Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12920

Search results for: thermal study.

12920 Field Study for Evaluating Winter Thermal Performance of Auckland School Buildings

Authors: Bin Su

Abstract:

Auckland has a temperate climate with comfortable warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters. An Auckland school normally does not need air conditioning for cooling during the summer and only needs heating during the winter. The Auckland school building thermal design should more focus on winter thermal performance and indoor thermal comfort for energy efficiency. This field study of testing indoor and outdoor air temperatures, relative humidity and indoor surface temperatures of three classrooms with different envelopes were carried out in the Avondale College during the winter months in 2013. According to the field study data, this study is to compare and evaluate winter thermal performance and indoor thermal conditions of school buildings with different envelopes.

Keywords: Building envelope, Building mass effect, Building thermal comfort, Building thermal performance, School building.

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12919 Thermal Diffusivity Measurement of Cadmium Sulphide Nanoparticles Prepared by γ-Radiation Technique

Authors: Azmi Zakaria, Reza Zamiri, Parisa Vaziri, Elias Saion, M. Shahril Husin

Abstract:

In this study we applied thermal lens (TL) technique to study the effect of size on thermal diffusivity of cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanofluid prepared by using γ-radiation method containing particles with different sizes. In TL experimental set up a diode laser of wavelength 514 nm and intensity stabilized He-Ne laser were used as the excitation source and the probe beam respectively, respectively. The experimental results showed that the thermal diffusivity value of CdS nanofluid increases when the of particle size increased.

Keywords: Thermal diffusivity, nanofluids, thermal lens

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12918 Anomalous Thermal Behavior of CuxMg1-xNb2O6 (x=0,0.4,0.6,1) for LTCC Substrate

Authors: Jyotirmayee Satapathy, M. V. Ramana Reddy

Abstract:

LTCC (Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics) being the most advantageous technology towards the multilayer substrates for various applications, demands an extensive study of its raw materials. In the present work, a series of CuxMg1-xNb2O6 (x=0,0.4,0.6,1) has been prepared using sol-gel synthesis route and sintered at a temperature of 900°C to study its applicability for LTCC technology as the firing temperature is 900°C in this technology. The phase formation has been confirmed using X-ray Diffraction. Thermal properties like thermal conductivity and thermal expansion being very important aspect as the former defines the heat flow to avoid thermal instability in layers and the later provides the dimensional congruency of the dielectric material and the conductors, are studied here over high temperature up to the firing temperature. Although the values are quite satisfactory from substrate requirement point view, results have shown anomaly over temperature. The anomalous thermal behavior has been further analyzed using TG-DTA.

Keywords: Niobates, LTCC, Thermal conductivity, Thermal expansion, TG-DTA.

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12917 A Numerical Study on Thermal Dissociation of H2S

Authors: M. Moghiman, S. M. Javadi, A. R. Moghiman, S. Baghdar Hosseini

Abstract:

The main issue in sweetening natural gas is H2S dissociation. The present study is concerned with simulating thermal dissociation of H2S in industrial natural gas carbon black furnace. The comparison of calculated results against experimental measurements shows good agreement. The results show that sulfur derived from H2S thermal dissociation peaked at φ=0.95. H2S thermal dissociation is enhanced in equivalence ratio upper than 1 and H2S oxidization is increased in equivalence ratio lower than 1. H2 concentration of H2S thermal dissociation is increased with increase of equivalence ratio up to 1. Also, H2S concentration decreased in outlet as equivalence ratio increases. H2S thermal dissociation to hydrogen and Sulfur reduces its toxic characteristics and make economical benefits.

Keywords: Equivalence ratio, H2S, natural gas furnace, thermaldissociation.

