Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 411

Search results for: porous silicon

411 Preparation of Porous Metal Membrane by Thermal Annealing for Thin Film Encapsulation

Authors: Jaibir Sharma, Lee JaeWung, Merugu Srinivas, Navab Singh

Abstract:

This paper presents thermal annealing de-wetting technique for the preparation of porous metal membrane for Thin Film Encapsulation (TFE) application. Thermal annealing de-wetting experimental results reveal that pore size formation in porous metal membrane depend upon i.e. 1. The substrate at which metal is deposited, 2. Melting point of metal used for porous metal cap layer membrane formation, 3. Thickness of metal used for cap layer, 4. Temperature used for formation of porous metal membrane. In order to demonstrate this technique, Silver (Ag) was used as a metal for preparation of porous metal membrane on amorphous silicon (a-Si) and silicon oxide. The annealing of the silver thin film of various thicknesses was performed at different temperature. Pores in porous silver film were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). In order to check the usefulness of porous metal film for TFE application, the porous silver film prepared on amorphous silicon (a- Si) and silicon oxide was released using XeF2 and VHF, respectively. Finally, guide line and structures are suggested to use this porous membrane for robust TFE application.

Keywords: De-wetting, thermal annealing, metal, melting point, porous.

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410 Contribution to the Study of Thermal Conductivity of Porous Silicon Used In Thermal Sensors

Authors: A. Ould-Abbas, M. Bouchaour, , M. Madani, D. Trari, O. Zeggai, M. Boukais, N.-E.Chabane-Sari

Abstract:

The porous silicon (PS), formed from the anodization of a p+ type substrate silicon, consists of a network organized in a pseudo-column as structure of multiple side ramifications. Structural micro-topology can be interpreted as the fraction of the interconnected solid phase contributing to thermal transport. The reduction of dimensions of silicon of each nanocristallite during the oxidation induced a reduction in thermal conductivity. Integration of thermal sensors in the Microsystems silicon requires an effective insulation of the sensor element. Indeed, the low thermal conductivity of PS consists in a very promising way in the fabrication of integrated thermal Microsystems.In this work we are interesting in the measurements of thermal conductivity (on the surface and in depth) of PS by the micro-Raman spectroscopy. The thermal conductivity is studied according to the parameters of anodization (initial doping and current density. We also, determine porosity of samples by spectroellipsometry.

Keywords: micro-Raman spectroscopy, mono-crysatl silicon, porous silicon, thermal conductivity

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409 Investigation of Mesoporous Silicon Carbonization Process

Authors: N. I. Kargin, G. K. Safaraliev, A. S. Gusev, A. O. Sultanov, N. V. Siglovaya, S. M. Ryndya, A. A. Timofeev

Abstract:

In this paper, an experimental and theoretical study of the processes of mesoporous silicon carbonization during the formation of buffer layers for the subsequent epitaxy of 3C-SiC films and related wide-band-gap semiconductors is performed. Experimental samples were obtained by the method of chemical vapor deposition and investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Analytic expressions were obtained for the effective diffusion factor and carbon atoms diffusion length in a porous system. The proposed model takes into account the processes of Knudsen diffusion, coagulation and overgrowing of pores during the formation of a silicon carbide layer.

Keywords: Silicon carbide, porous silicon, carbonization, electrochemical etching, diffusion.

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408 Micropower Composite Nanomaterials Based on Porous Silicon for Renewable Energy Sources

Authors: Alexey P. Antropov, Alexander V. Ragutkin, Nicolay A. Yashtulov

Abstract:

The original controlled technology for power active nanocomposite membrane-electrode assembly engineering on the basis of porous silicon is presented. The functional nanocomposites were studied by electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry methods. The application possibility of the obtained nanocomposites as high performance renewable energy sources for micro-power electronic devices is demonstrated.

Keywords: Cyclic voltammetry, electron microscopy, nanotechnology, platinum-palladium nanocomposites, porous silicon, power activity, renewable energy sources.

