Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1128

Search results for: Mini P. Singh

1128 Convective Boiling of CO₂ in Macro and Mini-Channels

Authors: Adonis Menezes, Julio C. Passos

Abstract:

The present work deals with the theoretical and experimental investigation of the convective boiling of CO₂ in macro and mini-channels. A review of the state of the art of convective boiling studies in mini-channels and conventional channels for operating with CO₂ was carried out, with special attention to the flow patterns and pressure drop maps in single-phase and two-phase flows. To carry out an experimental analysis of the convective boiling of CO₂, a properly instrumented experimental bench was built, which allows a parametric analysis for different thermodynamic conditions, such as mass velocities between 200 and 1300 kg/(m².s), pressures between 20 and 70bar, temperature monitoring at the entrance of the mini-channels, heat flow and pressure drop in the test section. The visualization of flow patterns was possible with the use of a high-speed CMOS camera. The results obtained are in line with those found in the literature, both for flow patterns and for the heat transfer coefficient.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, convective boiling, CO₂, mini-channels

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1127 Study on Wireless Transmission for Reconnaissance UAV with Wireless Sensor Network and Cylindrical Array of Microstrip Antennas

Authors: Chien-Chun Hung, Chun-Fong Wu

Abstract:

It is important for a commander to have real-time information to aware situations and to make decision in the battlefield. Results of modern technique developments have brought in this kind of information for military purposes. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is one of the means to gather intelligence owing to its widespread applications. It is still not clear whether or not the mini UAV with short-range wireless transmission system is used as a reconnaissance system in Taiwanese. In this paper, previous experience on the research of the sort of aerial vehicles has been applied with a data-relay system using the ZigBee modulus. The mini UAV developed is expected to be able to collect certain data in some appropriate theaters. The omni-directional antenna with high gain is also integrated into mini UAV to fit the size-reducing trend of airborne sensors. Two advantages are so far obvious. First, mini UAV can fly higher than usual to avoid being attacked from ground fires. Second, the data will be almost gathered during all maneuvering attitudes.

Keywords: mini UAV, reconnaissance, wireless transmission, ZigBee modulus

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1126 Comparison of Mini-BESTest versus Berg Balance Scale to Evaluate Balance Disorders in Parkinson's Disease

Authors: R. Harihara Prakash, Shweta R. Parikh, Sangna S. Sheth

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to explore the usefulness of the Mini-BESTest compared to the Berg Balance Scale in evaluating balance in people with Parkinson's Disease (PD) of varying severity. Evaluation were done to obtain (1) the distribution of patients scores to look for ceiling effects, (2) concurrent validity with severity of disease, and (3) the sensitivity & specificity of separating people with or without postural response deficits. Methods and Material: Seventy-seven(77) people with Parkinson's Disease were tested for balance deficits using the Berg Balance Scale, Mini-BESTest. Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) III and the Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y) disease severity scales were used for classification. Materials used in this study were case record sheet, chair without arm rests or wheels, Incline ramp, stopwatch, a box, 3 meter distance measured out and marked on the floor with tape [from chair]. Statistical analysis used: Multiple Linear regression was carried out of UPDRS jointly on the two scores for the Berg and Mini-BESTest. Receiver operating characteristic curves for classifying people into two groups based on a threshold for the H&Y score, to discriminate between mild PD versus more severe PD.Correlation co-efficient to find relativeness between the two variables. Results: The Mini-BESTest is highly correlated with the Berg (r = 0.732,P < 0.001), but avoids the ceiling compression effect of the Berg for mild PD (skewness −0.714 Berg, −0.512 Mini-BESTest). Consequently, the Mini-BESTest is more effective than the Berg for predicting UPDRS Motor score (P < 0.001 Mini-BESTest versus P = 0.72 Berg), and for discriminating between those with and without postural response deficits as measured by the H&Y (ROC).

Keywords: balance, berg balance scale, MINI BESTest, parkinson's disease

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1125 Eco-Mini Bag: Mini trash Bag for Children Environment Awareness

Authors: Asep Adianto, Rinda Ulfah L., Wellya Wichi M., Lasmaria Manik

Abstract:

Garbage is the waste result of daily human activity which is in some to countries can leads to a crucial problem. It is realized that garbage can brings to disastrous consequences for the environment and humans. Piles of garbage will cause to overflow disaster and health problems for human being. Basically, garbage can be processed into recycled products or other utilization. However, in some cases, awareness of environment cleanliness by throwing the garbage to the dustbin is still lacking, in both adults and children. Children tend to do things based on their visual observations without thinking about the impact of their actions. Associated with awareness of cleanliness, children often littering due to the reluctance on throwing garbage to the dustbin because in some place, it’s not that easy to find where the dustbin is. The obstacle should be accommodated by making some kind of compatible dustbin. In addition, the influence of the social environment and lack of education to environmental concerns makes it even worse. Therefore, we need a method to educate people, especially children, to always care about the environment and neighborhood they live in. Because of the intended target is children, the required method should be fun, easy to do, and it doesn’t contain any compulsion act. Therefore, Eco-Mini Bag is one of considerable method to educate children in society to become more aware about environment cleanliness. Eco-Mini bag is a kind of compatible dustbin and it’s going to prevent the children not to throwing garbage in reckless way. In brief, Eco-Mini bag can increase the environment awareness on children and the whole society through exciting and convenience way.

