Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 338

Search results for: Seok Hong Min

338 A Study of Cross Border Student in Hong Kong: The New Phenomenon of Cross Border Students which arise from Cross Border Birth

Authors: Nancy, Ling Sze Leung

Abstract:

The number of cross-border student between Hong Kong and mainland China is increasing due to an increase of cross-border marriage between Hong Kong and mainland China. Since the education system is different to the mainland China, the statue Since all the children who have the right of abode in Hong Kong entitle to have free education in Hong Kong, many of the cross-border family prefer to send the children back to Hong Kong for their education.

Keywords: Birthright citizenship, Cross border birth, Cross border student, Hong Kong

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337 The Development and Future of Hong Kong Typography

Authors: Amic G. Ho

Abstract:

Language usage and typography in Hong Kong are unique, as can be seen clearly on the streets of the city. In contrast to many other parts of the world, where there is only one language, in Hong Kong many signs and billboards display two languages: Chinese and English. The language usage on signage, fonts and types used, and the designs in magazines and advertisements all demonstrate the unique features of Hong Kong typographic design, which reflect the multicultural nature of Hong Kong society. This study is the first step in investigating the nature and development of Hong Kong typography. The preliminary research explored how the historical development of Hong Kong is reflected in its unique typography. Following a review of historical development, a quantitative study was designed: Local Hong Kong participants were invited to provide input on what makes the Hong Kong typographic style unique. Their input was collected and analyzed. This provided us with information about the characteristic criteria and features of Hong Kong typography, as recognized by the local people. The most significant typographic designs in Hong Kong were then investigated and the influence of Chinese and other cultures on Hong Kong typography was assessed. The research results provide an indication to local designers on how they can strengthen local design outcomes and promote the values and culture of their mother town.

Keywords: Typography, Hong Kong, historical developments, multiple cultures.

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336 The Low-fertility problem in Hong Kong: Do Mainlanders- Births Help to Rejuvenate Low-fertility Problem?

Authors: Nancy, Ling Sze Leung

Abstract:

Hong Kong is one of the regions in the world where Total Fertility Rate (TFR) is very low. In 2001, the TFR dropped until 0.931, which means 1 woman even cannot give birth to one child on average. However, after the reformation of the 'Right of Abode of Hong Kong' in 2001 and the Chinese Central Government loosened the disembarkation procedure of mainland Chinese (mainlander) to enter Hong Kong in 2003; mainlander couples started to cross the border for giving births in Hong Kong. This action raises Hong Kong-s TFR quickly from 0.931 (2001) to 1.094 (2010). Usually, an increasing trend of TFR means a sign of rejuvenation in low-fertility, but in the case of Hong Kong, the increase of TFR does not, rather it generates other population problems. This paper is going to discuss do mainlanders- births help to solve the low-fertility problem in Hong Kong.

Keywords: Cross Border Birth, Low-fertility, Mainlander, Total Fertility Rate

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335 Creeping Insulation - Hong Kong Green Wall

Authors: X. L. Zhang, K. L. Li, R. M. Skitmore

Abstract:

Hong Kong is a densely populated city suffering badly from the urban heat island effect. Green wall offers a means of ameliorating the situation but there are doubts over its suitability in Hong Kong’s unique environment. In this paper, we look at the potential for green walls in Hong Kong first by summarizing some of the Chinese green walling systems and associated vegetation in use, then by an introduction to three existing green walls in Hong Kong, and finally through a small experiment aimed at identifying the likely main effects of green walled housing.

The results indicate that green walling in Hong Kong is likely to provide enhanced internal house environment in terms of warm weather temperature reduction, stabilization and damping, with direct energy savings in air-conditioning and indirect district benefits of reduced heat island effect and carbon emissions. The green walling insulation properties also suggest the possibility of warmer homes in winter and/or energy savings in mechanical heating provision.

Keywords: Case studies, experiment, green wall, Hong Kong.

