Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 254

Search results for: systolic circuits

254 Some Characteristics of Systolic Arrays

Authors: Halil Snopce, Ilir Spahiu

Abstract:

In this paper is investigated a possible optimization of some linear algebra problems which can be solved by parallel processing using the special arrays called systolic arrays. In this paper are used some special types of transformations for the designing of these arrays. We show the characteristics of these arrays. The main focus is on discussing the advantages of these arrays in parallel computation of matrix product, with special approach to the designing of systolic array for matrix multiplication. Multiplication of large matrices requires a lot of computational time and its complexity is O(n3 ). There are developed many algorithms (both sequential and parallel) with the purpose of minimizing the time of calculations. Systolic arrays are good suited for this purpose. In this paper we show that using an appropriate transformation implicates in finding more optimal arrays for doing the calculations of this type.

Keywords: Data dependences, matrix multiplication, systolicarray, transformation matrix.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1298
253 New Design Methodologies for High Speed Low Power XOR-XNOR Circuits

Authors: Shiv Shankar Mishra, S. Wairya, R. K. Nagaria, S. Tiwari

Abstract:

New methodologies for XOR-XNOR circuits are proposed to improve the speed and power as these circuits are basic building blocks of many arithmetic circuits. This paper evaluates and compares the performance of various XOR-XNOR circuits. The performance of the XOR-XNOR circuits based on TSMC 0.18μm process models at all range of the supply voltage starting from 0.6V to 3.3V is evaluated by the comparison of the simulation results obtained from HSPICE. Simulation results reveal that the proposed circuit exhibit lower PDP and EDP, more power efficient and faster when compared with best available XOR-XNOR circuits in the literature.

Keywords: Exclusive-OR (XOR), Exclusive-NOR (XNOR), High speed, Low power, Arithmetic Circuits.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2412
252 Estimation of Systolic and Diastolic Pressure using the Pulse Transit Time

Authors: Soo-young Ye, Gi-Ryon Kim, Dong-Keun Jung, Seong-wan Baik, Gye-rok Jeon

Abstract:

In this paper, algorithm estimating the blood pressure was proposed using the pulse transit time (PTT) as a more convenient method of measuring the blood pressure. After measuring ECG and pressure pulse, and photoplethysmography, the PTT was calculated from the acquired signals. Thereafter, the system to indirectly measure the systolic pressure and the diastolic pressure was composed using the statistic method. In comparison between the blood pressure indirectly measured by proposed algorithm estimating the blood pressure and real blood pressure measured by conventional sphygmomanometer, the systolic pressure indicates the mean error of ±3.24mmHg and the standard deviation of 2.53mmHg, while the diastolic pressure indicates the satisfactory result, that is, the mean error of ±1.80mmHg and the standard deviation of 1.39mmHg. These results are satisfied with the regulation of ANSI/AAMI for certification of sphygmomanometer that real measurement error value should be within the mean error of ±5mmHg and the standard deviation of 8mmHg. These results are suggest the possibility of applying to portable and long time blood pressure monitoring system hereafter.

Keywords: Blood pressure, Systolic, Diastolic, Pulse transit time.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 6218
251 Current Mode Logic Circuits for 10-bit 5GHz High Speed Digital to Analog Converter

Authors: Zhenguo Vincent Chia, Sheung Yan Simon Ng, Minkyu Je

Abstract:

This paper presents CMOS Current Mode Logic (CML) circuits for a high speed Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) using standard CMOS 65nm process. The CML circuits have the propagation delay advantage over its conventional CMOS counterparts due to smaller output voltage swing and tunable bias current. The CML circuits proposed in this paper can achieve a maximum propagation delay of only 9.3ps, which can satisfy the stringent requirement for the 5 GHz high speed DAC application. Another advantage for CML circuits is its dynamic symmetry characteristic resulting in a reduction of an additional inverter. Simulation results show that the proposed CML circuits can operate from 1.08V to 1.3V with temperature ranging from -40 to +120°C.

