Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 50

Search results for: tunable resistors.

50 Comparative Performance Analysis of Nonlinearity Cancellation Techniques for MOS-C Realization in Integrator Circuits

Authors: Hasan Çiçekli, Ahmet Gökçen, Uğur Çam

Abstract:

In this paper, a comparative performance analysis of mostly used four nonlinearity cancellation techniques used to realize the passive resistor by MOS transistors, is presented. The comparison is done by using an integrator circuit which is employing sequentially Op-amp, OTRA and ICCII as active element. All of the circuits are implemented by MOS-C realization and simulated by PSPICE program using 0.35μm process TSMC MOSIS model parameters. With MOS-C realization, the circuits became electronically tunable and fully integrable which is very important in IC design. The output waveforms, frequency responses, THD analysis results and features of the nonlinearity cancellation techniques are also given.

Keywords: Integrator circuits, MOS-C realization, nonlinearity cancellation, tunable resistors.

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49 CMOS Positive and Negative Resistors Based on Complementary Regulated Cascode Topology with Cross-Coupled Regulated Transistors

Authors: Kittipong Tripetch, Nobuhiko Nakano

Abstract:

Two types of floating active resistors based on a complementary regulated cascode topology with cross-coupled regulated transistors are presented in this paper. The first topology is a high swing complementary regulated cascode active resistor. The second topology is a complementary common gate with a regulated cross coupled transistor. The small-signal input resistances of the floating resistors are derived. Three graphs of the input current versus the input voltage for different aspect ratios are designed and plotted using the Cadence Spectre 0.18-µm Rohm Semiconductor process. The total harmonic distortion graphs are plotted for three different aspect ratios with different input-voltage amplitudes and different input frequencies. From the simulation results, it is observed that a resistance of approximately 8.52 MΩ can be obtained from supply voltage at  ±0.9 V.

Keywords: Complementary common gate, complementary regulated cascode, current mirror, floating active resistors.

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48 Wideband Tunable RF Filters for Channel Selection in Crowded Spectral Bands

Authors: Sanghoon Park, Ki-Jin Kim, Kwang-Ho Ahn, Hyeon-Woo Lee

Abstract:

It is very effective way to utilize a very wide tunable filter in co-existing multi-standards wireless communications environment. Especially, as the long term evolution (LTE) communication era has come, the multi-band coverage is one of the important features required for the RF components. In this paper, we present the frequency conversion technique, and so generate two types of RF filters which are specially designed for the superb tunable ability to support multiple wireless communication standards. With the help of a complex mixing structure, the inherent image signal is suppressed. The RF band-pass filter (BPF) and notch filter achieve 1.8dB and 1.6dB insertion losses and 18 dB and 17 dB attenuations, respectively. The quality factor show greater than 30.

Keywords: RF filters, interference, wideband, tunable, channel selection, complex mixing, balanced mixer.

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47 Compact Tunable 10 W picosecond Sourcebased on Yb-doped Fiber Amplification of Gain Switch Laser Diode

Authors: Hongjun Liu, Cunxiao Gao, Jintao Tao, Wei Zhao, Yishan Wang

Abstract:

A compact tunable 10 W picosecond source based on Yb-doped fiber amplification of gain switch laser diode has been demonstrated. A gain switch semiconductor laser diode was used as the seed source, and a multi-stage single mode Yb-doped fiber preamplifier was combined with two large mode area double-clad Yb-doped fiber main amplifiers to construct the amplification system. The tunable pulses with high stability and excellent beam quality (M2<1.2) of 10 W average power 150 ps pulse duration at 1 MHz repetition rate were obtained. The central wavelength with the line width of 2.5-3 nm was tunable from 1053 nm to 1073 nm.