Keywords: children, eco-mini bag, environment, garbage

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1124 Design and Optimization of a Mini High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Multi-Role Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Vishaal Subramanian, Annuatha Vinod Kumar, Santosh Kumar Budankayala, M. Senthil Kumar

Abstract:

This paper discusses the aerodynamic and structural design, simulation and optimization of a mini-High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) UAV. The applications of this mini HALE UAV vary from aerial topological surveys, quick first aid supply, emergency medical blood transport, search and relief activates to border patrol, surveillance and estimation of forest fire progression. Although classified as a mini UAV according to UVS International, our design is an amalgamation of the features of ‘mini’ and ‘HALE’ categories, combining the light weight of the ‘mini’ and the high altitude ceiling and endurance of the HALE. Designed with the idea of implementation in India, it is in strict compliance with the UAS rules proposed by the office of the Director General of Civil Aviation. The plane can be completely automated or have partial override control and is equipped with an Infra-Red camera and a multi coloured camera with on-board storage or live telemetry, GPS system with Geo Fencing and fail safe measures. An additional of 1.5 kg payload can be attached to three major hard points on the aircraft and can comprise of delicate equipment or releasable payloads. The paper details the design, optimization process and the simulations performed using various software such as Design Foil, XFLR5, Solidworks and Ansys.

Keywords: aircraft, endurance, HALE, high altitude, long range, UAV, unmanned aerial vehicle

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1123 Well-being of Lagos Urban Mini-bus Drivers: The Influence of Age and Marital Status

Authors: Bolajoko I. Malomo, Maryam O. Yusuf

Abstract:

Lagos urban mini-bus drivers play a critical role in the transportation sector. The current major mode of transportation within Lagos metropolis remains road transportation and this confirms the relevance of urban mini-bus drivers in transporting the populace to their various destinations. Other modes of transportation such as the train and waterways are currently inadequate. Various threats to the well-being of urban bus drivers include congested traffic typical of modern day lifestyles, dwindling financial returns due to long hours in traffic, fewer hours of sleep, inadequate diet, time pressure, and assaults related to fare disputes. Several health-related problems have been documented to be associated with urban bus driving. For instance, greater rates of hypertension, obesity and cholesterol level has been reported. Research studies are yet to identify the influence of age and marital status on the well-being of urban mini-bus drivers in Lagos metropolis. A study of this nature is necessary as it is culturally perceived in Nigeria that older and married people are especially influenced by family affiliation and would behave in ways that would project positive outcomes. The study sample consisted of 150 urban mini-bus drivers who were conveniently sampled from six (6) different terminuses where their journey begins and terminates. The well-being questionnaire was administered to participants. The criteria for inclusion in the study included the ability to read in English language and the confirmation that interested participants were on duty and suited to be driving mini-buses. Due to the nature of the job of bus driving, the researcher administered the questionnaires on participants who were free and willing to respond to the survey. All participants were males of various age groups and of different marital statuses. Results of analyses conducted revealed no significant influence of age and marital status on the well-being of urban mini-bus drivers. This indicates that the well-being of urban mini-bus drivers is not influenced by age nor marital status. The findings of this study have cultural implications. It negates the popularly held belief that older and married people care more about their well-being than younger and single people. It brings to fore the need to also identify and consider other factors when certifying people for the job of urban bus driving.

Keywords: age, Lagos metropolis, marital status, well-being of urban mini bus drivers

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1122 Development of Oral Biphasic Drug Delivery System Using a Natural Resourced Polymer, Terminalia catappa

Authors: Venkata Srikanth Meka, Nur Arthirah Binti Ahmad Tarmizi Tan, Muhammad Syahmi Bin Md Nazir, Adinarayana Gorajana, Senthil Rajan Dharmalingam

Abstract:

Biphasic drug delivery systems are designed to release drug at two different rates, either fast/prolonged or prolonged/fast. A fast/prolonged release system provides a burst drug release at initial stage followed by a slow release over a prolonged period of time and in case of prolonged/fast release system, the release pattern is vice versa. Terminalia catappa gum (TCG) is a natural polymer and was successfully proven as a novel pharmaceutical excipient. The main objective of the present research is to investigate the applicability of natural polymer, Terminalia catappa gum in the design of oral biphasic drug delivery system in the form of mini tablets by using a model drug, buspirone HCl. This investigation aims to produce a biphasic release drug delivery system of buspirone by combining immediate release and prolonged release mini tablets into a capsule. For immediate release mini tablets, a dose of 4.5 mg buspirone was prepared by varying the concentration of superdisintegrant; crospovidone. On the other hand, prolonged release mini tablets were produced by using different concentrations of the natural polymer; TCG with a buspirone dose of 3mg. All mini tablets were characterized for weight variation, hardness, friability, disintegration, content uniformity and dissolution studies. The optimized formulations of immediate and prolonged release mini tablets were finally combined in a capsule and was evaluated for release studies. FTIR and DSC studies were conducted to study the drug-polymer interaction. All formulations of immediate release and prolonged release mini tablets were passed all the in-process quality control tests according to US Pharmacopoeia. The disintegration time of immediate release mini tablets of different formulations was varied from 2-6 min, and maximum drug release was achieved in lesser than 60 min. Whereas prolonged release mini tablets made with TCG have shown good drug retarding properties. Formulations were controlled for about 4-10 hrs with varying concentration of TCG. As the concentration of TCG increased, the drug release retarding property also increased. The optimised mini tablets were packed in capsules and were evaluated for the release mechanism. The capsule dosage form has clearly exhibited the biphasic release of buspirone, indicating that TCG is a suitable natural polymer for this study. FTIR and DSC studies proved that there was no interaction between the drug and polymer. Based on the above positive results, it can be concluded that TCG is a suitable polymer for the biphasic drug delivery systems.

