Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: Decoder

12 Decoder Design for a New Single Error Correcting/Double Error Detecting Code

Authors: M. T. Anwar, P. K. Lala, P. Thenappan

Abstract:

This paper presents the decoder design for the single error correcting and double error detecting code proposed by the authors in an earlier paper. The speed of error detection and correction of a code is largely dependent upon the associated encoder and decoder circuits. The complexity and the speed of such circuits are determined by the number of 1?s in the parity check matrix (PCM). The number of 1?s in the parity check matrix for the code proposed by the authors are fewer than in any currently known single error correcting/double error detecting code. This results in simplified encoding and decoding circuitry for error detection and correction.

Keywords: Decoder, Hsiao code, Parity Check Matrix, Syndrome Pattern.

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11 Effect of Different BER Performance Comparison of MAP and ML Detection

Authors: Naveed Ur Rehman, Rehan Jamil, Irfan Jamil

Abstract:

In this paper, we regard as a coded transmission over a frequency-selective channel. We plan to study analytically the convergence of the turbo-detector using a maximum a posteriori (MAP) equalizer and a MAP decoder. We demonstrate that the densities of the maximum likelihood (ML) exchanged during the iterations are e-symmetric and output-symmetric. Under the Gaussian approximation, this property allows to execute a one-dimensional scrutiny of the turbo-detector. By deriving the analytical terminology of the ML distributions under the Gaussian approximation, we confirm that the bit error rate (BER) performance of the turbo-detector converges to the BER performance of the coded additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel at high signal to noise ratio (SNR), for any frequency selective channel.

Keywords: MAP, ML, SNR, Decoder, BER, Coded transmission.

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10 DWT Based Robust Watermarking Embed Using CRC-32 Techniques

Authors: Sadi Vural, Hiromi Tomii, Hironori Yamauchi

Abstract:

As far as the latest technological improvements are concerned, digital systems more become popular than the past. Despite this growing demand to the digital systems, content copy and attack against the digital cinema contents becomes a serious problem. To solve the above security problem, we propose “traceable watermarking using Hash functions for digital cinema system. Digital Cinema is a great application for traceable watermarking since it uses watermarking technology during content play as well as content transmission. The watermark is embedded into the randomly selected movie frames using CRC-32 techniques. CRC-32 is a Hash function. Using it, the embedding position is distributed by Hash Function so that any party cannot break off the watermarking or will not be able to change. Finally, our experimental results show that proposed DWT watermarking method using CRC-32 is much better than the convenient watermarking techniques in terms of robustness, image quality and its simple but unbreakable algorithm.

Keywords: Decoder, Digital content, JPEG2000 Frame, System-On-Chip, traceable watermark, Hash Function, CRC-32.

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9 A New Hardware Implementation of Manchester Line Decoder

Authors: Ibrahim A. Khorwat, Nabil Naas

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a simple circuit for Manchester decoding and without using any complicated or programmable devices. This circuit can decode 90kbps of transmitted encoded data; however, greater than this transmission rate can be decoded if high speed devices were used. We also present a new method for extracting the embedded clock from Manchester data in order to use it for serial-to-parallel conversion. All of our experimental measurements have been done using simulation.

Keywords: High threshold level, level segregation, lowthreshold level, smoothing circuit synchronization..

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8 Robust Digital Cinema Watermarking

Authors: Sadi Vural, Hiromi Tomii, Hironori Yamauchi

Abstract:

With the advent of digital cinema and digital broadcasting, copyright protection of video data has been one of the most important issues. We present a novel method of watermarking for video image data based on the hardware and digital wavelet transform techniques and name it as “traceable watermarking" because the watermarked data is constructed before the transmission process and traced after it has been received by an authorized user. In our method, we embed the watermark to the lowest part of each image frame in decoded video by using a hardware LSI. Digital Cinema is an important application for traceable watermarking since digital cinema system makes use of watermarking technology during content encoding, encryption, transmission, decoding and all the intermediate process to be done in digital cinema systems. The watermark is embedded into the randomly selected movie frames using hash functions. Embedded watermark information can be extracted from the decoded video data. For that, there is no need to access original movie data. Our experimental results show that proposed traceable watermarking method for digital cinema system is much better than the convenient watermarking techniques in terms of robustness, image quality, speed, simplicity and robust structure.

Keywords: Decoder, Digital content, JPEG2000 Frame, System-On-Chip, traceable watermark, Hash Function, CRC-32.

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7 Experimental Results about the Dynamics of the Generalized Belief Propagation Used on LDPC Codes

Authors: Jean-Christophe Sibel, Sylvain Reynal, David Declercq

Abstract:

In the context of channel coding, the Generalized Belief Propagation (GBP) is an iterative algorithm used to recover the transmission bits sent through a noisy channel. To ensure a reliable transmission, we apply a map on the bits, that is called a code. This code induces artificial correlations between the bits to send, and it can be modeled by a graph whose nodes are the bits and the edges are the correlations. This graph, called Tanner graph, is used for most of the decoding algorithms like Belief Propagation or Gallager-B. The GBP is based on a non unic transformation of the Tanner graph into a so called region-graph. A clear advantage of the GBP over the other algorithms is the freedom in the construction of this graph. In this article, we explain a particular construction for specific graph topologies that involves relevant performance of the GBP. Moreover, we investigate the behavior of the GBP considered as a dynamic system in order to understand the way it evolves in terms of the time and in terms of the noise power of the channel. To this end we make use of classical measures and we introduce a new measure called the hyperspheres method that enables to know the size of the attractors.