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334 Critical Analysis of the Hong Kong International Convention on Ship Recycling

Authors: K. P. Jain, J. F. J. Pruyn, J. J. Hopman

Abstract:

In May 2009, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted the Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships to address the growing concerns about the environmental, occupational health and safety risks related to ship recycling. The aim of the Hong Kong Convention is to provide a legally binding instrument which ensures that the process of ship recycling does not pose risks to human health, safety and to the environment. In this paper, critical analysis of the Hong Kong Convention has been carried out in order to study the effectiveness of the Convention to meet its objectives. The Convention has been studied in detail including its background, main features, major stakeholders, strengths and weaknesses. The Convention, though having several deficiencies, is a major breakthrough in not only recognizing but also dealing with the ill-practices associated with ship recycling.

Keywords: Hong Kong Convention, IMO, Ship breaking, Ship recycling.

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333 Error Factors in Vertical Positioning System

Authors: Hyun-Gwang Cho, Wan-Seok Yang, Su-Jin Kim, Jeong-Seok Oh, Chun-Hong Park

Abstract:

Machine tools are improved capacity remarkably during the 20th century. Improving the precision of machine tools are related with precision of products and accurate processing is always associated with the subject of interest. There are a lot of the elements that determine the precision of the machine, as guides, motors, structure, control, etc. In this paper we focused on the phenomenon that vertical movement system has worse precision than horizontal movement system even they were made up with same components. The vertical movement system needs to be studied differently from the horizontal movement system to develop its precision. The vertical movement system has load on its transfer direction and it makes the movement system weak in precision than the horizontal one. Some machines have mechanical counter balance, hydraulic or pneumatic counter balance to compensate the weight of the machine head. And there is several type of compensating the weight. It can push the machine head and also can use chain or wire lope to transfer the compensating force from counter balance to machine head. According to the type of compensating, there could be error from friction, pressure error of hydraulic or pressure control error. Also according to what to use for transferring the compensating force, transfer error of compensating force could be occur.

Keywords: Chain chordal action, counter balance, setup error, vertical positioning system.

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332 Sedimentological Study of Bivalve Fossils Site Locality in Hong Hoi Formation, Lampang, Thailand

Authors: Kritsada Moonpa, Kannipa Motanated, Weerapan Srichan

Abstract:

Hong Hoi Formation is a Middle Triassic deep marine succession presented in outcrops throughout the Lampang Basin of northern Thailand. The primary goal of this research is to diagnose the paleoenvironment, petrographic compositions, and sedimentary sources of the Hong Hoi Formation in Ban Huat, Ngao District. The Triassic Hong Hoi Formation is chosen because the outcrops are continuous and fossils are greatly exposed and abundant. Depositional environment is reconstructed through sedimentological studies along with facies analysis. The Hong Hoi Formation is petrographically divided into two major facies, they are: sandstones with mudstone interbeds, and mudstones or shale with sandstone interbeds. Sandstone beds are lithic arenite and lithic greywacke, volcanic lithic fragments are dominated. Sedimentary structures, paleocurrent data and lithofacies arrangement indicate that the formation deposited in a part of deep marine abyssal plain environment. The sedimentological and petrographic features suggest that during the deposition the Hong Hoi Formation received sediment supply from nearby volcanic arc. This suggested that the intensive volcanic activity within the Sukhothai Arc during the Middle Triassic is the main sediment source.

Keywords: Sukhothai Zone, petrography, Hong Hoi Formation, Lampang, Triassic.

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331 Comparative Embodied Carbon Analysis of the Prefabrication Elements Compared with In-situ Elements in Residential Building Development of Hong Kong

Authors: Felix Wong, YT Tang

Abstract:

This paper reviews the greenhouse gas emissions of prefabrication elements for residential development in Hong Kong. Prefabrication becomes a common practice in residential development in Hong Kong and is considered as a green approach. In Hong Kong, prefabrication took place at factories in Pearl River Delta. Although prefabrication reduces construction wastage, it might generate more greenhouse gas emission from transportation and manufacturing processes. This study attempts to measure the “cradle to site" greenhouse gas emission from prefabrication elements for a public housing development in Kai Tak area. The findings could help further reduction of greenhouse gas emissions through process improvement.

Keywords: Prefabrication, greenhouse gas emission, cradle-tosite, residential development.

