Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: Rohit Tripathi

27 Thermal Analysis of Photovoltaic Integrated Greenhouse Solar Dryer

Authors: Sumit Tiwari, Rohit Tripathi, G. N. Tiwari

Abstract:

Present study focused on the utilization of solar energy by the help of photovoltaic greenhouse solar dryer under forced mode. A single slope photovoltaic greenhouse solar dryer has been proposed and thermal modelling has been developed. Various parameters have been calculated by thermal modelling such as greenhouse room temperature, cell temperature, crop temperature and air temperature at exit of greenhouse. Further cell efficiency, thermal efficiency, and overall thermal efficiency have been calculated for a typical day of May and November. It was found that system can generate equivalent thermal energy up to 7.65 kW and 6.66 kW per day for clear day of May and November respectively.

Keywords: Characteristics curve, Photovoltaic, Thermal modelling, Thermal efficiency.

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26 Frequency Reconfigurable Multiband Patch Antenna Using PIN-Diode for ITS Applications

Authors: Gaurav Upadhyay, Nand Kishore, Prashant Ranjan, V. S. Tripathi, Shivesh Tripathi

Abstract:

A frequency reconfigurable multiband antenna for intelligent transportation system (ITS) applications is proposed in this paper. A PIN-diode is used for reconfigurability. Centre frequencies are 1.38, 1.98, 2.89, 3.86, and 4.34 GHz in “ON” state of Diode and 1.56, 2.16, 2.88, 3.91 and 4.45 GHz in “OFF” state. Achieved maximum bandwidth is 18%. The maximum gain of the proposed antenna is 2.7 dBi in “ON” state and 3.95 dBi in “OFF” state of the diode. The antenna is simulated, fabricated, and tested in the lab. Measured and simulated results are in good confirmation.

Keywords: ITS, multiband antenna, PIN-diode, reconfigurable.

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25 Performance of Partially Covered N Number of Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) - Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) Series Connected Water Heating System

Authors: Rohit Tripathi, Sumit Tiwari, G. N. Tiwari

Abstract:

In present study, an approach is adopted where photovoltaic thermal flat plate collector is integrated with compound parabolic concentrator. Analytical expression of temperature dependent electrical efficiency of N number of partially covered Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) - Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) water collector connected in series has been derived with the help of basic thermal energy balance equations. Analysis has been carried for winter weather condition at Delhi location, India. Energy and exergy performance of N - partially covered Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) - Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) Water collector system has been compared for two cases: (i) 25% area of water collector covered by PV module, (ii) 75% area of water collector covered by PV module. It is observed that case (i) has been best suited for thermal performance and case (ii) for electrical energy as well as overall exergy.

Keywords: Compound parabolic concentrator, Energy, Photovoltaic thermal, Temperature dependent electrical efficiency.

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24 PIN-Diode Based Slotted Reconfigurable Multiband Antenna Array for Vehicular Communication

Authors: Gaurav Upadhyay, Nand Kishore, Prashant Ranjan, Shivesh Tripathi, V. S. Tripathi

Abstract:

In this paper, a patch antenna array design is proposed for vehicular communication. The antenna consists of 2-element patch array. The antenna array is operating at multiple frequency bands. The multiband operation is achieved by use of slots at proper locations at the patch. The array is made reconfigurable by use of two PIN-diodes. The antenna is simulated and measured in four states of diodes i.e. ON-ON, ON-OFF, OFF-ON, and OFF-OFF. In ON-ON state of diodes, the resonant frequencies are 4.62-4.96, 6.50-6.75, 6.90-7.01, 7.34-8.22, 8.89-9.09 GHz. In ON-OFF state of diodes, the measured resonant frequencies are 4.63-4.93, 6.50-6.70 and 7.81-7.91 GHz. In OFF-ON states of diodes the resonant frequencies are 1.24-1.46, 3.40-3.75, 5.07-5.25 and 6.90-7.20 GHz and in the OFF-OFF state of diodes 4.49-4.75 and 5.61-5.98 GHz. The maximum bandwidth of the proposed antenna is 16.29%. The peak gain of the antenna is 3.4 dB at 5.9 GHz, which makes it suitable for vehicular communication.