Keywords: Conventional, Current Mode Logic, DAC, Decoder

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5498
250 A Matlab / Simulink Based Tool for Power Electronic Circuits

Authors: Abdulatif A. M. Shaban

Abstract:

Transient simulation of power electronic circuits is of considerable interest to the designer. The switching nature of the devices used permits development of specialized algorithms which allow a considerable reduction in simulation time compared to general purpose simulation algorithms. This paper describes a method used to simulate a power electronic circuits using the SIMULINK toolbox within MATLAB software. Theoretical results are presented provides the basis of transient analysis of a power electronic circuits.

Keywords: Modelling, Simulation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5229
249 High-Speed Pipeline Implementation of Radix-2 DIF Algorithm

Authors: Christos Meletis, Paul Bougas, George Economakos , Paraskevas Kalivas, Kiamal Pekmestzi

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new architecture for the implementation of the N-point Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), based on the Radix-2 Decimation in Frequency algorithm. This architecture is based on a pipeline circuit that can process a stream of samples and produce two FFT transform samples every clock cycle. Compared to existing implementations the architecture proposed achieves double processing speed using the same circuit complexity.

Keywords: Digital signal processing, systolic circuits, FFTalgorithm.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1949
248 Subthreshold Circuit Performance Investigation under Temperature Variations

Authors: Mohd. Hasan, Ajmal Kafeel, S. D. Pable

Abstract:

Ultra-low-power (ULP) circuits have received widespread attention due to the rapid growth of biomedical applications and Battery-less Electronics. Subthreshold region of transistor operation is used in ULP circuits. Major research challenge in the subthreshold operating region is to extract the ULP benefits with minimal degradation in speed and robustness. Process, Voltage and Temperature (PVT) variations significantly affect the performance of subthreshold circuits. Designed performance parameters of ULP circuits may vary largely due to temperature variations. Hence, this paper investigates the effect of temperature variation on device and circuit performance parameters at different biasing voltages in the subthreshold region. Simulation results clearly demonstrate that in deep subthreshold and near threshold voltage regions, performance parameters are significantly affected whereas in moderate subthreshold region, subthreshold circuits are more immune to temperature variations. This establishes that moderate subthreshold region is ideal for temperature immune circuits.

Keywords: Subthreshold, temperature variations, ultralow power.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2052
247 Efficient Study of Substrate Integrated Waveguide Devices

Authors: J. Hajri, H. Hrizi, N. Sboui, H. Baudrand

Abstract:

This paper presents a study of SIW circuits (Substrate Integrated Waveguide) with a rigorous and fast original approach based on Iterative process (WCIP). The theoretical suggested study is validated by the simulation of two different examples of SIW circuits. The obtained results are in good agreement with those of measurement and with software HFSS.

Keywords: Convergence study, HFSS, Modal decomposition, SIW Circuits, WCIP Method.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1724
246 Design and Testing of Nanotechnology Based Sequential Circuits Using MX-CQCA Logic in VHDL

Authors: K. Maria Agnes, J. Joshua Bapu

Abstract:

This paper impart the design and testing of Nanotechnology based sequential circuits using multiplexer conservative QCA (MX-CQCA) logic gates, which is easily testable using only two vectors. This method has great prospective in the design of sequential circuits based on reversible conservative logic gates and also smashes the sequential circuits implemented in traditional gates in terms of testability. Reversible circuits are similar to usual logic circuits except that they are built from reversible gates. Designs of multiplexer conservative QCA logic based two vectors testable double edge triggered (DET) sequential circuits in VHDL language are also accessible here; it will also diminish intricacy in testing side. Also other types of sequential circuits such as D, SR, JK latches are designed using this MX-CQCA logic gate. The objective behind the proposed design methodologies is to amalgamate arithmetic and logic functional units optimizing key metrics such as garbage outputs, delay, area and power. The projected MX-CQCA gate outshines other reversible gates in terms of the intricacy, delay.

Keywords: Conservative logic, Double edge triggered (DET) flip flop, majority voters, MX-CQCA gate, reversible logic, Quantum dot Cellular automata.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1998
245 Synthesis of Digital Circuits with Genetic Algorithms: A Fractional-Order Approach

Authors: Cecília Reis, J. A. Tenreiro Machado, J. Boaventura Cunha

Abstract:

This paper analyses the performance of a genetic algorithm using a new concept, namely a fractional-order dynamic fitness function, for the synthesis of combinational logic circuits. The experiments reveal superior results in terms of speed and convergence to achieve a solution.

