Performance and Economic Evaluation of a Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar System in Northern China
A hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) solar system integrates photovoltaic and solar thermal technologies into one single solar energy device, with dual generation of electricity and heat energy. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential for introduction of the PV/T technology into Northern China. For this purpose, outdoor experiments were conducted on a prototype of a PV/T water-heating system. The annual thermal and electrical performances were investigated under the climatic conditions of Beijing. An economic analysis of the system was then carried out, followed by a sensitivity study. The analysis revealed that the hybrid system is not economically attractive with the current market and energy prices. However, considering the continuous commitment of the Chinese government towards policy development in the renewable energy sector, and technological improvements like the increasing cost-effectiveness of PV cells, PV/Thermal technology may become economically viable in the near future.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1333678Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2027
 E.C. Kern and M.C. Russel, "Combined photovoltaics and thermal hybrid collector systems," in Proc. 13th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists, Washington, 1978, pp.1153-1157.
 LW. Florschuetz, "Extension of the Hottel-Whillier model to the analysis of combined photovoltaic/thermal flat plate collectors," Solar Energy, vol. 22, pp. 361-366, 1979.
 P. Raghuraman, "Analytical predictions of liquid and air photovoltaic/thermal, flat-plate collector performance," Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, vol. 103, pp. 291-298, 1981.
 B. Lalovic, "A hybrid amorphous silicon photovoltaic and thermal solar collector," Solar Cells, vol 19, 1986, pp. 131-138, doi:
 B.J. Huang, T.H. Lin, W.C. Hung and F.S. Sun, "Performance evaluation of solar photovoltaic/thermal systems," Solar Energy, vol. 70, pp. 443- 448, 2001.
 B. Sandnes and J. Rekstad, "A photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collector with a polymer absorber plate. Experimental study and analytical model," Solar Energy, vol. 72, pp. 63-73, 2002.
 R. Zakharchenko, L. Licea-Jiménez, S.A. Pérez-Garcia, P. Vorobiev, U. Dehesa-Carrasco, J.F. Pérez-Robles, J. Gonzalez-Hernandez and Y. Vorobiev, "Photovoltaic solar panel for a hybrid PV/thermal system," Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 82, pp.253-261, 2004.
 W. He, T.T. Chow, J. Ji, J.P. Lu, G. Pei and L. Chan, "Hybrid photovoltaic and thermal solar-collector designed for natural circulation of water," Applied Energy, vol. 89, pp. 199-210, 2006.
 S. Dubey and G.N. Tiwari, "Thermal modelling of a combined system of photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) solar water heater," Solar Energy, vol. 82, pp. 602-612, 2008.
 S.A. Kalogirou, "Use of TRNSYS for modelling and simulation of a hybrid pv-thermal solar system for Cyprus," Renewable Energy, vol. 23, pp. 247-260, 2001.
 H.A. Zondag, D.W. De Vries, W.G.J. Van Helden, R.J.C. Van Zolinger and A.A. Van Steehoven, "The yield of different combined PV-Thermal collector designs," Solar Energy, vol. 74, pp. 253-269, 2003.
 Y. Tripagnostopoulos, "Aspects and improvements of hybrid photovoltaic/thermal solar energy systems," Solar Energy, vol. 81, pp. 117-1131, 2007.
 M.J.M. Jong and H.A. Zondag, "System studies on combined PV/T Thermal panels," in Proc. 9th International Conference on Solar Energy in High Latitudes, Leiden, 2001.
 H. Saitoh, Y. Hamada, H. Kubota, M. Nakamura, K. Ochifuji, S. Yokoyama and K. Nagano, "Field experiments and analyses on a hybrid solar collector," Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 23, pp. 2089-2105, 2003.
 H. Zondag, M. Bakker, W.G.J. Van Helden, P. Affolter, W. Eisenmann, H. Fechner et al., "PVT Roadmap - a European guide for the development and market introduction of PV-thermal technology," in Proc. 20th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conf., 2005.
 S. Tselepis and Y. Tripagnostopoulos, "Economic analysis of hybrid photovoltaic/thermal solar systems and comparison with standard PV modules," in Proc. Of the International Conf. on PV in Europe, Rome, 2002, pp. 856-859.
 Y. Tripanagnostopoulos, S. Tselepis, M. Souliotis and J.K. Tonui, "Design aspects of hybrid PVT/Water solar systems," in Proc. 19th Europeen Solar Energy Conf., Paris, 2004.
 Y. Tripagnostopoulos, M. Souliotis, R. Battisti and A. Corrado, "Energy, cost and LCA results of PV and Hybrid PV/T solar systems," Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and applications, vol 13, pp 235-250, 2005.
 S.A. Kalogirou and Y. Tripanagnostopoulos, "Industrial application of PV/T solar energy systems," Applied Thermal Engineering, vol 27, pp.1259-1270, 2007.
 E. Erdil, M. Ilkan and E. Egelioglu, "An experimental study on energy generation with a photovoltaic (PV) - solar thermal hybrid system," Energy, vol. 33, pp. 1241-1245, 2008.
 T.T. Chow, W. He, J. Ji and A.L.S. Chan, "Performance evaluation of photovoltaic-thermosyphon system for subtropical climate application," Solar Energy, vol. 81, pp. 123-130, 2007.
 M.D. Bazilian, F. Leenders, B.G.C. Van Der Ree and D. Prasad, "Photovoltaic cogeneration in the built environment," Solar Energy, vol. 71, pp. 57-69, 2001.
 J.C. Su, S.J. Wang and C.H. Chen, "Experimental Study of Electricity Generation by Photovoltaic Thermal Collectors: Comparison with Conventional Photovoltaic Panels," in Proc. of ISES Solar World Congress, Beijing, 2007.
 P. Jayarama Reddy, Science and technology of photovoltaics, 2nd ed. Hyderabad, India: BS Publications, 2010.
 P.D. Zhang, Y.L. Yang, J. Shi, Y.H. Zheng, L.S. Wang and X.R. Li, "Opportunities and challenges for renewable energy policy in China," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 13, pp. 439-449, 2009.