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407 Improvement of Photoluminescence Uniformity of Porous Silicon by using Stirring Anodization Process

Authors: Jia-Chuan Lin, Meng-Kai Hsu, Hsi-Ting Hou, Sin-Hong Liu

Abstract:

The electrolyte stirring method of anodization etching process for manufacturing porous silicon (PS) is reported in this work. Two experimental setups of nature air stirring (PS-ASM) and electrolyte stirring (PS-ESM) are employed to clarify the influence of stirring mechanisms on electrochemical etching process. Compared to traditional fabrication without any stirring apparatus (PS-TM), a large plateau region of PS surface structure is obtained from samples with both stirring methods by the 3D-profiler measurement. Moreover, the light emission response is also improved by both proposed electrolyte stirring methods due to the cycling force in electrolyte could effectively enhance etch-carrier distribution while the electrochemical etching process is made. According to the analysis of statistical calculation of photoluminescence (PL) intensity, lower standard deviations are obtained from PS-samples with studied stirring methods, i.e. the uniformity of PL-intensity is effectively improved. The calculated deviations of PL-intensity are 93.2, 74.5 and 64, respectively, for PS-TM, PS-ASM and PS-ESM.

Keywords: Porous Silicon, Photoluminescence, Uniformity Carrier Stirring Method

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406 Electrotechnology for Silicon Refining: Plasma Generator and Arc Furnace: Installations and Theoretical Base

Authors: Ashot Navasardian, Mariam Vardanian, Vladik Vardanian

Abstract:

The photovoltaic and the semiconductor industries are in growth and it is necessary to supply a large amount of silicon to maintain this growth. Since silicon is still the best material for the manufacturing of solar cells and semiconductor components so the pure silicon like solar grade and semiconductor grade materials are demanded. There are two main routes for silicon production: metallurgical and chemical. In this article, we reviewed the electrotecnological installations and systems for semiconductor manufacturing. The main task is to design the installation which can produce SOG Silicon from river sand by one work unit.

Keywords: Metallurgical grade silicon, solar grade silicon, impurity, refining, plasma.

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405 High Aspect Ratio SiO2 Capillary Based On Silicon Etching and Thermal Oxidation Process for Optical Modulator

Authors: N. V. Toan, S. Sangu, T. Saitoh, N. Inomata, T. Ono

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and fabrication of an optical window for an optical modulator toward image sensing applications. An optical window consists of micrometer-order SiO2 capillaries (porous solid) that can modulate transmission light intensity by moving the liquid in and out of porous solid. A high optical transmittance of the optical window can be achieved due to refractive index matching when the liquid is penetrated into the porous solid. Otherwise, its light transmittance is lower because of light reflection and scattering by air holes and capillary walls. Silicon capillaries fabricated by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) process are completely oxidized to form the SiO2 capillaries. Therefore, high aspect ratio SiO2 capillaries can be achieved based on silicon capillaries formed by DRIE technique. Large compressive stress of the oxide causes bending of the capillary structure, which is reduced by optimizing the design of device structure. The large stress of the optical window can be released via thin supporting beams. A 7.2 mm x 9.6 mm optical window area toward a fully integrated with the image sensor format is successfully fabricated and its optical transmittance is evaluated with and without inserting liquids (ethanol and matching oil). The achieved modulation range is approximately 20% to 35% with and without liquid penetration in visible region (wavelength range from 450 nm to 650 nm).

Keywords: Thermal oxidation process, SiO2 capillaries, optical window, light transmittance, image sensor, liquid penetration.

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404 CMOS-Compatible Deposited Materials for Photonic Layers Integrated above Electronic Integrated Circuit

Authors: Shiyang Zhu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong

Abstract:

Silicon photonics has generated an increasing interest in recent years mainly for optical communications optical interconnects in microelectronic circuits or bio-sensing applications. The development of elementary passive and active components (including detectors and modulators), which are mainly fabricated on the silicon on insulator platform for CMOS-compatible fabrication, has reached such a performance level that the integration challenge of silicon photonics with microelectronic circuits should be addressed. Since crystalline silicon can only be grown from another silicon crystal, making it impossible to deposit in this state, the optical devices are typically limited to a single layer. An alternative approach is to integrate a photonic layer above the CMOS chip using back-end CMOS fabrication process. In this paper, various materials, including silicon nitride, amorphous silicon, and polycrystalline silicon, for this purpose are addressed.

Keywords: Silicon photonics, CMOS, Integration.

