reducing insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress. Therefore, we have isolated four flavonoid rich fractions, Fraction A (FA), Fraction B (FB), Fraction C (FC), Fraction D (FD) from crude alcoholic hot (AH) extract from E. littorale, identified by LC/MS. Total eight flavonoids were identified on the basis of fragmentation pattern. Flavonoid FA showed the presence of swertisin, isovitexin, and saponarin; FB showed genkwanin, quercetin, isovitexin, FC showed apigenin, swertisin, quercetin, 5-O-glucosylswertisin and 5-O-glucosylisoswertisin whereas FD showed the presence of swertisin. Further, these fractions were assessed for their antidiabetic activity on stimulating glucose uptake in insulin-resistant HepG2 cell line model (IR/HepG2). The results showed that FD containing C-glycoside Swertisin has significantly increased the glucose uptake rate of IR/HepG2 cells at the concentration of 10 µg/ml as compared to positive control Metformin (0.5mM) which was determined by glucose oxidase- peroxidase method. It has been reported that enhancement of glucose uptake of cells occurs due the translocation of Glut4 vesicles to cell membrane through IR/IRS1/AKT pathway. Therefore, we have studied expressions of three genes IRS1, AKT and Glut4 by real-time PCR to evaluate whether they follow the same pathway or not. It was seen that the glucose uptake rate has increased in FD treated IR/HepG2 cells due to the activation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) followed by protein kinase B (AKT) through phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) leading to translocation of Glut 4 vesicles to cell membrane, thereby enhancing glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity of insulin resistant HepG2 cells. Hence, the up-regulation indicated the mechanism of action through which FD (Swertisin) acts as antidiabetic candidate in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: E. littorale, glucose transporter, glucose uptake rate, insulin resistance

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48 Study of the Anti-Diabetic Activity of the Common Fig in the Region of the El Amra (Ain Defla), Algeria

Authors: Meliani Samiha, Hassaine Sarah

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Figs are so much consumed in the Mediterranean region; they present a high nutritional value and also multiple therapeutic virtues. Our work contributes to the study of the antidiabetic activity of the common fig of the region of El Amra (AinDefla) Algeria. To do this, 20 Wistar rats female, divided into 4 lots, were used: Lot 1: 5 normal controls; Lot 2: 5 normal controls treated with dry fig juice at 20%; Lot 3: 5 diabetic controls; Lot 4: 5 diabetic controls treated with dry fig juice at 20%. The rats are rendered diabetic by intra-peritoneal injection of a streptozotocin solution. The blood glucose is measured after 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours and after 4 hours of the administration of the fig juice; it’s measured also on the 5th day, 8th day and 9th day of the beginning of the experiment. The determination of cholesterol and triglycerides blood is carried out at the beginning and the end of the study. On the 9th day, we recorded a very significant decrease of the blood sugar level of diabetic rats treated with dry fig juice. This blood glucose level normalized for 3 rats/5rats, we also recorded a decrease, but not significant, of cholesterol and triglycerides blood levels. In the short term (for 4 hours), an increase of blood sugar level, one hour after administration, for normal and diabetic rats. This increase is probably due to the high level of sugar content in the preparation. The blood glucose level is then corrected, four hours later. This may be the result of anti hyperglycemic effect of the active ingredients contained in the figs.

Keywords: antidiabetic, figs, hypoglycemia, streptozotocin

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47 Effect of Zingerone on High-Fructose Diet-Indeuced Metabolic Derangements in Growing Sprague-Dawley Rats

Authors: Nondumiso Lushozi, Busisani Lembede, Eliton Chivandi

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Consumption of fructose increases the risk of obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic syndrome in children. Zingerone which is found in ginger has antidiabetic and antiobesogenic properties. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the potential of orally administered zingerone to protect growing Sprague-Dawley rats (mimicking growing children) against high-fructose diet-induced metabolic derangements. Forty, 21-day old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated and administered the following four treatments for 12 weeks: group I: standard rat chow (SR) + plain water (PW) + plain gelatine cube (PC). group II: SR + 20% (w/v) fructose solution (FS) + PC. group III: SR + FS + 100 mg/kg/day of fenofibrate in gelatine cube. group IV: SR+ FS + 20 mg/kg/day of zingerone in gelatine cube. The rats’ triglyceride, cholesterol, insulin & adiponectin concentration, visceral fat liver lipid content, homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and ability to handle glucose were determined. Oral administration of zingerone significantly increased (P<0.001) visceral fat and liver lipid content (P<0.001), respectively. Results from the study revealed that administration of 20% fructose solution did not induce metabolic dysfunction, however the zingerone treatment increased visceral fat and liver lipid content, all these lipid abnormalities are typical features of the metabolic syndrome, therefore the current study suggests that zingerone has no effect on metabolic dysfunction in adolescent females.