Keywords: Fiber laser, fiber amplifier, picosecond laser, highpower laser

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46 Optical Multicast over OBS Networks: An Approach Based On Code-Words and Tunable Decoders

Authors: Maha Sliti, Walid Abdallah, Noureddine Boudriga

Abstract:

In the frame of this work, we present an optical multicasting approach based on optical code-words. Our approach associates, in the edge node, an optical code-word to a group multicast address. In the core node, a set of tunable decoders are used to send a traffic data to multiple destinations based on the received code-word. The use of code-words, which correspond to the combination of an input port and a set of output ports, allows the implementation of an optical switching matrix. At the reception of a burst, it will be delayed in an optical memory. And, the received optical code-word is split to a set of tunable optical decoders. When it matches a configured code-word, the delayed burst is switched to a set of output ports.

Keywords: Optical multicast, optical burst switching networks, optical code-words, tunable decoder, virtual optical memory.

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45 Optical Multicast over OBS Networks: An Approach Based On Code-Words and Tunable Decoders

Authors: Maha Sliti, Walid Abdallah, Noureddine Boudriga

Abstract:

In the frame of this work, we present an optical multicasting approach based on optical code-words. Our approach associates, in the edge node, an optical code-word to a group multicast address. In the core node, a set of tunable decoders are used to send a traffic data to multiple destinations based on the received code-word. The use of code-words, which correspond to the combination of an input port and a set of output ports, allows the implementation of an optical switching matrix. At the reception of a burst, it will be delayed in an optical memory. And, the received optical code-word is split to a set of tunable optical decoders. When it matches a configured code-word, the delayed burst is switched to a set of output ports.

Keywords: Optical multicast, optical burst switching networks, optical code-words, tunable decoder, virtual optical memory.

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44 Realization of Electronically Tunable Currentmode First-order Allpass Filter and Its Application

Authors: Supayotin Na Songkla, Winai Jaikla

Abstract:

This article presents a resistorless current-mode firstorder allpass filter based on second generation current controlled current conveyors (CCCIIs). The features of the circuit are that: the pole frequency can be electronically controlled via the input bias current: the circuit description is very simple, consisting of 2 CCCIIs and single grounded capacitor, without any external resistors and component matching requirements. Consequently, the proposed circuit is very appropriate to further develop into an integrated circuit. Low input and high output impedances of the proposed configuration enable the circuit to be cascaded in current-mode without additional current buffers. The PSpice simulation results are depicted. The given results agree well with the theoretical anticipation. The application example as a current-mode quadrature oscillator is included.

Keywords: First-order all pass filter, current-mode, CCCII.

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43 A 0.9 V, High-Speed, Low-Power Tunable Gain Current Mirror

Authors: Hassan Faraji Baghtash

Abstract:

A high-speed current mirror with low-power method of adjusting current gain is presented. The current mirror provides continuous gain adjustment; yet, its gain can simply be programmed digitally, as well. The structure features the ever interesting merits of linear-in-dB gain control scheme and low power/voltage operation. The performance of proposed structure is verified through the simulation in TSMC 0.18 µm CMOS Technology. The proposed tunable gain current mirror structure draws only 18 µW from 0.9 V power supply and can operate at high frequencies up to 550 MHz in the worst case condition of maximum gain setting.

Keywords: Current mirror, current mode, low power, low voltage, tunable circuit, variable current amplifier.

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42 A Design of Electronically Tunable Voltagemode Universal Filter with High Input Impedance

Authors: Surapong Siripongdee, Witthaya Mekhum

Abstract:

This article presents a voltage-mode universal biquadratic filter performing simultaneous 3 standard functions: lowpass, high-pass and band-pass functions, employing differential different current conveyor (DDCC) and current controlled current conveyor (CCCII) as active element. The features of the circuit are that: the quality factor and pole frequency can be tuned independently via the input bias currents: the circuit description is very simple, consisting of 1 DDCC, 2 CCCIIs, 2 electronic resistors and 2 grounded capacitors. Without requiring component matching conditions, the proposed circuit is very appropriate to further develop into an integrated circuit. The PSPICE simulation results are depicted. The given results agree well with the theoretical anticipation.