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403 Effect of Concentration of Sodium Borohydrate on the Synthesis of Silicon Nanoparticles via Microemulsion Route

Authors: W. L. Liong, Srimala Sreekantan, Sabar D. Hutagalung

Abstract:

The effect of concentration of reduction agent of sodium borohydrate (NaBH4) on the properties of silicon nanoparticles synthesized via microemulsion route is reported. In this work, the concentration of the silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) that served as silicon source with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as stabilizer and surfactant, respectively, are keep fixed. Four samples with varied concentration of NaBH4 from 0.05 M to 0.20 M were synthesized. It was found that the lowest concentration of NaBH4 gave better formation of silicon nanoparticles.

Keywords: Microelmusion, nanoparticles, reduction, silicon

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402 Photoluminescence Study of Erbium-Mixed Alkylated Silicon Nanocrystals

Authors: Khamael M. Abualnaja, Lidija Šiller, Benjamin R. Horrocks

Abstract:

Alkylated silicon nanocrystals (C11-SiNCs) were prepared successfully by galvanostatic etching of p-Si(100) wafers followed by a thermal hydrosilation reaction of 1-undecene in refluxing toluene in order to extract C11-SiNCs from porous silicon. Erbium trichloride was added to alkylated SiNCs using a simple mixing chemical route. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation on mixing SiNCs with erbium ions (III) by this chemical method. The chemical characterization of C11-SiNCs and their mixtures with Er3+(Er/C11-SiNCs) were carried out using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The optical properties of C11- SiNCs and their mixtures with Er3+ were investigated using Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL). The erbium mixed alkylated SiNCs shows an orange PL emission peak at around 595 nm that originates from radiative recombination of Si. Er/C11-SiNCs mixture also exhibits a weak PL emission peak at 1536 nm that originates from the intra-4f transition in erbium ions (Er3+). The PL peak of Si in Er/C11-SiNCs mixture is increased in the intensity up to three times as compared to pure C11-SiNCs. The collected data suggest that this chemical mixing route leads instead to a transfer of energy from erbium ions to alkylated SiNCs.

Keywords: Photoluminescence, Silicon Nanocrystals, Erbium, Raman Spectroscopy.

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401 The Pack-Bed Sphere Liquid Porous Burner

Authors: B. Krittacom, P. Amatachaya, W. Srimuang, K. Inla

Abstract:

The combustion of liquid fuel in the porous burner (PB) was experimented to investigate evaporation mechanism and combustion behavior. The diesel oil was used as fuel and the pebbles carefully chosen in the same size like the solid sphere homogeneously was adopted as the porous media. Two structures of the liquid porous burner, i.e. the PB without and with installation of porous emitter (PE), were performed. PE was installed by lower than PB with distance of 20 cm. The pebbles having porosity (φ) of 0.45 and 0.52 were, respectively, used in PB and PE. The fuel was supplied dropwise from the top through the PB and the combustion was occurred between PB and PE. Axial profiles of temperature along the burner length were measured to clarify the evaporation and combustion phenomena. The pollutant emission characteristics were monitored at the burner exit. From the experiment, it was found that the temperature profiles of both structures decreased with the three ways swirling air flows (QA) increasing. On the other hand, the temperature profiles increased with fuel heat input (QF). Obviously, the profile of the porous burner installed with PE was higher than that of the porous burner without PE

Keywords: Liquid fuel, Porous burner, Temperature profile.

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400 The Synergistic Effects of Using Silicon and Selenium on Fruiting of Zaghloul Date Palm (Phoenix dectylifera L.)

Authors: M. R. Gad El- Kareem, A. M. K. Abdel Aal, A. Y. Mohamed

Abstract:

During 2011 and 2012 seasons, Zaghloul date palms received four sprays of silicon (Si) at 0.05 to 0.1% and selenium (Se) at 0.01 to 0.02%. Growth, nutritional status, yield as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits in response to application of silicon and selenium were investigated. Single and combined applications of silicon at 0.05 to 0.1% and selenium at 0.01 to 0.02% was very effective in enhancing the leaf area, total chlorophylls, percentages of N, P and K in the leaves, yield, bunch weight as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits in relative to the check treatment. Silicon was superior to selenium in this respect. Combined application was favorable than using each alone in this connection. Treating Zaghloul date palms four times with a mixture of silicon at 0.05% + selenium at 0.01% resulted in an economical yield and producing better fruit quality.

Keywords: Date Palms, Zaghloul, Silicon, Selenium, leaf area.