Keywords: Terminalia catappa gum, biphasic release, mini tablets, tablet in capsule, natural polymers

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1121 Effect of the Applied Bias on Mini-Band Structures in Dimer Fibonacci InAs/Ga1-XInXAs Superlattices

Authors: Z. Aziz, S. Terkhi, Y. Sefir, R. Djelti, S. Bentata

Abstract:

The effect of a uniform electric field across multi-barrier systems (InAs/InxGa1-xAs) is exhaustively explored by a computational model using exact Airy function formalism and the transfer-matrix technique. In the case of biased DFHBSL structure a strong reduction in transmission properties was observed and the width of the mini-band structure linearly decreases with the increase of the applied bias. This is due to the confinement of the states in the mini-band structure, which becomes increasingly important (Wannier-Stark Effect).

Keywords: dimer fibonacci height barrier superlattices, singular extended state, exact Airy function and transfer matrix formalism, bioinformatics

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1120 An Autopilot System for Static Zone Detection

Authors: Yanchun Zuo, Yingao Liu, Wei Liu, Le Yu, Run Huang, Lixin Guo

Abstract:

Electric field detection is important in many application scenarios. The traditional strategy is measuring the electric field with a man walking around in the area under test. This strategy cannot provide a satisfactory measurement accuracy. To solve the mentioned problem, an autopilot measurement system is divided. A mini-car is produced, which can travel in the area under test according to respect to the program within the CPU. The electric field measurement platform (EFMP) carries a central computer, two horn antennas, and a vector network analyzer. The mini-car stop at the sampling points according to the preset. When the car stops, the EFMP probes the electric field and stores data on the hard disk. After all the sampling points are traversed, an electric field map can be plotted. The proposed system can give an accurate field distribution description of the chamber.

Keywords: autopilot mini-car measurement system, electric field detection, field map, static zone measurement

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1119 A pilot Study of Umbilical Cord Mini-Clamp

Authors: Seng Sing Tan

Abstract:

Clamping of the umbilical cord after birth is widely practiced as a part of labor management. Further improvements were proposed to produce a smaller, lighter and more comfortable clamp while still maintaining current standards of clamping. A detachable holder was also developed to facilitate the clamping process. This pilot study on the efficacy of the mini-clamp was conducted to evaluate a tightness of the seal and a firm grip of the clamp on the umbilical cord. The study was carried out at National University Hospital, using 5 sets of placental cord. 18 samples of approximate 10 cm each were harvested. The test results showed that the mini-clamp was able to stop the flow through the cord after clamping without rupturing the cord. All slip tests passed with a load of 0.2 kg. In the pressure testing, 30kPa of saline was exerted into the umbilical veins. Although there was no physical sign of fluid leaking through the end secured by the mini-clamp, the results showed the pressure was not able to sustain the pressure set during the tests. 12 out of the 18 test samples have more than 7% of pressure drop in 30 seconds. During the pressure leak test, it was observed on several samples that when pressurized, small droplets of saline were growing on the outer surface of the cord lining membrane. It was thus hypothesized that the pressure drop was likely caused by the perfusion of the injected saline through the Wharton’s jelly and the cord lining membrane. The average pressure in the umbilical vein is roughly 2.67kPa (20 mmHg), less than 10% of 30kPa (~225mmHg), set for the pressure testing. As such, the pressure set could be over-specified, leading to undesirable outcomes. The development of the mini-clamp was an attempt to increase the comfort of newly born babies while maintaining the usability and efficacy of hospital grade umbilical cord clamp. The pressure leak in this study would be unfair to fully attribute it to the design and efficacy of the mini-clamp. Considering the unexpected leakage of saline through the umbilical membrane due to over-specified pressure exerted on the umbilical veins, improvements can definitely be made to the existing experimental setup to obtain a more accurate and conclusive outcome. If proven conclusive and effective, the mini-clamp with a detachable holder could be a smaller and potentially cheaper alternative to existing umbilical cord clamps. In addition, future clinical trials could be conducted to determine the user-friendliness of the mini-clamp and evaluate its practicality in the clinical setting by labor ward clinicians. A further potential improvement could be proposed on the sustainability factor of the mini-clamp. A biodegradable clamp would revolutionise the industry in this increasingly environmentally sustainability world.

Keywords: leak test, mini-clamp, slip test, umbilical cord

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1118 Morphological Processing of Punjabi Text for Sentiment Analysis of Farmer Suicides

Authors: Jaspreet Singh, Gurvinder Singh, Prabhsimran Singh, Rajinder Singh, Prithvipal Singh, Karanjeet Singh Kahlon, Ravinder Singh Sawhney

Abstract:

Morphological evaluation of Indian languages is one of the burgeoning fields in the area of Natural Language Processing (NLP). The evaluation of a language is an eminent task in the era of information retrieval and text mining. The extraction and classification of knowledge from text can be exploited for sentiment analysis and morphological evaluation. This study coalesce morphological evaluation and sentiment analysis for the task of classification of farmer suicide cases reported in Punjab state of India. The pre-processing of Punjabi text involves morphological evaluation and normalization of Punjabi word tokens followed by the training of proposed model using deep learning classification on Punjabi language text extracted from online Punjabi news reports. The class-wise accuracies of sentiment prediction for four negatively oriented classes of farmer suicide cases are 93.85%, 88.53%, 83.3%, and 95.45% respectively. The overall accuracy of sentiment classification obtained using proposed framework on 275 Punjabi text documents is found to be 90.29%.