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12916 Adaptive Thermal Comfort Model for Air-Conditioned Lecture Halls in Malaysia

Authors: B. T. Chew, S. N. Kazi, A. Amiri

Abstract:

This paper presents an adaptive thermal comfort model study in the tropical country of Malaysia. A number of researchers have been interested in applying the adaptive thermal comfort model to different climates throughout the world, but so far no study has been performed in Malaysia. For the use as a thermal comfort model, which better applies to hot and humid climates, the adaptive thermal comfort model was developed as part of this research by using the collected results from a large field study in six lecture halls with 178 students. The relationship between the operative temperature and behavioral adaptations was determined. In the developed adaptive model, the acceptable indoor neutral temperatures lay within the range of 23.9-26.0C, with outdoor temperatures ranging between 27.0-34.6C. The most comfortable temperature for students in lecture hall was 25.7C.

Keywords: Hot and humid, Lecture halls, Neutral temperature, Adaptive thermal comfort model.

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12915 Thermal Analysis of Photovoltaic Integrated Greenhouse Solar Dryer

Authors: Sumit Tiwari, Rohit Tripathi, G. N. Tiwari

Abstract:

Present study focused on the utilization of solar energy by the help of photovoltaic greenhouse solar dryer under forced mode. A single slope photovoltaic greenhouse solar dryer has been proposed and thermal modelling has been developed. Various parameters have been calculated by thermal modelling such as greenhouse room temperature, cell temperature, crop temperature and air temperature at exit of greenhouse. Further cell efficiency, thermal efficiency, and overall thermal efficiency have been calculated for a typical day of May and November. It was found that system can generate equivalent thermal energy up to 7.65 kW and 6.66 kW per day for clear day of May and November respectively.

Keywords: Characteristics curve, Photovoltaic, Thermal modelling, Thermal efficiency.

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12914 Innovative Techniques for Characterization of Nonwoven Insulation Materials Embedded with Aerogel

Authors: Mohanapriya Venkataraman, Rajesh Mishra, Jakub Weiner, Adnan Mazari, Jiri Militky, Veera Kumar Arumugam

Abstract:

The major objective of this study is to understand the potential of a newly fabricated equipment to study the thermal properties of nonwoven textile fabrics treated with aerogel at subzero temperatures. Thermal conductivity was calculated by using the empirical relation Fourier’s law, The relationship between the thermal conductivity and thermal resistance of the samples were studied at various environmental temperatures (which was set in the clima temperature system between +25oC to -25oC). The newly fabricated equipment was found to be a suitable for measuring at subzero temperatures. This field of measurements is being developed and will be the subject of further research which will be more suitable for measurement of the various thermal characteristics.

Keywords: Thermal Measurements, Aerogel, Nonwoven, Hot plate Heading.

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12913 Thermal Fatigue Behavior of 400 Series Ferritic Stainless Steels

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

In this study, thermal fatigue properties of 400 series ferritic stainless steels have been evaluated in the temperature ranges of 200-800oC and 200-900oC. Systematic methods for control of temperatures within the predetermined range and measurement of load applied to specimens as a function of temperature during thermal cycles have been established. Thermal fatigue tests were conducted under fully constrained condition, where both ends of specimens were completely fixed. It has been revealed that load relaxation behavior at the temperatures of thermal cycle was closely related with the thermal fatigue property. Thermal fatigue resistance of 430J1L stainless steel is found to be superior to the other steels.

Keywords: Ferritic stainless steel, automotive exhaust, thermal fatigue, microstructure, load relaxation.

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12912 Contribution to the Study of Thermal Conductivity of Porous Silicon Used In Thermal Sensors

Authors: A. Ould-Abbas, M. Bouchaour, , M. Madani, D. Trari, O. Zeggai, M. Boukais, N.-E.Chabane-Sari

Abstract:

The porous silicon (PS), formed from the anodization of a p+ type substrate silicon, consists of a network organized in a pseudo-column as structure of multiple side ramifications. Structural micro-topology can be interpreted as the fraction of the interconnected solid phase contributing to thermal transport. The reduction of dimensions of silicon of each nanocristallite during the oxidation induced a reduction in thermal conductivity. Integration of thermal sensors in the Microsystems silicon requires an effective insulation of the sensor element. Indeed, the low thermal conductivity of PS consists in a very promising way in the fabrication of integrated thermal Microsystems.In this work we are interesting in the measurements of thermal conductivity (on the surface and in depth) of PS by the micro-Raman spectroscopy. The thermal conductivity is studied according to the parameters of anodization (initial doping and current density. We also, determine porosity of samples by spectroellipsometry.