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399 A Study on Characteristics and Geometric Parameters of the Flat Porous Aerostatic Bearing

Authors: T. Y. Huang, B. Z. Wang, S. C. Lin, S. Y. Hsu

Abstract:

A CFD software was employed to analyze the characteristics of the flat round porous aerostatic bearings. The effects of gap between the bearing and the guide way and the porosity of the porous material on the load capacity of the bearing were studied. The adequacy of the simulation model and the approach was verified. From the parametric study, it is found that the depth of the flow path does not influence the load capacity of the bearing; the load capacity of the bearing will decrease if the thickness of the porous material increases or the porous material protrudes above the bearing housing; the variation of the chamfer at the edge of the bearing does not affect the bearing load capacity. For a bearing with an air gap of 5μm and a porosity of 0.1, the average load capacity and the pressure distribution of the bearing are nearly unchanged no matter the bearing moves at a constant or a varying speed.

Keywords: Aerostatic bearing, Load capacity, Porosity, Porous material.

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398 The Manufacturing of Metallurgical Grade Silicon from Diatomaceous Silica by an Induction Furnace

Authors: Shahrazed Medeghri, Saad Hamzaoui, Mokhtar Zerdali

Abstract:

The metallurgical grade silicon (MG-Si) is obtained from the reduction of silica (SiO2) in an induction furnace or an electric arc furnace. Impurities inherent in reduction process also depend on the quality of the raw material used. Among the applications of the silicon, it is used as a substrate for the photovoltaic conversion of solar energy and this conversion is wider as the purity of the substrate is important. Research is being done where the purpose is looking for new methods of manufacturing and purification of silicon, as well as new materials that can be used as substrates for the photovoltaic conversion of light energy. In this research, the technique of production of silicon in an induction furnace, using a high vacuum for fusion. Diatomaceous Silica (SiO2) used is 99 mass% initial purities, the carbon used is 6N of purity and the particle size of 63μm as starting materials. The final achieved purity of the material was above 50% by mass. These results demonstrate that this method is a technically reliable, and allows obtaining a better return on the amount 50% of silicon.

Keywords: Induction, amorphous silica, carbon microstructure, silicon.

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397 Numerical and Experimental Study of Flow from a Leaking Buried Pipe in an Unsaturated Porous Media

Authors: S.M.Hosseinalipour, H.Aghakhani

Abstract:

Considering the numerous applications of the study of the flow due to leakage in a buried pipe in unsaturated porous media, finding a proper model to explain the influence of the effective factors is of great importance.There are various important factors involved in this type of flow such as: pipe leakage size and location, burial depth, the degree of the saturation of the surrounding porous medium, characteristics of the porous medium, fluid type and pressure of the upstream.In this study, the flow through unsaturated porous media due to leakage of a buried pipe for up and down leakage location is studied experimentally and numerically and their results are compared. Study results show that Darcy equation together with BCM method (for calculating the relative permeability) have suitable ability for predicting the flow due to leakage of buried pipes in unsaturated porous media.

Keywords: Buried, Leaking pipe, Porous media, Unsaturated

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396 Surface Morphology and Formation of Nanostructured Porous GaN by UV-assisted Electrochemical Etching

Authors: L. S. Chuah, Z. Hassan, C. W. Chin, H. Abu Hassan

Abstract:

This article reports on the studies of porous GaN prepared by ultra-violet (UV) assisted electrochemical etching in a solution of 4:1:1 HF: CH3OH:H2O2 under illumination of an UV lamp with 500 W power for 10, 25 and 35 minutes. The optical properties of porous GaN sample were compared to the corresponding as grown GaN. Porosity induced photoluminescence (PL) intensity enhancement was found in these samples. The resulting porous GaN displays blue shifted PL spectra compared to the as-grown GaN. Appearance of the blue shifted emission is correlated with the development of highly anisotropic structures in the morphology. An estimate of the size of the GaN nanostructure can be obtained with the help of a quantized state effective mass theory.

Keywords: Photoluminescence, porous GaN, electrochemical etching, Si, RF-MBE.