Keywords: antidiabetic, metabolic syndrome, zingerone, antiobesogenic

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46 Mechanism of in Vitro Inhibition of Alpha-Amylase, Alpha-Glucosidase by Ethanolic Extracts of Polyalthia Longifolia, Its in Vitro Cytotoxicity on L6, Vero Cell-Lines and Influence of Glucose Uptake by Rat Hemi-Diaphragm

Authors: P. Gayathri, G. P. Jeyanthi

Abstract:

The bark of Polyalthia longifolia is used in ayurvedic system of medicine for the manangement of various ailments including diabetes mellitus. The bark of P. longifolia extracts was extracted using various polar and non-polar solvents and tested for inhibition of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase among which the ethanolic extracts were found to be more potent. The ethanolic extracts of the bark were tested for the in vitro inhibition of alpha-amylase using starch as substrate and alpha-glucosidase using p-nitro phenyl alpha-D-gluco pyranoside as substrate to establish its in vitro antidiabetic effect. The mechanism of inhibition was determined by Dixon plot and Cornish-Bowden plot. The cytotoxic effect of the extract was tested on L6 and Vero cell-lines. The extract was partially purified by TLC. The individual effect of the ethanolic extract, TLC fractions and its combinatorial effect with insulin and glibenclamide on glucose uptake by rat hemi-diaphragm were studied.Results revealed that the ethanolic extracts of Polyalthia longifolia bark exhibited competitive inhibition of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase. The extracts were also found not to be cytotoxic at the highest dose of 1 mg/mL. Glucose uptake study revealed that the extract alone and when combined with insulin, decreased the glucose uptake when compared to insulin control, however the purified TLC fractions exhibited significantly higher (p<0.05) glucose uptake by the rat hemi-diaphragm when compared to insulin. The study shows various possible mechanism of in vitro antidiabetic effect of the P. longifolia bark.

Keywords: alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, dixon, cornish-bowden, L6 , Vero cell-lines, glucose uptake, polyalthia longifolia bark, ethanolic extract, TLC fractions

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45 In vivo Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Potential of Pseudovaria macrophylla Extract

Authors: Aditya Arya, Hairin Taha, Ataul Karim Khan, Nayiar Shahid, Hapipah Mohd Ali, Mustafa Ali Mohd

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This study has investigated the antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Pseudovaria macrophylla bark extract on streptozotocin–nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic rats. LCMS-QTOF and NMR experiments were done to determine the chemical composition in the methanolic bark extract. For in vivo experiments, the STZ (60 mg/kg/b.w, 15 min after 120 mg/kg/1 nicotinamide, i.p.) induced diabetic rats were treated with methanolic extract of Pseuduvaria macrophylla (200 and 400 mg/kg∙bw) and glibenclamide (2.5 mg/kg) as positive control respectively. Biochemical parameters were assayed in the blood samples of all groups of rats. The pro-inflammatory cytokines, antioxidant status and plasma transforming growth factor βeta-1 (TGF-β1) were evaluated. The histological study of the pancreas was examined and its expression level of insulin was observed by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the expression of glucose transporters (GLUT 1, 2 and 4) were assessed in pancreas tissue by western blot analysis. The outcomes of the study displayed that the bark methanol extract of Pseuduvaria macrophylla has potentially normalized the elevated blood glucose levels and improved serum insulin and C-peptide levels with significant increase in the antioxidant enzyme, reduced glutathione (GSH) and decrease in the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO). Additionally, the extract has markedly decreased the levels of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1). Histopathology analysis demonstrated that Pseuduvaria macrophylla has the potential to protect the pancreas of diabetic rats against peroxidation damage by downregulating oxidative stress and elevated hyperglycaemia. Furthermore, the expression of insulin protein, GLUT-1, GLUT-2 and GLUT-4 in pancreatic cells was enhanced. The findings of this study support the anti-diabetic claims of Pseudovaria macrophylla bark.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, Pseuduvaria macrophylla, alkaloids, caffeic acid

