Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: hip arthroplasty

26 Dynamic Balance and Functional Performance in Total Hip Arthroplasty

Authors: Mahmoud Ghazy, Ahmed R. Z. Baghdadi


Background: With the perceived pain and poor function experienced following total hip Arthroplasty (THA), patients usually feel un-satisfied. Methods: Thirty patients with THA (group I) and thirty indicated for arthroplasty but weren’t operated on yet (group II) participated in the study. The mean age was 54.53±3.44 and 55.33±2.32 years and BMI 35.7±3.03 and 35.73±1.03 kg/m2 for group I and III respectively. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) and Stair-Climbing (SC) tests were used for assessment. Assessments were conducted four weeks pre- and post-operatively and three months post-operatively with the control group being assessed at the same time intervals. The post-operative rehabilitation involved hospitalization (1st week), home-based (2nd-4th weeks), and outpatient clinic (5th-12th weeks) programs. Results: group I had significantly lower TUG and SC time compared with group II four weeks and three months post-operatively. Moreover, the BBS scores increased significantly and the pain scores and TUG and SC time decreased significantly four weeks and three months post-operatively compared with four weeks pre- operatively in group. But no significant differences in BBS scores four weeks and three months post-operatively in group I compared with group II. Interpretation/Conclusion : Patients with THA still have defects in proprioception, so they needs more concentration on proprioception training.

Keywords: dynamic balance, functional performance, hip arthroplasty, total

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25 Gait Analysis in Total Knee Arthroplasty

Authors: Neeraj Vij, Christian Leber, Kenneth Schmidt


Introduction: Total knee arthroplasty is a common procedure. It is well known that the biomechanics of the knee do not fully return to their normal state. Motion analysis has been used to study the biomechanics of the knee after total knee arthroplasty. The purpose of this scoping review is to summarize the current use of gait analysis in total knee arthroplasty and to identify the preoperative motion analysis parameters for which a systematic review aimed at determining the reliability and validity may be warranted. Materials and Methods: This IRB-exempt scoping review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) checklist strictly. Five search engines were searched for a total of 279 articles. Articles underwent a title and abstract screening process followed by full-text screening. Included articles were placed in the following sections: the role of gait analysis as a research tool for operative decisions, other research applications for motion analysis in total knee arthroplasty, gait analysis as a tool in predicting radiologic outcomes, gait analysis as a tool in predicting clinical outcomes. Results: Eleven articles studied gait analysis as a research tool in studying operative decisions. Motion analysis is currently used to study surgical approaches, surgical techniques, and implant choice. Five articles studied other research applications for motion analysis in total knee arthroplasty. Other research applications for motion analysis currently include studying the role of the unicompartmental knee arthroplasty and novel physical therapy protocols aimed at optimizing post-operative care. Two articles studied motion analysis as a tool for predicting radiographic outcomes. Preoperative gait analysis has identified parameters than can predict postoperative tibial component migration. 15 articles studied motion analysis in conjunction with clinical scores. Conclusions: There is a broad range of applications within the research domain of total knee arthroplasty. The potential application is likely larger. However, the current literature is limited by vague definitions of ‘gait analysis’ or ‘motion analysis’ and a limited number of articles with preoperative and postoperative functional and clinical measures. Knee adduction moment, knee adduction impulse, total knee range of motion, varus angle, cadence, stride length, and velocity have the potential for integration into composite clinical scores. A systematic review aimed at determining the validity, reliability, sensitivities, and specificities of these variables is warranted.

Keywords: motion analysis, joint replacement, patient-reported outcomes, knee surgery

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24 Long-Term Follow-Up of Dynamic Balance, Pain and Functional Performance in Cruciate Retaining, Posterior Stabilized Total Knee Arthroplasty

Authors: Ahmed R. Z. Baghdadi,  Mona H. Gamal Eldein


Background: With the perceived pain and poor function experienced following knee arthroplasty, patients usually feel unsatisfied. Yet, a controversy still persists on the appropriate operative technique that doesn’t affect proprioception much. Purpose: This study compared the effects of Cruciate Retaining (CR) and Posterior Stabilized (PS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA on dynamic balance, pain and functional performance following rehabilitation. Methods: Thirty patients with CRTKA (group I), thirty with PSTKA (group II) and fifteen indicated for arthroplasty but weren’t operated on yet (group III) participated in the study. The mean age was 54.53±3.44, 55.13±3.48 and 55.33±2.32 years and BMI 35.7±3.03, 35.7±1.99 and 35.73±1.03 kg/m2 for group I, II, and III respectively. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS), WOMAC pain subscale and Timed-Up-and-Go (TUG) and Stair-Climbing (SC) tests were used for assessment. Assessments were conducted four weeks pre- and post-operatively, three, six and twelve months post-operatively with the control group being assessed at the same time intervals. The post-operative rehabilitation involved hospitalization (1st week), home-based (2nd-4th weeks), and outpatient clinic (5th-12th weeks) programs, follow-up to all groups for twelve months. Results: The Mixed design MANOVA revealed that group I had significantly lower pain scores and SC time compared with group II three, six and twelve months post-operatively. Moreover, the BBS scores increased significantly and the pain scores and TUG and SC time decreased significantly six months post-operatively compared with four weeks pre- and post-operatively and three months post-operatively in group I and II with the opposite being true four weeks post-operatively. But no significant differences in BBS scores, pain scores and TUG and SC time between six and twelve months post-operatively in group I and II. Interpretation/Conclusion: CRTKA is preferable to PSTKA, possibly due to the preserved human proprioceptors in the un-excised PCL.