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395 Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetector Based On Porous In0.08Ga0.92N

Authors: Saleh H. Abud, Z. Hassan, F. K. Yam

Abstract:

Characteristics of MSM photodetector based on a porous In0.08Ga0.92N thin film were reported. Nanoporous structures of n-type In0.08Ga0.92N/AlN/Si thin films were synthesized by photoelectrochemical (PEC) etching at a ratio of 1:4 of HF:C2H5OH solution for 15min. The structural and optical properties of pre- and post-etched thin films were investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope images showed that the pre-etched thin film has a sufficiently smooth surface over a large region and the roughness increased for porous film. Blue shift has been observed in photoluminescence emission peak at 300 K for porous sample. The photoluminescence intensity of the porous film indicated that the optical properties have been enhanced. A high work function metals (Pt and Ni) were deposited as a metal contact on the porous films. The rise and recovery times of the devices were investigated at 390nm chopped light. Finally, the sensitivity and quantum efficiency were also studied.

Keywords: Porous InGaN, photoluminescence, SMS photodetector.

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394 Generation of Highly Ordered Porous Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide Film by A Simple Coating Method with Colloidal Template

Authors: Asep Bayu Dani Nandiyanto, Asep Suhendi, Yutaka Kisakibaru, Takashi Ogi, Kikuo Okuyama

Abstract:

An ordered porous antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) film was successfully prepared using a simple coating process with colloidal templates. The facile production was effective when a combination of 16-nm ATO (as a model of an inorganic nanoparticle) and polystyrene (PS) spheres (as a model of the template) weresimply coated to produce a composite ATO/PS film. Heat treatment was then used to remove the PS and produce the porous film. The porous film with a spherical pore shape and a highly ordered porous structure could be obtained. A potential way for the control of pore size could be also achieved by changing initial template size. The theoretical explanation and mechanism of porous formation were also added, which would be important for the scaling-up prediction and estimation.

Keywords: Porous structure film; ATO particle; Ultra-low refractive index; vertical drop method; Low-density material;

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393 Ultrasensitive Hepatitis B Virus Detection in Blood Using Nano-Porous Silicon Oxide: Towards POC Diagnostics

Authors: N. Das, N. Samanta, L. Pandey, C. Roy Chaudhuri

Abstract:

Early diagnosis of infection like Hep-B virus in blood is important for low cost medical treatment. For this purpose, it is desirable to develop a point of care device which should be able to detect trace quantities of the target molecule in blood. In this paper, we report a nanoporous silicon oxide sensor which is capable of detecting down to 1fM concentration of Hep-B surface antigen in blood without the requirement of any centrifuge or pre-concentration. This has been made possible by the presence of resonant peak in the sensitivity characteristics. This peak is observed to be dependent only on the concentration of the specific antigen and not on the interfering species in blood serum. The occurrence of opposite impedance change within the pores and at the bottom of the pore is responsible for this effect. An electronic interface has also been designed to provide a display of the virus concentration.

Keywords: Impedance spectroscopy, Ultrasensitive detection in blood, Peak frequency, Electronic interface.

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392 An Electrically Modulatable Silicon Waveguide Grating Using an Implantation Technology

Authors: Qing Fang, Lianxi Jia, JunFeng Song, Xiaoguang Tu, Mingbin Yu, Andy Eu-jin Lim, Guo Qiang Lo

Abstract:

The first pn-type carrier-induced silicon Bragg-grating filter is demonstrated. The extinction-ratio modulations are 11.5 dB and 10 dB with reverse and forward biases, respectively. 8-Gpbs data rate is achieved with a reverse bias.

Keywords: Silicon photonics, Waveguide grating, Carrier-induced, Extinction-ratio modulation.

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391 Experimental Study of Flow Effects of Solid Particles’ Size in Porous Media

Authors: S. Akridiss, E. El Tabach, K. Chetehouna, N. Gascoin, M. S. Kadiri

Abstract:

Transpiration cooling combined to regenerative cooling is a technique that could be used to cool the porous walls of the future ramjet combustion chambers; it consists of using fuel that will flow through the pores of the porous material consisting of the chamber walls, as coolant. However, at high temperature, the fuel is pyrolysed and generates solid coke particles inside the porous materials. This phenomenon can lead to a significant decrease of the material permeability and can affect the efficiency of the cooling system. In order to better understand this phenomenon, an experimental laboratory study was undertaken to determine the transport and deposition of particles in a sintered porous material subjected to steady state flow. The test bench composed of a high-pressure autoclave is used to study the transport of different particle size (35

Keywords: Experimental study, permeability, porous material, suspended particles.