Keywords: Filter, DDCC, CCCII, Analog circuit, Voltagemode, PSPICE

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41 Design of Liquid Crystal Based Tunable Reflectarray Antenna Using Slot Embedded Patch Element Configurations

Authors: M. Y. Ismail, M. Inam

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and analysis of Liquid Crystal (LC) based tunable reflectarray antenna with different design configurations within X-band frequency range. The effect of LC volume used for unit cell element on frequency tunability and reflection loss performance has been investigated. Moreover different slot embedded patch element configurations have been proposed for LC based tunable reflectarray antenna design with enhanced performance. The detailed fabrication and measurement procedure for different LC based unit cells has been presented. The waveguide scattering parameter measured results demonstrated that by using the circular slot embedded patch elements, the frequency tunability and dynamic phase range can be increased from 180MHz to 200MHz and 120° to 124° respectively. Furthermore the circular slot embedded patch element can be designed at 10GHz resonant frequency with a patch volume of 2.71mm3 as compared to 3.47mm3 required for rectangular patch without slot.

Keywords: Liquid crystal, Tunable reflectarray, Frequency tunability, Dynamic phase range.

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40 Design of Liquid Crystal Based Tunable Reflectarray Antenna Using Slot Embedded Patch Element Configurations

Authors: M. Y. Ismail, M. Inam

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and analysis of Liquid Crystal (LC) based tunable reflectarray antenna with different design configurations within X-band frequency range. The effect of LC volume used for unit cell element on frequency tunability and reflection loss performance has been investigated. Moreover different slot embedded patch element configurations have been proposed for LC based tunable reflectarray antenna design with enhanced performance. The detailed fabrication and measurement procedure for different LC based unit cells has been presented. The waveguide scattering parameter measured results demonstrated that by using the circular slot embedded patch elements, the frequency tunability and dynamic phase range can be increased from 180MHz to 200MHz and 120° to 124° respectively. Furthermore the circular slot embedded patch element can be designed at 10GHz resonant frequency with a patch volume of 2.71mm3 as compared to 3.47mm3 required for rectangular patch without slot.

Keywords: Liquid crystal, Tunable reflectarray, Frequency tunability, Dynamic phase range.

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39 Multiple-Channel Piezoelectric Actuated Tunable Optical Filter for WDM Application

Authors: Hailu Dessalegn, T. Srinivas

Abstract:

We propose new multiple-channel piezoelectric (PZT) actuated tunable optical filter based on racetrack multi-ring resonators for wavelength de-multiplexing network applications. We design tunable eight-channel wavelength de-multiplexer consisting of eight cascaded PZT actuated tunable multi-ring resonator filter with a channel spacing of 1.6nm. The filter for each channel is basically structured on a suspended beam, sandwiched with piezoelectric material and built in integrated ring resonators which are placed on the middle of the beam to gain uniform stress and linearly varying longitudinal strain. A reference single mode serially coupled multi stage racetrack ring resonator with the same radii and coupling length is designed with a line width of 0.8974nm with a flat top pass band at 1dB of 0.5205nm and free spectral range of about 14.9nm. In each channel, a small change in the perimeter of the rings is introduced to establish the shift in resonance wavelength as per the defined channel spacing. As a result, when a DC voltage is applied, the beams will elongate, which involves mechanical deformation of the ring resonators that induces a stress and a strain, which brings a change in refractive index and perimeter of the rings leading to change in the output spectrum shift providing the tunability of central wavelength in each channel. Simultaneous wave length shift as high as 45.54pm/

Keywords: Optical MEMS, piezoelectric (PZT) actuation, tunable optical filter, wavelength de-multiplexer.

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38 Effect of Chromatic Dispersion on Optical Generation of Tunable Millimeter-Wave Signals

Authors: M. R. Salehi, S. Khosroabadi

Abstract:

In this paper, the optical generation of three bands of continuously tunable millimeter-wave signals using an optical phase modulator (OPM) and a polarization state rotation filter (PSRF) as an optical notch filter is analyzed. The effect of the chromatic dispersion on millimeter-wave signals is presented.