Keywords: micro-Raman spectroscopy, mono-crysatl silicon, porous silicon, thermal conductivity

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12911 Assessment of Thermal Comfort at Manual Car Body Assembly Workstation

Authors: A. R. Ismail, N. Jusoh, M. Z. Nuawi, B. M. Deros, N. K. Makhtar, M. N. A. Rahman

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to determine the thermal comfort among worker at Malaysian automotive industry. One critical manual assembly workstation had been chosen as a subject for the study. The human subjects for the study constitute operators at Body Assembly Station of the factory. The environment examined was the Relative Humidity (%), Airflow (m/s), Air Temperature (°C) and Radiant Temperature (°C) of the surrounding workstation area. The environmental factors were measured using Babuc apparatus, which is capable to measure simultaneously those mentioned environmental factors. The time series data of fluctuating level of factors were plotted to identify the significant changes of factors. Then thermal comfort of the workers were assessed by using ISO Standard 7730 Thermal sensation scale by using Predicted Mean Vote (PMV). Further Predicted percentage dissatisfied (PPD) is used to estimate the thermal comfort satisfaction of the occupant. Finally the PPD versus PMV were plotted to present the thermal comfort scenario of workers involved in related workstation. The result of PMV at the related industry is between 1.8 and 2.3, where PPD at that building is between 60% to 84%. The survey result indicated that the temperature more influenced comfort to the occupants

Keywords: Thermal, Comfort, Temperature, PPD, PMV

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12910 Thermal Fatigue Behavior of Austenitic Stainless Steels

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

Continually increasing working temperature and growing need for greater efficiency and reliability of automotive exhaust require systematic investigation into the thermal fatigue properties especially of high temperature stainless steels. In this study, thermal fatigue properties of 300 series austenitic stainless steels have been evaluated in the temperature ranges of 200-800oC and 200-900oC. Systematic methods for control of temperatures within the predetermined range and measurement of load applied to specimens as a function of temperature during thermal cycles have been established. Thermal fatigue tests were conducted under fully constrained condition, where both ends of specimens were completely fixed. Load relaxation behavior at the temperatures of thermal cycle was closely related with the thermal fatigue property.

Keywords: Austenitic stainless steel, automotive exhaust, thermal fatigue, microstructure, load relaxation.

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12909 Thermal Expansion Coefficient and Young’s Modulus of Silica-Reinforced Epoxy Composite

Authors: Hyu Sang Jo, Gyo Woo Lee

Abstract:

In this study, the evaluation of thermal stability of the micrometer-sized silica particle reinforced epoxy composite was carried out through the measurement of thermal expansion coefficient and Young’s modulus of the specimens. For all the specimens in this study from the baseline to those containing 50 wt% silica filler, the thermal expansion coefficients and the Young’s moduli were gradually decreased down to 20% and increased up to 41%, respectively. The experimental results were compared with fillervolume- based simple empirical relations. The experimental results of thermal expansion coefficients correspond with those of Thomas’s model which is modified from the rule of mixture. However, the measured result for Young’s modulus tends to be increased slightly. The differences in increments of the moduli between experimental and numerical model data are quite large.

Keywords: Thermal Stability, Silica-Reinforced, Epoxy Composite, Coefficient of Thermal Expansion, Empirical Model.

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12908 Nonlinear Thermal Expansion Model for SiC/Al

Authors: T.R. Sahroni, S. Sulaiman, I. Romli, M.R. Salleh, H.A. Ariff

Abstract:

The thermal expansion behaviour of silicon carbide (SCS-2) fibre reinforced 6061 aluminium matrix composite subjected to the influenced thermal mechanical cycling (TMC) process were investigated. The thermal stress has important effect on the longitudinal thermal expansion coefficient of the composites. The present paper used experimental data of the thermal expansion behaviour of a SiC/Al composite for temperatures up to 370°C, in which their data was used for carrying out modelling of theoretical predictions.