Keywords: deep neural network, farmer suicides, morphological processing, punjabi text, sentiment analysis

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1117 Thermal Analysis on Heat Transfer Enhancement and Fluid Flow for Al2O3 Water-Ethylene Glycol Nano Fluid in Single PEMFC Mini Channel

Authors: Irnie Zakaria, W. A. N. W. Mohamed, W. H. Azmi

Abstract:

Thermal enhancement of a single mini channel in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) cooling plate is numerically investigated. In this study, low concentration of Al2O3 in Water - Ethylene Glycol mixtures is used as coolant in mini channel of carbon graphite plate to mimic the PEMFC cooling plate. A steady and incompressible flow with constant heat flux is assumed in the channel of 1mm x 5mm x 100mm. Nano particle of Al2O3 used ranges from 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 vol % concentration and then dispersed in 60:40 (water: Ethylene Glycol) mixture. The effect of different flow rates to fluid flow and heat transfer enhancement in Re number range of 20 to 140 was observed. The result showed that heat transfer coefficient was improved by 18.11%, 9.86% and 5.37% for 0.5, 0.3 and 0.1 vol % Al2O3 in 60:40 (water: EG) as compared to base fluid of 60:40 (water: EG). It is also showed that the higher vol % concentration of Al2O3 performed better in term of thermal enhancement but at the expense of higher pumping power required due to increase in pressure drop experienced. Maximum additional pumping power of 0.0012W was required for 0.5 vol % Al2O3 in 60:40 (water: EG) at Re number 140.

Keywords: heat transfer, mini channel, nanofluid, PEMFC

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1116 Design of an Active Compression System for Treating Vascular Disease Using a Series of Silicone Based Inflatable Mini Bladders

Authors: Gayani K. Nandasiri, Tilak Dias, William Hurley

Abstract:

Venous disease of human lower limb could range from minor asymptomatic incompetence of venous valves to chronic venous ulceration. The sheer prevalence of varicose veins and its associated significant costs of treating late complications such as chronic ulcers contribute to a higher burden on health care resources. In most of western countries with developed health care systems, treatment costs associated with Venous disease accounts for a considerable portion of their total health care budget, and it has become a high-cost burden to National Health Service (NHS), UK. The established gold standard of treatment for the venous disease is the graduated compression, where the pressure at the ankle being highest and decreasing towards the knee and thigh. Currently, medical practitioners use two main methods to treat venous disease; i.e. compression bandaging and compression stockings. Both these systems have their own disadvantages which lead to the current programme of research. The aim of the present study is to revolutionize the compression therapy by using a novel active compression system to deliver a controllable and more accurate pressure profiles using a series of inflatable mini bladders. Two types of commercially available silicones were tested for the application. The mini bladders were designed with a special fabrication procedure to provide required pressure profiles, and a series of experiments were conducted to characterise the mini bladders. The inflation/deflation heights of these mini bladders were investigated experimentally and using a finite element model (FEM), and the experimental data were compared to the results obtained from FEM simulations, which showed 70-80% agreement. Finally, the mini bladders were tested for its pressure transmittance characteristics, and the results showed a 70-80% of inlet air pressure transmitted onto the treated surface.

Keywords: finite element analysis, graduated compression, inflatable bladders, venous disease

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1115 Numerical Analysis of Roughness Effect on Mini and Microchannels: Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer

Authors: El-Ghalia Filali, Cherif Gadouche, Mohamed Tahar

Abstract:

A three-dimensional numerical simulation of flow through mini and microchannels with designed roughness is conducted here. The effect of the roughness height (surface roughness), geometry, Reynolds number on the friction factor and the Nusselt number is investigated. The study is carried out by employing CFD software, CFX. Our work focuses on a water flow inside a circular mini-channel of 1 mm and microchannels of 500 and 100 μm in diameter. The speed entry varies from 0.1 m/s to 20 m/s. The general trend can be observed that bigger sizes of roughness element lead to higher flow resistance. It is found that the friction factor increases in a nonlinear fashion with the increase in obstruction height. Particularly, the effect of roughness can no longer be ignored at relative roughness height higher than 3%. A significant increase in Poiseuille number is detected for all configurations considered. The same observation can be done for Nusselt number. The transition zone between laminar and turbulent flow depends on the channel diameter.

Keywords: hydrodynamics, heat transfer, minichannel, microchannel, roughness

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1114 Numerical Simulation of Structured Roughness Effect on Fluid Flow Characteristics and Heat Transfer in Minichannels

Authors: R. Chouatah, E. G. Filali, B. Zouzou

Abstract:

It has been well established that there are no differences between microscale and macroscale flows of incompressible liquids. However, surface roughness has been known to impact the transport phenomena. The effect of structured roughness on the dynamics and heat transfer of water flowing through minichannel was numerically investigated in this study. Our study consists in characterizing the dynamic field and heat transfer aspect of a flow in circular minichannel equipped with structured roughness using CFD software, CFX. The study is performed to understand the effect of various roughness elements (rectangular, triangular), roughness height and roughness pitch on the friction factor and heat transfer coefficient. Our work focuses on a water flow inside a circular mini-channel of 1 mm in diameter and 10 cm in length. The speed entry into the mini-channel varies from 0.1 m/s to 25 m/s. The wall of the mini-channel is submitted to a constant heat flux; q=100,000 W/m². The simulations results are compared to those obtained with smooth minichannel and the existing experimental and numerical results in the literature.