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390 All-Silicon Raman Laser with Quasi-Phase-Matched Structures and Resonators

Authors: Isao Tomita

Abstract:

The principle of all-silicon Raman lasers for an output wavelength of 1.3 μm is presented, which employs quasi-phase-matched structures and resonators to enhance the output power. 1.3-μm laser beams for GE-PONs in FTTH systems generated from a silicon device are very important because such a silicon device can be monolithically integrated with the silicon planar lightwave circuits (Si PLCs) used in the GE-PONs. This reduces the device fabrication processes and time and also optical losses at the junctions between optical waveguides of the Si PLCs and Si laser devices when compared with 1.3-μm III-V semiconductor lasers set on the Si PLCs employed at present. We show that the quasi-phase-matched Si Raman laser with resonators can produce about 174 times larger laser power at 1.3 μm (at maximum) than that without resonators for a Si waveguide of Raman gain 20 cm/GW and optical loss 1.2 dB/cm, pumped at power 10 mW, where the length of the waveguide is 3 mm and its cross-section is (1.5 μm)2.

Keywords: All-silicon raman laser, FTTH, GE-PON, quasi-phase-matched structure, resonator.

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389 Compressible Flow Modeling in Pipes and Porous Media during Blowdown Experiment

Authors: Thomas Paris, Vincent Bruyere, Patrick Namy

Abstract:

A numerical model is developed to simulate gas blowdowns through a thin tube and a filter (porous media), separating a high pressure gas filled reservoir to low pressure ones. Based on a previous work, a one-dimensional approach is developed by using the finite element method to solve the transient compressible flow and to predict the pressure and temperature evolution in space and time. Mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations are solved in a fully coupled way in the reservoirs, the pipes and the porous media. Numerical results, such as pressure and temperature evolutions, are firstly compared with experimental data to validate the model for different configurations. Couplings between porous media and pipe flow are then validated by checking mass balance. The influence of the porous media and the nature of the gas is then studied for different initial high pressure values.

Keywords: Fluid mechanics, compressible flow, heat transfer, porous media.

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388 Impact Porous Dielectric Silica Gel for Operating Voltage and Power Discharge Reactor

Authors: E. Gnapowski, S. Gnapowski

Abstract:

This study examined the effect of porous dielectric silica gel the discharge ignition voltage and input power in a plasma reactor. For the experiment was used a plasma reactor with two mesh electrodes made of stainless steel with a mesh size of 0.1x0.1mm. The study analyzed and compared with parameters such as power, ignition and operation voltage of the reactor for two dielectrics a porous and glass. During experiment were observed several new phenomena conducted for porous dielectric. The first phenomenon was the reduction the ignition voltage discharge to volume around few hundred volts. Second it was increase input power six times more compared with power those obtained for the glass dielectric. Thirdly difference it is ΔV between ignition voltage Vi and operating voltage reactor Vm for porous dielectric it was 11%, while ΔV for the glass dielectric it was 60%. Also change the discharge characteristics from DBD for glass dielectric to the streamer resistance discharge for the porous dielectric.

Keywords: Input power, mesh electrodes, onset voltage, porous dielectric.

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387 A High-Crosstalk Silicon Photonic Arrayed Waveguide Grating

Authors: Qing Fang, Lianxi Jia, Junfeng Song, Chao Li, Xianshu Luo, Mingbin Yu, Guoqiang Lo

Abstract:

In this paper, we demonstrated a 1 × 4 silicon photonic cascaded arrayed waveguide grating, which is fabricated on a SOI wafer with a 220 nm top Si layer and a 2µm buried oxide layer. The measured on-chip transmission loss of this cascaded arrayed waveguide grating is ~ 5.6 dB, including the fiber-to-waveguide coupling loss. The adjacent crosstalk is 33.2 dB. Compared to the normal single silicon photonic arrayed waveguide grating with a crosstalk of ~ 12.5 dB, the crosstalk of this device has been dramatically increased.

Keywords: Silicon photonic, arrayed waveguide grating, high-crosstalk, cascaded structure.

