Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1458

Search results for: load relaxation.

1458 Mechanical Equation of State in an Al-Li Alloy

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

Existence of plastic equation of state has been investigated by performing a series of load relaxation tests at various temperatures using an Al-Li alloy. A plastic equation of state is first developed from a simple kinetics consideration for a mechanical activation process of a leading dislocation piled up against grain boundaries. A series of load relaxation test has been conducted at temperatures ranging from 200 to 530oC to obtain the stress-strain rate curves. A plastic equation of state has been derived from a simple consideration of dislocation kinetics and confirmed by experimental results.

Keywords: Plastic equation of state, Dislocation kinetics, Load relaxation test, Al-Li alloy, Microstructure.

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1457 Thermal Fatigue Behavior of 400 Series Ferritic Stainless Steels

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

In this study, thermal fatigue properties of 400 series ferritic stainless steels have been evaluated in the temperature ranges of 200-800oC and 200-900oC. Systematic methods for control of temperatures within the predetermined range and measurement of load applied to specimens as a function of temperature during thermal cycles have been established. Thermal fatigue tests were conducted under fully constrained condition, where both ends of specimens were completely fixed. It has been revealed that load relaxation behavior at the temperatures of thermal cycle was closely related with the thermal fatigue property. Thermal fatigue resistance of 430J1L stainless steel is found to be superior to the other steels.

Keywords: Ferritic stainless steel, automotive exhaust, thermal fatigue, microstructure, load relaxation.

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1456 Thermal Fatigue Behavior of Austenitic Stainless Steels

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

Continually increasing working temperature and growing need for greater efficiency and reliability of automotive exhaust require systematic investigation into the thermal fatigue properties especially of high temperature stainless steels. In this study, thermal fatigue properties of 300 series austenitic stainless steels have been evaluated in the temperature ranges of 200-800oC and 200-900oC. Systematic methods for control of temperatures within the predetermined range and measurement of load applied to specimens as a function of temperature during thermal cycles have been established. Thermal fatigue tests were conducted under fully constrained condition, where both ends of specimens were completely fixed. Load relaxation behavior at the temperatures of thermal cycle was closely related with the thermal fatigue property.

Keywords: Austenitic stainless steel, automotive exhaust, thermal fatigue, microstructure, load relaxation.

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1455 Effect of Out-of-Plane Deformation on Relaxation Method of Stress Concentration in a Plate with a Circular Hole

Authors: Shingo Murakami, Shinichi Enoki

Abstract:

In structures, stress concentration is a factor of fatigue fracture. Basically, the stress concentration is a phenomenon that should be avoided. However, it is difficult to avoid the stress concentration. Therefore, relaxation of the stress concentration is important. The stress concentration arises from notches and circular holes. There is a relaxation method that a composite patch covers a notch and a circular hole. This relaxation method is used to repair aerial wings, but it is not systematized. Composites are more expensive than single materials. Accordingly, we propose the relaxation method that a single material patch covers a notch and a circular hole, and aim to systematize this relaxation method. We performed FEA (Finite Element Analysis) about an object by using a three-dimensional FEA model. The object was that a patch adheres to a plate with a circular hole. And, a uniaxial tensile load acts on the patched plate with a circular hole. In the three-dimensional FEA model, it is not easy to model the adhesion layer. Basically, the yield stress of the adhesive is smaller than that of adherents. Accordingly, the adhesion layer gets to plastic deformation earlier than the adherents under the yield load of adherents. Therefore, we propose the three-dimensional FEA model which is applied a nonlinear elastic region to the adhesion layer. The nonlinear elastic region was calculated by a bilinear approximation. We compared the analysis results with the tensile test results to confirm whether the analysis model has usefulness. As a result, the analysis results agreed with the tensile test results. And, we confirmed that the analysis model has usefulness. As a result that the three-dimensional FEA model was used to the analysis, it was confirmed that an out-of-plane deformation occurred to the patched plate with a circular hole. The out-of-plane deformation causes stress increase of the patched plate with a circular hole. Therefore, we investigated that the out-of-plane deformation affects relaxation of the stress concentration in the plate with a circular hole on this relaxation method. As a result, it was confirmed that the out-of-plane deformation inhibits relaxation of the stress concentration on the plate with a circular hole.