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44 Differential Proteomics Expression in Purple Rice Supplemented Type 2 Diabetic Rats’ Skeletal Muscle

Authors: Ei Ei Hlaing, Narissara Lailerd, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Pichapat Piamrojanaphat

Abstract:

Type 2 diabetes is one of the most common metabolic diseases all over the world. The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes is not the only dysfunction of pancreatic beta cells but also insulin resistance in muscle, liver and adipose tissue. High levels of circulating free fatty acids, an increased lipid content of muscle cells, impaired insulin-mediated glucose uptake and diminished mitochondrial functioning are pathophysiological hallmarks of diabetic skeletal muscles. Purple rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) has been shown to have antidiabetic effects. However, the underlying mechanism(s) of antidiabetic activity of purple rice is still unraveled. In this research, to explore in-depth cellular mechanism(s), proteomic profile of purple rice supplemented type 2 diabetic rats’ skeletal muscle were analyzed contract with non-supplemented rats. Diabetic rats were induced high-fat diet combined with streptozotocin injection. By using one- dimensional gel electrophoresis (1-DE) and LC-MS/MS quantitative proteomic method, we analyzed proteomic profiles in skeletal muscle of normal rats, normal rats with purple rice supplementation, type 2 diabetic rats, and type 2 diabetic rats with purple rice supplementation. Total 2676 polypeptide expressions were identified. Among them, 24 peptides were only expressed in type 2 diabetic rats, and 24 peptides were unique peptides in type 2 diabetic rats with purple rice supplementation. Acetyl CoA carboxylase 1 (ACACA) found as unique protein in type 2 diabetic rats which is the major enzyme in lipid synthesis and metabolism. Interestingly, DNA damage response protein, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K [Mus musculus] (Hnrnpk), was upregulated in type 2 diabetic rats’ skeletal muscle. Meanwhile, unique proteins of type 2 diabetic rats with purple rice supplementation (bone morphogenetic 7 protein preproprotein, BMP7; and forkhead box protein NX4, Foxn4) involved with muscle cells growth through the regulation of TGF-β/Smad signaling network. Moreover, BMP7 may effect on insulin signaling through the downstream signaling of protein kinase B (Akt) which acts in protein synthesis, glucose uptake, and glycogen synthesis. In conclusion, our study supports that type 2 diabetes impairs muscular lipid metabolism. In addition, purple rice might recover the muscle cells growth and insulin signaling.

Keywords: proteomics, purple rice bran, skeletal muscle, type 2 diabetic rats

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43 Antiglycemic Activity of Raw Plant Materials as Potential Components of Functional Food

Authors: Ewa Flaczyk, Monika Przeor, Joanna Kobus-Cisowska, Józef Korczak

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The aim of this paper was to collect the information concerning the most popular raw plant materials of antidiabetic activity, in a context of functional food developing production. The elaboration discusses morphological elements possible for an application in functional food production of the plants such as: common bean, ginger, Ceylon cinnamon, white mulberry, fenugreek, French lilac, ginseng, jambolão, and bitter melon. An activity of bioactive substances contained in these raw plant materials was presented, pointing their antiglycemic and also hypocholesterolemic, antiarthritic, antirheumatic, antibacterial, and antiviral activity in the studies on humans and animals. Also the genesis of functional food definition was presented.

Keywords: antiglycemic activity, raw plant materials, functional food, food, nutritional sciences

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42 The Influence of the Variety and Harvesting Date on Haskap Composition and Anti-Diabetic Properties

Authors: Aruma Baduge Kithma Hansanee De Silva

Abstract:

