Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 315

Search results for: automotive exhaust

315 Experimental Study of Exhaust Muffler System for Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

Authors: Abdallah F. Abd El-Mohsen, Ahmed A. Abdelsamee, Nouby M. Ghazaly

Abstract:

Engine exhaust noise is considered one of the largest sources of vehicle exterior noise. Further reduction of noise from the vehicle exhaust system will be required, as the vehicle exterior noise regulations become stricter. Therefore, the present study has been carried out to illustrate the role of engine operating parameters and exhaust system construction factors on exhaust noise emitted. The measurements carried out using different exhaust systems, which are mainly used in today’s vehicle. The effect of engine speed on the spectra level of exhaust noise is recorded at engine speeds of 900 rpm, 1800 rpm, 2700, rpm 3600 rpm and 4500 rpm. The results indicate that the increase of engine speed causes a significant increase in the spectrum level of exhaust noise. The increase in the number of the outlet of the expansion chamber also reduces the overall level of exhaust noise.

Keywords: Exhaust system, engine speed, expansion chamber.

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314 Estimation of Exhaust and Non-Exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions’ Share from On-Road Vehicles in Addis Ababa City

Authors: Solomon Neway Jida, Jean-Francois Hetet, Pascal Chesse

Abstract:

Vehicular emission is the key source of air pollution in the urban environment. This includes both fine particles (PM2.5) and coarse particulate matters (PM10). However, particulate matter emissions from road traffic comprise emissions from exhaust tailpipe and emissions due to wear and tear of the vehicle part such as brake, tire and clutch and re-suspension of dust (non-exhaust emission). This study estimates the share of the two sources of pollutant particle emissions from on-roadside vehicles in the Addis Ababa municipality, Ethiopia. To calculate its share, two methods were applied; the exhaust-tailpipe emissions were calculated using the Europeans emission inventory Tier II method and Tier I for the non-exhaust emissions (like vehicle tire wear, brake, and road surface wear). The results show that of the total traffic-related particulate emissions in the city, 63% emitted from vehicle exhaust and the remaining 37% from non-exhaust sources. The annual roads transport exhaust emission shares around 2394 tons of particles from all vehicle categories. However, from the total yearly non-exhaust particulate matter emissions’ contribution, tire and brake wear shared around 65% and 35% emanated by road-surface wear. Furthermore, vehicle tire and brake wear were responsible for annual 584.8 tons of coarse particles (PM10) and 314.4 tons of fine particle matter (PM2.5) emissions in the city whereas surface wear emissions were responsible for around 313.7 tons of PM10 and 169.9 tons of PM2.5 pollutant emissions in the city. This suggests that non-exhaust sources might be as significant as exhaust sources and have a considerable contribution to the impact on air quality.

Keywords: Addis Ababa, automotive emission, emission estimation, particulate matters.

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313 Examination of Internally and Externally Coated Cr3C2 Exhaust Pipe of a Diesel Engine via Plasma Spray Method

Authors: H. Hazar, S. Sap

Abstract:

In this experimental study; internal and external parts of an exhaust pipe were coated with a chromium carbide (Cr3C2) material having a thickness of 100 micron by using the plasma spray method. A diesel engine was used as the test engine. Thus, the results of continuing chemical reaction in coated and uncoated exhaust pipes were investigated. Internally and externally coated exhaust pipe was compared with the standard exhaust system. External heat transfer occurring as a result of coating the internal and external parts of the exhaust pipe was reduced and its effects on harmful exhaust emissions were investigated. As a result of the experiments; a remarkable improvement was determined in emission values as a result of delay in cooling of exhaust gases due to the coating.

Keywords: Chrome carbide, diesel engine, exhaust emission, thermal barrier.

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312 Thermal Fatigue Behavior of Austenitic Stainless Steels

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

Continually increasing working temperature and growing need for greater efficiency and reliability of automotive exhaust require systematic investigation into the thermal fatigue properties especially of high temperature stainless steels. In this study, thermal fatigue properties of 300 series austenitic stainless steels have been evaluated in the temperature ranges of 200-800oC and 200-900oC. Systematic methods for control of temperatures within the predetermined range and measurement of load applied to specimens as a function of temperature during thermal cycles have been established. Thermal fatigue tests were conducted under fully constrained condition, where both ends of specimens were completely fixed. Load relaxation behavior at the temperatures of thermal cycle was closely related with the thermal fatigue property.