Keywords: Stress concentration, patch, out-of-plane deformation, Finite Element Analysis.

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1454 Viscoelastic Characterization of Bovine Trabecular Bone Samples

Authors: Ramirez D. Edgar I., Angeles H. José J., Ruiz C. Osvaldo, Jacobo A. Victor H., Ortiz P. Armando

Abstract:

Knowledge of bone mechanical properties is important for bone substitutes design and fabrication, and more efficient prostheses development. The aim of this study is to characterize the viscoelastic behavior of bone specimens, through stress relaxation and fatigue tests performed to trabecular bone samples from bovine femoral heads. Relaxation tests consisted on preloading the samples at five different magnitudes and evaluate them for 1020 seconds, adjusting the results to a KWW mathematical model. Fatigue tests consisted of 700 load cycles and analyze their status at the end of the tests. As a conclusion we have that between relaxation stress and each preload there is linear relation and for samples with initial Young´s modulus greater than 1.5 GPa showed no effects due fatigue test loading cycles.

Keywords: Bone viscoelasticity, fatigue test, stress relaxation test, trabecular bone properties.

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1453 Sensitivity Computations of Time Relaxation Model with an Application in Cavity Computation

Authors: Monika Neda, Elena Nikonova

Abstract:

We present a numerical study of the sensitivity of the so called time relaxation family of models of fluid motion with respect to the time relaxation parameter χ on the two dimensional cavity problem. The goal of the study is to compute and compare the sensitivity of the model using finite difference method (FFD) and sensitivity equation method (SEM).

Keywords: Sensitivity, time relaxation, deconvolution, Navier- Stokes equations.

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1452 High Temperature Deformation Behavior of Cr-containing Superplastic Iron Aluminide

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Woo Young Jung, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

Superplastic deformation and high temperature load relaxation behavior of coarse-grained iron aluminides with the composition of Fe-28 at.% Al have been investigated. A series of load relaxation and tensile tests were conducted at temperatures ranging from 600 to 850oC. The flow curves obtained from load relaxation tests were found to have a sigmoidal shape and to exhibit stress vs. strain rate data in a very wide strain rate range from 10-7/s to 10-2/s. Tensile tests have been conducted at various initial strain rates ranging from 3×10-5/s to 1×10-2/s. Maximum elongation of ~500 % was obtained at the initial strain rate of 3×10-5/s and the maximum strain rate sensitivity was found to be 0.68 at 850oC in binary Fe-28Al alloy. Microstructure observation through the optical microscopy (OM) and the electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) technique has been carried out on the deformed specimens and it has revealed the evidences for grain boundary migration and grain refinement to occur during superplastic deformation, suggesting the dynamic recrystallization mechanism. The addition of Cr by the amount of 5 at.% appeared to deteriorate the superplasticity of the binary iron aluminide. By applying the internal variable theory of structural superplasticity, the addition of Cr has been revealed to lower the contribution of the frictional resistance to dislocation glide during high temperature deformation of the Fe3Al alloy.

Keywords: Iron aluminide (Fe3Al), large grain size, structural superplasticity, dynamic recrystallization, chromium (Cr).

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1451 Influence of Moringa Leaves Extract on the Response of Hb Molecule to Dose Rates’ Changes: II. Relaxation Time and Its Thermodynamic Driven State Functions

Authors: Mohamed M. M. Elnasharty, Azhar M. Elwan

Abstract:

Irradiation deposits energy through ionisation changing the bio-system’s net dipole, allowing the use of dielectric parameters and thermodynamic state functions related to these parameters as biophysical detectors to electrical inhomogeneity within the biosystem. This part is concerned with the effect of Moringa leaves extract, natural supplement, on the response of the biosystem to two different dose rates of irradiation. Having Hb molecule as a representative to the biosystem to be least invasive to the biosystem, dielectric measurements were used to extract the relaxation time of certain process found in the Hb spectrum within the indicated frequency window and the interrelated thermodynamic state functions were calculated from the deduced relaxation time. The results showed that relaxation time was decreased for both dose rates indicating a strong influence of Moringa on the response of biosystem and consequently Hb molecule. This influence was presented in the relaxation time and other parameters as well.