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330 Organic Thin Film Transistors based Oligothiophine Derivatives using DZ-Dihexyl(quarter- and sexi-)Thiophene

Authors: Jae-Hong Kwon, Myung-Ho Chung, Tae-Yeon Oh, Hyeon-Seok Bae, Byeong-Kwon Ju

Abstract:

End-substitution of quarterthiophene and sexithiophene with hexyl groups leads to highly soluble conjugated oligomers,DZ-dihexylquarterthiophene (DH-4T) and DZ-dihexylsexithiophene (DH-6T). We have characterized these oligomers for optical and electrical properties. We fabricated an organic thin film transistor (OTFT) using the above two air-stable p-type organic semiconductor materials. We obtained a stable characteristic curve. The field effect mobility, Pwas calculated to be 3.2910-4 cm2/Vs for DH-6T based OTFT; while the DH-4T based OTFT had 1.8810-5 cm2/Vs.KeywordsOrganic thin film transistor, DZ-dihexylquarterthiophene, DZ-dihexylsexithiophene.

Keywords: Organic thin film transistor, DZ-dihexylquarterthiophene, DZ-dihexylsexithiophene.

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329 E-Learning Experiences of Hong Kong Students

Authors: J. Lam, R. Chan

Abstract:

The adoption of e-learning in Hong Kong has been increasing rapidly in the past decade. To understand the e-learning experiences of the students, the School of Professional and Continuing Education of The University of Hong Kong conducted a survey. The survey aimed to collect students- experiences in using learning management system, their perceived e-learning advantages, barriers in e-learning and preferences in new e-learning development. A questionnaire with 84 questions was distributed in mid 2012 and 608 valid responds were received. The analysis results showed that the students found e-learning helpful to their study. They preferred interactive functions and mobile features. Blended learning mode, both face-to-face learning mode integrated with online learning and face-to-face learning mode supplemented with online resources, were preferred by the students. The results of experiences of Hong Kong students in e-learning provided a contemporary reference to the e-learning practitioners to understand the e-learning situation in Asia.

Keywords: E-learning, blended learning, learning experience, learning management system.

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328 Thermal Fatigue Behavior of 400 Series Ferritic Stainless Steels

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

In this study, thermal fatigue properties of 400 series ferritic stainless steels have been evaluated in the temperature ranges of 200-800oC and 200-900oC. Systematic methods for control of temperatures within the predetermined range and measurement of load applied to specimens as a function of temperature during thermal cycles have been established. Thermal fatigue tests were conducted under fully constrained condition, where both ends of specimens were completely fixed. It has been revealed that load relaxation behavior at the temperatures of thermal cycle was closely related with the thermal fatigue property. Thermal fatigue resistance of 430J1L stainless steel is found to be superior to the other steels.

Keywords: Ferritic stainless steel, automotive exhaust, thermal fatigue, microstructure, load relaxation.

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327 Microstructure and Aging Behavior of Nonflammable AZ91D Mg Alloy

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

Phase equilibria of AZ91D Mg alloys for nonflammable use, containing Ca and Y, were carried out by using FactSage® and FTLite database, which revealed that solid solution treatment could be performed at temperatures from 400 to 450oC. Solid solution treatment of AZ91D Mg alloy without Ca and Y was successfully conducted at 420oC and supersaturated microstructure with all beta phase resolved into matrix was obtained. In the case of AZ91D Mg alloy with some Ca and Y; however, a little amount of intermetallic particles were observed after solid solution treatment. After solid solution treatment, each alloy was annealed at temperatures of 180 and 200oC for time intervals from 1 min to 48 hrs and hardness of each condition was measured by micro-Vickers method. Peak aging conditions were deduced as at the temperature of 200oC for 10 hrs.

Keywords: Mg alloy, AZ91D, nonflammable alloy, phase equilibrium, peak aging.