Keywords: Antenna, array, reconfigurable, vehicular.

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23 Design of Experiment and Computational Fluid Dynamics Used to Optimize Hydrodynamic Characteristics of the Marine Propeller

Authors: Rohit Suryawanshi

Abstract:

In this study, the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), ANSYS-Fluent, has been used to optimize the marine propeller with the design of experiment (DOE) method. At the initial stage, different propeller parameters ware selected for the three different levels. The four characteristics factors are: no. of the blade, camber value, pitch delta & chord at the hub. Then, CAD modelling is performed by considering the selected factor and level. In this investigation, a total of 9 test models are simulated with the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The standard, realizable

Keywords: Marine propeller, Computational Fluid Dynamics, optimization, DOE, propeller thrust.

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22 PSO Based Optimal Design of Fractional Order Controller for Industrial Application

Authors: Rohit Gupta, Ruchika

Abstract:

In this paper, a PSO based fractional order PID (FOPID) controller is proposed for concentration control of an isothermal Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) problem. CSTR is used to carry out chemical reactions in industries, which possesses complex nonlinear dynamic characteristics. Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm technique, which is an evolutionary optimization technique based on the movement and intelligence of swarm is proposed for tuning of the controller for this system. Comparisons of proposed controller with conventional and fuzzy based controller illustrate the superiority of proposed PSO-FOPID controller.

Keywords: CSTR, Fractional Order PID Controller, Partical Swarm Optimization.

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21 Computation of Induction Current in a Set of Dendrites

Authors: Sudhakar Tripathi, R. B. Mishra

Abstract:

In this paper, the cable model of dendrites have been considered. The dendrites are cylindrical cables of various segments having variable length and reducing radius from start point at synapse and end points. For a particular event signal being received by a neuron in response only some dendrite are active at a particular instance. Initial current signals with different current flows in dendrite are assumed. Due to overlapping and coupling of active dendrite, they induce currents in the dendrite segments of each other at a particular instance. But how these currents are induced in the various segments of active dendrites due to coupling between these dendrites, It is not presented in the literature. Here the paper presents a model for induced currents in active dendrite segments due to mutual coupling at the starting instance of an activity in dendrite. The model is as discussed further.

Keywords: Currents, dendrites, induction, simulation.

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20 A Hybrid Machine Learning System for Stock Market Forecasting

Authors: Rohit Choudhry, Kumkum Garg

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a hybrid machine learning system based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Support Vector Machines (SVM) for stock market prediction. A variety of indicators from the technical analysis field of study are used as input features. We also make use of the correlation between stock prices of different companies to forecast the price of a stock, making use of technical indicators of highly correlated stocks, not only the stock to be predicted. The genetic algorithm is used to select the set of most informative input features from among all the technical indicators. The results show that the hybrid GA-SVM system outperforms the stand alone SVM system.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithms, Support Vector Machines, Stock Market Forecasting.

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19 Effect of Welding Processes on Tensile Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Joints

Authors: Chaitanya Sharma, Vikas Upadhyay, A. Tripathi

Abstract:

Friction stir welding and tungsten inert gas welding techniques were employed to weld armor grade aluminum alloy to investigate the effect of welding processes on tensile behavior of weld joints. Tensile tests, Vicker microhardness tests and optical microscopy were performed on developed weld joints and base metal. Welding process influenced tensile behavior and microstructure of weld joints. Friction stir welded joints showed tensile behavior better than tungsten inert gas weld joints.

Keywords: Friction stir welding, microstructure, tensile properties and fracture locations.