Keywords: dynamic balance, functional performance, knee arthroplasty, long-term

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23 Computer Aided Shoulder Prosthesis Design and Manufacturing

Authors: Didem Venus Yildiz, Murat Hocaoglu, Murat Dursun, Taner Akkan


The shoulder joint is a more complex structure than the hip or knee joints. In addition to the overall complexity of the shoulder joint, two different factors influence the insufficient outcome of shoulder replacement: the shoulder prosthesis design is far from fully developed and it is difficult to place these shoulder prosthesis due to shoulder anatomy. The glenohumeral joint is the most complex joint of the human shoulder. There are various treatments for shoulder failures such as total shoulder arthroplasty, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Due to its reverse design than normal shoulder anatomy, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty has different physiological and biomechanical properties. Post-operative achievement of this arthroplasty is depend on improved design of reverse total shoulder prosthesis. Designation achievement can be increased by several biomechanical and computational analysis. In this study, data of human both shoulders with right side fracture was collected by 3D Computer Tomography (CT) machine in dicom format. This data transferred to 3D medical image processing software (Mimics Materilise, Leuven, Belgium) to reconstruct patient’s left and right shoulders’ bones geometry. Provided 3D geometry model of the fractured shoulder was used to constitute of reverse total shoulder prosthesis by 3-matic software. Finite element (FE) analysis was conducted for comparison of intact shoulder and prosthetic shoulder in terms of stress distribution and displacements. Body weight physiological reaction force of 800 N loads was applied. Resultant values of FE analysis was compared for both shoulders. The analysis of the performance of the reverse shoulder prosthesis could enhance the knowledge of the prosthetic design.

Keywords: reverse shoulder prosthesis, biomechanics, finite element analysis, 3D printing

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22 Morphometric Study of Human Anterior and Posterior Meniscofemoral Ligaments of the Knee Joint on Thiel Embalmed Cadavers

Authors: Mohammad Alobaidy, David Nicoll, Tracey Wilkinson


Background: Many patients suffer postoperative knee stability after total knee arthroplasty (joint replacement) involving posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) sacrificing or retaining, but is not clear whether the meniscofemoral ligaments (MFLs) are retained during these procedures; their function in terms of knee stability is not well established in the literature. Purpose: Macroscopic, detailed, morphometric investigation of the anterior and posterior MFLs of the knee joint was undertaken to assist understanding of knee stability after total knee arthroplasty and ligament reconstruction. Methods: Dissection of eighty Thiel embalmed knees from 19 male and 21 female cadavers was conducted, mean age 77 (range 47-99 years). The origin and insertion of the anterior and posterior MFLs were measured using high accuracy, calibrated, digital Vernier calipers at 0.01mm. Results: The means were: anterior meniscofemoral ligament (aMFL) length 28.4 ± 2.7mm; posterior meniscofemoral ligament (pMFL) length 29 ± 3.7mm; aMFL femoral width 6.4 ± 1.7mm, mid-distance ligament width 4 ± 1.1mm, meniscal ligament width 3.9 ± 1.2mm; pMFL femoral width 5.6 ± 1.5mm, mid-distance ligament width 4.1 ± 1.1mm, meniscal ligament width 4.1 ± 1.3mm. Some of the male measurements were larger than female, with significant differences in the length of the aMFL femoral length p<0.01 and pMFL femoral length p<0.007, and width of the pMFL mid-distance p<0.04. Conclusion: This study may help explore the role of the meniscofemoral ligaments in knee stability after total knee arthroplasty with a posterior cruciate ligament retaining prosthesis. Anatomical information for Thiel embalmed knees may aid orthopaedic surgeons in ligament reconstruction.

Keywords: anterior and posterior meniscofemoral ligaments, morphometric analysis, Thiel embalmed knees, knee arthroplasty

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21 Revision of Arthroplasty in Rheumatoid and Osteoarthritis: Methotrexate and Radiographic Lucency in RA Patients

Authors: Mike T. Wei, Douglas N. Mintz, Lisa A. Mandl, Arielle W. Fein, Jayme C. Burket, Yuo-Yu Lee, Wei-Ti Huang, Vivian P. Bykerk, Mark P. Figgie, Edward F. Di Carlo, Bruce N. Cronstein, Susan M. Goodman


Background/Purpose: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients have excellent total hip arthroplasty (THA) survival, and methotrexate (MTX), an anti-inflammatory disease modifying drug which may affect bone reabsorption, may play a role. The purpose of this study is to determine the diagnosis leading to revision THA (rTHA) in RA patients and to assess the association of radiographic lucency with MTX use. Methods: All patients with validated diagnosis of RA in the institution’s THA registry undergoing rTHA from May 2007 - February 2011 were eligible. Diagnosis leading to rTHA and medication use was determined by chart review. Osteolysis was evaluated on available radiographs by measuring maximum lucency in each Gruen zone. Differences within RA patients with/without MTX in osteolysis, demographics, and medications were assessed with chi-squared, Fisher's exact tests or Mann-Whitney U tests as appropriate. The error rate for multiple comparisons of lucency in the different Gruen zones was corrected via false discovery rate methods. A secondary analysis was performed to determine differences in diagnoses leading to revision between RA and matched OA controls (2:1 match by sex age +/- 5 years). OA exclusion criteria included presence of rheumatic diseases, use of MTX, and lack of records. Results: 51 RA rTHA were identified and compared with 103 OA. Mean age for RA was 57.7 v 59.4 years for OA (p = 0.240). 82.4% RA were female v 83.5% OA (p = 0.859). RA had lower BMI than OA (25.5 v 28.2; p = 0.166). There was no difference in diagnosis leading to rTHA, including infection (RA 3.9 v OA 6.8%; p = 0.719) or dislocation (RA 23.5 v OA 23.3%; p = 0.975). There was no significant difference in the length of time the implant was in before revision: RA 11.0 v OA 8.8 years (p = 0.060). Among RA with/without MTX, there was no difference in use of biologics (30.0 v 43.3%, p = 0.283), steroids (47.6 v 50.0%, p = 0.867) or bisphosphonates (23.8 v 33.3%, p = 0.543). There was no difference in rTHA diagnosis with/without MTX, including loosening (52.4 v 56.7%, p = 0.762). There was no significant difference in lucencies with MTX use in any Gruen zone. Patients with MTX had femoral stem subsidence of 3.7mm v no subsidence without MTX (p = 0.006). Conclusion: There was no difference in the diagnosis leading to rTHR in RA and OA, although RA trended longer prior to rTHA. In this small retrospective study, there were no significant differences associated with MTX exposure or radiographic lucency among RA patients. The significance of subsidence is not clear. Further study of arthroplasty survival in RA patients is warranted.