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326 Deciphering Chinese Calligraphy as the Architectural Essence of Tao Fong Shan Christian Center in Hong Kong

Authors: Chak Kwong Lau

Abstract:

Many buildings in Hong Kong are graced with enchanting works of Chinese calligraphy. An excellent example is Tao Fong Shan Christian Center founded by a Norwegian missionary, Karl Ludvig Reichelt (1877-1952) in 1930. Adorned with many inspiring works of Chinese calligraphy, the center functions as a place for the study of Christianity where people of different religions can meet to have religious discussions and intellectual exchanges. This paper examines the pivotal role played by Chinese calligraphy in creating a significant context for the center to fulfill her visions and missions. The methodology of this research involves stylistic and textual analyses of works of calligraphy, in particular through an examination and interpretation of their extended meanings in terms of architectural symbology and social and cultural contexts. Findings showed that Chinese calligraphy was effectively used as a powerful vehicle for a purposeful development of contextual Christian spirituality in Hong Kong.

Keywords: Chinese calligraphy, Hong Kong architecture, Hong Kong calligraphy, Johannes Prip-Møller, Karl Ludvig Reichelt, Norwegian missionary, Tao Fong Shan Christian Center, traditional Chinese architecture, contextual Christian spirituality, Chinese arts and culture.

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325 Motor Gear Fault Diagnosis by Current, Noise and Vibration on AC Machine Considering Environment

Authors: Sun-Ki Hong, Ki-Seok Kim, Yong-Ho Cho

Abstract:

Lots of motors have been being used in industry. Therefore many researchers have studied about the failure diagnosis of motors. In this paper, the effect of measuring environment for diagnosis of gear fault connected to a motor shaft is studied. The fault diagnosis is executed through the comparison of normal gear and abnormal gear. The measured FFT data are compared with the normal data and analyzed for q-axis current, noise and vibration. For bad and good environment, the diagnosis results are compared. From these, it is shown that the bad measuring environment may not be able to detect exactly the motor gear fault. Therefore it is emphasized that the measuring environment should be carefully prepared.

Keywords: Motor fault, Diagnosis, FFT, Vibration, Noise, q-axis current, measuring environment.

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324 Effect of Impurities in the Chlorination Process of TiO2

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

With the increasing interest on Ti alloys, the extraction process of Ti from its typical ore, TiO2, has long been and will be important issue. As an intermediate product for the production of pigment or titanium metal sponge, tetrachloride (TiCl4) is produced by fluidized bed using high TiO2 feedstock. The purity of TiCl4 after chlorination is subjected to the quality of the titanium feedstock. Since the impurities in the TiCl4 product are reported to final products, the purification process of the crude TiCl4 is required. The purification process includes fractional distillation and chemical treatment, which depends on the nature of the impurities present and the required quality of the final product. In this study, thermodynamic analysis on the impurity effect in the chlorination process, which is the first step of extraction of Ti from TiO2, has been conducted. All thermodynamic calculations were performed using the FactSage thermodynamical software.

Keywords: Rutile, titanium, chlorination process, impurities, thermodynamic calculation, FactSage.

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323 Effect of Aging Treatment on Mechanical Properties of Non-Flammable AZ91D Mg Alloy

Authors: Ju Hyun Won, Hyun Woo Lee, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

Microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ91D Mg alloys for nonflammable use, containing Ca and Y, were investigated in this study. Solid solution treatment of AZ91D Mg alloy with Ca and Y was successfully conducted at 420oC and supersaturated microstructure with almost all beta phases resolved into matrix was obtained. After solid solution treatment, the alloy was annealed at temperatures of 180 and 200oC for time intervals from 1 min to 48 hrs and hardness of each condition was measured by micro-Vickers method. Peak aging conditions were deduced from the results as at the temperature of 200oC for 10 hrs. Hot rolling was also carried out at 400oC by the reduction ratio of 0.6 through 5 passes followed by recrystallization treatment. Tensile and compressive properties were measured at room temperature on the specimens of each process, i.e. as-cast, solution treatment, hot rolling, and recrystallization.

Keywords: Mg alloy, AZ91D, nonflammable alloy, hot rolling, peak aging, tensile test.