Keywords: Nonlinear, thermal, fibre reinforced, metal matrixcomposites

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12907 Study of Hydrothermal Behavior of Thermal Insulating Materials Based On Natural Fibers

Authors: J. Zach, J. Hroudova, J. Brozovsky

Abstract:

Thermal insulation materials based on natural fibers represent a very promising area of materials based on natural easy renewable row sources. These materials may be in terms of the properties of most competing synthetic insulations, but show somewhat higher moisture sensitivity and thermal insulation properties are strongly influenced by the density and orientation of fibers. The paper described the problem of hygrothermal behavior of thermal insulation materials based on natural plant and animal fibers. This is especially the dependence of the thermal properties of these materials on the type of fiber, bulk density, temperature, moisture and the fiber orientation.

Keywords: Thermal insulating materials, hemp fibers, sheep wool fibers, thermal conductivity, moisture.

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12906 An Analysis on Thermal Energy Storage in Paraffin-Wax Using Tube Array on a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

Authors: Syukri Himran, Rustan Taraka, Anto Duma

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to improve the understanding of latent and sensible thermal energy storage within a paraffin wax media by an array of cylindrical tubes arranged both in in-line and staggered layouts. An analytical and experimental study is carried out in a horizontal shell-and-tube type system during melting process. Pertamina paraffin-wax was used as a phase change material (PCM), while the tubes are embedded in the PCM. From analytical study we can obtain the useful information in designing a thermal energy storage such as: the motion of interface, amount of material melted at any time in the process, and the heat storage characteristic during melting. The use of staggered tubes is proposed compared to in-line layout in a heat exchanger as thermal storage. The experimental study is used to verify the validity of the analytical predictions. From the comparisons, the analytical and experimental data are in a good agreement.

Keywords: Latent, sensible, paraffin-wax, thermal energy storage, conduction, natural convection.

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12905 Performance and Economic Evaluation of a Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar System in Northern China

Authors: E. Sok, Y. Zhuo, S. Wang

Abstract:

A hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) solar system integrates photovoltaic and solar thermal technologies into one single solar energy device, with dual generation of electricity and heat energy. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential for introduction of the PV/T technology into Northern China. For this purpose, outdoor experiments were conducted on a prototype of a PV/T water-heating system. The annual thermal and electrical performances were investigated under the climatic conditions of Beijing. An economic analysis of the system was then carried out, followed by a sensitivity study. The analysis revealed that the hybrid system is not economically attractive with the current market and energy prices. However, considering the continuous commitment of the Chinese government towards policy development in the renewable energy sector, and technological improvements like the increasing cost-effectiveness of PV cells, PV/Thermal technology may become economically viable in the near future.

Keywords: Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T), Solar energy, Economic analysis

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12904 Performance Analysis of Heat Pipe Using Copper Nanofluid with Aqueous Solution of n-Butanol

Authors: Senthilkumar R, Vaidyanathan S, Sivaraman B

Abstract:

This study presents the improvement of thermal performance of heat pipe using copper nanofluid with aqueous solution of n-Butanol. The nanofluids kept in the suspension of conventional fluids have the potential of superior heat transfer capability than the conventional fluids due to their improved thermal conductivity. In this work, the copper nanofluid which has a 40 nm size with a concentration of 100 mg/lit is kept in the suspension of the de-ionized (DI) water and an aqueous solution of n-Butanol and these fluids are used as a working medium in the heat pipe. The study discusses about the effect of heat pipe inclination, type of working fluid and heat input on the thermal efficiency and thermal resistance. The experimental results are evaluated in terms of its performance metrics and are compared with that of DI water.