Keywords: hip arthroplasty, methotrexate, revision arthroplasty, rheumatoid arthritis

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20 Impact of Preoperative Physiotherapy Care in Total Hip Arthroplasty in Slovakia and Austria

Authors: Peter Kutis, Vladimir Littva


Nowadays, it is necessary to ensure that this reduction in costs is not at the expense of the quality of health care and future medical success. In general, physiotherapy for total hip joint arthroplasty is considered to be a routine matter that deals mainly with mobility training, increased muscular strength, and basic day-to-day activities such as bed-to-chair transition, standing, and walking. Within the KEGA project no. 003KU-4-2021, we decided to investigate preoperative physiotherapy care in Slovakia and Austria in total hip arthroplasty patients to shortened overall recovery. Research Sample and Methods: The sample comprised 498 respondents –patients who were indicated to total hip arthroplasty on the territory of Slovakia and Austria. There were 130 women in Slovakia and 135 women in Austria. The numbers of men were 120 in Slovakia and 113 men in Austria. The age of respondents was between 40 and 85 years of age. As a method of our research, we chose a non-standardized questionnaire, which consisted of three parts. The first part for the initial examination of the patient contained the identification of the patient according to the assigned number and subsequently 19 questions conditioned by the physical examination and evaluation of the patients. The second part of our questionnaire was completed after the patient's hospitalization and contained 10 questions that were conditioned by the patient's examination. The last third part for the overall assessment of the patient's state of health consisted of 12 questions conditioned by the patient's examination. This part was performed at the last meeting with the patient at the end of the treatment. All data were statistically processed by SPSS 25. Results: All data were evaluated at a significance level of p = 0.05. From the comparison of patients who underwent preoperative preparation, we can clearly state that the total duration of treatment is significantly shorter. A t-test of two mean values with uneven variance was used to verify the validity of the assumption. The total duration of treatment in patients with preoperative preparation was on average 92,635 days and without preoperative preparation was on average 135,884 days (t-Stat = 44,52784, t Critical one-tail = 1,648187415, t Critical two-tail = 1,965157). Conclusion: The results obtained during the research show the importance of adequate preoperative physiotherapeutic preparation of the patient. The results of total hip joint arthroplasty studies showed a significant reduction in a hospital stay as well as shortened total treatment time.

Keywords: THA, physiotherapy, recovery, preoperative physiotherapy care

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19 Ultrasonography of Low Extremities Veins Before and After Replacement of Knee Joint by Endoprosthesis

Authors: A. V. Alabut, V. D. Sikilinda, N. J. Nelasov, O. L. Eroshenko, M. N. Morgunov, I. V. Koroleva


We have analyzed the results of treatment of 204 patients with knee prosthetic arthroplasty. For the purpose of active delineation of vascular pathology triplex sonography of arterial and venous vessels of low extremities was performed in all cases in the preoperative period. When it was necessary, reconstructive vascular surgery was implemented to improve peripheral circulation and reduce the hazard of thrombosis after knee replacement. The combination of specific and nonspecific methods of thromboprophylaxis was used in perioperative period. On 7-10 day and 2.5-3 month after prosthetic arthroplasty, all patients iteratively underwent triple sonography. In case of detection of floating thrombus, urgent venous ligation was performed. Active diagnostics of venous thrombosis gave the opportunity to avoid fatal pulmonary embolism.

Keywords: knee replacement, venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, vascular surgery

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18 The Effects of Inferior Tilt Fixation on a Glenoid Components in Reverse Shoulder-Arthroplasty

Authors: Soo Min Kim, Soo-Won Chae, Soung-Yon Kim, Haea Lee, Ju Yong Kang, Juneyong Lee, Seung-Ho Han


Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) has become an effective treatment option for cuff tear arthropathy and massive, irreparable rotator cuff tears and indications for its use are expanding. Numerous methods for optimal fixation of the glenoid component have been suggested, such as inferior overhang, inferior tilt, to maximize initial fixation and prevent glenoid component loosening. The inferior tilt fixation of a glenoid component has been suggested, which is expected to decrease scapular notching and to improve the stability of a glenoid component fixation in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Inferior tilt fixation of the glenoid component has been suggested, which can improve stability and, because it provides the most uniform compressive forces and imparts the least amount of tensile forces and micromotion, reduce the likelihood of mechanical failure. Another study reported that glenoid component inferior tilt improved impingement-free range of motion as well as minimized the scapular notching. Several authors have shown that inferior tilt of a glenoid component reduces scapular notching. However, controversy still exists regarding its importance in the literature. In this study the influence of inferior tilt fixation on the primary stability of a glenoid component has been investigated. Finite element models were constructed from cadaveric scapulae and glenoid components were implanted with neutral and 10° inferior tilts. Most previous biomechanical studies regarding the effect of glenoid component inferior tilt used a solid rigid polyurethane foam or sawbones block, not cadaveric scapulae, to evaluate the stability of the RTSA. Relative micromotions at the bone-glenoid component interface, and the distribution of bone stresses under the glenoid component and around the screws were analyzed and compared between neutral and 10° inferior tilt groups. Contact area between bone and screws and cut surface area of the cancellous bone exposed after reaming of the glenoid have also been investigated because of the fact that cancellous and cortical bone thickness vary depending on the resection level of the inferior glenoid bone. The greater relative micromotion of the bone-glenoid component interface occurred in the 10° inferior tilt group than in the neutral tilt group, especially at the inferior area of the bone-glenoid component interface. Bone stresses under the glenoid component and around the screws were also higher in the 10° inferior tilt group than in the neutral tilt group, especially at the inferior third of the glenoid bone surface under the glenoid component and inferior scapula. Thus inferior tilt fixation of the glenoid component may adversely affect the primary stability and longevity of the reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.

Keywords: finite element analysis, glenoid component, inferior tilt, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty

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17 Malposition of Femoral Component in Total Hip Arthroplasty

Authors: Renate Krassnig, Gloria M. Hohenberger, Uldis Berzins, Stefen Fischerauer


Background: Only a few reports discuss the effectiveness of intraoperative radiographs for placing femoral components. Therefore there is no international standard in using intraoperative imaging in the proceeding of total hip replacement. Method: Case report; an 84-year-old female patient underwent changing the components of the Total hip arthroplasty (THA) because of aseptic loosening. Due to circumstances, the surgeon decided to implant a cemented femoral component. The procedure was without any significant abnormalities. The first postoperative radiograph was planned after recovery – as usual. The x-ray imaging showed a misplaced femoral component. Therefore a CT-scan was performed additionally and the malposition of the cemented femoral component was confirmed. The patient had to undergo another surgery – removing of the cemented femoral component and implantation of a new well placed one. Conclusion: Intraoperative imaging of the femoral component is not a common standard but this case shows that intraoperative imaging is a useful method for detecting errors and gives the surgeon the opportunity to correct errors intraoperatively.