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18 Interaxial Distance and Convergence Control for Efficient Stereoscopic Shooting using Horizontal Moving 3D Camera Rig

Authors: Seong-Mo An, Rohit Ramesh, Young-Sook Lee, Wan-Young Chung

Abstract:

The proper assessment of interaxial distance and convergence control are important factors in stereoscopic imaging technology to make an efficient 3D image. To control interaxial distance and convergence for efficient 3D shooting, horizontal 3D camera rig is designed using some hardware components like 'LM Guide', 'Goniometer' and 'Rotation Stage'. The horizontal 3D camera rig system can be properly aligned by moving the two cameras horizontally in same or opposite directions, by adjusting the camera angle and finally considering horizontal swing as well as vertical swing. In this paper, the relationship between interaxial distance and convergence angle control are discussed and intensive experiments are performed in order to demonstrate an easy and effective 3D shooting.

Keywords: Interaxial, Convergence, Stereoscopic, Horizontal 3D Camera Rig

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17 Monotonic and Cyclic J-integral Estimation for Through-Wall Cracked Straight Pipes

Authors: Rohit, S. Vishnuvardhan, P. Gandhi, Nagesh R. Iyer

Abstract:

The evaluation of energy release rate and centre Crack Opening Displacement (COD) for circumferential Through-Wall Cracked (TWC) pipes is an important issue in the assessment of critical crack length for unstable fracture. The ability to predict crack growth continues to be an important component of research for several structural materials. Crack growth predictions can aid the understanding of the useful life of a structural component and the determination of inspection intervals and criteria. In this context, studies were carried out at CSIR-SERC on Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) piping components subjected to monotonic as well as cyclic loading to assess the damage for crack growth due to low-cycle fatigue in circumferentially TWC pipes.

Keywords: 304LN stainless steel, cyclic J-integral, Elastic- Plastic Fracture Mechanics, J-integral, Through-wall crack

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16 Some Pertinent Issues and Considerations on CBSE

Authors: Anil Kumar Tripathi, Ratneshwer

Abstract:

All the software engineering researches and best industry practices aim at providing software products with high degree of quality and functionality at low cost and less time. These requirements are addressed by the Component Based Software Engineering (CBSE) as well. CBSE, which deals with the software construction by components’ assembly, is a revolutionary extension of Software Engineering. CBSE must define and describe processes to assure timely completion of high quality software systems that are composed of a variety of pre built software components. Though these features provide distinct and visible benefits in software design and programming, they also raise some challenging problems. The aim of this work is to summarize the pertinent issues and considerations in CBSE to make an understanding in forms of concepts and observations that may lead to development of newer ways of dealing with the problems and challenges in CBSE.

Keywords: Software Component, Component Based Software Engineering, Software Process, Testing, Maintenance.

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15 Closed Form Solution to problem of Calcium Diffusion in Cylindrical Shaped Neuron Cell

Authors: Amrita Tripathi, Neeru Adlakha

Abstract:

Calcium [Ca2+] dynamics is studied as a potential form of neuron excitability that can control many irregular processes like metabolism, secretion etc. Ca2+ ion enters presynaptic terminal and increases the synaptic strength and thus triggers the neurotransmitter release. The modeling and analysis of calcium dynamics in neuron cell becomes necessary for deeper understanding of the processes involved. A mathematical model has been developed for cylindrical shaped neuron cell by incorporating physiological parameters like buffer, diffusion coefficient, and association rate. Appropriate initial and boundary conditions have been framed. The closed form solution has been developed in terms of modified Bessel function. A computer program has been developed in MATLAB 7.11 for the whole approach.

Keywords: Laplace Transform, Modified Bessel function, reaction diffusion equation, diffusion coefficient, excess buffer, calcium influx

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14 Accurate Fault Classification and Section Identification Scheme in TCSC Compensated Transmission Line using SVM

Authors: Pushkar Tripathi, Abhishek Sharma, G. N. Pillai, Indira Gupta

Abstract:

This paper presents a new approach for the protection of Thyristor-Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC) line using Support Vector Machine (SVM). One SVM is trained for fault classification and another for section identification. This method use three phase current measurement that results in better speed and accuracy than other SVM based methods which used single phase current measurement. This makes it suitable for real-time protection. The method was tested on 10,000 data instances with a very wide variation in system conditions such as compensation level, source impedance, location of fault, fault inception angle, load angle at source bus and fault resistance. The proposed method requires only local current measurement.