Keywords: Circuit design, fractional-order systems, genetic algorithms, logic circuits.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1104
244 Micropower Fuzzy Linguistic-Hedges Circuit in Current-Mode Approach

Authors: E. Farshidi

Abstract:

In this paper, based on a novel synthesis, a set of new simplified circuit design to implement the linguistic-hedge operations for adjusting the fuzzy membership function set is presented. The circuits work in current-mode and employ floating-gate MOS (FGMOS) transistors that operate in weak inversion region. Compared to the other proposed circuits, these circuits feature severe reduction of the elements number, low supply voltage (0.7V), low power consumption (<200nW), immunity from body effect and wide input dynamic range (>60dB). In this paper, a set of fuzzy linguistic hedge circuits, including absolutely, very, much more, more, plus minus, more or less and slightly, has been implemented in 0.18 mm CMOS process. Simulation results by Hspice confirm the validity of the proposed design technique and show high performance of the circuits.

Keywords: Current-mode, Linguistic-Hedge, Fuzzy Logic, lowpower

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1303
243 A Power-Gating Scheme to Reduce Leakage Power for P-type Adiabatic Logic Circuits

Authors: Hong Li, Linfeng Li, Jianping Hu

Abstract:

With rapid technology scaling, the proportion of the static power consumption catches up with dynamic power consumption gradually. To decrease leakage consumption is becoming more and more important in low-power design. This paper presents a power-gating scheme for P-DTGAL (p-type dual transmission gate adiabatic logic) circuits to reduce leakage power dissipations under deep submicron process. The energy dissipations of P-DTGAL circuits with power-gating scheme are investigated in different processes, frequencies and active ratios. BSIM4 model is adopted to reflect the characteristics of the leakage currents. HSPICE simulations show that the leakage loss is greatly reduced by using the P-DTGAL with power-gating techniques.

Keywords: Leakage reduction, low power, deep submicronCMOS circuits, P-type adiabatic circuits.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1644
242 Two Kinds of Self-Oscillating Circuits Mechanically Demonstrated

Authors: Shiang-Hwua Yu, Po-Hsun Wu

Abstract:

This study introduces two types of self-oscillating circuits that are frequently found in power electronics applications. Special effort is made to relate the circuits to the analogous mechanical systems of some important scientific inventions: Galileo’s pendulum clock and Coulomb’s friction model. A little touch of related history and philosophy of science will hopefully encourage curiosity, advance the understanding of self-oscillating systems and satisfy the aspiration of some students for scientific literacy. Finally, the two self-oscillating circuits are applied to design a simple class-D audio amplifier.

Keywords: Self-oscillation, sigma-delta modulator, pendulum clock, Coulomb friction, class-D amplifier.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2173
241 Synthesis of Logic Circuits Using Fractional-Order Dynamic Fitness Functions

Authors: Cecília Reis, J. A. Tenreiro Machado, J. Boaventura Cunha

Abstract:

This paper analyses the performance of a genetic algorithm using a new concept, namely a fractional-order dynamic fitness function, for the synthesis of combinational logic circuits. The experiments reveal superior results in terms of speed and convergence to achieve a solution.

Keywords: Circuit design, fractional-order systems, genetic algorithms, logic circuits

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1448
240 Comparative Performance Analysis of Nonlinearity Cancellation Techniques for MOS-C Realization in Integrator Circuits

Authors: Hasan Çiçekli, Ahmet Gökçen, Uğur Çam

Abstract:

In this paper, a comparative performance analysis of mostly used four nonlinearity cancellation techniques used to realize the passive resistor by MOS transistors, is presented. The comparison is done by using an integrator circuit which is employing sequentially Op-amp, OTRA and ICCII as active element. All of the circuits are implemented by MOS-C realization and simulated by PSPICE program using 0.35μm process TSMC MOSIS model parameters. With MOS-C realization, the circuits became electronically tunable and fully integrable which is very important in IC design. The output waveforms, frequency responses, THD analysis results and features of the nonlinearity cancellation techniques are also given.