Keywords: copper nanofluid with aqueous solution of n-Butanol, heat pipe, thermal efficiency, thermal resistance

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12903 Study of Mixed Convection in a Vertical Channel Filled with a Reactive Porous Medium in the Absence of Local Thermal Equilibrium

Authors: Hamid Maidat, Khedidja Bouhadef, Djamel Eddine Ameziani, Azzedine Abdedou

Abstract:

This work consists of a numerical simulation of convective heat transfer in a vertical plane channel filled with a heat generating porous medium, in the absence of local thermal equilibrium. The walls are maintained to a constant temperature and the inlet velocity is uniform. The dynamic range is described by the Darcy-Brinkman model and the thermal field by two energy equations model. A dimensionless formulation is developed for performing a parametric study based on certain dimensionless groups such as, the Biot interstitial number, the thermal conductivity ratio and the volumetric heat generation, q '''. The governing equations are solved using the finite volume method, gave rise to a multitude of results concerning in particular the thermal field in the porous channel and the existence or not of the local thermal equilibrium.

Keywords: Mixed convection, porous medium, power generation, local thermal non equilibrium model.

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12902 Experimental Study of Thermal Environment in a Room with Mixing Ventilation

Authors: Dong-Mei Pan, Liang XIA, Ming-Yin Chan

Abstract:

This paper reports an experimental study on a sleeping thermal manikin in a room equipped with a mixing ventilation system. In the experimental work, heat loss from the sleeping thermal manikin was measured under different conditions. The supply air temperature was in a range of 17°C to 27°C. Apart from the heat loss of the sleeping thermal manikin, the velocity distributions and temperature distributions were also measured in the experiments for subsequent analysis.

Keywords: Sleeping Environment, Mixing Ventilation System

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12901 Using the Transient Plane Source Method for Measuring Thermal Parameters of Electroceramics

Authors: Peter Krupa, Svetozár Malinarič

Abstract:

Transient plane source method has been used to measure the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of a compact isostatic electroceramics at room temperature. The samples were fired at temperatures from 100 up to 1320 degrees Celsius in steps of 50. Bulk density and specific heat capacity were also measured with their corresponding standard uncertainties. The results were compared with further thermal analysis (dilatometry and thermogravimetry). Structural processes during firing were discussed.

Keywords: TPS method, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, thermal analysis, electroceramics, firing.

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12900 Impacts of the Courtyard with Glazed Roof on House Winter Thermal Conditions

Authors: Bin Su

Abstract:

The 'wind-rain' house has a courtyard with glazed roof, which allows more direct sunlight to come into indoor spaces during the winter. The glazed roof can be partially opened or closed and automatically controlled to provide natural ventilation in order to adjust for indoor thermal conditions and the roof area can be shaded by reflective insulation materials during the summer. Two field studies for evaluating indoor thermal conditions of the two 'windrain' houses have been carried out by author in 2009 and 2010. Indoor and outdoor air temperature and relative humidity adjacent to floor and ceiling of the two sample houses were continuously tested at 15-minute intervals, 24 hours a day during the winter months. Based on field study data, this study investigates relationships between building design and indoor thermal condition of the 'windrain' house to improve the future house design for building thermal comfort and energy efficiency

Keywords: Courtyard, house design, indoor thermal comfort, 'wind-rain' house

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12899 Simulation Study on the Indoor Thermal Comfort with Insulation on Interior Structural Components of Super High-Rise Residences

Authors: Y. Wang, H. Fukuda, A. Ozaki, H. Sato

Abstract:

In this study, we discussed the effects on the thermal comfort of super high-rise residences that how effected by the high thermal capacity structural components. We considered different building orientations, structures, and insulation methods. We used the dynamic simulation software THERB (simulation of the thermal environment of residential buildings). It can estimate the temperature, humidity, sensible temperature, and heating/cooling load for multiple buildings. In the past studies, we examined the impact of air-conditioning loads (hereinafter referred to as AC loads) on the interior structural parts and the AC-usage patterns of super-high-rise residences. Super-high-rise residences have more structural components such as pillars and beams than do ordinary apartment buildings. The skeleton is generally made of concrete and steel, which have high thermal-storage capacities. The thermal-storage capacity of super-high-rise residences is considered to have a larger impact on the AC load and thermal comfort than that of ordinary residences. We show that the AC load of super-high-rise units would be reduced by installing insulation on the surfaces of interior walls that are not usually insulated in Japan.