Keywords: Fault Classification, Section Identification, Feature Selection, Support Vector Machine (SVM), Thyristor-Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC)

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13 A Conceptual Framework on Review of E-Service Quality in Banking Industry

Authors: Vivek Agrawal, Vikas Tripathi, Nitin Seth

Abstract:

E-service quality plays a significant role to achieve success or failure in any organization, offering services online. It will increase the competition among the organizations, to attract the customers on the basis of the quality of service provided by the organization. Better e-service quality will enhance the relationship with customers and their satisfaction. So the measurement of eservice quality is very important but it is a complex process due to the complex nature of services. Literature predicts that there is a lack of universal definition of e-service quality. The e-service quality measures in banking have great importance in achieving high customer base. This paper proposes a conceptual model for measuring e-service quality in Indian Banking Industry. Nine dimensions reliability, ease of use, personalization, security and trust, website aesthetic, responsiveness, contact and fulfillment had been identified. The results of this paper may help to develop a proper scale to measure the e-service quality in Indian Banking Industry, which may assist to maintain and improve the performance and effectiveness of e-service quality to retain customers.

Keywords: Banking, Service Quality, e-service quality, Dimensions.

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12 Operating System Based Virtualization Models in Cloud Computing

Authors: Dev Ras Pandey, Bharat Mishra, S. K. Tripathi

Abstract:

Cloud computing is ready to transform the structure of businesses and learning through supplying the real-time applications and provide an immediate help for small to medium sized businesses. The ability to run a hypervisor inside a virtual machine is important feature of virtualization and it is called nested virtualization. In today’s growing field of information technology, many of the virtualization models are available, that provide a convenient approach to implement, but decision for a single model selection is difficult. This paper explains the applications of operating system based virtualization in cloud computing with an appropriate/suitable model with their different specifications and user’s requirements. In the present paper, most popular models are selected, and the selection was based on container and hypervisor based virtualization. Selected models were compared with a wide range of user’s requirements as number of CPUs, memory size, nested virtualization supports, live migration and commercial supports, etc. and we identified a most suitable model of virtualization.

Keywords: Virtualization, OS based virtualization, container and hypervisor based virtualization.

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11 Scale Development for Measuring E-Service Quality in Banking

Authors: Vivek Agrawal, Vikas Tripathi, Nitin Seth

Abstract:

This study examines several critical dimensions of eservice quality overlooked in the existing literature and proposes a model and instrument framework for measuring customer perceived e-service quality in the banking sector. The initial design was derived from a pool of instrument dimensions and their items from the existing literature review by content analysis. Based on focused group discussion, nine dimensions were extracted. An exploratory factor analysis approach was applied to data from a survey of 323 respondents. The instrument has been designed specifically for the banking sector. Research data was collected from bank customers who use electronic banking in a developing economy. A nine-factor instrument has been proposed to measure the e-service quality. The instrument has been checked for reliability. The validity and sample place limited the applicability of the instrument across economies and service categories. Future research must be conducted to check the validity. This instrument can help bankers in developing economies like India to measure the e-service quality and make improvements. The present study offers a systematic procedure that provides insights on to the conceptual and empirical comprehension of customer perceived e-service quality and its constituents.

Keywords: Testing, instrument, e-service quality, factor analysis.