Keywords: Activation energy, DC conductivity, dielectric relaxation, enthalpy change, moringa leaves extract, relaxation time.

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1450 Identification of Arousal and Relaxation by using SVM-Based Fusion of PPG Features

Authors: Chi Jung Kim, Mincheol Whang, Eui Chul Lee

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new method to distinguish between arousal and relaxation states by using multiple features acquired from a photoplethysmogram (PPG) and support vector machine (SVM). To induce arousal and relaxation states in subjects, 2 kinds of sound stimuli are used, and their corresponding biosignals are obtained using the PPG sensor. Two features–pulse to pulse interval (PPI) and pulse amplitude (PA)–are extracted from acquired PPG data, and a nonlinear classification between arousal and relaxation is performed using SVM. This methodology has several advantages when compared with previous similar studies. Firstly, we extracted 2 separate features from PPG, i.e., PPI and PA. Secondly, in order to improve the classification accuracy, SVM-based nonlinear classification was performed. Thirdly, to solve classification problems caused by generalized features of whole subjects, we defined each threshold according to individual features. Experimental results showed that the average classification accuracy was 74.67%. Also, the proposed method showed the better identification performance than the single feature based methods. From this result, we confirmed that arousal and relaxation can be classified using SVM and PPG features.

Keywords: Support Vector Machine, PPG, Emotion Recognition, Arousal, Relaxation

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1449 Dry Relaxation Shrinkage Prediction of Bordeaux Fiber Using a Feed Forward Neural

Authors: Baeza S. Roberto

Abstract:

The knitted fabric suffers a deformation in its dimensions due to stretching and tension factors, transverse and longitudinal respectively, during the process in rectilinear knitting machines so it performs a dry relaxation shrinkage procedure and thermal action of prefixed to obtain stable conditions in the knitting. This paper presents a dry relaxation shrinkage prediction of Bordeaux fiber using a feed forward neural network and linear regression models. Six operational alternatives of shrinkage were predicted. A comparison of the results was performed finding neural network models with higher levels of explanation of the variability and prediction. The presence of different reposes is included. The models were obtained through a neural toolbox of Matlab and Minitab software with real data in a knitting company of Southern Guanajuato. The results allow predicting dry relaxation shrinkage of each alternative operation.

Keywords: Neural network, dry relaxation, knitting, linear regression.

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1448 Comparative Dielectric Properties of 1,2-Dichloroethane with n-Methylformamide and n,n-Dimethylformamide Using Time Domain Reflectometry Technique in Microwave Frequency

Authors: Shagufta Tabassum, V. P. Pawar, jr., G. N. Shinde

Abstract:

The study of dielectric relaxation properties of polar liquids in the binary mixture has been carried out at 10, 15, 20 and 25 ºC temperatures for 11 different concentrations using time domain reflectometry technique. The dielectric properties of a solute-solvent mixture of polar liquids in the frequency range of 10 MHz to 30 GHz gives the information regarding formation of monomers and multimers and also an interaction between the molecules of the liquid mixture under study. The dielectric parameters have been obtained by the least squares fit method using the Debye equation characterized by a single relaxation time without relaxation time distribution.

Keywords: Excess properties, relaxation time, static dielectric constant, time domain refelectometry technique.