Keywords: Integrator circuits, MOS-C realization, nonlinearity cancellation, tunable resistors.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1602
239 Feasibility of the Evolutionary Algorithm using Different Behaviours of the Mutation Rate to Design Simple Digital Logic Circuits

Authors: Konstantin Movsovic, Emanuele Stomeo, Tatiana Kalganova

Abstract:

The evolutionary design of electronic circuits, or evolvable hardware, is a discipline that allows the user to automatically obtain the desired circuit design. The circuit configuration is under the control of evolutionary algorithms. Several researchers have used evolvable hardware to design electrical circuits. Every time that one particular algorithm is selected to carry out the evolution, it is necessary that all its parameters, such as mutation rate, population size, selection mechanisms etc. are tuned in order to achieve the best results during the evolution process. This paper investigates the abilities of evolution strategy to evolve digital logic circuits based on programmable logic array structures when different mutation rates are used. Several mutation rates (fixed and variable) are analyzed and compared with each other to outline the most appropriate choice to be used during the evolution of combinational logic circuits. The experimental results outlined in this paper are important as they could be used by every researcher who might need to use the evolutionary algorithm to design digital logic circuits.

Keywords: Evolvable hardware, evolutionary algorithm, digitallogic circuit, mutation rate.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1209
238 Efficient Semi-Systolic Finite Field Multiplier Using Redundant Basis

Authors: Hyun-Ho Lee, Kee-Won Kim

Abstract:

The arithmetic operations over GF(2m) have been extensively used in error correcting codes and public-key cryptography schemes. Finite field arithmetic includes addition, multiplication, division and inversion operations. Addition is very simple and can be implemented with an extremely simple circuit. The other operations are much more complex. The multiplication is the most important for cryptosystems, such as the elliptic curve cryptosystem, since computing exponentiation, division, and computing multiplicative inverse can be performed by computing multiplication iteratively. In this paper, we present a parallel computation algorithm that operates Montgomery multiplication over finite field using redundant basis. Also, based on the multiplication algorithm, we present an efficient semi-systolic multiplier over finite field. The multiplier has less space and time complexities compared to related multipliers. As compared to the corresponding existing structures, the multiplier saves at least 5% area, 50% time, and 53% area-time (AT) complexity. Accordingly, it is well suited for VLSI implementation and can be easily applied as a basic component for computing complex operations over finite field, such as inversion and division operation.

Keywords: Finite field, Montgomery multiplication, systolic array, cryptography.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1018
237 Reduction of Leakage Power in Digital Logic Circuits Using Stacking Technique in 45 Nanometer Regime

Authors: P.K. Sharma, B. Bhargava, S. Akashe

Abstract:

Power dissipation due to leakage current in the digital circuits is a biggest factor which is considered specially while designing nanoscale circuits. This paper is exploring the ideas of reducing leakage current in static CMOS circuits by stacking the transistors in increasing numbers. Clearly it means that the stacking of OFF transistors in large numbers result a significant reduction in power dissipation. Increase in source voltage of NMOS transistor minimizes the leakage current. Thus stacking technique makes circuit with minimum power dissipation losses due to leakage current. Also some of digital circuits such as full adder, D flip flop and 6T SRAM have been simulated in this paper, with the application of reduction technique on ‘cadence virtuoso tool’ using specter at 45nm technology with supply voltage 0.7V.

Keywords: Stack, 6T SRAM cell, low power, threshold voltage

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3135
236 Design and Implementation of Quantum Cellular Automata Based Novel Adder Circuits

Authors: Santanu Santra, Utpal Roy

Abstract:

The most important mathematical operation for any computing system is addition. An efficient adder can be of greater assistance in designing of any arithmetic circuits. Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) is a promising nanotechnology to create electronic circuits for computing devices and suitable candidate for next generation of computing systems. The article presents a modest approach to implement a novel XOR gate. The gate is simple in structure and powerful in terms of implementing digital circuits. By applying the XOR gate, the hardware requirement for a QCA circuit can be decrease and circuits can be simpler in level, clock phase and cell count. In order to verify the functionality of the proposed device some implementation of Half Adder (HA) and Full Adder (FA) is checked by means of computer simulations using QCA-Designer tool. Simulation results and physical relations confirm its usefulness in implementing every digital circuit.