Keywords: heat transfer, laminar and turbulent flow, minichannel, structured roughness

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1113 Clustering Using Cooperative Multihop Mini-Groups in Wireless Sensor Network: A Novel Approach

Authors: Virender Ranga, Mayank Dave, Anil Kumar Verma

Abstract:

Recently wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are used in many real life applications like environmental monitoring, habitat monitoring, health monitoring etc. Due to power constraint cheaper devices used in these applications, the energy consumption of each device should be kept as low as possible such that network operates for longer period of time. One of the techniques to prolong the network lifetime is an intelligent grouping of sensor nodes such that they can perform their operation in cooperative and energy efficient manner. With this motivation, we propose a novel approach by organize the sensor nodes in cooperative multihop mini-groups so that the total global energy consumption of the network can be reduced and network lifetime can be improved. Our proposed approach also reduces the number of transmitted messages inside the WSNs, which further minimizes the energy consumption of the whole network. The experimental simulations show that our proposed approach outperforms over the state-of-the-art approach in terms of stability period and aggregated data.

Keywords: clustering, cluster-head, mini-group, stability period

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1112 Robotic Mini Gastric Bypass Surgery

Authors: Arun Prasad, Abhishek Tiwari, Rekha Jaiswal, Vivek Chaudhary

Abstract:

Background: Robotic Roux en Y gastric bypass is being done for some time but is technically difficult, requiring operating in both the sub diaphragmatic and infracolic compartments of the abdomen. This can mean a dual docking of the robot or a hybrid partial laparoscopic and partial robotic surgery. The Mini /One anastomosis /omega loop gastric bypass (MGB) has the advantage of having all dissection and anastomosis in the supracolic compartment and is therefore suitable technically for robotic surgery. Methods: We have done 208 robotic mini gastric bypass surgeries. The robot is docked above the head of the patient in the midline. Camera port is placed supra umbilically. Two ports are placed on the left side of the patient and one port on the right side of the patient. An assistant port is placed between the camera port and right sided robotic port for use of stapler. Distal stomach is stapled from the lesser curve followed by a vertical sleeve upwards leading to a long sleeve pouch. Jejunum is taken at 200 cm from the duodenojejunal junction and brought up to do a side to side gastrojejunostomy. Results: All patients had a successful robotic procedure. Mean time taken was 85 minutes. There were major intraoperative or post operative complications. No patient needed conversion or re-explorative surgery. Mean excess weight loss over a period of 2 year was about 75%. There was no mortality. Patient satisfaction score was high and was attributed to the good weight loss and minimal dietary modifications that were needed after the procedure. Long term side effects were anemia and bile reflux in a small number of patients. Conclusions: MGB / OAGB is gaining worldwide interest as a short simple procedure that has been shown to very effective and safe bariatric surgery. The purpose of this study was to report on the safety and efficacy of robotic surgery for this procedure. This is the first report of totally robotic mini gastric bypass.

Keywords: MGB, mini gastric bypass, OAGB, robotic bariatric surgery

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1111 Application of 3-6 Years Old Children Basketball Appropriate Forms of Teaching Auxiliary Equipment in Early Childhood Basketball Game

Authors: Hai Zeng, Anqing Liu, Shuguang Dan, Ying Zhang, Yan Li, Zihang Zeng

Abstract:

Children are strong; the country strong, the development of children Basketball is a strategic advantage. Common forms of basketball equipment has been difficult to meet the needs of young children teaching the game of basketball, basketball development for 3-6 years old children in the form of appropriate teaching aids is a breakthrough basketball game teaching children bottlenecks, improve teaching critical path pleasure, but also the development of early childhood basketball a necessary requirement. In this study, literature, questionnaires, focus group interviews, comparative analysis, for domestic and foreign use of 12 kinds of basketball teaching aids (cloud computing MINI basketball, adjustable basketball MINI, MINI basketball court, shooting assist paw print ball, dribble goggles, dribbling machine, machine cartoon shooting, rebounding machine, against the mat, elastic belt, ladder, fitness ball), from fun and improve early childhood shooting technique, dribbling technology, as well as offensive and defensive rebounding against technology conduct research on conversion technology. The results show that by using appropriate forms of teaching children basketball aids, can effectively improve children's fun basketball game, targeted to improve a technology, different types of aids from different perspectives enrich the connotation of children basketball game. Recommended for children of color psychology, cartoon and environmentally friendly material production aids, and increase research efforts basketball aids children, encourage children to sports teachers aids applications.

Keywords: appropriate forms of children basketball, auxiliary equipment, appli, MINI basketball, 3-6 years old children, teaching

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1110 Studies on Corrosion Resistant Composite Coating for Metallic Surfaces

Authors: Navneetinder Singh, Harprabhjot Singh, Harpreet Singh, Supreet Singh

Abstract:

Many materials are known to mankind that is widely used for synthesis of corrosion resistant hydrophobic coatings. In the current work, novel hydrophobic composite was synthesized by mixing polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and 20 weight% ceria particles followed by sintering. This composite had same hydrophobic behavior as PTFE. Moreover, composite showed better scratch resistance than virgin PTFE. Pits of plasma sprayed Ni₃Al coating were exploited to hold PTFE composite on the substrate as Superni-75 alloy surface through sintering process. Plasma sprayed surface showed good adhesion with the composite coating during scratch test. Potentiodynamic corrosion test showed 100 fold decreases in corrosion rate of coated sample this may be attributed to inert and hydrophobic nature of PTFE and ceria.