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1447 Relaxation Dynamics of Quantum Emitters Resonantly Coupled to a Localized Surface Plasmon

Authors: Khachatur V. Nerkararyan, Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi

Abstract:

We investigate relaxation dynamics of a quantum dipole emitter (QDE), e.g., a molecule or quantum dot, located near a metal nanoparticle (MNP) exhibiting a dipolar localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance at the frequency of the QDE radiative transition. It is shown that under the condition of the QDE-MNP characteristic relaxation time being much shorter than that of the QDE in free-space but much longer than the LSP lifetime. It is also shown that energy dissipation in the QDE-MNP system is relatively weak with the probability of the photon emission being about 0.75, a number which, rather surprisingly, does not explicitly depend on the metal absorption characteristics. The degree of entanglement measured by the concurrency takes the maximum value, while the distances between the QDEs and metal ball approximately are equal.

Keywords: Metal nanoparticle, Localized surface plasmon, Quantum dipole emitter, Relaxation dynamics.

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1446 Jacobi-Based Methods in Solving Fuzzy Linear Systems

Authors: Lazim Abdullah, Nurhakimah Ab. Rahman

Abstract:

Linear systems are widely used in many fields of science and engineering. In many applications, at least some of the parameters of the system are represented by fuzzy rather than crisp numbers. Therefore it is important to perform numerical algorithms or procedures that would treat general fuzzy linear systems and solve them using iterative methods. This paper aims are to solve fuzzy linear systems using four types of Jacobi based iterative methods. Four iterative methods based on Jacobi are used for solving a general n × n fuzzy system of linear equations of the form Ax = b , where A is a crisp matrix and b an arbitrary fuzzy vector. The Jacobi, Jacobi Over-Relaxation, Refinement of Jacobi and Refinement of Jacobi Over-Relaxation methods was tested to a five by five fuzzy linear system. It is found that all the tested methods were iterated differently. Due to the effect of extrapolation parameters and the refinement, the Refinement of Jacobi Over-Relaxation method was outperformed the other three methods.

Keywords: Fuzzy linear systems, Jacobi, Jacobi Over- Relaxation, Refinement of Jacobi, Refinement of Jacobi Over- Relaxation.

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1445 Measurements of MRI R2* Relaxation Rate in Liver and Muscle: Animal Model

Authors: Chiung-Yun Chang, Po-Chou Chen, Jiun-Shiang Tzeng, Ka-Wai Mac, Chia-Chi Hsiao, Jo-Chi Jao

Abstract:

This study was aimed to measure effective transverse relaxation rates (R2*) in the liver and muscle of normal New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. R2* relaxation rate has been widely used in various hepatic diseases for iron overload by quantifying iron contents in liver. R2* relaxation rate is defined as the reciprocal of T2* relaxation time and mainly depends on the constituents of tissue. Different tissues would have different R2* relaxation rates. The signal intensity decay in Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be characterized by R2* relaxation rates. In this study, a 1.5T GE Signa HDxt whole body MR scanner equipped with an 8-channel high resolution knee coil was used to observe R2* values in NZW rabbit’s liver and muscle. Eight healthy NZW rabbits weighted 2 ~ 2.5 kg were recruited. After anesthesia using Zoletil 50 and Rompun 2% mixture, the abdomen of rabbit was landmarked at the center of knee coil to perform 3-plane localizer scan using fast spoiled gradient echo (FSPGR) pulse sequence. Afterwards, multi-planar fast gradient echo (MFGR) scans were performed with 8 various echo times (TEs) to acquire images for R2* measurements. Regions of interest (ROIs) at liver and muscle were measured using Advantage workstation. Finally, the R2* was obtained by a linear regression of ln(sı) on TE. The results showed that the longer the echo time, the smaller the signal intensity. The R2* values of liver and muscle were 44.8 ± 10.9 s-1 and 37.4 ± 9.5 s-1, respectively. It implies that the iron concentration of liver is higher than that of muscle. In conclusion, the more the iron contents in tissue, the higher the R2*. The correlations between R2* and iron content in NZW rabbits might be valuable for further exploration.

Keywords: Liver, MRI, multi-planar fast gradient echo, muscle, R2* relaxation rate.