Keywords: Austenitic stainless steel, automotive exhaust, thermal fatigue, microstructure, load relaxation.

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311 Numerical Analysis for the Performance of a Thermoelectric Generator According to Engine Exhaust Gas Thermal Conditions

Authors: Jinkyu Park, Yungjin Kim, Byungdeok In, Sangki Park, Kihyung Lee

Abstract:

Internal combustion engines rejects 30-40% of the energy supplied by fuel to the environment through exhaust gas. thus, there is a possibility for further significant improvement of efficiency with the utilization of exhaust gas energy and its conversion to mechanical energy or electrical energy. The Thermo-Electric Generator (TEG) will be located in the exhaust system and will make use of an energy flow between the warmer exhaust gas and the external environment. Predict to th optimum position of temperature distribution and the performance of TEG through numerical analysis. The experimental results obtained show that the power output significantly increases with the temperature difference between cold and hot sides of a thermoelectric generator.

Keywords: Thermoelectric generator, Numerical analysis, Seebeck coefficient, Figure of merit

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310 Gas Flow into Rotary Valve Intake and Exhaust Mechanism in Internal Combustion Engine

Authors: R. Usubamatov, Z. A. Rashid

Abstract:

Simple design of a rotary valve system is capable of controlling intake and exhaust gases, which will eliminate the need of known complex mechanisms. The cost of material and production, maintenance, and noise level of the system can be further reduced. The new mechanism enables the elimination of the overlapping of valves work that reduces gas leakage. This paper examines theoretically the gas flow through the holes of a rotary valve design in a small engine. Preliminary results show that the new gas flow has many positive differences than a conventional poppet-valve system. New dependencies on the gas speed enable the finding of better solutions for the geometry of a rotary valve system that will result in a higher efficiency of an internal-combustion engine of the automotive industry.

Keywords: Gas arrangement, internal combustion engine.

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309 Optimization of Diverter Box Configuration in a V94.2 Gas Turbine Exhaust System using Numerical Simulation

Authors: A. Mohajer, A. Noroozi, S. Norouzi

Abstract:

The bypass exhaust system of a 160 MW combined cycle has been modeled and analyzed using numerical simulation in 2D prospective. Analysis was carried out using the commercial numerical simulation software, FLUENT 6.2. All inputs were based on the technical data gathered from working conditions of a Siemens V94.2 gas turbine, installed in the Yazd power plant. This paper deals with reduction of pressure drop in bypass exhaust system using turning vanes mounted in diverter box in order to alleviate turbulent energy dissipation rate above diverter box. The geometry of such turning vanes has been optimized based on the flow pattern at diverter box inlet. The results show that the use of optimized turning vanes in diverter box can improve the flow pattern and eliminate vortices around sharp edges just before the silencer. Furthermore, this optimization could decrease the pressure drop in bypass exhaust system and leads to higher plant efficiency.

Keywords: Numerical simulation, Diverter box, Turning vanes, Exhaust system

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308 Comparative Study of Sub-Critical and Supercritical ORC Applications for Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery

Authors: Buket Boz, Alvaro Diez

Abstract:

Waste heat recovery by means of Organic Rankine Cycle is a promising technology for the recovery of engine exhaust heat. However, it is complex to find out the optimum cycle conditions with appropriate working fluids to match exhaust gas waste heat due to its high temperature. Hence, this paper focuses on comparing sub-critical and supercritical ORC conditions with eight working fluids on a combined diesel engine-ORC system. The model employs two ORC designs, Regenerative-ORC and Pre-Heating-Regenerative-ORC respectively. The thermodynamic calculations rely on the first and second law of thermodynamics, thermal efficiency and exergy destruction factors are the fundamental parameters evaluated. Additionally, in this study, environmental and safety, GWP (Global Warming Potential) and ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential), characteristic of the refrigerants are taken into consideration as evaluation criteria to define the optimal ORC configuration and conditions. Consequently, the studys outcomes reveal that supercritical ORCs with alkane and siloxane are more suitable for high temperature exhaust waste heat recovery in contrast to sub-critical conditions.

Keywords: Internal combustion engine, organic rankine cycle, waste heat recovery, working fluids.