Keywords: Optical generation, millimeter-wave, optical notchfilter , chromatic dispersion.

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37 Tunable Photonic Microwave Bandpass Filter Based on EOPM and VPBS

Authors: R. Heydari, M. R. Salehi

Abstract:

A tunable photonic microwave bandpass filter with negative coefficient based on an electro-optic phase modulator (EOPM) and a variable polarization beamsplitter (VPBS) is demonstrated. A two-tap microwave bandpass filter with one negative coefficient is presented. The chromatic dispersion and optical coherence are not affected on this filter.

Keywords: Bandpass filter, EOPM, photonic microwave filter, polarization beamsplitter.

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36 Preparation and Characterization of Self Assembled Gold Nanoparticles on Amino Functionalized SiO2 Dielectric Core

Authors: M.E.khosroshahi , M.S.Nourbakhsh

Abstract:

Wet chemistry methods are used to prepare the SiO2/Au nanoshells. The purpose of this research was to synthesize gold coated SiO2 nanoshells for biomedical applications. Tunable nanoshells were prepared by using different colloidal concentrations. The nanoshells are characterized by FTIR, XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The FTIR results confirmed the functionalization of the surfaces of silica nanoparticles with NH2 terminal groups. A tunable absorption was observed between 470-600 nm with a maximum range of 530-560 nm. Based on the XRD results three main peaks of Au (111), (200) and (220) were identified. Also AFM results showed that the silica core diameter was about 100 nm and the thickness of gold shell about 10 nm.

Keywords: Gold nanoshells, Synthesis, UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, AFM

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35 Liquid Crystal Based Reconfigurable Reflectarray Antenna Design

Authors: M. Y. Ismail, M. Inam

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and analysis of Liquid Crystal (LC) based tunable reflectarray antenna with slot embedded patch element configurations within X-band frequency range. The slots are shown to modify the surface current distribution on the patch element of reflectarray which causes the resonant patch element to provide different resonant frequencies depending on the slot dimensions. The simulated results are supported and verified by waveguide scattering parameter measurements of different reflectarray unit cells. Different rectangular slots on patch element have been fabricated and a change in resonant frequency from 10.46GHz to 8.78GHz has been demonstrated as the width of the rectangular slot is varied from 0.2W to 0.6W. The rectangular slot in the center of the patch element has also been utilized for the frequency tunable reflectarray antenna design based on K-15 Nematic LC. For the active reflectarray antenna design, a frequency tunability of 1.2% from 10GHz to 9.88GHz has been demonstrated with a dynamic phase range of 103° provided by the measured scattering parameter results. Time consumed by liquid crystals for reconfiguration, which is one of the drawback of LC based design, has also been disused in this paper.

Keywords: Liquid crystal, tunable reflectarray, frequency tunability, dynamic phase range.

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34 Design and Synthesis of Two Tunable Bandpass Filters Based On Varactors and Defected Ground Structure

Authors: M. Boulakroune, M. Challal, H. Louazene, S. Fentiz

Abstract:

This paper presents two types of microstrip bandpass filter (BPF) at microwave frequencies. The first one is a tunable BPF using planar patch resonators based on a varactor diode. The filter is formed by a triple mode circular patch resonator with two pairs of slots, in which the varactor diodes are connected. Indeed, this filter is initially centered at 2.4 GHz; the center frequency of the tunable patch filter could be tuned up to 1.8 GHz simultaneously with the bandwidth, reaching high tuning ranges. Lossless simulations were compared to those considering the substrate dielectric, conductor losses and the equivalent electrical circuit model of the tuning element in order to assess their effects. Within these variations, simulation results showed insertion loss better than 2 dB and return loss better than 10 dB over the passband. The second structure is a BPF for ultra-wideband (UWB) applications based on multiple-mode resonator (MMR) and rectangular-shaped defected ground structure (DGS). This filter, which is compact size of 25.2 x 3.8 mm2, provides in the pass band an insertion loss of 0.57 dB and a return loss greater than 12 dB. The proposed filters presents good performances and the simulation results are in satisfactory agreement with the experimentation ones reported elsewhere.