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1444 Consumer Load Profile Determination with Entropy-Based K-Means Algorithm

Authors: Ioannis P. Panapakidis, Marios N. Moschakis

Abstract:

With the continuous increment of smart meter installations across the globe, the need for processing of the load data is evident. Clustering-based load profiling is built upon the utilization of unsupervised machine learning tools for the purpose of formulating the typical load curves or load profiles. The most commonly used algorithm in the load profiling literature is the K-means. While the algorithm has been successfully tested in a variety of applications, its drawback is the strong dependence in the initialization phase. This paper proposes a novel modified form of the K-means that addresses the aforementioned problem. Simulation results indicate the superiority of the proposed algorithm compared to the K-means.

Keywords: Clustering, load profiling, load modeling, machine learning, energy efficiency and quality.

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1443 Influences of Thermal Relaxation Times on Generalized Thermoelastic Longitudinal Waves in Circular Cylinder

Authors: Fatimah A. Alshaikh

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with propagation of thermoelastic longitudinal vibrations of an infinite circular cylinder, in the context of the linear theory of generalized thermoelasticity with two relaxation time parameters (Green and Lindsay theory). Three displacement potential functions are introduced to uncouple the equations of motion. The frequency equation, by using the traction free boundary conditions, is given in the form of a determinant involving Bessel functions. The roots of the frequency equation give the value of the characteristic circular frequency as function of the wave number. These roots, which correspond to various modes, are numerically computed and presented graphically for different values of the thermal relaxation times. It is found that the influences of the thermal relaxation times on the amplitudes of the elastic and thermal waves are remarkable. Also, it is shown in this study that the propagation of thermoelastic longitudinal vibrations based on the generalized thermoelasticity can differ significantly compared with the results under the classical formulation. A comparison of the results for the case with no thermal effects shows well agreement with some of the corresponding earlier results.

Keywords: Wave propagation, longitudinal vibrations, circular cylinder, generalized thermoelasticity, Thermal relaxation times.

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1442 Impact of Viscous and Heat Relaxation Loss on the Critical Temperature Gradients of Thermoacoustic Stacks

Authors: Zhibin Yu, Artur J. Jaworski, Abdulrahman S. Abduljalil

Abstract:

A stack with a small critical temperature gradient is desirable for a standing wave thermoacoustic engine to obtain a low onset temperature difference (the minimum temperature difference to start engine-s self-oscillation). The viscous and heat relaxation loss in the stack determines the critical temperature gradient. In this work, a dimensionless critical temperature gradient factor is obtained based on the linear thermoacoustic theory. It is indicated that the impedance determines the proportion between the viscous loss, heat relaxation losses and the power production from the heat energy. It reveals the effects of the channel dimensions, geometrical configuration and the local acoustic impedance on the critical temperature gradient in stacks. The numerical analysis shows that there exists a possible optimum combination of these parameters which leads to the lowest critical temperature gradient. Furthermore, several different geometries have been tested and compared numerically.

Keywords: Critical temperature gradient, heat relaxation, stack, viscous effect.

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1441 A Fuzzy Dynamic Load Balancing Algorithm for Homogenous Distributed Systems

Authors: Ali M. Alakeel

Abstract:

Load balancing in distributed computer systems is the process of redistributing the work load among processors in the system to improve system performance. Most of previous research in using fuzzy logic for the purpose of load balancing has only concentrated in utilizing fuzzy logic concepts in describing processors load and tasks execution length. The responsibility of the fuzzy-based load balancing process itself, however, has not been discussed and in most reported work is assumed to be performed in a distributed fashion by all nodes in the network. This paper proposes a new fuzzy dynamic load balancing algorithm for homogenous distributed systems. The proposed algorithm utilizes fuzzy logic in dealing with inaccurate load information, making load distribution decisions, and maintaining overall system stability. In terms of control, we propose a new approach that specifies how, when, and by which node the load balancing is implemented. Our approach is called Centralized-But-Distributed (CBD).