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307 Investigation on the HRSG Installation at South Pars Gas Complex Phases 2&3

Authors: R. Moradifar, M. Masahebfard, M. Zahir

Abstract:

In this article the investigation about installation heat recovery steam generation (HRSG) on the exhaust of turbo generators of phases 2&3 at South Pars Gas Complex is presented. The temperature of exhaust gas is approximately 665 degree centigrade, Installation of heat recovery boiler was simulated in ThermoFlow 17.0.2 software, based on test operation data and the equipments site operation conditions in Pars exclusive economical energy area, the affect of installation HRSG package on the available gas turbine and its operation parameters, ambient temperature, the exhaust temperatures steam flow rate were investigated. Base on the results recommended HRSG package should have the capacity for 98 ton per hour high pressure steam generation this refinery, by use of exhaust of three gas turbines for each package in operation condition of each refinery at 30 degree centigrade. Besides saving energy this project will be an Environment-Friendly project. The Payback Period is estimated approximately 1.8 year, with considering Clean Development Mechanism.

Keywords: HRSG, South pars Gas complex, ThermoFlow 17.0.2 software, energy, turbo generators.

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306 Numerical Prediction of NOX in the Exhaust of a Compression Ignition Engine

Authors: A. A. Pawar, R. R. Kulkarni

Abstract:

For numerical prediction of the NOX in the exhaust of a compression ignition engine a model was developed by considering the parameter equivalence ratio. This model was validated by comparing the predicted results of NOX with experimental ones. The ultimate aim of the work was to access the applicability, robustness and performance of the improved NOX model against other NOX models.

Keywords: Biodiesel fueled engine, equivalence ratio, Compression ignition engine, exhausts gas temperature, NOX formation.

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305 Data Acquisition System for Automotive Testing According to the European Directive 2004/104/EC

Authors: Herminio Martínez-García, Juan Gámiz, Yolanda Bolea, Antoni Grau

Abstract:

This article presents an interactive system for data acquisition in vehicle testing according to the test process defined in automotive directive 2004/104/EC. The project has been designed and developed by authors for the Spanish company Applus-LGAI. The developed project will result in a new process, which will involve the creation of braking cycle test defined in the aforementioned automotive directive. It will also allow the analysis of new vehicle features that was not feasible, allowing an increasing interaction with the vehicle. Potential users of this system in the short term will be vehicle manufacturers and in a medium term the system can be extended to testing other automotive components and EMC tests.

Keywords: Automotive process, data acquisition system, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing, European Directive 2004/104/EC.

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304 Lean TQM Automotive Factory Model System

Authors: Noor Azlina Mohd Salleh, Salmiah Kasolang, Ahmed Jaffar

Abstract:

Integrated Total Quality Management (TQM) with Lean Manufacturing (LM) is a system comprises of TQM with LM principles and is associated with financial and nonfinancial performance measurement indicators. The ultimate goal of this system is to focus on achieving total customer satisfaction by removing eight wastes available in any process in an organization. A survey questionnaire was developed and distributed to 30 highly active automotive vendors in Malaysia and analyzed by PASW Statistics 18. It was found out that these vendors have been practicing and measuring the effectiveness TQM and LM implementation. More involvement of all Malaysian automotive vendors will represent the exact status of current Malaysian automotive industry in implementing TQM and LM and can determine whether the industry is ready for integrated TQM and LM system. This is the first study that combined 4 awards practices, ISO/TS16949, Toyota Production System and SAEJ4000.

Keywords: Automotive Industry, Lean Manufacturing, Operational Engineering Management, Total Quality Management

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303 Quality Control of Automotive Gearbox Based On Vibration Signal Analysis

Authors: Nilson Barbieri, Bruno Matos Martins, Gabriel de Sant'Anna Vitor Barbieri

Abstract:

In more complex systems, such as automotive gearbox, a rigorous treatment of the data is necessary because there are several moving parts (gears, bearings, shafts, etc.), and in this way, there are several possible sources of errors and also noise. The basic objective of this work is the detection of damage in automotive gearbox. The detection methods used are the wavelet method, the bispectrum; advanced filtering techniques (selective filtering) of vibrational signals and mathematical morphology. Gearbox vibration tests were performed (gearboxes in good condition and with defects) of a production line of a large vehicle assembler. The vibration signals are obtained using five accelerometers in different positions of the sample. The results obtained using the kurtosis, bispectrum, wavelet and mathematical morphology showed that it is possible to identify the existence of defects in automotive gearboxes.

Keywords: Automotive gearbox, mathematical morphology, wavelet, bispectrum.