Keywords: High-rise Residences, AC Load, Thermal Comfort, Thermal Storage, Insulation Patterns

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12898 Thermal Regions for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Route Planning

Authors: Resul Fikir

Abstract:

Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) become indispensable parts of modern airpower as force multiplier. One of the main advantages of UAS is long endurance. UAS have to take extra payloads to accomplish different missions but these payloads decrease endurance of aircraft because of increasing drag. There are continuing researches to increase the capability of UAS. There are some vertical thermal air currents, which can cause climb and increase endurance, in nature. Birds and gliders use thermals to gain altitude with no effort. UAS have wide wings which can use thermals like birds and gliders. Thermal regions, which is area of 2000-3000 meter (1 NM), exist all around the world. It is natural and infinite source. This study analyses if thermal regions can be adopted and implemented as an assistant tool for UAS route planning. First and second part of study will contain information about the thermal regions and current applications about UAS in aviation and climbing performance with a real example. Continuing parts will analyze the contribution of thermal regions to UAS endurance. Contribution is important because planning declaration of UAS navigation rules will be in 2015.

Keywords: Airways, Thermals, UAS, UAS Roadmap.

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12897 Kinetic Study of Thermal Degradation of a Lignin Nanoparticle-Reinforced Phenolic Foam

Authors: Juan C. Domínguez, Belén Del Saz-Orozco, María V. Alonso, Mercedes Oliet, Francisco Rodríguez

Abstract:

In the present study, the kinetics of thermal degradation of a phenolic and lignin reinforced phenolic foams, and the lignin used as reinforcement were studied and the activation energies of their degradation processes were obtained by a DAEM model. The average values for five heating rates of the mean activation energies obtained were: 99.1, 128.2, and 144.0 kJ.mol-1 for the phenolic foam; 109.5, 113.3, and 153.0 kJ.mol-1 for the lignin reinforcement; and 82.1, 106.9, and 124.4 kJ.mol-1 for the lignin reinforced phenolic foam. The standard deviation ranges calculated for each sample were 1.27-8.85, 2.22-12.82, and 3.17-8.11 kJ.mol-1 for the phenolic foam, lignin and the reinforced foam, respectively. The DAEM model showed low mean square errors (<1x10-5), proving that is a suitable model to study the kinetics of thermal degradation of the foams and the reinforcement.

Keywords: Kinetics, lignin, phenolic foam, thermal degradation.

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12896 Thermal and Flammability Properties of Paraffin/Nanoclay Composite Phase Change Materials Incorporated in Building Materials for Thermal Energy Storage

Authors: Awni H. Alkhazaleh, Baljinder K. Kandola

Abstract:

In this study, a form-stable composite Paraffin/Nanoclay (PA-NC) has been prepared by absorbing PA into porous particles of NC to be used for low-temperature latent heat thermal energy storage. The leakage test shows that the maximum mass fraction of PA that can be incorporated in NC without leakage is 60 wt.%. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been used to measure the thermal properties of the PA and PA-NC both before and after incorporation in plasterboard (PL). The mechanical performance of the samples has been evaluated in flexural mode. The thermal energy storage performance has been studied using a small test chamber (100 mm × 100 mm × 100 mm) made from 10 mm thick PL and measuring the temperatures using thermocouples. The flammability of the PL+PL-NC has been discussed using a cone calorimeter. The results indicate that the form composite PA has good potential for use as thermal energy storage materials in building applications.

Keywords: Flammability, paraffin, plasterboard, thermal energy storage.

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12895 Design of Thermal Control Subsystem for TUSAT Telecommunication Satellite

Authors: N. Sozbir, M. Bulut, M.F.Oktem, A.Kahriman, A. Chaix

Abstract:

TUSAT is a prospective Turkish Communication Satellite designed for providing mainly data communication and broadcasting services through Ku-Band and C-Band channels. Thermal control is a vital issue in satellite design process. Therefore, all satellite subsystems and equipments should be maintained in the desired temperature range from launch to end of maneuvering life. The main function of the thermal control is to keep the equipments and the satellite structures in a given temperature range for various phases and operating modes of spacecraft during its lifetime. This paper describes the thermal control design which uses passive and active thermal control concepts. The active thermal control is based on heaters regulated by software via thermistors. Alternatively passive thermal control composes of heat pipes, multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets, radiators, paints and surface finishes maintaining temperature level of the overall carrier components within an acceptable value. Thermal control design is supported by thermal analysis using thermal mathematical models (TMM).