Keywords: Defected ground structure, varactor diode, microstrip bandpass filter, multiple-mode resonator.

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33 Frequency-Dependent and Full Range Tunable Phase Shifter

Authors: Yufu Yin, Tao Lin, Shanghong Zhao, Zihang Zhu, Xuan Li, Wei Jiang, Qiurong Zheng, Hui Wang

Abstract:

In this paper, a frequency-dependent and tunable phase shifter is proposed and numerically analyzed. The key devices are the dual-polarization binary phase shift keying modulator (DP-BPSK) and the fiber Bragg grating (FBG). The phase-frequency response of the FBG is employed to determine the frequency-dependent phase shift. The simulation results show that a linear phase shift of the recovered output microwave signal which depends on the frequency of the input RF signal is achieved. In addition, by adjusting the power of the RF signal, the full range phase shift from 0° to 360° can be realized. This structure shows the spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) of 70.90 dB·Hz2/3 and 72.11 dB·Hz2/3 under different RF powers.

Keywords: Microwave photonics, phase shifter, spurious free dynamic range, frequency-dependent.

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32 Performance Evaluation of an Efficient Asynchronous Protocol for WDM Ring MANs

Authors: Peristera A. Baziana

Abstract:

The idea of the asynchronous transmission in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) ring MANs is studied in this paper. Especially, we present an efficient access technique to coordinate the collisions-free transmission of the variable sizes of IP traffic in WDM ring core networks. Each node is equipped with a tunable transmitter and a tunable receiver. In this way, all the wavelengths are exploited for both transmission and reception. In order to evaluate the performance measures of average throughput, queuing delay and packet dropping probability at the buffers, a simulation model that assumes symmetric access rights among the nodes is developed based on Poisson statistics. Extensive numerical results show that the proposed protocol achieves apart from high bandwidth exploitation for a wide range of offered load, fairness of queuing delay and dropping events among the different packets size categories.

Keywords: Asynchronous transmission, collision avoidance, wavelength division multiplexing.

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31 Noise Performance of Magnetic Field Tunable Avalanche Transit Time Source

Authors: Partha Banerjee, Aritra Acharyya, Arindam Biswas, A. K. Bhattacharjee, Amit Banerjee, Hiroshi Inokawa

Abstract:

The effect of magnetic field on the noise performance of the magnetic field tunable avalanche transit time (MAGTATT) device based on Si, designed to operate at W-band (75 – 110 GHz), has been studied in this paper. A comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) model has been developed. The simulation results show that due to the presence of applied external transverse magnetic field, both the noise spectral density and noise measure of the MAGTATT device increase significantly. The noise performance of the device has been found to be further deteriorated if the magnetic field strength is further increased. Hence, in order to achieve the magnetic field tuning of the radio frequency (RF) properties of impact avalanche transit time (IMPATT) source, the noise performance of it has to be sacrificed in fair extent. Moreover, it clearly indicates that an IMPATT source must be covered with appropriate magnetic shielding material to avoid undesirable shift in operating frequency and output power and objectionable amount of deterioration in noise performance due to the presence of external magnetic field.

Keywords: 2-D model, IMPATT, MAGTATT, mm-wave, noise performance.

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30 Harmonic Reduction In Three-Phase Parallel Connected Inverter

Authors: M.A.A. Younis, N. A. Rahim, S. Mekhilef

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and analysis of a parallel connected inverter configuration of. The configuration consists of parallel connected three-phase dc/ac inverter. Series resistors added to the inverter output to maintain same current in each inverter of the two parallel inverters, and to reduce the circulating current in the parallel inverters to the minimum. High frequency third harmonic injection PWM (THIPWM) employed to reduce the total harmonic distortion and to make maximum use of the voltage source. DSP was used to generate the THIPWM and the control algorithm for the converter. Selected experimental results have been shown to validate the proposed system.