Keywords: Clock, Computing system, Majority gate, QCA, QCA Designer.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4123
235 Memristor-A Promising Candidate for Neural Circuits in Neuromorphic Computing Systems

Authors: Juhi Faridi, Mohd. Ajmal Kafeel

Abstract:

The advancements in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and technology has led to an evolution of an intelligent era. Neural networks, having the computational power and learning ability similar to the brain is one of the key AI technologies. Neuromorphic computing system (NCS) consists of the synaptic device, neuronal circuit, and neuromorphic architecture. Memristor are a promising candidate for neuromorphic computing systems, but when it comes to neuromorphic computing, the conductance behavior of the synaptic memristor or neuronal memristor needs to be studied thoroughly in order to fathom the neuroscience or computer science. Furthermore, there is a need of more simulation work for utilizing the existing device properties and providing guidance to the development of future devices for different performance requirements. Hence, development of NCS needs more simulation work to make use of existing device properties. This work aims to provide an insight to build neuronal circuits using memristors to achieve a Memristor based NCS.  Here we throw a light on the research conducted in the field of memristors for building analog and digital circuits in order to motivate the research in the field of NCS by building memristor based neural circuits for advanced AI applications. This literature is a step in the direction where we describe the various Key findings about memristors and its analog and digital circuits implemented over the years which can be further utilized in implementing the neuronal circuits in the NCS. This work aims to help the electronic circuit designers to understand how the research progressed in memristors and how these findings can be used in implementing the neuronal circuits meant for the recent progress in the NCS.

Keywords: Analog circuits, digital circuits, memristors, neuromorphic computing systems.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 707
234 Hypertensive Response to Maximal Exercise Test in Young and Middle Age Hypertensive on Blood Pressure Lowering Medication: Monotherapy vs. Combination Therapy

Authors: James Patrick A. Diaz, Raul E. Ramboyong

Abstract:

Background: Hypertensive response during maximal exercise test provides important information on the level of blood pressure control and evaluation of treatment. Method: A single center retrospective descriptive study was conducted among 117 young (aged 20 to 40) and middle age (aged 40 to 65) hypertensive patients, who underwent treadmill stress test. Currently on maintenance frontline medication either monotherapy (Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/Angiotensin receptor blocker [ACEi/ARB], Calcium channel blocker [CCB], Diuretic - Hydrochlorthiazide [HCTZ]) or combination therapy (ARB+CCB, ARB+HCTZ), who attained a maximal exercise on treadmill stress test (TMST) with hypertensive response (systolic blood pressure: male >210 mm Hg, female >190 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure >100 mmHg, or increase of >10 mm Hg at any time during the test), on Bruce and Modified Bruce protocol. Exaggerated blood pressure response during exercise (systolic [SBP] and diastolic [DBP]), peak exercise blood pressure (SBP and DBP), recovery period (SBP and DBP) and test for ischemia and their antihypertensive medication/s were investigated. Analysis of variance and chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Hypertensive responses on maximal exercise test were seen mostly among female population (P < 0.000) and middle age (P < 0.000) patients. Exaggerated diastolic blood pressure responses were significantly lower in patients who were taking CCB (P < 0.004). A longer recovery period that showed a delayed decline in SBP was observed in patients taking ARB+HCTZ (P < 0.036). There were no significant differences in the level of exaggerated systolic blood pressure response and during peak exercise (both systolic and diastolic) in patients using either monotherapy or combination antihypertensives. Conclusion: Calcium channel blockers provided lower exaggerated diastolic BP response during maximal exercise test in hypertensive middle age patients. Patients on combination therapy using ARB+HCTZ exhibited a longer recovery period of systolic blood pressure.