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10 Hazardous Waste Management of Transmission Line Tower Manufacturing

Authors: S.P.Gautam, P.S.Bundela, R.K. Jain, V. N. Tripathi

Abstract:

The manufacturing transmission line tower parts has being generated hazardous waste which is required proper disposal of waste for protection of land pollution. Manufacturing Process in the manufacturing of steel angle, plates, pipes, channels are passes through conventional, semi automatic and CNC machines for cutting, marking, punching, drilling, notching, bending operations. All fabricated material Coated with thin layer of Zinc in Galvanizing plant where molten zinc is used for coating. Prior to Galvanizing, chemical like 33% concentrated HCl Acid, ammonium chloride and d-oil being used for pretreatment of iron. The bath of water with sodium dichromate is used for cooling and protection of the galvanized steel. For the heating purpose the furnace oil burners are used. These above process the Zinc dross, Zinc ash, ETP sludge and waste pickled acid generated as hazardous waste. The RPG has made captive secured land fill site, since 1997 since then it was using for disposal of hazardous waste after completion of SLF (Secured land fill) site. The RPG has raised height from ground level then now it is being used for disposal of waste as he designed the SLF after in creasing height of from GL it is functional without leach ate or adverse impacts in the environment.

Keywords: Disposal, Drilling, Fabricated. Hazardous waste, Punching.

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9 In Silico Analysis of Pax6 Interacting Proteins Indicates Missing Molecular Links in Development of Brain and Associated Disease

Authors: Ratnakar Tripathi, Rajnikant Mishra

Abstract:

The PAX6, a transcription factor, is essential for the morphogenesis of the eyes, brain, pituitary and pancreatic islets. In rodents, the loss of Pax6 function leads to central nervous system defects, anophthalmia, and nasal hypoplasia. The haplo-insufficiency of Pax6 causes microphthalmia, aggression and other behavioral abnormalities. It is also required in brain patterning and neuronal plasticity. In human, heterozygous mutation of Pax6 causes loss of iris [aniridia], mental retardation and glucose intolerance. The 3- deletion in Pax6 leads to autism and aniridia. The phenotypes are variable in peneterance and expressivity. However, mechanism of function and interaction of PAX6 with other proteins during development and associated disease are not clear. It is intended to explore interactors of PAX6 to elucidated biology of PAX6 function in the tissues where it is expressed and also in the central regulatory pathway. This report describes In-silico approaches to explore interacting proteins of PAX6. The models show several possible proteins interacting with PAX6 like MITF, SIX3, SOX2, SOX3, IPO13, TRIM, and OGT. Since the Pax6 is a critical transcriptional regulator and master control gene of eye and brain development it might be interacting with other protein involved in morphogenesis [TGIF, TGF, Ras etc]. It is also presumed that matricelluar proteins [SPARC, thrombospondin-1 and osteonectin etc] are likely to interact during transport and processing of PAX6 and are somewhere its cascade. The proteins involved in cell survival and cell proliferation can also not be ignored.

Keywords: Interacting Proteins, Pax6, PIP, STRING

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8 Omani Community in Digital Age: A Study of Omani Women Using Back Channel Media to Empower Themselves for Frontline Entrepreneurship

Authors: Sangeeta Tripathi, Muna Al Shahri

Abstract:

This research article presents the changing role and status of women in Oman. Transformation of women’s status started with the regime of His Majesty Sultan Qaboos Bin Said in 1970. It is always desired by the Sultan to enable women in all the ways for the balance growth of the country. Forbidding full face veil for women in public offices is one of the best efforts for their empowerment. Women education is also increasing rapidly. They are getting friendly with new information communication technology and using different social media applications such as WhatsApp, Instagram and Facebook for interaction and economic growth. Though there are some traditional and tribal boundaries, women are infused with courage and enjoying fair treatment and equal opportunities in different career positions. The study will try to explore changing mindset of young Omani women towards these traditional tribal boundaries, cultural heritage, business and career: ‘How are young Omani women making balance between work and social prestige?’, ‘How are they preserving their cultural values, embracing new technologies and approaching social network to enhance their economic power.’ This paper will discover their hurdles while using internet for their new entrepreneur. It will also examine the prospects of online business in Oman. The mixed research methodology is applied to find out the result.

Keywords: Advertising, business, entrepreneurship, Social Media, tribal barrier, traditional barriers.