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322 Analysis on Urban Form and Evolution Mechanism of High-Density City: Case Study of Hong Kong

Authors: Yuan Zhang

Abstract:

Along with large population and great demands for urban development, Hong Kong serves as a typical high-density city with multiple altitudes, advanced three-dimensional traffic system, rich city open space, etc. This paper contributes to analyzing its complex urban form and evolution mechanism from three aspects of view, separately as time, space and buildings. Taking both horizontal and vertical dimension into consideration, this paper provides a perspective to explore the fascinating process of growing and space folding in the urban form of high-density city, also as a research reference for related high-density urban design.

Keywords: Evolution mechanism, high-density city, Hong Kong, urban form.

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321 A Comparison of Short- and Long-Haul Vacation Tourists on Evaluation of Attractiveness: The Case of Hong Kong

Authors: Zhaoyu Chen

Abstract:

In this study, an attempt was made to find reasons why tourists go to particular attractions. Tourists may be either motivated by the attractions or simply make the choice to satisfy their needs and desires. Based on the attractions in Hong Kong, this research was conducted to explore the attraction-related concepts to discuss how the attraction system works. Due to the limited studies on exploring the attractiveness of attractions through tourist movement patterns, the study aims to evaluate such indicators to determine whether tourists are motivated by attractiveness or their own needs. The investigation is conducted through the comparison of different source markets - Mainland China, short haul markets (excluding Mainland China) and long haul markets. The latest finding of Departing Visitor Survey (DVS) implemented by the Hong Kong Tourism Board (HKTB) is employed for the analysis. Various tourist movement patterns are drawn from the practical data. The managerial implication to destination management organizations (DMOs) is suggested to better allocate attractions according to the needs of tourists.

Keywords: Attractions, attraction system, Hong Kong, tourist movement patterns.

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320 The Experiences of Hong Kong Chinese Divorced Wives in Facing the Cancer Death of Their Ex-Husbands

Authors: M. L. Yeung

Abstract:

With the surge of divorce rate and male cancer onset/death rates, the phenomenon of divorced wives in the facing cancer death of their ex-husbands is not uncommon in Hong Kong. Yet, there is a dearth of study on the experiences of bereaved-divorced wives in the Hong Kong cultural context. This project fills the knowledge gap by conducting a qualitative study for having interviewed four bereaved ex-wives, who returned to ex-husbands’ end-of-life caregiving and eventually grieved for the ex-spousal’s death. From the perspectives of attachment theory and disenfranchised grief in the Hong Kong cultural context, a ‘double-loss’ experience is found in which interviewees suffer from the first loss of divorce and the second loss of ex-husbands’ death. Traumatic childhood experiences, attachment needs, role ambiguity, unresolved emotions and unrecognized grief are found significant in their lived experiences which alert the ‘double-loss’ is worthy of attention. Extending a family-centered end-of-life and bereavement care services to divorced couples is called for, in which validation on the attachment needs, ex-couple reconciliation, and acknowledgement on the disenfranchised grief are essential for social work practice on this group of clienteles specifically in Hong Kong cultural context.

Keywords: Changing family, disenfranchised grief, divorce, ex-spousal death, marriage.

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319 Effect of Al Addition on Microstructure and Physical Properties of Fe-36Ni Invar Alloy

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

High strength Fe-36Ni-base Invar alloys containing Al contents up to 0.3 weight percent were cast into ingots and thermodynamic equilibrium during solidification has been investigated in this study. From the thermodynamic simulation using Thermo-Calc®, it has been revealed that equilibrium phases which can be formed are two kinds of MC-type precipitates, MoC, and M2C carbides. The mu phase was also expected to form by addition of aluminum. Microstructure observation revealed the coarse precipitates in the as-cast ingots, which was non-equilibrium phase and could be resolved by the successive heat treatment. With increasing Al contents up to 0.3 wt.%, tensile strength of Invar alloy increased as 1400MPa after cold rolling and thermal expansion coefficient increased significantly. Cold rolling appeared to dramatically decrease thermal expansion coefficient.

Keywords: Invar alloy, Aluminum, Phase equilibrium, thermal expansion coefficient, microstructure, tensile properties.