Keywords: polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE, ceria, coating, corrosion

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1109 Calibration of Mini TEPC and Measurement of Lineal Energy in a Mixed Radiation Field Produced by Neutrons

Authors: I. C. Cho, W. H. Wen, H. Y. Tsai, T. C. Chao, C. J. Tung

Abstract:

Tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) is a useful instrument used to measure radiation single-event energy depositions in a subcellular target volume. The quantity of measurements is the microdosimetric lineal energy, which determines the relative biological effectiveness, RBE, for radiation therapy or the radiation-weighting factor, WR, for radiation protection. TEPC is generally used in a mixed radiation field, where each component radiation has its own RBE or WR value. To reduce the pile-up effect during radiotherapy measurements, a miniature TEPC (mini TEPC) with cavity size in the order of 1 mm may be required. In the present work, a homemade mini TEPC with a cylindrical cavity of 1 mm in both the diameter and the height was constructed to measure the lineal energy spectrum of a mixed radiation field with high- and low-LET radiations. Instead of using external radiation beams to penetrate the detector wall, mixed radiation fields were produced by the interactions of neutrons with TEPC walls that contained small plugs of different materials, i.e. Li, B, A150, Cd and N. In all measurements, mini TEPC was placed at the beam port of the Tsing Hua Open-pool Reactor (THOR). Measurements were performed using the propane-based tissue-equivalent gas mixture, i.e. 55% C3H8, 39.6% CO2 and 5.4% N2 by partial pressures. The gas pressure of 422 torr was applied for the simulation of a 1 m diameter biological site. The calibration of mini TEPC was performed using two marking points in the lineal energy spectrum, i.e. proton edge and electron edge. Measured spectra revealed high lineal energy (> 100 keV/m) peaks due to neutron-capture products, medium lineal energy (10 – 100 keV/m) peaks from hydrogen-recoil protons, and low lineal energy (< 10 keV/m) peaks of reactor photons. For cases of Li and B plugs, the high lineal energy peaks were quite prominent. The medium lineal energy peaks were in the decreasing order of Li, Cd, N, A150, and B. The low lineal energy peaks were smaller compared to other peaks. This study demonstrated that internally produced mixed radiations from the interactions of neutrons with different plugs in the TEPC wall provided a useful approach for TEPC measurements of lineal energies.

Keywords: TEPC, lineal energy, microdosimetry, radiation quality

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1108 Mini Coal Gasifier for Fulfilling Small-Scale Industries Energy Consumption in Indonesia

Authors: Muhammad Ade Andriansyah Efendi, Ika Monika

Abstract:

Mini coal gasifier (GasMin) is a small reactor that could convert coal into combustible gas or producer gas which is designed to fulfill energy needs of small-scale industries. The producer gas can be utilized for both external and internal combustion. The design of coal gasifier is suitable for community require because it is easy to handle, affordable and environmentally friendly. The feasibility study shows that the substitution of 12 kg LPG or specially 50 kg LPG into GasMin of 20 kg coal capacity per hour is very attractive. The estimation price of 20 kg coal per hour capacity GasMin is 40 million rupiahs. In the year 2016, the implementation of GasMin conducted at alumunium industry and batik industry at Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Keywords: biomass, coal, energy, gasification

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1107 The Effectiveness of Humanoid Diagram Teaching Strategy on Retention Rate of Novice Nurses in Taiwan

Authors: Yung-Hui Tang, Yan-Chiou Ku, Li-Chi Huang

Abstract:

Aim: The aim of this study is to explore the effect of the Humanoid Diagram Teaching (HDT) strategy on novice nurses’ care ability and retention rate. Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental study using two groups concurrently with repeat measurements sample consisted of 24 novice nurses (12 in each experimental and control group) in a medical center in southern Taiwan. Both groups all received regular training program (nursing standard techniques and practices, concept map, mini-CEX, CbD, and clinical education and training), and experimental group added the HDT program. The HDT strategy includes the contents of patients’ body humanoid drawing and discussion for 30 minutes each time, three times a week, and continually for four weeks. The effectiveness of HDT was evaluated by mini-CEX, CbD and clinical assessment and retention rate at the 3rd month and 6th month. Results: The novice nurses' care ability were examined, only CbD score in the control group was improved in the 3rd month and with statistical difference, p = .003. The mini-CEX and CbD in the experimental group were significantly improved in both the first and third month with statistical differences p = .00. Although mini-CEX and CbD in the experimental group were higher than the control group, but there was no significant difference p > .05. Retention rate of the experimental group in the third month and sixth month was significantly higher than the control group, and there was a statistically significant difference p < .05. Conclusions: The study reveals that HDT strategy can help novice nurses learning, enhancing their knowledge and technical capability, analytical skills in case-based caring, and retention. The HDT strategy can be served as an effective strategy for novice training for better nurse retention rate.

Keywords: humanoid diagram teaching strategy, novice nurses retention, teaching strategy of nurse retention, visual learning mode

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1106 Influence of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of TIG Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints

Authors: Gurmeet Singh Cheema, Navjotinder Singh, Gurjinder Singh, Amardeep Singh

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Aluminium and its alloys play have excellent corrosion resistant properties, ease of fabrication and high specific strength to weight ratio. In this investigation an attempt has been made to study the effect of different post weld heat treatment methods on the mechanical and metallurgical properties of TIG welded joints of the commercial aluminium alloy. Three different methods of post weld heat treatments are, solution heat treatment, artificial aged and combination of solution heat treatment and artificial aging are given to TIG welded aluminium joints. Mechanical and metallurgical properties of as welded and post weld treated joints of the aluminium alloys was examined.