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7 sEMG Interface Design for Locomotion Identification

Authors: Rohit Gupta, Ravinder Agarwal

Abstract:

Surface electromyographic (sEMG) signal has the potential to identify the human activities and intention. This potential is further exploited to control the artificial limbs using the sEMG signal from residual limbs of amputees. The paper deals with the development of multichannel cost efficient sEMG signal interface for research application, along with evaluation of proposed class dependent statistical approach of the feature selection method. The sEMG signal acquisition interface was developed using ADS1298 of Texas Instruments, which is a front-end interface integrated circuit for ECG application. Further, the sEMG signal is recorded from two lower limb muscles for three locomotions namely: Plane Walk (PW), Stair Ascending (SA), Stair Descending (SD). A class dependent statistical approach is proposed for feature selection and also its performance is compared with 12 preexisting feature vectors. To make the study more extensive, performance of five different types of classifiers are compared. The outcome of the current piece of work proves the suitability of the proposed feature selection algorithm for locomotion recognition, as compared to other existing feature vectors. The SVM Classifier is found as the outperformed classifier among compared classifiers with an average recognition accuracy of 97.40%. Feature vector selection emerges as the most dominant factor affecting the classification performance as it holds 51.51% of the total variance in classification accuracy. The results demonstrate the potentials of the developed sEMG signal acquisition interface along with the proposed feature selection algorithm.

Keywords: Classifiers, feature selection, locomotion, sEMG.

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6 Rare Earth Elements in Soils of Jharia Coal Field

Authors: R. E. Masto, L. C. Ram, S. K. Verma, V. A. Selvi, J. George, R. C. Tripathi, N. K. Srivastava, D. Mohanty, S. K.Jha, A. K. Sinha, A. Sinha

Abstract:

There are many sources trough which the soil get enriched and contaminated with REEs. The determination of REEs in environmental samples has been limited because of the lack of sensitive analytical techniques. Soil samples were collected from four sites including open cast coal mine, natural coal burning, coal washery and control in the coal field located in Dhanbad, India. Total concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) were determined using the inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectrometry in order to assess enrichment status in the coal field. Results showed that the mean concentrations of La, Pr, Eu, Tb, Ho, and Tm in open cast mine and natural coal burning sites were elevated compared to the reference concentrations, while Ce, Nd, Sm, and Gd were elevated in coal washery site. When compared to reference soil, heavy REEs (HREEs) were enriched in open cast mines and natural coal burning affected soils, however, the HREEs were depleted in the coal washery sites. But, the Chondrite-normalization diagram showed significant enrichment for light REEs (LREEs) in all the soils. High concentration of Pr, Eu, Tb, Ho, Tm, and Lu in coal mining and coal burning sites may pose human health risks. Factor analysis showed that distribution and relative abundance of REEs of the coal washery site is comparable with the control. Eventually washing or cleaning of coal could significantly decrease the emission of REEs from coal into the environment.

Keywords: Rare earth elements, coal, soil, factor analysis

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5 Long Wavelength Coherent Pulse of Sound Propagating in Granular Media

Authors: Rohit Kumar Shrivastava, Amalia Thomas, Nathalie Vriend, Stefan Luding

Abstract:

A mechanical wave or vibration propagating through granular media exhibits a specific signature in time. A coherent pulse or wavefront arrives first with multiply scattered waves (coda) arriving later. The coherent pulse is micro-structure independent i.e. it depends only on the bulk properties of the disordered granular sample, the sound wave velocity of the granular sample and hence bulk and shear moduli. The coherent wavefront attenuates (decreases in amplitude) and broadens with distance from its source. The pulse attenuation and broadening effects are affected by disorder (polydispersity; contrast in size of the granules) and have often been attributed to dispersion and scattering. To study the effect of disorder and initial amplitude (non-linearity) of the pulse imparted to the system on the coherent wavefront, numerical simulations have been carried out on one-dimensional sets of particles (granular chains). The interaction force between the particles is given by a Hertzian contact model. The sizes of particles have been selected randomly from a Gaussian distribution, where the standard deviation of this distribution is the relevant parameter that quantifies the effect of disorder on the coherent wavefront. Since, the coherent wavefront is system configuration independent, ensemble averaging has been used for improving the signal quality of the coherent pulse and removing the multiply scattered waves. The results concerning the width of the coherent wavefront have been formulated in terms of scaling laws. An experimental set-up of photoelastic particles constituting a granular chain is proposed to validate the numerical results.