Keywords: Three-phase inverter, Third harmonic injection PWM, inverters parallel connection.

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29 A Resistorless High Input Impedance First Order All-Pass Filter Using CCCIIs

Authors: Kapil Dev Sharma, Kirat Pal, Costas Psychalinos

Abstract:

A new first order all-pass filter topology realized using current controlled current conveyors (CCCIIs) is introduced in this paper. Offered benefits are the high-impedance of the input node, the absence of external resistors because of the usage of CCCIIs with positive and negative intrinsic resistances, the presence of only grounded capacitors, and the capability of electronic adjustment of the phase shift through a single bias current. The correct operation of the introduced topology is conformed through simulation results, while its behavior is evaluated through comparison results.

Keywords: Active filters, All-pass filters, Analog signal processing, Current conveyors.

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28 Development of Autonomous Line-Following Soccer Robots

Authors: A. A. Shafie, M. F. Alias, M. H. Ali

Abstract:

The main objective of this project is to build an autonomous microcontroller-based mobile robot for a local robot soccer competition. The black competition field is equipped with white lines to serve as the guidance path for competing robots. Two prototypes of soccer robot embedded with the Basic Stamp II microcontroller have been developed. Two servo motors are used as the drive train for the first prototype whereas the second prototype uses two DC motors as its drive train. To sense the lines, lightdependent resistors (LDRs) supply the analog inputs for the microcontroller. The performances of both prototypes are evaluated. The DC motor-driven robot has produced better trajectory control over the one using servo motors and has brought the team into the final round.

Keywords: Soccer robot, Obstacle detection, Differential drive, Line following.

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27 A New Current-mode Multifunction Filter with High Impedance Outputs Using Minimum Number of Passive Elements

Authors: Mehmet Sagbas, Kemal Fidanboylu, Mehmet C. Bayram

Abstract:

A new current-mode multifunction filter using minimum number of passive elements is proposed. The proposed filter has single-input and four high-impedance outputs. It uses four passive elements (two capacitors and two resistors) and four dual output second generation current conveyors. Each output provides a different filter response, namely, low-pass, high-pass, band-pass and band-reject. The sensitivity analysis is also carried out on both ideal and non-ideal filter configurations. The validity of the proposed filter is verified through PSPICE simulations.

Keywords: Active filter, Universal filter, Currentconveyors.

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26 Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Only Process Corner Monitoring Circuit

Authors: Davit Mirzoyan, Ararat Khachatryan

Abstract:

A process corner monitoring circuit (PCMC) is presented in this work. The circuit generates a signal, the logical value of which depends on the process corner only. The signal can be used in both digital and analog circuits for testing and compensation of process variations (PV). The presented circuit uses only metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors, which allow increasing its detection accuracy, decrease power consumption and area. Due to its simplicity the presented circuit can be easily modified to monitor parametrical variations of only n-type and p-type MOS (NMOS and PMOS, respectively) transistors, resistors, as well as their combinations. Post-layout simulation results prove correct functionality of the proposed circuit, i.e. ability to monitor the process corner (equivalently die-to-die variations) even in the presence of within-die variations.

Keywords: Detection, monitoring, process corner, process variation.

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25 Resistor-less Current-mode Universal Biquad Filter Using CCTAs and Grounded Capacitors

Authors: T. Thosdeekoraphat, S. Summart, C. Saetiaw, S. Santalunai, C. Thongsopa

Abstract:

This article presents a current-mode universal biquadratic filter. The proposed circuit can apparently provide standard functions of the biquad filter: low-pass, high-pass, bandpass, band-reject and all-pass functions. The circuit uses 4 current controlled transconductance amplifiers (CCTAs) and 2 grounded capacitors. In addition, the pole frequency and quality factor can be adjusted by electronic method by adjusting the bias currents of the CCTA. The proposed circuit uses only grounded capacitors without additional external resistors, the proposed circuit is considerably appropriate to further developing into an integrated circuit. The results of PSPICE simulation program are corresponding to the theoretical analysis.