Keywords: iterative decoder, LDPC, region-graph, chaos.

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6 Traceable Watermarking System using SoC for Digital Cinema Delivery

Authors: Sadi Vural, Hiromi Tomii, Hironori Yamauchi

Abstract:

As the development of digital technology is increasing, Digital cinema is getting more spread. However, content copy and attack against the digital cinema becomes a serious problem. To solve the above security problem, we propose “Additional Watermarking" for digital cinema delivery system. With this proposed “Additional watermarking" method, we protect content copyrights at encoder and user side information at decoder. It realizes the traceability of the watermark embedded at encoder. The watermark is embedded into the random-selected frames using Hash function. Using it, the embedding position is distributed by Hash Function so that third parties do not break off the watermarking algorithm. Finally, our experimental results show that proposed method is much better than the convenient watermarking techniques in terms of robustness, image quality and its simple but unbreakable algorithm.

Keywords: Decoder, Digital content, JPEG2000 Frame, System-On-Chip and additional watermark.

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5 Current Mode Logic Circuits for 10-bit 5GHz High Speed Digital to Analog Converter

Authors: Zhenguo Vincent Chia, Sheung Yan Simon Ng, Minkyu Je

Abstract:

This paper presents CMOS Current Mode Logic (CML) circuits for a high speed Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) using standard CMOS 65nm process. The CML circuits have the propagation delay advantage over its conventional CMOS counterparts due to smaller output voltage swing and tunable bias current. The CML circuits proposed in this paper can achieve a maximum propagation delay of only 9.3ps, which can satisfy the stringent requirement for the 5 GHz high speed DAC application. Another advantage for CML circuits is its dynamic symmetry characteristic resulting in a reduction of an additional inverter. Simulation results show that the proposed CML circuits can operate from 1.08V to 1.3V with temperature ranging from -40 to +120°C.

Keywords: Conventional, Current Mode Logic, DAC, Decoder

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4 Design and Construction of Microcontroller-Based Telephone Exchange System

Authors: Aye Sandar Win

Abstract:

This paper demonstrates design and construction of microcontroller-based telephone exchange system and the aims of this paper is to study telecommunication, connection with PIC16F877A and DTMF MT8870D. In microcontroller system, PIC 16F877 microcontroller is used to control the call processing. Dial tone, busy tone and ring tone are provided during call progress. Instead of using ready made tone generator IC, oscillator based tone generator is used. The results of this telephone exchange system are perfect for homes and small businesses needing the extensions. It requires the phone operation control system, the analog interface circuit and the switching circuit. This exchange design will contain eight channels. It is the best low cost, good quality telephone exchange for today-s telecommunication needs. It offers the features available in much more expensive PBX units without using high-priced phones. It is for long distance telephone services.

Keywords: Control software, DTMF receiver and decoder, hooksensing, microcontroller system, power supply, ring generator andoscillator based tone generator.

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3 Impact of the Decoder Connection Schemes on Iterative Decoding of GPCB Codes

Authors: Fouad Ayoub, Mohammed Lahmer, Mostafa Belkasmi, El Houssine Bouyakhf

Abstract:

In this paper we present a study of the impact of connection schemes on the performance of iterative decoding of Generalized Parallel Concatenated block (GPCB) constructed from one step majority logic decodable (OSMLD) codes and we propose a new connection scheme for decoding them. All iterative decoding connection schemes use a soft-input soft-output threshold decoding algorithm as a component decoder. Numerical result for GPCB codes transmitted over Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel are provided. It will show that the proposed scheme is better than Hagenauer-s scheme and Lucas-s scheme [1] and slightly better than the Pyndiah-s scheme.

Keywords: Generalized parallel concatenated block codes, OSMLD codes, threshold decoding, iterative decoding scheme, and performance.

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2 Optical Multicast over OBS Networks: An Approach Based On Code-Words and Tunable Decoders

Authors: Maha Sliti, Walid Abdallah, Noureddine Boudriga

Abstract:

In the frame of this work, we present an optical multicasting approach based on optical code-words. Our approach associates, in the edge node, an optical code-word to a group multicast address. In the core node, a set of tunable decoders are used to send a traffic data to multiple destinations based on the received code-word. The use of code-words, which correspond to the combination of an input port and a set of output ports, allows the implementation of an optical switching matrix. At the reception of a burst, it will be delayed in an optical memory. And, the received optical code-word is split to a set of tunable optical decoders. When it matches a configured code-word, the delayed burst is switched to a set of output ports.

Keywords: Optical multicast, optical burst switching networks, optical code-words, tunable decoder, virtual optical memory.

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1 Optical Multicast over OBS Networks: An Approach Based On Code-Words and Tunable Decoders

Authors: Maha Sliti, Walid Abdallah, Noureddine Boudriga

Abstract:

In the frame of this work, we present an optical multicasting approach based on optical code-words. Our approach associates, in the edge node, an optical code-word to a group multicast address. In the core node, a set of tunable decoders are used to send a traffic data to multiple destinations based on the received code-word. The use of code-words, which correspond to the combination of an input port and a set of output ports, allows the implementation of an optical switching matrix. At the reception of a burst, it will be delayed in an optical memory. And, the received optical code-word is split to a set of tunable optical decoders. When it matches a configured code-word, the delayed burst is switched to a set of output ports.

Keywords: Optical multicast, optical burst switching networks, optical code-words, tunable decoder, virtual optical memory.

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