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302 Study of Dual Fuel Engine as Environmentally Friendly Engine

Authors: Nilam S. Octaviani, Semin

Abstract:

The diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses compressed air to combust. The diesel engines are widely used in the world because it has the most excellent combustion efficiency than other types of internal combustion engine.  However, the exhaust emissions of it produce pollutants that are harmful to human health and the environment. Therefore, natural gas used as an alternative fuel using on compression ignition engine to respond those environment issues. This paper aims to discuss the comparison of the technical characteristics and exhaust gases emission from conventional diesel engine and dual fuel diesel engine. According to the study, the dual fuel engine applications have a lower compression pressure and has longer ignition delay compared with normal diesel mode. The engine power is decreased at dual fuel mode. However, the exhaust gases emission on dual fuel engine significantly reduce the nitrogen oxide (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2) and particular metter (PM) emissions.

Keywords: Diesel engine, dual fuel engine, emissions, technical characteristics.

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301 Optimization of Switched Reluctance Motor for Drive System in Automotive Applications

Authors: A. Peniak, J. Makarovič, P. Rafajdus, P. Dúbravka

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to optimize a Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) for an automotive application, specifically for a fully electric car. A new optimization approach is proposed. This unique approach transforms automotive customer requirements into an optimization problem, based on sound knowledge of a SRM theory. The approach combines an analytical and a finite element analysis of the motor to quantify static nonlinear and dynamic performance parameters, as phase currents and motor torque maps, an output power and power losses in order to find the optimal motor as close to the reality as possible, within reasonable time. The new approach yields the optimal motor which is competitive with other types of already proposed motors for automotive applications. This distinctive approach can also be used to optimize other types of electrical motors, when parts specifically related to the SRM are adjusted accordingly.

Keywords: Automotive, drive system, electric car, finite element method, hybrid car, optimization, switched reluctance motor.

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300 Human Resource Development Strategy in Automotive Industry (Eco-Car) for ASEAN Hub

Authors: Phichak Phutrakhul

Abstract:

The purposes of this research were to study concepts and strategies of human resource development in the automotive manufacturers and to articulate the proposals against the government about the human resource development for automotive industry. In the present study, qualitative study was an in-depth interview in which the qualitative data were collected from the executive or the executive of human resource division from five automotive companies - Toyota Motor (Thailand) Co., Ltd., Nissan Motor (Thailand) Co., Ltd., Mitsubishi Motors (Thailand) Co., Ltd., Honda Automobile (Thailand) Co., Ltd., and Suzuki Motor (Thailand) Co., Ltd. Qualitative data analysis was performed by using inter-coder agreement technique. The research findings were as follows: The external factors included the current conditions of the automotive industry, government’s policy related to the automotive industry, technology, labor market and human resource development systems of the country. The internal factors included management, productive management, organizational strategies, leadership, organizational culture and philosophy of human resource development. These factors were affected to the different concept of human resources development -the traditional human resource development and the strategies of human resource development. The organization focuses on human resources as intellectual capital and uses the strategies of human resource development in all development processes. The strategies of human resource development will enhance the ability of human resources in the organization and the country.

Keywords: Human Resource Development Strategy, Automotive industry, Eco-Cars, ASEAN.

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299 Information Technologies in Automotive Assembly Industry in Thailand

Authors: Jirarat Teeravaraprug, Usawadee Inklay

Abstract:

This paper gave an attempt in prioritizing information  technologies that organizations should give concentration. The case  study was organizations in the automotive assembly industry in  Thailand. Data were first collected to gather all information  technologies known and used in the automotive assembly industry in  Thailand. Five experts from the industries were surveyed based on  the concept of fuzzy DEMATEL. The information technologies were  categorized into six groups, which were communication, transaction,  planning, organization management, warehouse management, and  transportation. The cause groups of information technologies for each  group were analyzed and presented. Moreover, the relationship  between the used and the significant information technologies was  given. Discussions based on the used information technologies and  the research results are given.

 

Keywords: Information technology, automotive assembly industry, fuzzy DEMATEL.