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386 Analysis of a Novel Strained Silicon RF LDMOS

Authors: V.Fathipour, M. A. Malakootian, S. Fathipour, M. Fathipour

Abstract:

In this paper we propose a novel RF LDMOS structure which employs a thin strained silicon layer at the top of the channel and the N-Drift region. The strain is induced by a relaxed Si0.8 Ge0.2 layer which is on top of a compositionally graded SiGe buffer. We explain the underlying physics of the device and compare the proposed device with a conventional LDMOS in terms of energy band diagram and carrier concentration. Numerical simulations of the proposed strained silicon laterally diffused MOS using a 2 dimensional device simulator indicate improvements in saturation and linear transconductance, current drivability, cut off frequency and on resistance. These improvements are however accompanied with a suppression in the break down voltage.

Keywords: High Frequency MOSFET, Design of RF LDMOS, Strained-Silicon, LDMOS.

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385 Three Dimensional MEMS Supercapacitor Fabricated by DRIE on Silicon Substrate

Authors: Wei Sun, Ruilin Zheng, Xuyuan Chen

Abstract:

Micro power sources are required to be used in autonomous microelectromechanical system (MEMS). In this paper,  we designed and fabricated a three dimensional (3D) MEMS supercapacitor, which is consisting of conformal silicon  dioxide/titanium/polypyrrole (PPy) layers on silicon substrate. At first, ''through-structure'' was fabricated on the silicon substrate by high-aspect-ratio deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) method, which enlarges the available surface area significantly. Then the SiO2/Ti/PPy layers grew sequentially on the ³through-structure´. Finally, the supercapacitor was investigated by electrochemical methods.

Keywords: MEMS, Supercapacitor, DRIE, 3D.

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384 Finite Element Analysis for Damped Vibration Properties of Panels Laminated Porous Media

Authors: Y. Kurosawa, T. Yamaguchi

Abstract:

A numerical method is proposed to calculate damping properties for sound-proof structures involving elastic body, viscoelastic body, and porous media. For elastic and viscoelastic body displacement is modeled using conventional finite elements including complex modulus of elasticity. Both effective density and bulk modulus have complex quantities to represent damped sound fields in the porous media. Particle displacement in the porous media is discretised using finite element method. Displacement vectors as common unknown variables are solved under coupled condition between elastic body, viscoelastic body and porous media. Further, explicit expressions of modal loss factor for the mixed structures are derived using asymptotic method. Eigenvalue analysis and frequency responded were calculated for automotive test panel laminated viscoelastic and porous structures using this technique, the results almost agreed with the experimental results.

Keywords: Damping, Porous Media, Finite Element Method, Computer Aided Engineering.

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383 Marangoni Convection in a Fluid Saturated Porous Layer with a Deformable Free Surface

Authors: Nor Fadzillah Mohd Mokhtar, Norihan Md Arifin, Roslinda Nazar, Fudziah Ismail, MohamedSuleiman

Abstract:

The stability analysis of Marangoni convection in porous media with a deformable upper free surface is investigated. The linear stability theory and the normal mode analysis are applied and the resulting eigenvalue problem is solved exactly. The Darcy law and the Brinkman model are used to describe the flow in the porous medium heated from below. The effect of the Crispation number, Bond number and the Biot number are analyzed for the stability of the system. It is found that a decrease in the Crispation number and an increase in the Bond number delay the onset of convection in porous media. In addition, the system becomes more stable when the Biot number is increases and the Daeff number is decreases.

Keywords: Deformable, Marangoni, Porous, Stability.

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382 Design of a Carbon Silicon Electrode for Iontophoresis Treatment towards Alopecia

Authors: Q. Wei, D. G. Hwang, Z. Mohy-Udin, D. H. Shin, J. H. Park, M. Y. Kang, J. H. Cho

Abstract:

This study presents design of a carbon silicon electrode for iontophorsis treatment towards alopecia. The alopecia is a medical description means loss of hair from the body. For solving this problem, the drug need to be delivered into the scalp, therefore, the iontophoresis was chosen to use in this treatment. However, almost common electrodes of iontophoresis device are made with metal material, the electrodes could give patients hurt when they using it, and it is hard to avoid the hair for attaching the hair. For this reason, an electrode is made with silicon material to decrease the hurt from the electrodes, and the carbon material is mixed in it for increasing conductance. The several cones with stainless material on the electrode make the electrode is able to void hair to attach the affected part. According to the results of a vivo-experiment, the carbon silicon electrode showed a good performance and in treatment comfortably.

Keywords: Carbon silicon, drug delivery system, iontophoresis

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