Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31009
Performance Analysis of Heat Pipe Using Copper Nanofluid with Aqueous Solution of n-Butanol

Authors: Senthilkumar R, Vaidyanathan S, Sivaraman B


This study presents the improvement of thermal performance of heat pipe using copper nanofluid with aqueous solution of n-Butanol. The nanofluids kept in the suspension of conventional fluids have the potential of superior heat transfer capability than the conventional fluids due to their improved thermal conductivity. In this work, the copper nanofluid which has a 40 nm size with a concentration of 100 mg/lit is kept in the suspension of the de-ionized (DI) water and an aqueous solution of n-Butanol and these fluids are used as a working medium in the heat pipe. The study discusses about the effect of heat pipe inclination, type of working fluid and heat input on the thermal efficiency and thermal resistance. The experimental results are evaluated in terms of its performance metrics and are compared with that of DI water.

Keywords: Thermal Resistance, Thermal Efficiency, heat pipe, copper nanofluid with aqueous solution of n-Butanol

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3007


[1] S.H. Noie, "Heat transfer characteristics of a two-phase closed thermosyphon", Applied Thermal Engineering vol.25, 2005, pp. 495- 506.
[2] D.A. Reay, P.A. Kew, Heat Pipes, fifth ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 2006.
[3] Chandourene S, Gruss A, "Theoretical and experimental study of high temperature heat pipe heat exchanger application to 1300kW respirator," Sixth International heat pipe Conference Grenoffle, France 1987.
[4] Littwin D.A, Willis D.B, "The use of heat pipes to conserve energy in petroleum refineries", Energy Process, 1985, pp. 198-202.
[5] Kaminaga F, Hashimoto H, Feroz C, Goto K, Masumura K, "Heat transfer characteristics of evaporation and condensation in a two-phase closed thermosyphon", Proc. 10th Int. Heat pipe Conf., Germany,1987.
[6] Bloem H, De-Grijis J.C, Devaan R.L.C, "An evacuated tubular solar collector incorporating a heat pipe", Philips Technical Rev, vol.40, 1982, pp. 181-191.
[7] Mariya Ivanova, Yvan Avenas, Christian Schaeffer, Jean-Bernard Dezord, and Juergen Schulz-Harder, Heat Pipe Integrated in Direct Bonded Copper (DBC) Technology for Cooling of Power Electronics Packaging, IEEE Transactions of Power electronics, 21 (6) (2006) 1541- 1547.
[8] Sonan R, Harmand S, Pellé J, Leger D, Fakès M, "Transient thermal and hydrodynamic model of flat heat pipe for the cooling of electronics components", International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.51, 2008, pp. 6006-6017.
[9] S. Lin, P.A. Kew, K. Cornwell, "Two-phase heat transfer to a refrigerant in a 1 mm diameter tube", International Journal of Refrigeration, vol.24, 2001, pp. 51-56.
[10] F. Song, D. Ewing, C.Y. Ching, Experimental investigation on the heat transfer characteristics of axial rotating heat pipes, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 47 (2004) 4721-4731.
[11] Y. Xuan, Y. Hong, Q. Li, "Investigation on transient behaviors of flat plate heat pipes", Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, vol. 28, 2004, pp. 249-255.
[12] Liu D, Tang G.F, Zhao F.Y, Wang H.Q, "Modeling and experimental investigation of looped separate heat pipe as waste heat recovery facility", Applied Thermal Engineering, vol.26, 2006, pp. 2433-2441.
[13] Nengli Zhang, "Innovative heat pipe systems using a new working fluid", Inl. Comm. Heat & Mass Transfer, vol.28(8), 2001, pp. 1025- 1033.
[14] Vochten R, and Petre G, "Study of the Heat of Reversible Adsorption at the Air-Solution Interface, II. Experimental Determination of the Heat of Reversible Adsorption of Some Alcohols", J. Cillid and Interface Science, vol.42, 1973, pp. 320-327.
[15] Alexander Oron and Philip Rosenau, "On a nonlinear thermocapillary effect in thin liquid layers", J.Fluid Mech., vol.273, 1994, pp.361-374.
[16] S.U.S. Choi, "Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles", vol. 231, ASME, FED, 1995.
[17] S. Lee, S.U.S. Choi, J.A. Eastman, S. Lee, "Measuring thermal conductivity of fluids containing oxide nano-particles", Transaction of ASME, vol. 121, 1999, pp. 280-289.
[18] S.U.S. Choi, X. Wang, W. Xu, "Thermal conductivity of nanoparticlefluid mixture", Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, vol.13 (4), 1999, pp. 474-480.
[19] H. Xie, J. Wang, T. Xi, "Thermal conductivity of suspensions containing nano-sized SiC particles", International Journal of Thermophysics, vol.23 (2),2002.
[20] Y. Xuan, Q. Li, "Investigation on convective heat transfer and flow features of nano-fluids", Journal of Heat Transfer, vol. 125, 2003, pp. 151-155.
[21] Z. Liu, J. Xiong, R. Bao, "Boiling heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids in a flat heat pipe evaporator with micro-grooved heating surface", Int. J. Multiphase Flow, vol.33, 2007, pp. 1284-1295.
[22] R.R. Riehl, "Analysis of loop heat pipe behavior using nanofluid" Heat Powered Cycles International Conference (HPC), New Castle, UK, Paper 06102, 2006.
[23] C.Y. Tsaia, H.T. Chiena, P.P. Dingb, B. Chanc, T.Y. Luhd, P.H. Chena, "Effect of structural character of gold nanoparticles in nanofluid on heat pipe thermal performance", Mater. Lett. vol.58, 2004, pp. 1461-1465.
[24] K.H. Do, S.P. Jang, "Effect of nanofluids on the thermal performance of a flat micro heat pipe with a rectangular grooved wick", Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, vol. 53, 2010, pp. 2183-2192.
[25] X.F. Yang, Z. Liu, J. Zhao, "Heat transfer performance of a horizontal microgrooved heat pipe using CuO nanofluid", J. Micromech. Microeng. vol.18, 2008, no. 035038.
[26] H.D. Kim, J. Kim, M.H. Kim, "Experimental studies on CHF characteristics of nano-fluids at pool boiling", Int. J. Multiph. Flow, vol. 33, 2007, pp. 691-706.