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298 Fundamental Problems in the Operation of the Automotive Parts Industry Small and Medium Businesses in Bangkok and Surrounding Provinces

Authors: P. Thepnarintra

Abstract:

The purposes of this study were to: 1) investigate operation conditions of SME automotive part industry in Bangkok and vicinity and 2) to compare operation problem levels of SME automotive part industry in Bangkok and vicinity according to the sizes of the enterprises. Samples in this study included 196 entrepreneurs of SME automotive part industry in Bangkok and vicinity derived from simple random sampling and calculation from R. V. Krejcie and D. W. Morgan’s tables. Research statistics included frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, and T-test. The results revealed that in general the problem levels of SME automotive part industry in Bangkok and vicinity were high. When considering in details, it was found that the problem levels were high at every aspect, i.e. personal, production, export, finance, and marketing respectively. The comparison of the problem levels according to the sizes of the enterprises revealed statistically significant differences at .05. When considering on each aspect, it was found that the aspect with the statistical difference at .05 included 5 aspects, i.e. production, marketing, finance, personal, and export. The findings also showed that small enterprises faced more severe problems than those of medium enterprises.

Keywords: Automotive part industry, operation problems, SME, perimeter.

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297 Improvement of Gas Turbine Performance Test in Combine Cycle

Authors: M. Khosravy-el-Hossani, Q. Dorosti

Abstract:

One of the important applications of gas turbines is their utilization for heat recovery steam generator in combine-cycle technology. Exhaust flow and energy are two key parameters for determining heat recovery steam generator performance which are mainly determined by the main gas turbine components performance data. For this reason a method was developed for determining the exhaust energy in the new edition of ASME PTC22. The result of this investigation shows that the method of standard has considerable error. Therefore in this paper a new method is presented for modifying of the performance calculation. The modified method is based on exhaust gas constituent analysis and combustion calculations. The case study presented here by two kind of General Electric gas turbine design data for validation of methodologies. The result shows that the modified method is more precise than the ASME PTC22 method. The exhaust flow calculation deviation from design data is 1.5-2 % by ASME PTC22 method so that the deviation regarding with modified method is 0.3-0.5%. Based on precision of analyzer instruments, the method can be suitable alternative for gas turbine standard performance test. In advance two methods are proposed based on known and unknown fuel in modified method procedure. The result of this paper shows that the difference between the two methods is below than %0.02. In according to reasonable esult of the second procedure (unknown fuel composition), the method can be applied to performance evaluation of gas turbine, so that the measuring cost and data gathering should be reduced.

Keywords: Gas turbine, Performance test code, Combined cycle.

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296 Thermal Fatigue Behavior of 400 Series Ferritic Stainless Steels

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

In this study, thermal fatigue properties of 400 series ferritic stainless steels have been evaluated in the temperature ranges of 200-800oC and 200-900oC. Systematic methods for control of temperatures within the predetermined range and measurement of load applied to specimens as a function of temperature during thermal cycles have been established. Thermal fatigue tests were conducted under fully constrained condition, where both ends of specimens were completely fixed. It has been revealed that load relaxation behavior at the temperatures of thermal cycle was closely related with the thermal fatigue property. Thermal fatigue resistance of 430J1L stainless steel is found to be superior to the other steels.

Keywords: Ferritic stainless steel, automotive exhaust, thermal fatigue, microstructure, load relaxation.

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295 Emissions of Euro 3-5 Passenger Cars Measured Over Different Driving Cycles

Authors: C. A. Alves, A. I. Calvo, D. J. Lopes, T. Nunes, A. Charron, M. Goriaux, P. Tassel, P. Perret

Abstract:

The reduction in vehicle exhaust emissions achieved in the last two decades is offset by the growth in traffic, as well as by changes in the composition of emitted pollutants. The present investigation illustrates the emissions of in-use gasoline and diesel passenger cars using the official European driving cycle and the ARTEMIS real-world driving cycle. It was observed that some of the vehicles do not comply with the corresponding regulations. Significant differences in emissions were observed between driving cycles. Not all pollutants showed a tendency to decrease from Euro 3 to Euro 5.

Keywords: Chassis dynamometer, driving cycles, emission factors, exhaust emissions, light-duty vehicles.

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294 Agile Index: Automotive Supply Chain

Authors: Susana G. Azevedo, Helena Carvalho, V. Cruz –Machado

Abstract:

The supply chains (SCs) have to appeal to new management paradigms to improve their ability to respond rapidly and cost effectively to unpredictable changes in markets and increasing levels of environmental turbulence, both in terms of volume and variety. In this highly demanded context, the Agile paradigm provides the capabilities to SC quickly adapt to changes in the market requirements. The purpose of this paper is to suggest an Agile Index to assess the agility of the automotive companies and corresponding SCs. The proposed integrated assessment model incorporates Agile practices weighted according to their importance to the automotive SC competitiveness and obtained from the Delphi technique.