Keywords: aluminium alloys, TIG welding, post weld heat treatment

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1105 A Mini Radar System for Low Altitude Targets Detection

Authors: Kangkang Wu, Kaizhi Wang, Zhijun Yuan

Abstract:

This paper deals with a mini radar system aimed at detecting small targets at the low latitude. The radar operates at Ku-band in the frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) mode with two receiving channels. The radar system has the characteristics of compactness, mobility, and low power consumption. This paper focuses on the implementation of the radar system, and the Block least mean square (Block LMS) algorithm is applied to minimize the fortuitous distortion. It is validated from a series of experiments that the track of the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) can be easily distinguished with the radar system.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), interference, Block Least Mean Square (Block LMS) Algorithm, Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW)

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1104 Error Analysis in Academic Writing of EFL Learners: A Case Study for Undergraduate Students at Pathein University

Authors: Aye Pa Pa Myo

Abstract:

Writing in English is accounted as a complex process for English as a foreign language learners. Besides, committing errors in writing can be found as an inevitable part of language learners’ writing. Generally, academic writing is quite difficult for most of the students to manage for getting better scores. Students can commit common errors in their writings when they try to write academic writing. Error analysis deals with identifying and detecting the errors and also explains the reason for the occurrence of these errors. In this paper, the researcher has an attempt to examine the common errors of undergraduate students in their academic writings at Pathein University. The purpose of doing this research is to investigate the errors which students usually commit in academic writing and to find out the better ways for correcting these errors in EFL classrooms. In this research, fifty-third-year non-English specialization students attending Pathein University were selected as participants. This research took one month. It was conducted with a mixed methodology method. Two mini-tests were used as research tools. Data were collected with a quantitative research method. Findings from this research pointed that most of the students noticed their common errors after getting the necessary input, and they became more decreased committing these errors after taking mini-test; hence, all findings will be supportive for further researches related to error analysis in academic writing.

Keywords: academic writing, error analysis, EFL learners, mini-tests, mixed methodology

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1103 Numerical Analysis of Mandible Fracture Stabilization System

Authors: Piotr Wadolowski, Grzegorz Krzesinski, Piotr Gutowski

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The aim of the presented work is to recognize the impact of mini-plate application approach on the stress and displacement within the stabilization devices and surrounding bones. The mini-plate osteosynthesis technique is widely used by craniofacial surgeons as an improved replacement of wire connection approach. Many different types of metal plates and screws are used to the physical connection of fractured bones. Below investigation is based on a clinical observation of patient hospitalized with mini-plate stabilization system. Analysis was conducted on a solid mandible geometry, which was modeled basis on the computed tomography scan of the hospitalized patient. In order to achieve most realistic connected system behavior, the cortical and cancellous bone layers were assumed. The temporomandibular joint was simplified to the elastic element to allow physiological movement of loaded bone. The muscles of mastication system were reduced to three pairs, modeled as shell structures. Finite element grid was created by the ANSYS software, where hexahedral and tetrahedral variants of SOLID185 element were used. A set of nonlinear contact conditions were applied on connecting devices and bone common surfaces. Properties of particular contact pair depend on screw - mini-plate connection type and possible gaps between fractured bone around osteosynthesis region. Some of the investigated cases contain prestress introduced to the mini-plate during the application, what responds the initial bending of the connecting device to fit the retromolar fossa region. Assumed bone fracture occurs within the mandible angle zone. Due to the significant deformation of the connecting plate in some of the assembly cases the elastic-plastic model of titanium alloy was assumed. The bone tissues were covered by the orthotropic material. As a loading were used the gauge force of magnitude of 100N applied in three different locations. Conducted analysis shows significant impact of mini-plate application methodology on the stress distribution within the miniplate. Prestress effect introduces additional loading, which leads to locally exceed the titanium alloy yield limit. Stress in surrounding bone increases rapidly around the screws application region, exceeding assumed bone yield limit, what indicate the local bone destruction. Approach with the doubled mini-plate shows increased stress within the connector due to the too rigid connection, where the main path of loading leads through the mini-plates instead of plates and connected bones. Clinical observations confirm more frequent plate destruction of stiffer connections. Some of them could be an effect of decreased low cyclic fatigue capability caused by the overloading. The executed analysis prove that the mini-plate system provides sufficient support to mandible fracture treatment, however, many applicable solutions shifts the entire system to the allowable material limits. The results show that connector application with the initial loading needs to be carefully established due to the small material capability tolerances. Comparison to the clinical observations allows optimizing entire connection to prevent future incidents.

Keywords: mandible fracture, mini-plate connection, numerical analysis, osteosynthesis

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1102 Performance Analysis of VoIP Coders for Different Modulations Under Pervasive Environment

Authors: Jasbinder Singh, Harjit Pal Singh, S. A. Khan

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The work, in this paper, presents the comparison of encoded speech signals by different VoIP narrow-band and wide-band codecs for different modulation schemes. The simulation results indicate that codec has an impact on the speech quality and also effected by modulation schemes.