Keywords: femoral component, intraoperative imaging, malplacement, revison

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16 A Next-Generation Pin-On-Plate Tribometer for Use in Arthroplasty Material Performance Research

Authors: Lewis J. Woollin, Robert I. Davidson, Paul Watson, Philip J. Hyde


Introduction: In-vitro testing of arthroplasty materials is of paramount importance when ensuring that they can withstand the performance requirements encountered in-vivo. One common machine used for in-vitro testing is a pin-on-plate tribometer, an early stage screening device that generates data on the wear characteristics of arthroplasty bearing materials. These devices test vertically loaded rotating cylindrical pins acting against reciprocating plates, representing the bearing surfaces. In this study, a pin-on-plate machine has been developed that provides several improvements over current technology, thereby progressing arthroplasty bearing research. Historically, pin-on-plate tribometers have been used to investigate the performance of arthroplasty bearing materials under conditions commonly encountered during a standard gait cycle; nominal operating pressures of 2-6 MPa and an operating frequency of 1 Hz are typical. There has been increased interest in using pin-on-plate machines to test more representative in-vivo conditions, due to the drive to test 'beyond compliance', as well as their testing speed and economic advantages over hip simulators. Current pin-on-plate machines do not accommodate the increased performance requirements associated with more extreme kinematic conditions, therefore a next-generation pin-on-plate tribometer has been developed to bridge the gap between current technology and future research requirements. Methodology: The design was driven by several physiologically relevant requirements. Firstly, an increased loading capacity was essential to replicate the peak pressures that occur in the natural hip joint during running and chair-rising, as well as increasing the understanding of wear rates in obese patients. Secondly, the introduction of mid-cycle load variation was of paramount importance, as this allows for an approximation of the loads present in a gait cycle to be applied and to test the fatigue properties of materials. Finally, the rig must be validated against previous-generation pin-on-plate and arthroplasty wear data. Results: The resulting machine is a twelve station device that is split into three sets of four stations, providing an increased testing capacity compared to most current pin-on-plate tribometers. The loading of the pins is generated using a pneumatic system, which can produce contact pressures of up to 201 MPa on a 3.2 mm² round pin face. This greatly exceeds currently achievable contact pressures in literature and opens new research avenues such as testing rim wear of mal-positioned hip implants. Additionally, the contact pressure of each set can be changed independently of the others, allowing multiple loading conditions to be tested simultaneously. Using pneumatics also allows the applied pressure to be switched ON/OFF mid-cycle, another feature not currently reported elsewhere, which allows for investigation into intermittent loading and material fatigue. The device is currently undergoing a series of validation tests using Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight-Polyethylene pins and 316L Stainless Steel Plates (polished to a Ra < 0.05 µm). The operating pressures will be between 2-6 MPa, operating at 1 Hz, allowing for validation of the machine against results reported previously in the literature. The successful production of this next-generation pin-on-plate tribometer will, following its validation, unlock multiple previously unavailable research avenues.

Keywords: arthroplasty, mechanical design, pin-on-plate, total joint replacement, wear testing

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15 Total Knee Arthroplasty in a Haemophilia: A Patient with High Titre of Inhibitor Using Recombinant Factor VIIa

Authors: Mohammad J. Mortazavi, Arvin Najafi, Pejman Mansouri


Hemophilia A is simply described as deficiency of factor VIII(FVIII) and patients with this disorder have bleeding complications in different organs. By using the recombinant factor VIII in these patients, elective orthopedic surgeries have been done approximately in 40 last years. About 10-30 % of these patients have bleeding complications in their surgeries even by using recombinant factor VIII because of their inhibitor against FVIII molecule. Preoperative haemostatic management in these patients is challenging. We treated a 28-year-old male patient with hemophilia A with FVIII inhibitor which had been detected when he was14 years old (with the titer 54 Bethesda unit(BU)) scheduled for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We use 90 µg/kg rFVIIa just before the surgery and every 2 hours during surgery. The patient did not have any significant hemorrhage during the surgery and after that. For the 2 days after surgery, the rFVIIa repeated every 2 hours as the same as preoperative dosage(90 µg/kg) and for another 2 days of postoperative admission it continued every 4 hours. After 4th day, the rFVIIa continued every 6 hours with the same dosage until the sixth day from the surgery, and finally the patient were discharged about two weeks after surgery. Seven days after the discharge, he came back for the follow up visit. On the follow up examination, the site of the surgery had neither infection hemarthroses signs.

Keywords: hemophilia, factor VIII inhibitor, total knee replacement, rFVIIa

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14 Hybrid versus Cemented Fixation in Total Knee Arthroplasty: Mid-Term Follow-Up

Authors: Pedro Gomes, Luís Sá Castelo, António Lopes, Marta Maio, Pedro Mota, Adélia Avelar, António Marques Dias