Keywords: Antihypertensive, exercise test, hypertension, hypertensive response.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 657
233 Design and Optimization of Parity Generator and Parity Checker Based On Quantum-dot Cellular Automata

Authors: Santanu Santra, Utpal Roy

Abstract:

Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) is one of the most substitute emerging nanotechnologies for electronic circuits, because of lower power consumption, higher speed and smaller size in comparison with CMOS technology. The basic devices, a Quantum-dot cell can be used to implement logic gates and wires. As it is the fundamental building block on nanotechnology circuits. By applying XOR gate the hardware requirements for a QCA circuit can be decrease and circuits can be simpler in terms of level, delay and cell count. This article present a modest approach for implementing novel optimized XOR gate, which can be applied to design many variants of complex QCA circuits. Proposed XOR gate is simple in structure and powerful in terms of implementing any digital circuits. In order to verify the functionality of the proposed design some complex implementation of parity generator and parity checker circuits are proposed and simulating by QCA Designer tool and compare with some most recent design. Simulation results and physical relations confirm its usefulness in implementing every digital circuit.

Keywords: Clock, CMOS technology, Logic gates, QCA Designer, Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA).

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 7464
232 Design of High-speed Modified Booth Multipliers Operating at GHz Ranges

Authors: Soojin Kim, Kyeongsoon Cho

Abstract:

This paper describes the pipeline architecture of high-speed modified Booth multipliers. The proposed multiplier circuits are based on the modified Booth algorithm and the pipeline technique which are the most widely used to accelerate the multiplication speed. In order to implement the optimally pipelined multipliers, many kinds of experiments have been conducted. The speed of the multipliers is greatly improved by properly deciding the number of pipeline stages and the positions for the pipeline registers to be inserted. We described the proposed modified Booth multiplier circuits in Verilog HDL and synthesized the gate-level circuits using 0.13um standard cell library. The resultant multiplier circuits show better performance than others. Since the proposed multipliers operate at GHz ranges, they can be used in the systems requiring very high performance.

Keywords: multiplier, pipeline, high-speed, modified Boothalgorithm.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2404
231 Chose the Right Mutation Rate for Better Evolve Combinational Logic Circuits

Authors: Emanuele Stomeo, Tatiana Kalganova, Cyrille Lambert

Abstract:

Evolvable hardware (EHW) is a developing field that applies evolutionary algorithm (EA) to automatically design circuits, antennas, robot controllers etc. A lot of research has been done in this area and several different EAs have been introduced to tackle numerous problems, as scalability, evolvability etc. However every time a specific EA is chosen for solving a particular task, all its components, such as population size, initialization, selection mechanism, mutation rate, and genetic operators, should be selected in order to achieve the best results. In the last three decade the selection of the right parameters for the EA-s components for solving different “test-problems" has been investigated. In this paper the behaviour of mutation rate for designing logic circuits, which has not been done before, has been deeply analyzed. The mutation rate for an EHW system modifies the number of inputs of each logic gates, the functionality (for example from AND to NOR) and the connectivity between logic gates. The behaviour of the mutation has been analyzed based on the number of generations, genotype redundancy and number of logic gates for the evolved circuits. The experimental results found provide the behaviour of the mutation rate during evolution for the design and optimization of simple logic circuits. The experimental results propose the best mutation rate to be used for designing combinational logic circuits. The research presented is particular important for those who would like to implement a dynamic mutation rate inside the evolutionary algorithm for evolving digital circuits. The researches on the mutation rate during the last 40 years are also summarized.

Keywords: Design of logic circuit, evolutionary computation, evolvable hardware, mutation rate.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1398
230 Importance of Hardware Systems and Circuits in Secure Software Development Life Cycle

Authors: Mir Shahriar Emami

Abstract:

Although it is fully impossible to ensure that a software system is quite secure, developing an acceptable secure software system in a convenient platform is not unreachable. In this paper, we attempt to analyze software development life cycle (SDLC) models from the hardware systems and circuits point of view. To date, the SDLC models pay merely attention to the software security from the software perspectives. In this paper, we present new features for SDLC stages to emphasize the role of systems and circuits in developing secure software system through the software development stages, the point that has not been considered previously in the SDLC models.

Keywords: Systems and circuits security, software security, software process engineering, SDLC, SSDLC.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1185
229 First Order Filter Based Current-Mode Sinusoidal Oscillators Using Current Differencing Transconductance Amplifiers (CDTAs)

Authors: S. Summart, C. Saetiaw, T. Thosdeekoraphat, C. Thongsopa

Abstract:

This article presents new current-mode oscillator circuits using CDTAs which is designed from block diagram. The proposed circuits consist of two CDTAs and two grounded capacitors. The condition of oscillation and the frequency of oscillation can be adjusted by electronic method. The circuits have high output impedance and use only grounded capacitors without any external resistor which is very appropriate to future development into an integrated circuit. The results of PSPICE simulation program are corresponding to the theoretical analysis.