Keywords: Spacecraft thermal control, design of thermal control.

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12894 Control of Thermal Flow in Machine Tools Using Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: Reimund Neugebauer, Welf-Guntram Drossel, Andre Bucht, Christoph Ohsenbrügge

Abstract:

In this paper the authors propose and verify an approach to control heat flow in machine tool components. Thermal deformations are a main aspect that affects the accuracy of machining. Due to goals of energy efficiency, thermal basic loads should be reduced. This leads to inhomogeneous and time variant temperature profiles. To counteract these negative consequences, material with high melting enthalpy is used as a method for thermal stabilization. The increased thermal capacity slows down the transient thermal behavior. To account for the delayed thermal equilibrium, a control mechanism for thermal flow is introduced. By varying a gap in a heat flow path the thermal resistance of an assembly can be controlled. This mechanism is evaluated in two experimental setups. First to validate the ability to control the thermal resistance and second to prove the possibility of a self-sufficient option based on the selfsensing abilities of thermal shape memory alloys.

Keywords: energy-efficiency, heat transfer path, MT thermal stability, thermal shape memory alloy

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12893 Comparative Study of Two New Configurations of Solar Photovoltaic Thermal Collectors

Authors: K. Touafek, A. Khelifa, E. H. Khettaf, A. Embarek

Abstract:

Hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) solar system comprises a solar collector which is disposed on photovoltaic solar cells. The disadvantage of a conventional photovoltaic cell is that its performance decreases as the temperature increases. Indeed, part of the solar radiation is converted into electricity and is dissipated as heat, increasing the temperature of the photovoltaic cell with respect to the ambient temperature. The objective of this work is to study experimentally and implement a hybrid prototype to evaluate electrical and thermal performance. In this paper, an experimental study of two new configurations of hybrid collectors is exposed. The results are given and interpreted. The two configurations of absorber studied are a new combination with tubes and galvanized tank, the other is a tubes and sheet.

Keywords: Experimental, Photovoltaic, Solar, Temperature.

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12892 Thermal Radiation and Noise Safety Assessment of an Offshore Platform Flare Stack as Sudden Emergency Relief Takes Place

Authors: Lai Xuejiang, Huang Li, Yang Yi

Abstract:

To study the potential hazards of the sudden emergency relief of flare stack, the thermal radiation and noise calculation of flare stack is carried out by using Flaresim program 2.0. Thermal radiation and noise analysis should be considered as the sudden emergency relief takes place. According to the Flaresim software simulation results, the thermal radiation and noise meet the requirement.

Keywords: Flare stack, thermal radiation, noise, safety assessment.

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12891 Simplified 3R2C Building Thermal Network Model: A Case Study

Authors: S. M. Mahbobur Rahman

Abstract:

Whole building energy simulation models are widely used for predicting future energy consumption, performance diagnosis and optimum control.  Black box building energy modeling approach has been heavily studied in the past decade. The thermal response of a building can also be modeled using a network of interconnected resistors (R) and capacitors (C) at each node called R-C network. In this study, a model building, Case 600, as described in the “Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Program”, ASHRAE standard 140, is studied along with a 3R2C thermal network model and the ASHRAE clear sky solar radiation model. Although building an energy model involves two important parts of building component i.e., the envelope and internal mass, the effect of building internal mass is not considered in this study. All the characteristic parameters of the building envelope are evaluated as on Case 600. Finally, monthly building energy consumption from the thermal network model is compared with a simple-box energy model within reasonable accuracy. From the results, 0.6-9.4% variation of monthly energy consumption is observed because of the south-facing windows.

Keywords: ASHRAE case study, clear sky solar radiation model, energy modeling, thermal network model.

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