Introduction: Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) has contributed to improvement of patient`s quality of life, although it has been associated with some complications including component loosening and polyethylene wear. To prevent these complications various fixation techniques have been employed. Hybrid TKA with cemented tibial and cementless femoral components have shown favourable outcomes, although it still lack of consensus in the literature. Objectives: To evaluate the clinical and radiographic results of hybrid versus cemented TKA with an average 5 years follow-up and analyse the survival rates. Methods: A retrospective study of 125 TKAs performed in 92 patients at our institution, between 2006 to 2008, with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. The same prosthesis was used in all knees. Hybrid TKA fixation was performed in 96 knees, with a mean follow-up of 4,8±1,7 years (range, 2–8,3 years) and 29 TKAs received fully cemented fixation with a mean follow-up of 4,9±1,9 years (range, 2-8,3 years). Selection for hybrid fixation was nonrandomized and based on femoral component fit. The Oxford Knee Score (OKS 0-48) was evaluated for clinical assessment and Knee Society Roentgenographic Evaluation Scoring System was used for radiographic outcome. The survival rate was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, with failures defined as revision of either the tibial or femoral component for aseptic failures and all-causes (aseptic and infection). Analysis of survivorship data was performed using the log-rank test. SPSS (v22) was the computer program used for statistical analysis. Results: The hybrid group consisted of 72 females (75%) and 24 males (25%), with mean age 64±7 years (range, 50-78 years). The preoperative diagnosis was osteoarthritis (OA) in 94 knees (98%), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in 1 knee (1%) and Posttraumatic arthritis (PTA) in 1 Knee (1%). The fully cemented group consisted of 23 females (79%) and 6 males (21%), with mean age 65±7 years (range, 47-78 years). The preoperative diagnosis was OA in 27 knees (93%), PTA in 2 knees (7%). The Oxford Knee Scores were similar between the 2 groups (hybrid 40,3±2,8 versus cemented 40,2±3). The percentage of radiolucencies seen on the femoral side was slightly higher in the cemented group 20,7% than the hybrid group 11,5% p0.223. In the cemented group there were significantly more Zone 4 radiolucencies compared to the hybrid group (13,8% versus 2,1% p0,026). Revisions for all causes were performed in 4 of the 96 hybrid TKAs (4,2%) and 1 of the 29 cemented TKAs (3,5%). The reason for revision was aseptic loosening in 3 hybrid TKAs and 1 of the cemented TKAs. Revision was performed for infection in 1 hybrid TKA. The hybrid group demonstrated a 7 years survival rate of 93% for all-cause failures and 94% for aseptic loosening. No significant difference in survivorship was seen between the groups for all-cause failures or aseptic failures. Conclusions: Hybrid TKA yields similar intermediate-term results and survival rates as fully cemented total knee arthroplasty and remains a viable option in knee joint replacement surgery.

Keywords: hybrid, survival rate, total knee arthroplasty, orthopaedic surgery

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13 Surgical Prep-Related Burns in Laterally Positioned Hip Procedures

Authors: B. Kenny, M. Dixon, A. Boshell


The use of alcoholic surgical prep was recently introduced into the Royal Newcastle Center for elective procedures. In the past 3 months there have been a significant number of burns believed to be related to ‘pooling’ of this surgical prep in patients undergoing procedures where they are placed in the lateral position with hip bolsters. The aim of the audit was to determine the reason for the burns, analyze what pre-existing factors may contribute to the development of the burns and what can be changed to prevent further burns occurring. All patients undergoing a procedure performed on the hip who were placed in the lateral position with sacral and anterior, superior iliac spine (ASIS) support with ‘bolsters’ were included in the audit. Patients who developed a ‘burn’ were recorded, details of the surgery, demographics, surgical prep used and length of surgery were obtained as well as photographs taken to document the burn. Measures were then taken to prevent further burns and the efficacy was documented. Overall 14 patients developed burns over the ipsilateral ASIS. Of these, 13 were Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) and 1 was a removal of femoral nail. All patients had Chlorhexidine 0.5% in Alcohol 70% Tinted Red surgical preparation or Betadine Alcoholic Skin Prep (70% etoh). Patients were set up in the standard lateral decubitus position with sacral and bilateral ASIS bolsters with a valband covering. 86% of patients were found to have pre-existing hypersensitivities to various substances. There is very little literature besides a few case reports on surgical prep-related burns. The case reports that do exist are related to the use of tourniquet-related burns and there is no mention in the literature examining ‘bolster’ related burns. The burns are hypothesized to be caused by pooling of the alcoholic solution which is amplified by the use of Valband.

Keywords: arthroplasty, chemical burns, wounds, rehabilitation

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12 Plantar Neuro-Receptor Activation in Total Knee Arthroplasty Patients: Impact on Clinical Function, Pain, and Stiffness - A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Woolfrey K, Woolfrey M, Bolton CL, Warchuk D


Objectives: Osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease of adults worldwide. Despite total knee arthroplasty (TKA) demonstrating high levels of success, 20% of patients report dissatisfaction with their result. VOXX Wellness Stasis Socks are embedded with a proprietary pattern of neuro-receptor activation points that have been proven to activate a precise neuro-response, according to the pattern theory of haptic perception, which stimulates improvements in pain and function. The use of this technology in TKA patients may prove beneficial as an adjunct to recovery as many patients suffer from deficits to their proprioceptive system caused by ligamentous damage and alterations to mechanoreceptors during the procedure. We hypothesized that VOXX Wellness Stasis Socks are a safe, cost-effective, and easily scalable strategy to support TKA patients through their recovery. Design: Double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized trial. Participants: Patients scheduled to receive TKA were considered eligible for inclusion in the trial. Interventions: Intervention group (I): VOXX Wellness Stasis socks containing receptor point-activation technology. Control group (C): VOXX Wellness Stasis socks without receptor point-activation technology. Sock use during the waking hours x 6 weeks. Main Outcome Measures: Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire completed at baseline, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks to assess pain, stiffness, and physical function. Results: Data analysis using SPSS software. P-values, effect sizes, and confidence intervals are reported to assess clinical relevance of the finding. Physical status classifications were compared using t-test. Within-subject and between-subject differences in the mean WOMAC were analyzed by ANOVA. Effect size was analyzed using Cramer’s V. Consistent improvement in WOMAC scores for pain and stiffness at 2 weeks post op in the I over the C group. The womac scores assessing physical function showed a consistent improvement at both 2 and 6 weeks post op in the I group compared to C group. Conclusions: VOXX proved to be a low cost, safe intervention in TKA to help patients improve with regard to pain, stiffness, and physical function. Disclosures: None

Keywords: osteoarthritis, RCT, pain management, total knee arthroplasty

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11 A Comparison and Discussion of Modern Anaesthetic Techniques in Elective Lower Limb Arthroplasties