Keywords: VoIP, coders, modulations, BER, MOS

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1101 Finite Element Analysis of Mini-Plate Stabilization of Mandible Fracture

Authors: Piotr Wadolowski, Grzegorz Krzesinski, Piotr Gutowski

Abstract:

The aim of the presented investigation is to recognize the possible mechanical issues of mini-plate connection used to treat mandible fractures and to check the impact of different factors for the stresses and displacements within the bone-stabilizer system. The mini-plate osteosynthesis technique is a common type of internal fixation using metal plates connected to the fractured bone parts by a set of screws. The selected two types of plate application methodology used by maxillofacial surgeons were investigated in the work. Those patterns differ in location and number of plates. The bone geometry was modeled on the base of computed tomography scans of hospitalized patient done just after mini-plate application. The solid volume geometry consisting of cortical and cancellous bone was created based on gained cloud of points. Temporomandibular joint and muscle system were simulated to imitate the real masticatory system behavior. Finite elements mesh and analysis were performed by ANSYS software. To simulate realistic connection behavior nonlinear contact conditions were used between the connecting elements and bones. The influence of the initial compression of the connected bone parts or the gap between them was analyzed. Nonlinear material properties of the bone tissues and elastic-plastic model of titanium alloy were used. The three cases of loading assuming the force of magnitude of 100N acting on the left molars, the right molars and the incisors were investigated. Stress distribution within connecting plate shows that the compression of the bone parts in the connection results in high stress concentration in the plate and the screws, however the maximum stress levels do not exceed material (titanium) yield limit. There are no significant differences between negative offset (gap) and no-offset conditions. The location of the external force influences the magnitude of stresses around both the plate and bone parts. Two-plate system gives generally lower von Misses stress under the same loading than the one-plating approach. Von Mises stress distribution within the cortical bone shows reduction of high stress field for the cases without the compression (neutral initial contact). For the initial prestressing there is a visible significant stress increase around the fixing holes at the bottom mini-plate due to the assembly stress. The local stress concentration may be the reason of bone destruction in those regions. The performed calculations prove that the bone-mini-plate system is able to properly stabilize the fractured mandible bone. There is visible strong dependency between the mini-plate location and stress distribution within the stabilizer structure and the surrounding bone tissue. The results (stresses within the bone tissues and within the devices, relative displacements of the bone parts at the interface) corresponding to different models of the connection provide a basis for the mechanical optimization of the mini-plate connections. The results of the performed numerical simulations were compared to clinical observation. They provide information helpful for better understanding of the load transfer in the mandible with the stabilizer and for improving stabilization techniques.

Keywords: finite element modeling, mandible fracture, mini-plate connection, osteosynthesis

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1100 Arthroscopic Fixation of Posterior Cruciate Ligament Avulsion Fracture through Posterior Trans Septal Portal Using Button Fixation Device: Mini Tight Rope

Authors: Ratnakar Rao, Subair Khan, Hari Haran

Abstract:

Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) avulsion fractures is a rare condition and commonly mismanaged.Surgical reattachment has been shown to produce better result compared with conservative management.Only few techniques are reported in arthroscopic fixation of PCL Avulsion Fracture and they are complex.We describe a new technique in fixation of the PCL Avulsion fracture through a posterior trans septal portal using button fixation device (Mini Tight Rope). Eighteen patients with an isolated posterior cruciate ligament avulsion fracture were operated under arthroscopy. Standard Antero Medial Portal and Antero Lateral portals made and additional Postero Medial and Postero Lateral portals made and trans Septal portal established. Avulsion fracture identified, elevated, prepared. Reduction achieved using PCL Tibial guide (Arthrex) and fixation was achieved using Mini Tight Rope,Arthrex (2 buttons with a suture). Reduction confirmed using probe and Image intensifier. Postoperative assessment made clinically and radiologically. 15 patients had good to excellent results with no posterior sag or instability. The range of motion was normal. No complications were recorded per operatively. 2 patients had communition of the fragment while drilling, for one patient it was managed by suturing technique and the second patient PCL Reconstruction was done. One patient had persistent instability with poor outcome. Establishing trans septal portal helps in better visualization of the posterior compartment of the knee. Assessment of the bony fragment, preparation 0f the bone bed andit protects from injury to posterior neurovascular structures. Fixation using the button with suture (Mini Tight Rope) is stable and easily reproducible for PCL Avulsion fracture with single large fragment.

Keywords: PCL avulsion, arthroscopy, transeptal, minitight rope technique

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1099 Autonomous Ground Vehicle Navigation Based on a Single Camera and Image Processing Methods

Authors: Auday Al-Mayyahi, Phil Birch, William Wang

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A vision system-based navigation for autonomous ground vehicle (AGV) equipped with a single camera in an indoor environment is presented. A proposed navigation algorithm has been utilized to detect obstacles represented by coloured mini- cones placed in different positions inside a corridor. For the recognition of the relative position and orientation of the AGV to the coloured mini cones, the features of the corridor structure are extracted using a single camera vision system. The relative position, the offset distance and steering angle of the AGV from the coloured mini-cones are derived from the simple corridor geometry to obtain a mapped environment in real world coordinates. The corridor is first captured as an image using the single camera. Hence, image processing functions are then performed to identify the existence of the cones within the environment. Using a bounding box surrounding each cone allows to identify the locations of cones in a pixel coordinate system. Thus, by matching the mapped and pixel coordinates using a projection transformation matrix, the real offset distances between the camera and obstacles are obtained. Real time experiments in an indoor environment are carried out with a wheeled AGV in order to demonstrate the validity and the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: autonomous ground vehicle, navigation, obstacle avoidance, vision system, single camera, image processing, ultrasonic sensor

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