Keywords: Agile, Supply chain management, Index, Delphitechnique.

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293 Analysis and Simulation of Automotive Interleaved Buck Converter

Authors: Mohamed. A. Shrud, Ahmad H. Kharaz, Ahmed. S. Ashur, Ahmed Faris, Mustafa Benamar

Abstract:

This paper will focus on modeling, analysis and simulation of a 42V/14V dc/dc converter based architecture. This architecture is considered to be technically a viable solution for automotive dual-voltage power system for passenger car in the near further. An interleaved dc/dc converter system is chosen for the automotive converter topology due to its advantages regarding filter reduction, dynamic response, and power management. Presented herein, is a model based on one kilowatt interleaved six-phase buck converter designed to operate in a Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM). The control strategy of the converter is based on a voltagemode- controlled Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) with a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID). The effectiveness of the interleaved step-down converter is verified through simulation results using control-oriented simulator, MatLab/Simulink.

Keywords: Automotive, dc-to-dc power modules, design, interleaved, Matlab\Simulink and PID control.

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292 Technical Determinants of Success in Quality Management Systems Implementation in the Automotive Industry

Authors: Agnieszka Misztal

Abstract:

The popularity of quality management system models continues to grow despite the transitional crisis in 2008. Their development is associated with demands of the new requirements for entrepreneurs, such as risk analysis projects and more emphasis on supervision of outsourced processes. In parallel, it is appropriate to focus attention on the selection of companies aspiring to a quality management system. This is particularly important in the automotive supplier industry, where requirements transferred to the levels in the supply chain should be clear, transparent and fairly satisfied. The author has carried out a series of researches aimed at finding the factors that allow for the effective implementation of the quality management system in automotive companies. The research was focused on four groups of companies: 1) manufacturing (parts and assemblies for the purpose of sale or for vehicle manufacturers), 2) service (repair and maintenance of the car) 3) services for the transport of goods or people, 4) commercial (auto parts and vehicles). The identified determinants were divided into two types of criteria: internal and external, as well as hard and soft. The article presents the hard – technical factors that an automotive company must meet in order to achieve the goal of the quality management system implementation.

Keywords: Automotive industry, quality management system.

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291 Neuro-Hybrid Models for Automotive System Identification

Authors: Ventura Assuncao

Abstract:

In automotive systems almost all steps concerning the calibration of several control systems, e.g., low idle governor or boost pressure governor, are made with the vehicle because the timeto- production and cost requirements on the projects do not allow for the vehicle analysis necessary to build reliable models. Here is presented a procedure using parametric and NN (neural network) models that enables the generation of vehicle system models based on normal ECU engine control unit) vehicle measurements. These models are locally valid and permit pre and follow-up calibrations so that, only the final calibrations have to be done with the vehicle.

Keywords: Automotive systems, neuro-hybrid models, demodulator, nonlinear systems, identification, and neural networks.

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290 Approach of Measuring System Analyses for Automotive Part Manufacturing

Authors: S. Homrossukon, S. Sansureerungsigun

Abstract:

This work aims to introduce an efficient and to standardize the measuring system analyses for automotive industrial. The study started by literature reviewing about the management and analyses measurement system. The approach of measuring system management, then, was constructed. Such approach was validated by collecting the current measuring system data using the equipments of interest including vernier caliper and micrometer. Their accuracy and precision of measurements were analyzed. Finally, the measuring system was improved and evaluated. The study showed that vernier did not meet its measuring characteristics based on the linearity whereas all equipments were lacking of the measuring precision characteristics. Consequently, the causes of measuring variation via the equipments of interest were declared. After the improvement, it was found that their measuring performance could be accepted as the standard required. Finally, the standardized approach for analyzing the measuring system of automotive was concluded.

Keywords: Automotive part manufacturing measurement, measuring accuracy, measuring precision, measurement system analyses.

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289 Development of a Novel Pneumatic Hybrid Engine

Authors: Yu-Ta Shen, Yean-Ren Hwang

Abstract:

Although electrical motors are still the main devices used in vehicular exhaust comprises more than 95 percent of the air pollution in Taiwan's largest city, Taipei. On average, all commuters in Taipei travel 13.6 km daily, while motorcycle commuters travel 12.2 km. The convenience and mobility of motorcycles makes them irreplaceable in Taiwan city traffic but they add significantly to air pollution problems. In order to improve air pollution conditions, some new types of vehicles have been proposed, such as fuel cell driven and hybrid energy vehicles. In this study, we develop a model pneumatic hybrid motorcycle system and simulate its acceleration and mileage (km/L) performance. The results show that the pneumatic hybrid motorcycle can improve efficiency.