Authors: P. T. Collett, M. Kershaw


Introduction: The discussion regarding which method of anesthesia provides better results for lower limb arthroplasty is a continuing debate. Multiple meta-analysis has been performed with no clear consensus. The current recommendation is to use neuraxial anesthesia for lower limb arthroplasty; however, the evidence to support this decision is weak. The Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) society has recommended, either technique can be used as part of a multimodal anesthetic regimen. A local study was performed to see if the current anesthetic practice correlates with the current recommendations and to evaluate the efficacy of the different techniques utilized. Method: 90 patients who underwent total hip or total knee replacements at Nevill Hall Hospital between February 2019 to July 2019 were reviewed. Data collected included the anesthetic technique, day one opiate use, pain score, and length of stay. The data was collected from anesthetic charts, and the pain team follows up forms. Analysis: The average of patients undergoing lower limb arthroplasty was 70. Of those 83% (n=75) received a spinal anaesthetic and 17% (n=15) received a general anaesthetic. For patients undergoing knee replacement under general anesthetic the average day, one pain score was 2.29 and 1.94 if a spinal anesthetic was performed. For hip replacements, the scores were 1.87 and 1.8, respectively. There was no statistical significance between these scores. Day 1 opiate usage was significantly higher in knee replacement patients who were given a general anesthetic (45.7mg IV morphine equivalent) vs. those who were operated on under spinal anesthetic (19.7mg). This difference was not noticeable in hip replacement patients. There was no significant difference in length of stay between the two anesthetic techniques. Discussion: There was no significant difference in the day one pain score between the patients who received a general or spinal anesthetic for either knee or hip replacements. The higher pain scores in the knee replacement group overall are consistent with this being a more painful procedure. This is a small patient population, which means any difference between the two groups is unlikely to be representative of a larger population. The pain scale has 4 points, which means it is difficult to identify a significant difference between pain scores. Conclusion: There is currently little standardization between the different anesthetic approaches utilized in Nevill Hall Hospital. This is likely due to the lack of adherence to a standardized anesthetic regimen. In accordance with ERAS recommends a standard anesthetic protocol is a core component. The results of this study and the guidance from the ERAS society will support the implementation of a new health board wide ERAS protocol.

Keywords: anaesthesia, orthopaedics, intensive care, patient centered decision making, treatment escalation

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10 Comparison of the Proprioception Sense and Standing Balance in Patients with Osteoarthritis Before and After Total Knee Arthroplasty Surgery

Authors: S. Daneshi, G. Shahcheraghi, F. Ghaffarinejad


Back ground: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis, affecting millions of people around the world during the aging process. Knee joint proprioception sense decrease with OA and Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) surgery may affect them. We investigated two parameters of proprioception sense (the joint position sense and kinesthesia) and standing balance in affected limbs before and after TKA, in patient with Knee OA. Methods and Materials: In this Analytic study, 10 patients who were candidate for TKA during two months in Dena Hospital of Shiraz, selected for further analysis. All of cases were female in range of 55-70 years old. Participants assessed before and two weeks after TKA using three instruments: electrogoniometer and continuous passive motion (CPM) to assess Knee joint position sense and kinesthesia in 20 and 45 degrees; and chronometer to assess duration of standing balance on affected leg with open and closed eyes. Results: To examine differences between before and after of TKA scorings Willcoxon Signed Rank and Mann-Whitney was performed which indicated no significant differences between knee joint position sense and kinesthesia in 20 and 45 degrees (P>0.05) and no significant differences between Standing Balance in a patient with knee OA before and after TKA (P>0.05). Conclusion: The study indicates that, OA can affect proprioception sense and standing balance but TKA doesn’t have any effect on these parameters. Intra articular structures such as cruciate ligaments and mines are responsible for proprioception sense in normal knee joint. Since in severe knee OA the number of mechanoreceptors in these intra articular structures decrease and their function reduce more than normal knee joint, so the anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) become defected, thus after TKA surgery which this ligament is removed no significant change was found in proprioception sense. As a result of involving proprioception sense, muscles strength and the function of vestibular system in balance, standing balance did not show significant difference before and after TKA.

Keywords: knee joint, proprioception sense, standing balance, rehabilitation sciences

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9 An Intelligent Steerable Drill System for Orthopedic Surgery

Authors: Wei Yao


A steerable and flexible drill is needed in orthopaedic surgery. For example, osteoarthritis is a common condition affecting millions of people for which joint replacement is an effective treatment which improves the quality and duration of life in elderly sufferers. Conventional surgery is not very accurate. Computer navigation and robotics can help increase the accuracy. For example, In Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA), robotic surgery is currently practiced mainly on acetabular side helping cup positioning and orientation. However, femoral stem positioning mostly uses hand-rasping method rather than robots for accurate positioning. The other case for using a flexible drill in surgery is Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Reconstruction. The majority of ACL Reconstruction failures are primarily caused by technical mistakes and surgical errors resulting from drilling the anatomical bone tunnels required to accommodate the ligament graft. The proposed new steerable drill system will perform orthopedic surgery through curved tunneling leading to better accuracy and patient outcomes. It may reduce intra-operative fractures, dislocations, early failure and leg length discrepancy by making possible a new level of precision. This technology is based on a robotically assisted, steerable, hand-held flexible drill, with a drill-tip tracking device and a multi-modality navigation system. The critical differentiator is that this robotically assisted surgical technology now allows the surgeon to prepare 'patient specific' and more anatomically correct 'curved' bone tunnels during orthopedic surgery rather than drilling straight holes as occurs currently with existing surgical tools. The flexible and steerable drill and its navigation system for femoral milling in total hip arthroplasty had been tested on sawbones to evaluate the accuracy of the positioning and orientation of femoral stem relative to the pre-operative plan. The data show the accuracy of the navigation system is better than traditional hand-rasping method.

Keywords: navigation, robotic orthopedic surgery, steerable drill, tracking

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8 Vancomycin Resistance Enterococcus and Implications to Trauma and Orthopaedic Care

Authors: O. Davies, K. Veravalli, P. Panwalkar, M. Tofighi, P. Butterick, B. Healy, A. Mofidi