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318 Performance Enhancement of Analog Voltage Inverter with Adaptive Gain Control for Capacitive Load

Authors: Sun-Ki Hong, Yong-Ho Cho, Ki-Seok Kim, Tae-Sam Kang

Abstract:

Piezoelectric actuator is treated as RC load when it is modeled electrically. For some piezoelectric actuator applications, arbitrary voltage is required to actuate. Especially for unidirectional arbitrary voltage driving like as sine wave, some special inverter with circuit that can charge and discharge the capacitive energy can be used. In this case, the difference between power supply level and the object voltage level for RC load is varied. Because the control gain is constant, the controlled output is not uniform according to the voltage difference. In this paper, for charge and discharge circuit for unidirectional arbitrary voltage driving for piezoelectric actuator, the controller gain is controlled according to the voltage difference. With the proposed simple idea, the load voltage can have controlled smoothly although the voltage difference is varied. The appropriateness is proved from the simulation of the proposed circuit.

Keywords: Analog voltage inverter, Capacitive load, Gain control, DC-DC converter, Piezoelectric, Voltage waveform.

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317 Tensile Behavior of Spheroidizing Heat Treated High Carbon Steel

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

Spheroidization heat treatment was conducted on the  SK85 high carbon steel sheets with various initial microstructures  obtained after cold rolling by various reduction ratios at a couple of  annealing temperatures. On the high carbon steel sheet with fine  pearlite microstructure, obtained by soaking at 800oC for 2hr in a box furnace and then annealing at 570oC for 5min in a salt bath furnace followed by water quenching, cold rolling was conducted by reduction ratios of 20, 30, and 40%. Heat treatment for spheroidization was carried out at 600 and 720oC for the various time intervals from 0.1 to 32 hrs. Area fraction of spheroidized cementite was measured with an image analyzer as a function of cold reduction ratios and duration times. Tensile tests were carried out at room temperature on the spheoidized high carbon steel.

 

Keywords: High carbon steel, SK85, pearlite, cementite, shperoidization, tensile behavior.

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316 Construction of cDNALibrary and EST Analysis of Tenebriomolitorlarvae

Authors: JiEun Jeong, Se-Won Kang, Hee-Ju Hwang, Sung-Hwa Chae, Sang-Haeng Choi, Hong-SeogPark, YeonSoo Han, Bok-Reul Lee, Dae-Hyun Seog, Yong Seok Lee

Abstract:

Tofurther advance research on immune-related genes from T. molitor, we constructed acDNA library and analyzed expressed sequence taq (EST) sequences from 1,056 clones. After removing vector sequence and quality checkingthrough thePhred program (trim_alt 0.05 (P-score>20), 1039 sequences were generated. The average length of insert was 792 bp. In addition, we identified 162 clusters, 167 contigs and 391 contigs after clustering and assembling process using a TGICL package. EST sequences were searchedagainst NCBI nr database by local BLAST (blastx, EKeywords: EST, Innate immunity, Tenebriomolitor

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315 A Study on the Planning Criteria of Block-Unit Redevelopment to Improve Residential Environment - Focused on Redevelopment Project in Seoul -

Authors: Hong-Nam Choi, Hyeong-Wook Song, Sungwan Hong, Hong-Kyu Kim

Abstract:

In Korea, elements that decide the quality of residential environment are not only diverse, but show deviation as well. However, people do not consider these elements and instead, they try to settle the uniformed style of residential environment, which focuses on the construction development of apartment housing and business based plans. Recently, block-unit redevelopment is becoming the standout alternative plan of standardize redevelopment projects, but constructions become inefficient because of indefinite planning criteria.

 In conclusion, the following research is about analyzing and categorizing the development method and legal ground of redevelopment project district and plan determinant and applicable standard; the purpose of this study is to become a basis in compatible analysis of planning standards that will happen in the future.

Keywords: Shape Restrictions, Improvement of Reagulation, Diversity of Residential Environment, Classification of Redevelopment Project, Planning Criteria of Redevelopment, Special Architectural District (SAD).