Keywords: Dynamic load balancing, fuzzy logic, distributed systems, algorithm.

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1440 Performance Analysis of Load Balancing Algorithms

Authors: Sandeep Sharma, Sarabjit Singh, Meenakshi Sharma

Abstract:

Load balancing is the process of improving the performance of a parallel and distributed system through a redistribution of load among the processors [1] [5]. In this paper we present the performance analysis of various load balancing algorithms based on different parameters, considering two typical load balancing approaches static and dynamic. The analysis indicates that static and dynamic both types of algorithm can have advancements as well as weaknesses over each other. Deciding type of algorithm to be implemented will be based on type of parallel applications to solve. The main purpose of this paper is to help in design of new algorithms in future by studying the behavior of various existing algorithms.

Keywords: Load balancing (LB), workload, distributed systems, Static Load balancing, Dynamic Load Balancing

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1439 Applying Lagrangian Relaxation-Based Algorithm for the Airline Coordinated Flight Scheduling Problems

Authors: Chia-Hung Chen, Shangyao Yan

Abstract:

The solution algorithm, based on Lagrangian relaxation, a sub-gradient method and a heuristic to find the upper bound of the solution, is proposed to solve the coordinated fleet routing and flight scheduling problems. Numerical tests are performed to evaluate the proposed algorithm using real operating data from two Taiwan airlines. The test results indicate that the solution algorithm is a significant improvement over those obtained with CPLEX, consequently they could be useful for allied airlines to solve coordinated fleet routing and flight scheduling problems.

Keywords: Coordinated flight scheduling, multiple commodity network flow problem, Lagrangian relaxation.

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1438 A Multi-layer Artificial Neural Network Architecture Design for Load Forecasting in Power Systems

Authors: Axay J Mehta, Hema A Mehta, T.C.Manjunath, C. Ardil

Abstract:

In this paper, the modelling and design of artificial neural network architecture for load forecasting purposes is investigated. The primary pre-requisite for power system planning is to arrive at realistic estimates of future demand of power, which is known as Load Forecasting. Short Term Load Forecasting (STLF) helps in determining the economic, reliable and secure operating strategies for power system. The dependence of load on several factors makes the load forecasting a very challenging job. An over estimation of the load may cause premature investment and unnecessary blocking of the capital where as under estimation of load may result in shortage of equipment and circuits. It is always better to plan the system for the load slightly higher than expected one so that no exigency may arise. In this paper, a load-forecasting model is proposed using a multilayer neural network with an appropriately modified back propagation learning algorithm. Once the neural network model is designed and trained, it can forecast the load of the power system 24 hours ahead on daily basis and can also forecast the cumulative load on daily basis. The real load data that is used for the Artificial Neural Network training was taken from LDC, Gujarat Electricity Board, Jambuva, Gujarat, India. The results show that the load forecasting of the ANN model follows the actual load pattern more accurately throughout the forecasted period.

Keywords: Power system, Load forecasting, Neural Network, Neuron, Stabilization, Network structure, Load.

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1437 Effect of Load Orientation on the Stability of a Three-Lobe Bearing Supporting Rigid and Flexible Rotors

Authors: G. Bhushan

Abstract:

Multilobe bearings are found to be more stable than circular bearings. A three lobe bearing also possesses good stability characteristics. Sometimes the line of action of the load does not pass through the axis of a bearing and is shifted on either side by a few degrees. Load orientation is one of the factors that affect the stability of a three lobe bearing. The effect of load orientation on the stability of a three-lobe has been discussed in this paper. The results show that stability of a three-lobe bearing supporting either rigid or flexible rotor is increased for the positive values of load orientation i.e. when the load line is shifted in the opposite direction of rotation.

Keywords: Thee-lobe bearing, load orientation, finite element method.