Keywords: Discrete elements, Hertzian Contact, polydispersity, weakly nonlinear, wave propagation.

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4 Experimental Study of Unconfined and Confined Isothermal Swirling Jets

Authors: Rohit Sharma, Fabio Cozzi

Abstract:

A 3C-2D PIV technique was applied to investigate the swirling flow generated by an axial plus tangential type swirl generator. This work is focused on the near-exit region of an isothermal swirling jet to characterize the effect of swirl on the flow field and to identify the large coherent structures both in unconfined and confined conditions for geometrical swirl number, Sg = 4.6. Effects of the Reynolds number on the flow structure were also studied. The experimental results show significant effects of the confinement on the mean velocity fields and its fluctuations. The size of the recirculation zone was significantly enlarged upon confinement compared to the free swirling jet. Increasing in the Reynolds number further enhanced the recirculation zone. The frequency characteristics have been measured with a capacitive microphone which indicates the presence of periodic oscillation related to the existence of precessing vortex core, PVC. Proper orthogonal decomposition of the jet velocity field was carried out, enabling the identification of coherent structures. The time coefficients of the first two most energetic POD modes were used to reconstruct the phase-averaged velocity field of the oscillatory motion in the swirling flow. The instantaneous minima of negative swirl strength values calculated from the instantaneous velocity field revealed the presence of two helical structures located in the inner and outer shear layers and this structure fade out at an axial location of approximately z/D = 1.5 for unconfined case and z/D = 1.2 for confined case. By phase averaging the instantaneous swirling strength maps, the 3D helical vortex structure was reconstructed.

Keywords: Acoustic probes, 3C-2D particle image velocimetry, PIV, precessing vortex core, PVC, recirculation zone.

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3 Achieving Sustainable Agriculture with Treated Municipal Wastewater

Authors: Reshu Yadav, Himanshu Joshi, S. K.Tripathi

Abstract:

A pilot field study was conducted at the Jagjeetpur Municipal Sewage treatment plant situated in the Haridwar town in Uttarakhand state, India. The objectives of the present study were to study the effect of treated wastewater on the production of various paddy varieties (Sharbati, PR-114, PB-1, Menaka, PB1121 and PB 1509) and the emission of GHG gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) as compared to the same varieties grown in the control plots irrigated with fresh water. Of late, the concept of water footprint assessment has emerged, which explains enumeration of various types of water footprints of an agricultural entity from its production to processing stages. Paddy, the most water demanding staple crop of Uttarakhand state, displayed a high green water footprint value of 2474.12 m3/ Ton. Most of the wastewater irrigated varieties displayed up to 6% increase in production, except Menaka and PB-1121, which showed a reduction in production (6% and 3% respectively), due to pest and insect infestation. The treated wastewater was observed to be rich in Nitrogen (55.94 mg/ml Nitrate), Phosphorus (54.24 mg/ml) and Potassium (9.78 mg/ml), thus rejuvenating the soil quality and not requiring any external nutritional supplements. A Percentage increase of GHG gases of irrigation with treated municipal wastewater as compared to control plots was observed as 0.4% - 8.6% (CH4), 1.1% - 9.2% (CO2), and 0.07% - 5.8% (N2O). The variety, Sharbati, displayed maximum production (5.5 ton/ha) and emerged as the most resistant variety against pests and insects. The emission values of CH4, CO2 and N2O were 729.31 mg/m2/d, 322.10 mg/m2/d and 400.21 mg/m2/d in water stagnant condition. This study highlighted a successful possibility of reuse of wastewater for non-potable purposes offering the potential for exploiting this resource that can replace or reduce the existing use of fresh water sources in agriculture sector.