Vancomycin resistant enterococcus infection is a condition that usually impacts ICUs, transplant, dialysis, and cancer units, often as a nosocomial infection. After an outbreak in the acute trauma and orthopaedic unit in Morriston hospital, we aimed to access the conditions that predispose VRE infections in our unit. Thirteen cases of VRE infection and five cases of VRE colonisations were identified in patients who were treated for orthopaedic care between 1/1/2020 and 1/11/2021. Cases were reviewed to identify predisposing factors, specifically looking at age, presenting condition and treatment, presence of infection and antibiotic care, active haemo-oncological condition, long term renal dialysis, previous hospitalisation, VRE predisposition, and clearance (PREVENT) scores, and outcome of care. The presenting condition, treatment, presence of postoperative infection, VRE scores, age was compared between colonised and the infected cohort. VRE type in both colonised and infection group was Enterococcus Faecium in all but one patient. The colonised group had the same age (T=0.6 P>0.05) and sex (2=0.115, p=0.74), presenting condition and treatment which consisted of peri-femoral fixation or arthroplasty in all patients. The infected group had one case of myelodysplasia and four cases of chronic renal failure requiring dialysis. All of the infected patient had sustained an infected complication of their fracture fixation or arthroplasty requiring reoperation and antibiotics. The infected group had an average VRE predisposition score of 8.5 versus the score of 3 in the colonised group (F=36, p<0.001). PREVENT score was 7 in the infected group and 2 in the colonised group(F=153, p<0.001). Six patients(55%) succumbed to their infection, and one VRE infection resulted in limb loss. In the orthopaedic cohort, VRE infection is a nosocomial condition that has peri-femoral predilection and is seen in association with immunosuppression or renal failure. The VRE infection cohort has been treated for infective complication of original surgery weeks prior to VRE infection. Based on our findings, we advise avoidance of infective complications, change of practice in use of antibiotics and use radical surgery and surveillance for VRE infections beyond infective precautions. PREVENT score shows that the infected group are unlikely to clear their VRE in the future but not the colonised group.

Keywords: surgical site infection, enterococcus, orthopaedic surgery, vancomycin resistance

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7 Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

Authors: Ail Akbar Emamverdian, Neriman Özada, Atabak Rahimzadeh Ilkhchi, Zahra Emamverdian


The reverse shoulder prosthesis is an innovative procedure design to treat of (GH) joint problems with severe rotator cuff deficiency. The original reverse shoulder prosthesis was invented by France surgery in1985 and has been in clinical use in the United States in 2004. These prostheses consist of baseplate that attached to the glenoid, in order to hold a spherical component, and humeral part consist of polyethylene insert which is flat. This prosthesis is the ‘reverse’ configuration. The indications for the reverse prosthesis are: (1) treating failed hemi arthroplasty with irrecoverable rotator cuff tears, (2) relief of painful arthritis associated with cuff tear arthropathy, (3) instauration after tumor resection, (4) pseudo paralysis because of irrecoverable rotator cuff tears (5) some fractures of the shoulder which reverse shoulder prostheses is only the option for treatment. This prosthesis resulting in relief of pain and decreasing the range of motion in above indications. However, this prosthesis and its applications such as notching of the scapula, dislocation of the prosthesis parts and acromial stress fractures. In this article the reverse shoulder prostheses, indication has been reviewed. This study can make clear aspect of reverse shoulder prosthesis that can help to find some solution in future.

Keywords: prostheses, complications, reverse shoulder prosthesis, indications

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6 Neural Networks for Distinguishing the Performance of Two Hip Joint Implants on the Basis of Hip Implant Side and Ground Reaction Force

Authors: L. Parisi


In this research work, neural networks were applied to classify two types of hip joint implants based on the relative hip joint implant side speed and three components of each ground reaction force. The condition of walking gait at normal velocity was used and carried out with each of the two hip joint implants assessed. Ground reaction forces’ kinetic temporal changes were considered in the first approach followed but discarded in the second one. Ground reaction force components were obtained from eighteen patients under such gait condition, half of which had a hip implant type I-II, whilst the other half had the hip implant, defined as type III by Orthoload®. After pre-processing raw gait kinetic data and selecting the time frames needed for the analysis, the ground reaction force components were used to train a MLP neural network, which learnt to distinguish the two hip joint implants in the abovementioned condition. Further to training, unknown hip implant side and ground reaction force components were presented to the neural networks, which assigned those features into the right class with a reasonably high accuracy for the hip implant type I-II and the type III. The results suggest that neural networks could be successfully applied in the performance assessment of hip joint implants.

Keywords: kinemic gait data, neural networks, hip joint implant, hip arthroplasty, rehabilitation engineering

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5 Insufficiency Fracture of Femoral Head in Patients Treated With Intramedullary Nailing for Proximal Femur Fracture

Authors: Jai Hyung Park, Eugene Kim, Jin Hun Park, Min Joon Oh


Introduction: Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head (SIF) is a rare complication; however, it has been recognized to cause femoral head collapse. Subchondral insufficiency fracture (SIF) is caused by normal or physiological stress without any trauma. It has been reported in osteoporotic patients after the fixation of the proximal femur with an Intramedullary nail. Case presentation: We reported 5 cases with SIF of the femoral head after proximal femur fracture fixation with Intra-medullary nail. All patients had osteoporosis as an underlying disease. Good reduction was achieved in all 5 patients. SIF was found from about 3 months to 4 years after the initial operation, and all the fractures were solidly united at the final diagnosis. We investigated retrospectively the feature of those cases and several factors that affected the occurrence of SIF. Discussion: There are a few discussions regarding the SIF of the femoral head. These discussions may include the predisposing risk factors, how to diagnose the SIF in osteoporotic patients, and the peri-operative factors to prevent SIF. Conclusion: Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head is a considerable complication after the internal fixation of the proximal femur. There are several factors that can be modified. If they could be controlled in the peri-operative period, SIF could be prevented or handled in advance. Other options related to arthroplasty can be considered in old osteoporotic patients.

Keywords: insufficiency fracture of femoral head, intra-medullary nail, osteoporosis, proximal femur fracture

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4 New Thromboprophylaxis Regime for Knee Arthroplasties

Authors: H. Noureddine, P. Rao, R. Guru, A. Chandratreya


The nice guidance for elective total knee replacements states that patients should be given mechanical thrombo-prophylaxis, and if no contraindications chemical thromboprophylaxis in the form of Dabigatran etexilate, Rivaroxiban, UFH, LMWH, or Fondaparinux sodium (CG92, 1.5.14, January 2010). In Practice administering oral agents has been the dominant practice as it reduces the nursing needs, and shortens hospital stay and is generally received better by patients. However, there are well documented associated bleeding risks, and their effects are difficult to reverse in case of major bleeding. Our experience with oral factor 10 inhibitors used for thromboprophylaxis was marked with several patients developing complications necessitating return to the theatre for wound washouts. This has led us to try a different protocol for thromboprophylaxis that we applied on our patients undergoing total and unicondylar knee replacements. We applied mechanical thromboprophylaxis in the form of intermittent pneumatic pressure devices, and chemical thromboprophylaxis in the form of a dose of prophylactic LMWH pre-op, then 150 mg of Aspirin to start 24 hours after the surgery and to continue for 6 weeks, alongside GI cover with PPIs or antihistamines. We also administered local anaesthetics intra-operatively in line with the ERAS protocol thus encouraging early mobilization. We have identified a cohort of 133 patients who underwent one of the aforementioned procedures in the same trust, and by the same surgeon, where this protocol was applied and examined their medical notes retrospectively with a mean follow-up period of 14 months, to identify the rate and percentage of patients who had thrombo-embolic events in the post-operative period.