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1436 Effect of the Rise/Span Ratio of a Spherical Cap Shell on the Buckling Load

Authors: Peter N. Khakina, Mohammed I. Ali, Enchun Zhu, Huazhang Zhou, Baydaa H. Moula

Abstract:

Rise/span ratio has been mentioned as one of the reasons which contribute to the lower buckling load as compared to the Classical theory buckling load but this ratio has not been quantified in the equation. The purpose of this study was to determine a more realistic buckling load by quantifying the effect of the rise/span ratio because experiments have shown that the Classical theory overestimates the load. The buckling load equation was derived based on the theorem of work done and strain energy. Thereafter, finite element modeling and simulation using ABAQUS was done to determine the variables that determine the constant in the derived equation. The rise/span was found to be the determining factor of the constant in the buckling load equation. The derived buckling load correlates closely to the load obtained from experiments.

Keywords: Buckling, Finite element, Rise/span ratio, Sphericalcap

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1435 Load Modeling for Power Flow and Transient Stability Computer Studies at BAKHTAR Network

Authors: M. Sedighizadeh, A. Rezazadeh

Abstract:

A method has been developed for preparing load models for power flow and stability. The load modeling (LOADMOD) computer software transforms data on load class mix, composition, and characteristics into the from required for commonly–used power flow and transient stability simulation programs. Typical default data have been developed for load composition and characteristics. This paper defines LOADMOD software and describes the dynamic and static load modeling techniques used in this software and results of initial testing for BAKHTAR power system.

Keywords: Load Modelling, Static, Power Flow.

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1434 Two Day Ahead Short Term Load Forecasting Neural Network Based

Authors: Firas M. Tuaimah

Abstract:

This paper presents an Artificial Neural Network based approach for short-term load forecasting and exactly for two days ahead. Two seasons have been discussed for Iraqi power system, namely summer and winter; the hourly load demand is the most important input variables for ANN based load forecasting. The recorded daily load profile with a lead time of 1-48 hours for July and December of the year 2012 was obtained from the operation and control center that belongs to the Ministry of Iraqi electricity.

The results of the comparison show that the neural network gives a good prediction for the load forecasting and for two days ahead.

Keywords: Short-Term Load Forecasting, Artificial Neural Networks, Back propagation learning.

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1433 Dynamic Load Balancing in PVM Using Intelligent Application

Authors: Kashif Bilal, Tassawar Iqbal, Asad Ali Safi, Nadeem Daudpota

Abstract:

This paper deals with dynamic load balancing using PVM. In distributed environment Load Balancing and Heterogeneity are very critical issues and needed to drill down in order to achieve the optimal results and efficiency. Various techniques are being used in order to distribute the load dynamically among different nodes and to deal with heterogeneity. These techniques are using different approaches where Process Migration is basic concept with different optimal flavors. But Process Migration is not an easy job, it impose lot of burden and processing effort in order to track each process in nodes. We will propose a dynamic load balancing technique in which application will intelligently balance the load among different nodes, resulting in efficient use of system and have no overheads of process migration. It would also provide a simple solution to problem of load balancing in heterogeneous environment.

Keywords: PVM, load balancing, task allocation, intelligent application.

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1432 A Structural Constitutive Model for Viscoelastic Rheological Behavior of Human Saphenous Vein Using Experimental Assays

Authors: Rassoli Aisa, Abrishami Movahhed Arezu, Faturaee Nasser, Seddighi Amir Saeed, Shafigh Mohammad

Abstract:

Cardiovascular diseases are one of the most common causes of mortality in developed countries. Coronary artery abnormalities and carotid artery stenosis, also known as silent death, are among these diseases. One of the treatment methods for these diseases is to create a deviatory pathway to conduct blood into the heart through a bypass surgery. The saphenous vein is usually used in this surgery to create the deviatory pathway. Unfortunately, a re-surgery will be necessary after some years due to ignoring the disagreement of mechanical properties of graft tissue and/or applied prostheses with those of host tissue. The objective of the present study is to clarify the viscoelastic behavior of human saphenous tissue. The stress relaxation tests in circumferential and longitudinal direction were done in this vein by exerting 20% and 50% strains. Considering the stress relaxation curves obtained from stress relaxation tests and the coefficients of the standard solid model, it was demonstrated that the saphenous vein has a non-linear viscoelastic behavior. Thereafter, the fitting with Fung’s quasilinear viscoelastic (QLV) model was performed based on stress relaxation time curves. Finally, the coefficients of Fung’s QLV model, which models the behavior of saphenous tissue very well, were presented.