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314 Hot Workability of High Strength Low Alloy Steels

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Jung Ho Moon, Woo Young Jung, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

The hot deformation behavior of high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels with different chemical compositions under hot working conditions in the temperature range of 900 to 1100℃ and strain rate range from 0.1 to 10 s-1 has been studied by performing a series of hot compression tests. The dynamic materials model has been employed for developing the processing maps, which show variation of the efficiency of power dissipation with temperature and strain rate. Also the Kumar-s model has been used for developing the instability map, which shows variation of the instability for plastic deformation with temperature and strain rate. The efficiency of power dissipation increased with decreasing strain rate and increasing temperature in the steel with higher Cr and Ti content. High efficiency of power dissipation over 20 % was obtained at a finite strain level of 0.1 under the conditions of strain rate lower than 1 s-1 and temperature higher than 1050 ℃ . Plastic instability was expected in the regime of temperatures lower than 1000 ℃ and strain rate lower than 0.3 s-1. Steel with lower Cr and Ti contents showed high efficiency of power dissipation at higher strain rate and lower temperature conditions.

Keywords: High strength low alloys steels, hot workability, Dynamic materials model, Processing maps.

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313 Life Cycle Assessment of Precast Concrete Units

Authors: Ya Hong Dong, Conrad T.C. Wong, S. Thomas Ng, James M.W. Wong

Abstract:

Precast concrete has been widely adopted in public housing construction of Hong Kong since the mid-1980s. While pre-casting is considered an environmental friendly solution, there is lack of study to investigate the life cycle performance of precast concrete units. This study aims to bridge the knowledge gap by providing a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) study for two precast elements namely façade and bathroom. The results show that raw material is the most significant contributor of environmental impact accounting for about 90% to the total impact. Furthermore, human health is more affected by the production of precast concrete than the ecosystems.

Keywords: Environment, green, LCA, LCIA, precast.

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312 Optimization and Determination of Process Parameters in Thin Film SOI Photo-BJMOSFET

Authors: Hai-Qing Xie, Yun Zeng, Yong-Hong Yan, Guo-Liang Zhang, Tai-Hong Wang

Abstract:

We propose photo-BJMOSFET (Bipolar Junction Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) fabricated on SOI film. ITO film is adopted in the device as gate electrode to reduce light absorption. I-V characteristics of photo-BJMOSFET obtained in dark (dark current) and under 570nm illumination (photo current) are studied furthermore to achieve high photo-to-dark-current contrast ratio. Two variables in the calculation were the channel length and the thickness of the film which were set equal to six different values, i.e., L=2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12μm and three different values, i.e., dsi =100, 200 and 300nm, respectively. The results indicate that the greatest photo-to-dark-current contrast ratio is achieved with L=10μm and dsi=200 nm at VGK=0.6V.

Keywords: Photo-to-dark-current contrast ratio, Photo-current, Dark-current, Process parameter

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311 Health and Greenhouse Gas Emission Implications of Reducing Meat Intakes in Hong Kong

Authors: Cynthia Sau Chun Yip, Richard Fielding

Abstract:

High meat and especially red meat intakes are significantly and positively associated with a multiple burden of diseases and also high greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study investigated population meat intake patterns in Hong Kong. It quantified the burden of disease and GHG emission outcomes by modeling to adjust Hong Kong population meat intakes to recommended healthy levels. It compared age- and sex-specific population meat, fruit and vegetable intakes obtained from a population survey among adults aged 20 years and over in Hong Kong in 2005-2007, against intake recommendations suggested in the Modelling System to Inform the Revision of the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE-2011-MS) technical document. This study found that meat and meat alternatives, especially red meat intakes among Hong Kong males aged 20+ years and over are significantly higher than recommended. Red meat intakes among females aged 50-69 years and other meat and alternatives intakes among aged 20-59 years are also higher than recommended. Taking the 2005-07 age- and sex-specific population meat intake as baselines, three counterfactual scenarios of adjusting Hong Kong adult population meat intakes to AGHE-2011-MS and Pre-2011 AGHE recommendations by the year 2030 were established. Consequent energy intake gaps were substituted with additional legume, fruit and vegetable intakes. To quantify the consequent GHG emission outcomes associated with Hong Kong meat intakes, Cradle-to-ready-to-eat lifecycle assessment emission outcome modelling was used. Comparative risk assessment of burden of disease model was used to quantify the health outcomes. This study found adjusting meat intakes to recommended levels could reduce Hong Kong GHG emission by 17%-44% when compared against baseline meat intake emissions, and prevent 2,519 to 7,012 premature deaths in males and 53 to 1,342 in females, as well as multiple burden of diseases when compared to the baseline meat intake scenario. Comparing lump sum meat intake reduction and outcome measures across the entire population, and using emission factors, and relative risks from individual studies in previous co-benefit studies, this study used age- and sex-specific input and output measures, emission factors and relative risks obtained from high quality meta-analysis and meta-review respectively, and has taken government dietary recommendations into account. Hence evaluations in this study are of better quality and more reflective of real life practices. Further to previous co-benefit studies, this study pinpointed age- and sex-specific population and meat-type-specific intervention points and leverages. When compared with similar studies in Australia, this study also showed that intervention points and leverages among populations in different geographic and cultural background could be different, and that globalization also globalizes meat consumption emission effects. More regional and cultural specific evaluations are recommended to promote more sustainable meat consumption and enhance global food security.