Keywords: Current-mode, Quadrature Oscillator, Block Diagram, CDTA.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1379
228 Analysis of Genotype Size for an Evolvable Hardware System

Authors: Emanuele Stomeo, Tatiana Kalganova, Cyrille Lambert

Abstract:

The evolution of logic circuits, which falls under the heading of evolvable hardware, is carried out by evolutionary algorithms. These algorithms are able to automatically configure reconfigurable devices. One of main difficulties in developing evolvable hardware with the ability to design functional electrical circuits is to choose the most favourable EA features such as fitness function, chromosome representations, population size, genetic operators and individual selection. Until now several researchers from the evolvable hardware community have used and tuned these parameters and various rules on how to select the value of a particular parameter have been proposed. However, to date, no one has presented a study regarding the size of the chromosome representation (circuit layout) to be used as a platform for the evolution in order to increase the evolvability, reduce the number of generations and optimize the digital logic circuits through reducing the number of logic gates. In this paper this topic has been thoroughly investigated and the optimal parameters for these EA features have been proposed. The evolution of logic circuits has been carried out by an extrinsic evolvable hardware system which uses (1+λ) evolution strategy as the core of the evolution.

Keywords: Evolvable hardware, genotype size, computational intelligence, design of logic circuits.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1399
227 Application of Genetic Algorithms for Evolution of Quantum Equivalents of Boolean Circuits

Authors: Swanti Satsangi, Ashish Gulati, Prem Kumar Kalra, C. Patvardhan

Abstract:

Due to the non- intuitive nature of Quantum algorithms, it becomes difficult for a classically trained person to efficiently construct new ones. So rather than designing new algorithms manually, lately, Genetic algorithms (GA) are being implemented for this purpose. GA is a technique to automatically solve a problem using principles of Darwinian evolution. This has been implemented to explore the possibility of evolving an n-qubit circuit when the circuit matrix has been provided using a set of single, two and three qubit gates. Using a variable length population and universal stochastic selection procedure, a number of possible solution circuits, with different number of gates can be obtained for the same input matrix during different runs of GA. The given algorithm has also been successfully implemented to obtain two and three qubit Boolean circuits using Quantum gates. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the GA procedure even when the search spaces are large.

Keywords: Ancillas, Boolean functions, Genetic algorithm, Oracles, Quantum circuits, Scratch bit

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1669
226 Determination of Regimes of the Equivalent Generator Based On Projective Geometry: The Generalized Equivalent Generator

Authors: A. A. Penin

Abstract:

Requirements that should be met when determining the regimes of circuits with variable elements are formulated. The interpretation of the variations in the regimes, based on projective geometry, enables adequate expressions for determining and comparing the regimes to be derived. It is proposed to use as the parameters of a generalized equivalent generator of an active two-pole with changeable resistor such load current and voltage which provide the current through this resistor equal to zero.

Keywords: Equivalent generator, geometric circuits theory, circuits regimes, load characteristics, variable elements.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1133
225 Resistance Training as a Powerful Tool in the Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases

Authors: I. Struhár, L. Dovrtělová, M. Kumstát

Abstract:

Regular exercise promotes reduction in blood pressure, reduction in body weight and it also helps to increase in insulin sensitivity. Participation in physical activity should always be linked to medical screening which can reveal serious medical problems. One of them is high blood pressure. Hypertension is risk factor for one billion people worldwide and the highest prevalence is found in Africa. Another component of hypertension is that people who suffer from hypertension have no symptoms. It is estimated that reduction of 3mm Hg in Systolic Blood Pressure decreases cardiac morbidity at least 5%. The most of the guidelines suggest aerobic exercise in a prevention of cardiovascular diseases. On the other hand, it is important to emphasize the impact of resistance training. Even, it was found higher effect for reduction on the level of systolic blood pressure than aerobic exercise.

Keywords: Coronary artery disease, physical activity, prevention, resistance training.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1727