Haskap (Lonicera caerulea L.), also known as blue honeysuckle, is a recently commercialized berry crop in Canada. Haskap berries are rich in polyphenols, including anthocyanins, which are known for potential health-promoting effects. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) is the most prominent anthocyanin of haskap berries. Recent literature reveals the efficacy of C3G in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), which has become an increasingly common health issue around the world. The T2D is characterized as a metabolic disorder of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. It has been demonstrated that C3G has anti-diabetic effects in various ways, including improvement in insulin sensitivity, and inhibition of activities of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes, including alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of variety and harvesting date on haskap composition, biological properties, and antidiabetic properties. The polyphenolic compounds present in four commercially grown haskap cultivars, Aurora, Rebecca, Larissa and Evie among five harvesting stages (H1-H5), were extracted separately in 80% ethanol and analyzed to characterize their phenolic profiles. The haskap berries contain different types of polyphenols including flavonoids and phenolic acids. Anthocyanin is the major type of flavonoid. C3G is the most prominent type of anthocyanin, which accounts for 79% of total anthocyanin in all extracts. The variety Larissa at H5 contained the highest average C3G content, and its ethanol extract had the highest (1212.3±63.9 mg/100g FW) while, Evie at H1 contained the lowest C3G content (96.9±40.4 mg/100g FW). The average C3G content of Larissa from H1 – H5 varies from 208 – 1212 mg/100g FW. Quarcetin-3-Rutinoside (Q3Rut) is the major type of flavonol and highest is observed in Rebecca at H4 (47.81 mg/100g FW). The haskap berries also contained phenolic acids, but approximately 95% of the phenolic acids consisted of chlorogenic acid. The cultivar Larissa has a higher level of anthocyanin than the other four cultivars. The highest total phenolic content is observed in Evie at H5 (2.97±1.03 mg/g DW) while the lowest in Rebecca at H1 (1.47±0.96 mg/g DW). The antioxidant capacity of Evie at H5 was higher (14.40±2.21 µmol TE/ g DW) among other cultivars and the lowest observed in Aurora at H3 (5.69±0.34 µmol TE/ g DW). Furthermore, Larissa H5 shows the greatest inhibition of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes including alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase. In conclusion Larissa, at H5 demonstrated highest polyphenol composition and antidiabetic properties.

Keywords: anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, haskap, type 2 diabetes

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41 The Hypoglycaemic and Antioxidant Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Curcuma Longa Rhizomes Alone and with Two Pepper Adjuvants in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: J. O. Ezekwesili-Ofili, L. I. Okorafor, S. C. Nsofor

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Diabetes mellitus is a carbohydrate metabolism disorder due to an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin secretion, action or both. Many known hypoglycaemic drugs are known to produce serious side effects. However, the search for safer and more effective agents has shifted to plant products, including foods and spices. One of such is the rhizome of Curcuma longa or turmeric, which is a spice with high medicinal value. A drawback in the use of C. longa is the poor bioavailability of curcumin, the active ingredient. It has been reported that piperine, an alkaloid present in peppers increases the bioavailability of curcumin. This work therefore investigated the hypoglycaemic and antioxidant effects of ethanolic extract of C. longa rhizomes, alone and with two pepper adjuvants in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. A total of 48 rats were divided into 6 groups of 8 rats each. Groups A–E were induced with diabetes using 150mg/kg body weight of alloxan monohydrate, while group F was normoglycaemic: Group A: Diabetic; fed with 400 mg/g body weight of turmeric extract; group B: Diabetic, fed with 400 mg/kg b. w. and 200mg/kg b. w of ethanolic extract of seeds of Piper guinensee; group C: Diabetic, fed with 400 mg/kg b. w. and 200 mg /kg b. w. of ethanolic extract of seeds of Capsicum annum var cameroun, group D: Diabetic, treated with standard drug, glibenclamide (0.3mg/kg body weight), group E: Diabetic; no treatment i.e. Positive control and group F: non diabetic, no treatment i.e. Negative control. Blood glucose levels were monitored for 14 days using a glucometer. The levels of the antioxidant enzymes; glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were also assayed in serum. The ethanolic extracts of C. longa rhizomes at the dose given (400 mg/kg b. w) significantly reduced the blood glucose levels of the diabetic rats (p<0.05) comparable to the standard drug. Co administration of extract of the peppers did not significantly increase the efficiency of the extract, although C. annum var cameroun showed greater effect, though not significantly. The antioxidant effect of the extract was significant in diabetic rats. The use of piperine-containing peppers enhanced the antioxidant effect. Phytochemical analyses of the ethanolic extract of C. longa showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, and terpenoids. These results suggest that the ethanolic extract of C. longa had antidiabetic with antioxidant effects and could thus be of benefit in the treatment and management of diabetes as well as ameliorate pro-oxidant effects that may lead to diabetic complications. However, while the addition of piperine did not affect the antidiabetic effect of C. longa, the antioxidant effect was greatly enhanced.

Keywords: antioxidant, Curcuma longa rhizome, hypoglycaemic, pepper adjuvants, piperine

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