Keywords: Burden of diseases, greenhouse gas emissions, Hong Kong diet, sustainable meat consumption.

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310 High Temperature Deformation Behavior of Cr-containing Superplastic Iron Aluminide

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Woo Young Jung, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

Superplastic deformation and high temperature load relaxation behavior of coarse-grained iron aluminides with the composition of Fe-28 at.% Al have been investigated. A series of load relaxation and tensile tests were conducted at temperatures ranging from 600 to 850oC. The flow curves obtained from load relaxation tests were found to have a sigmoidal shape and to exhibit stress vs. strain rate data in a very wide strain rate range from 10-7/s to 10-2/s. Tensile tests have been conducted at various initial strain rates ranging from 3×10-5/s to 1×10-2/s. Maximum elongation of ~500 % was obtained at the initial strain rate of 3×10-5/s and the maximum strain rate sensitivity was found to be 0.68 at 850oC in binary Fe-28Al alloy. Microstructure observation through the optical microscopy (OM) and the electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) technique has been carried out on the deformed specimens and it has revealed the evidences for grain boundary migration and grain refinement to occur during superplastic deformation, suggesting the dynamic recrystallization mechanism. The addition of Cr by the amount of 5 at.% appeared to deteriorate the superplasticity of the binary iron aluminide. By applying the internal variable theory of structural superplasticity, the addition of Cr has been revealed to lower the contribution of the frictional resistance to dislocation glide during high temperature deformation of the Fe3Al alloy.

Keywords: Iron aluminide (Fe3Al), large grain size, structural superplasticity, dynamic recrystallization, chromium (Cr).

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309 Technological Innovation Capabilities and Firm Performance

Authors: Richard C.M. Yam, William Lo, Esther P.Y. Tang, Antonio, K.W. Lau

Abstract:

Technological innovation capability (TIC) is defined as a comprehensive set of characteristics of a firm that facilities and supports its technological innovation strategies. An audit to evaluate the TICs of a firm may trigger improvement in its future practices. Such an audit can be used by the firm for self assessment or third-party independent assessment to identify problems of its capability status. This paper attempts to develop such an auditing framework that can help to determine the subtle links between innovation capabilities and business performance; and to enable the auditor to determine whether good practice is in place. The seven TICs in this study include learning, R&D, resources allocation, manufacturing, marketing, organization and strategic planning capabilities. Empirical data was acquired through a survey study of 200 manufacturing firms in the Hong Kong/Pearl River Delta (HK/PRD) region. Structural equation modelling was employed to examine the relationships among TICs and various performance indicators: sales performance, innovation performance, product performance, and sales growth. The results revealed that different TICs have different impacts on different performance measures. Organization capability was found to have the most influential impact. Hong Kong manufacturers are now facing the challenge of high-mix-low-volume customer orders. In order to cope with this change, good capability in organizing different activities among various departments is critical to the success of a company.

Keywords: Hong Kong/Pearl River Delta, Innovationaudit, Manufacturing, Technological innovation capability

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