Keywords: Greenhouse gases, nutrients, water footprint, wastewater irrigation.

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2 Rigorous Electromagnetic Model of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopic Imaging Applied to Automated Histology of Prostate Tissue Specimens

Authors: Rohith K Reddy, David Mayerich, Michael Walsh, P Scott Carney, Rohit Bhargava

Abstract:

Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging is an emerging technique that provides both chemically and spatially resolved information. The rich chemical content of data may be utilized for computer-aided determinations of structure and pathologic state (cancer diagnosis) in histological tissue sections for prostate cancer. FT-IR spectroscopic imaging of prostate tissue has shown that tissue type (histological) classification can be performed to a high degree of accuracy [1] and cancer diagnosis can be performed with an accuracy of about 80% [2] on a microscopic (≈ 6μm) length scale. In performing these analyses, it has been observed that there is large variability (more than 60%) between spectra from different points on tissue that is expected to consist of the same essential chemical constituents. Spectra at the edges of tissues are characteristically and consistently different from chemically similar tissue in the middle of the same sample. Here, we explain these differences using a rigorous electromagnetic model for light-sample interaction. Spectra from FT-IR spectroscopic imaging of chemically heterogeneous samples are different from bulk spectra of individual chemical constituents of the sample. This is because spectra not only depend on chemistry, but also on the shape of the sample. Using coupled wave analysis, we characterize and quantify the nature of spectral distortions at the edges of tissues. Furthermore, we present a method of performing histological classification of tissue samples. Since the mid-infrared spectrum is typically assumed to be a quantitative measure of chemical composition, classification results can vary widely due to spectral distortions. However, we demonstrate that the selection of localized metrics based on chemical information can make our data robust to the spectral distortions caused by scattering at the tissue boundary.

Keywords: Infrared, Spectroscopy, Imaging, Tissue classification

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1 An Appraisal of Coal Fly Ash Soil Amendment Technology (FASAT) of Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research (CIMFR)

Authors: L.C. Ram, R.E. Masto, Smriti Singh, R.C. Tripathi, S.K. Jha, N.K. Srivastava, A.K. Sinha, V.A. Selvi, A. Sinha

Abstract:

Coal will continue to be the predominant source of global energy for coming several decades. The huge generation of fly ash (FA) from combustion of coal in thermal power plants (TPPs) is apprehended to pose the concerns of its disposal and utilization. FA application based on its typical characteristics as soil ameliorant for agriculture and forestry is the potential area, and hence the global attempt. The inferences drawn suffer from the variations of ash characteristics, soil types, and agro-climatic conditions; thereby correlating the effects of ash between various plant species and soil types is difficult. Indian FAs have low bulk density, high water holding capacity and porosity, rich silt-sized particles, alkaline nature, negligible solubility, and reasonable plant nutrients. Findings of the demonstrations trials for more than two decades from lab/pot to field scale long-term experiments are developed as FA soil amendment technology (FASAT) by Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research (CIMFR), Dhanbad. Performance of different crops and plant species in cultivable and problematic soils, are encouraging, eco-friendly, and being adopted by the farmers. FA application includes ash alone and in combination with inorganic/organic amendments; combination treatments including bio-solids perform better than FA alone. Optimum dose being up to 100 t/ha for cultivable land and up to/ or above 200 t/ha of FA for waste/degraded land/mine refuse, depending on the characteristics of ash and soil. The elemental toxicity in Indian FA is usually not of much concern owing to alkaline ashes, oxide forms of elements, and elemental concentration within the threshold limits for soil application. Combating toxicity, if any, is possible through combination treatments with organic materials and phytoremediation. Government initiatives through extension programme involving farmers and ash generating organizations need to be accelerated

Keywords: Fly ash, soil quality, CIMFR, FASAT, agriculture, forestry, toxicity, remediation

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