Keywords: Resistor-less, Current-mode, Biquad filter, CCTA.

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24 Signal Generator Circuit Carrying Information as Embedded Features from Multi-Transducer Signals

Authors: Sheroz Khan, Mustafa Zeki, Shihab Abdel Hameed, AHM Zahirul Alam, Aisha Hassan Abdalla, A. F. Salami, W. A. Lawal

Abstract:

A novel circuit for generating a signal embedded with features about data from three sensors is presented. This suggested circuit is making use of a resistance-to-time converter employing a bridge amplifier, an integrator and a comparator. The second resistive sensor (Rz) is transformed into duty cycle. Another bridge with varying resistor, (Ry) in the feedback of an OP AMP is added in series to change the amplitude of the resulting signal in a proportional relationship while keeping the same frequency and duty cycle representing proportional changes in resistors Rx and Rz already mentioned. The resultant output signal carries three types of information embedded as variations of its frequency, duty cycle and amplitude.

Keywords: Integrator, Comparator, Bridge Circuit, Resistanceto-Time Converter, Conditioning Circuit.

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23 Highly Efficient Low Power Consumption Tracking Solar Cells for White LED-Based Lighting System

Authors: Theerawut Jinayim, Somchai Arunrungrasmi, Tanes Tanitteerapan, Narong Mungkung

Abstract:

Although White LED lighting systems powered by solar cells have presented for many years, they are not widely used in today application because of their cost and low energy conversion efficiency. The proposed system use the dc power generated by fixed solar cells module to energize White LED light sources that are operated by directly connected White LED with current limitation resistors, resulting in much more power consumption. This paper presents the use of white LED as a general lighting application powered by tracking solar cells module and using pulse to apply the electrical power to the White LED. These systems resulted in high efficiency power conversion, low power consumption, and long light of the white LED.

Keywords: Efficiency, lighting, light-emitting diode, pulse, Solar, white LED.

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22 Simulation of Voltage Controlled Tunable All Pass Filter Using LM13700 OTA

Authors: Bhaba Priyo Das, Neville Watson, Yonghe Liu

Abstract:

In recent years Operational Transconductance Amplifier based high frequency integrated circuits, filters and systems have been widely investigated. The usefulness of OTAs over conventional OP-Amps in the design of both first order and second order active filters are well documented. This paper discusses some of the tunability issues using the Matlab/Simulink® software which are previously unreported for any commercial OTA. Using the simulation results two first order voltage controlled all pass filters with phase tuning capability are proposed.

Keywords: All pass filter, Operational Transconductance Amplifier, Simulation.

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21 Constructing a Two-Tier Test about Source Current to Diagnose Pre-Service Elementary School Teacher’ Misconceptions

Authors: Abdeljalil Métioui

Abstract:

We discuss the alternative conceptions of students analysing the behaviour of electrical circuits. The present paper aims at, on one hand, studying the misconceptions of 80 elementary pre-service teachers from Quebec in Canada, in relation to the current source in DC circuits. To do this, they completed a two-choice questionnaire (true or false) with justification. Data analysis identifies many conceptual difficulties. For example, their majority considered a battery as a source of constant current: When a circuit composed of battery and resistors is modified, the current supplied by the battery remains unchanged. On the other hand, considering the alternatives conceptions identified we develop a two-tier test about source current. The aim of this two-tier test is to help teachers to diagnose rapidly their students’ misconceptions in order to consider in their teaching.   

Keywords: Two-tier diagnostic test, current source, pre-service teachers, alternative conceptions after teaching, qualitative study.

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