Keywords: Fung’s quasilinear viscoelastic (QLV) model, strain rate, stress relaxation test, uniaxial tensile test, viscoelastic behavior.

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1431 Calculation of Heating Load for an Apartment Complex with Unit Building Method

Authors: Ju-Seok Kim, Sun-Ae Moon, Tae-Gu Lee, Seung-Jae Moon, Jae-Heon Lee

Abstract:

As a simple to method estimate the plant heating energy capacity of an apartment complex, a new load calculation method has been proposed. The method which can be called as unit building method, predicts the heating load of the entire complex instead of summing up that of each apartment belonging to complex. Comparison of the unit heating load for various floor sizes between the present method and conventional approach shows a close agreement with dynamic load calculation code. Some additional calculations are performed to demonstrate it-s application examples.

Keywords: Unit Building Method, Unit Heating Load, TFMLoad.

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1430 Robot-assisted Relaxation Training for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Authors: V. Holeva, V. Aliki Nikopoulou, P. Kechayas, M. Dialechti Kerasidou, M. Papadopoulou, G. A. Papakostas, V. G. Kaburlasos, A. Evangeliou

Abstract:

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) has been proven an effective tool to address anger and anxiety issues in children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Robot-enhanced therapy has been used in psychosocial and educational interventions for children with ASD with promising results. Whenever CBT-based techniques were incorporated in robot-based interventions, they were mainly performed in group sessions. Objectives: The study’s main objective was the implementation and evaluation of the effectiveness of a relaxation training intervention for children with ASD, delivered by the social robot NAO. Methods: 20 children (aged 7–12 years) were randomly assigned to 16 sessions of relaxation training implemented twice a week. Two groups were formed: the NAO group (children participated in individual sessions with the support of NAO) and the control group (children participated in individual sessions with the support of the therapist only). Participants received three different relaxation scenarios of increasing difficulty (a breathing scenario, a progressive muscle relaxation scenario and a body scan medication scenario), as well as related homework sheets for practicing. Pre- and post-intervention assessments were conducted using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for parents (SDQ-P). Participants were also asked to complete an open-ended questionnaire to evaluate the effectiveness of the training. Parents’ satisfaction was evaluated via a questionnaire and children satisfaction was assessed by a thermometer scale. Results: The study supports the use of relaxation training with the NAO robot as instructor for children with ASD. Parents of enrolled children reported high levels of satisfaction and provided positive ratings of the training acceptability. Children in the NAO group presented greater motivation to complete homework and adopt the learned techniques at home. Conclusions: Relaxation training could be effectively integrated in robot-assisted protocols to help children with ASD regulate emotions and develop self-control.

Keywords: Autism spectrum disorders, CBT, children relaxation training, robot-assisted therapy.

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1429 Structural Properties of Polar Liquids in Binary Mixture Using Microwave Technique

Authors: Shagufta Tabassum, V. P. Pawar

Abstract:

The study of static dielectric properties in a binary mixture of 1,2 dichloroethane (DE) and n,n dimethylformamide (DMF) polar liquids has been carried out in the frequency range of 10 MHz to 30 GHz for 11 different concentration using time domain reflectometry technique at 10ºC temperature. The dielectric relaxation study of solute-solvent mixture at microwave frequencies gives information regarding the creation of monomers and multimers as well as interaction between the molecules of the binary mixture. The least squares fit method is used to determine the values of dielectric parameters such as static dielectric constant (ε0), dielectric constant at high frequency (ε) and relaxation time (τ).

Keywords: Excess parameters, relaxation time, static dielectric constant, time domain reflectometry.

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