Keywords: vehicular, exhaust, air pollution, pneumatic, hybrid, motorcycle

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288 Numerical Investigation of the Evaporation and Mixing of UWS in a Diesel Exhaust Pipe

Authors: Tae Hyun Ahn, Gyo Woo Lee, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

Because of high thermal efficiency and low CO2 emission, diesel engines are being used widely in many industrial fields although it makes many PM and NOx which give both human health and environment a negative effect. NOx regulations for diesel engines, however, are being strengthened and it is impossible to meet the emission standard without NOx reduction devices such as SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction), LNC (Lean NOx Catalyst), and LNT (Lean NOx Trap). Among the NOx reduction devices, urea-SCR system is known as the most stable and efficient method to solve the problem of NOx emission. But this device has some issues associated with the ammonia slip phenomenon which is occurred by shortage of evaporation and thermolysis time, and that makes it difficult to achieve uniform distribution of the injected urea in front of monolith. Therefore, this study has focused on the mixing enhancement between urea and exhaust gases to enhance the efficiency of the SCR catalyst equipped in catalytic muffler by changing inlet gas temperature and spray conditions to improve the spray uniformity of the urea water solution. Finally, it can be found that various parameters such as inlet gas temperature and injector and injection angles significantly affect the evaporation and mixing of the urea water solution with exhaust gases, and therefore, optimization of these parameters are required.

Keywords: Evaporation, Injection, Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), Thermolysis, UWS (Urea-Water-Solution).

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287 A Review on Applications of Nanotechnology in Automotive Industry

Authors: Akshata S. Malani, Anagha D. Chaudhari, Rajeshkumar U. Sambhe

Abstract:

Nanotechnology in pristine sense refers to building of structures at atomic and molecular scale. Meticulously nanotechnology encompasses the nanomaterials with at least one dimension size ranging from 1 to 100 nanometres. Unlike the literal meaning of its name, nanotechnology is a massive concept beyond imagination. This paper predominantly deals with relevance of nanotechnology in automotive industries. New generation of automotives looks at nanotechnology as an emerging trend of manufacturing revolution. Intricate shapes can be made out of fairly inexpensive raw materials instead of conventional fabrication process. Though the current era have enough technology to face competition, nanotechnology can give futuristic implications to pick up the modern pace. Nanotechnology intends to bridge the gap between automotives with superior technical performance and their cost fluctuation. Preliminarily, it is an area of great scientific interest and a major shaper of many new technologies. Nanotechnology can be an ideal building block for automotive industries, under constant evolution offering a very wide scope of activity. It possesses huge potential and is still in the embryonic form of research and development.

Keywords: Nanotechnology, nanomaterials, manufacturing, automotive industry.

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286 Feasibility Study on Designing a Flat Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) to Recover the Heat from Exhaust of a Gas Turbine

Authors: M.H.Ghaffari

Abstract:

A theoretical study is conducted to design and explore the effect of different parameters such as heat loads, the tube size of piping system, wick thickness, porosity and hole size on the performance and capability of a Loop Heat Pipe(LHP). This paper presents a steady state model that describes the different phenomena inside a LHP. Loop Heat Pipes(LHPs) are two-phase heat transfer devices with capillary pumping of a working fluid. By their original design comparing with heat pipes and special properties of the capillary structure, they-re capable of transferring heat efficiency for distances up to several meters at any orientation in the gravity field, or to several meters in a horizontal position. This theoretical model is described by different relations to satisfy important limits such as capillary and nucleate boiling. An algorithm is developed to predict the size of the LHP satisfying the limitations mentioned above for a wide range of applied loads. Finally, to assess and evaluate the algorithm and all the relations considered, we have used to design a new kind of LHP to recover the heat from the exhaust of an actual Gas Turbine. By finding the results, it showed that we can use the LHP as a very high efficient device to recover the heat even in high amount of loads(exhaust of a gas turbine). The sizes of all parts of the LHP were obtained using the developed algorithm.

Keywords: Loop Heat Pipe, Head Load, Liquid-Vapor Interface, Heat Transfer, Design Algorithm

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