Keywords: aspirin, heparin, knee arthroplasty, thromboprophylaxis

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3 Retrospective/Prospective Analysis of Guideline Implementation and Transfusion Rates

Authors: B. Kenny


The complications associated with transfusions are well documented, with the serious hazards of transfusion (SHOT) reporting system continuing to report deaths and serious morbidity due to the transfusion of allogenic blood. Many different sources including the TRICC trial, NHMRC and Cochrane recommending similar transfusion triggers/guidelines. Recent studies found the rate of infection (deep infection, wound infection, chest infection, urinary tract infection, and others) were purely a dose response relationship, increasing the Relative Risk by 3.44. It was also noted that each transfused patient stayed in hospital for one additional day. We hypothesise that providing an approved/standardised, guideline with a graphical summary of decision pathways for anaemic patients will reduce unnecessary transfusions. We retrospectively assessed patients undergoing primary knee or hip arthroplasties over a 4 year period, 1459 patients. Of these, 339 (23.24%) patients received allogenic blood transfusions and 858 units of blood were transfused, 9.14% of patients transfused had haemoglobin levels above 100 g/L, 7.67% of patients were transfused without knowing the haemoglobin level, 24 hours prior to transfusion initiation and 4.5% had possible transfusion reactions. Overall, 17% of allogenic transfusions topatients admitted to the Orthopaedic department within a 4 year period were outside NHMRC and Cochrane guidelines/recommendations. If our transfusion frequency is compared with that of other authors/hospitals, transfusion rates are consistently being high. We subsequently implemented a simple guideline for transfusion initiation. This guideline was then assessed. We found the transfusion rate post transfusion implementation to be significantly lower, without increase in patient morbidity or mortalitiy, p <0.001). Transfusion rates and patient outcome can be optimized by a simple graphical aid for decision making.

Keywords: transfusion, morbidity, mortality, neck of femur, fracture, arthroplasty, rehabilitation

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2 Biomechanics of Ceramic on Ceramic vs. Ceramic on Xlpe Total Hip Arthroplasties During Gait

Authors: Athanasios Triantafyllou, Georgios Papagiannis, Vassilios Nikolaou, Panayiotis J. Papagelopoulos, George C. Babis


In vitro measurements are widely used in order to predict THAs wear rate implementing gait kinematic and kinetic parameters. Clinical tests of materials and designs are crucial to prove the accuracy and validate such measurements. The purpose of this study is to examine the affection of THA gait kinematics and kinetics on wear during gait, the essential functional activity of humans, by comparing in vivo gait data to in vitro results. Our study hypothesis is that both implants will present the same hip joint kinematics and kinetics during gait. 127 unilateral primary cementless total hip arthroplasties were included in the research. Independent t-tests were used to identify a statistically significant difference in kinetic and kinematic data extracted from 3D gait analysis. No statistically significant differences observed at mean peak abduction, flexion and extension moments between the two groups (P.abduction= 0,125, P.flexion= 0,218, P.extension= 0,082). The kinematic measurements show no statistically significant differences too (Prom flexion-extension= 0,687, Prom abduction-adduction= 0,679). THA kinematics and kinetics during gait are important biomechanical parameters directly associated with implants wear. In vitro studies report less wear in CoC than CoXLPE when tested with the same gait cycle kinematic protocol. Our findings confirm that both implants behave identically in terms of kinematics in the clinical environment, thus strengthening in vitro results of CoC advantage. Correlated to all other significant factors that affect THA wear could address in a complete prism the wear on CoC and CoXLPE.

Keywords: total hip arthroplasty biomechanics, THA gait analysis, ceramic on ceramic kinematics, ceramic on XLPE kinetics, total hip replacement wear

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1 Cartilage Mimicking Coatings to Increase the Life-Span of Bearing Surfaces in Joint Prosthesis

Authors: L. Sánchez-Abella, I. Loinaz, H-J. Grande, D. Dupin


Aseptic loosening remains as the principal cause of revision in total hip arthroplasty (THA). For long-term implantations, submicron particles are generated in vivo due to the inherent wear of the prosthesis. When this occurs, macrophages undergo phagocytosis and secretion of bone resorptive cytokines inducing osteolysis, hence loosening of the implanted prosthesis. Therefore, new technologies are required to reduce the wear of the bearing materials and hence increase the life-span of the prosthesis. Our strategy focuses on surface modification of the bearing materials with a hydrophilic coating based on cross-linked water-soluble (meth)acrylic monomers to improve their tribological behavior. These coatings are biocompatible, with high swelling capacity and antifouling properties, mimicking the properties of natural cartilage, i.e. wear resistance with a permanent hydrated layer that prevents prosthesis damage. Cartilage mimicking based coatings may be also used to protect medical device surfaces from damage and scratches that will compromise their integrity and hence their safety. However, there are only a few reports on the mechanical and tribological characteristics of this type of coatings. Clear beneficial advantages of this coating have been demonstrated in different conditions and different materials, such as Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), Polyethylene (XLPE), Carbon-fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK), cobalt-chromium (CoCr), Stainless steel, Zirconia Toughened Alumina (ZTA) and Alumina. Using routine tribological experiments, the wear for UHMWPE substrate was decreased by 75% against alumina, ZTA and stainless steel. For PEEK-CFR substrate coated, the amount of material lost against ZTA and CrCo was at least 40% lower. Experiments on hip simulator allowed coated ZTA femoral heads and coated UHMWPE cups to be validated with a decrease of 80% of loss material. Further experiments on hip simulator adding abrasive particles (1 micron sized alumina particles) during 3 million cycles, on a total of 6 million, demonstrated a decreased of around 55% of wear compared to uncoated UHMWPE and uncoated XLPE. In conclusion, CIDETEC‘s hydrogel coating technology is versatile and can be adapted to protect a large range of surfaces, even in abrasive conditions.

Keywords: cartilage, hydrogel, hydrophilic coating, joint

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