Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2879

Search results for: temperature variations

2879 Analytical Camera Model Supplemented with Influence of Temperature Variations

Authors: Peter Podbreznik, Božidar Potocnik

Abstract:

A camera in the building site is exposed to different weather conditions. Differences between images of the same scene captured with the same camera arise also due to temperature variations. The influence of temperature changes on camera parameters were modelled and integrated into existing analytical camera model. Modified camera model enables quantitatively assessing the influence of temperature variations.

Keywords: camera calibration, analytical model, intrinsic parameters, extrinsic parameters, temperature variations.

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2878 Subthreshold Circuit Performance Investigation under Temperature Variations

Authors: Mohd. Hasan, Ajmal Kafeel, S. D. Pable

Abstract:

Ultra-low-power (ULP) circuits have received widespread attention due to the rapid growth of biomedical applications and Battery-less Electronics. Subthreshold region of transistor operation is used in ULP circuits. Major research challenge in the subthreshold operating region is to extract the ULP benefits with minimal degradation in speed and robustness. Process, Voltage and Temperature (PVT) variations significantly affect the performance of subthreshold circuits. Designed performance parameters of ULP circuits may vary largely due to temperature variations. Hence, this paper investigates the effect of temperature variation on device and circuit performance parameters at different biasing voltages in the subthreshold region. Simulation results clearly demonstrate that in deep subthreshold and near threshold voltage regions, performance parameters are significantly affected whereas in moderate subthreshold region, subthreshold circuits are more immune to temperature variations. This establishes that moderate subthreshold region is ideal for temperature immune circuits.

Keywords: Subthreshold, temperature variations, ultralow power.

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2877 Influence of Temperature Variations on Calibrated Cameras

Authors: Peter Podbreznik, Božidar Potocnik

Abstract:

The camera parameters are changed due to temperature variations, which directly influence calibrated cameras accuracy. Robustness of calibration methods were measured and their accuracy was tested. An error ratio due to camera parameters change with respect to total error originated during calibration process was determined. It pointed out that influence of temperature variations decrease by increasing distance of observed objects from cameras.

Keywords: camera calibration, perspective projection matrix, epipolar geometry, temperature variation.

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2876 A New Empirical Expression of the Breakdown Voltage for Combined Variations of Temperature and Pressure

Authors: Elyse Sili, Jean Pascal Cambronne

Abstract:

In aircraft applications, according to the nature of electrical equipment its location may be in unpressurized area or very close to the engine; thus, the environmental conditions may change from atmospheric pressure to less than 100 mbar, and the temperature may be higher than the ambient one as in most real working conditions of electrical equipment. Then, the classical Paschen curve has to be replotted since these parameters may affect the discharge ignition voltage. In this paper, we firstly investigate the domain of validity of two corrective expressions on the Paschen-s law found in the literature, in case of changing the air environment and known as Peek and Dunbar corrections. Results show that these corrections are no longer valid for combined variation of temperature and pressure. After that, a new empirical expression for breakdown voltage is proposed and is validated in the case of combined variations of temperature and pressure.

Keywords: Gas breakdown, gas density, Paschen curve, temperature effects

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2875 Temperature Effect on the Organic Solar Cells Parameters

Authors: F.Belhocine-Nemmar; MS.Belkaid D. Hatem, O Boughias

Abstract:

In this work, the influence of temperature on the different parameters of solar cells based on organic semiconductors are studied. The short circuit current Isc increases so monotonous with temperature and then saturates to a maximum value before decreasing at high temperatures. The open circuit voltage Vco decreases linearly with temperature. The fill factor FF and efficiency, which are directly related with Isc and Vco follow the variations of the letters. The phenomena are explained by the behaviour of the mobility which is a temperature activated process.

Keywords: cells parameters, organic materials, solar cells, temperature effect

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2874 Study on the Heat Transfer Performance of the Annular Fin under Condensing Conditions

Authors: Abdenour Bourabaa, Malika Fekih, Mohamed Saighi

Abstract:

A numerical investigation of the fin efficiency and temperature distribution of an annular fin under dehumidification has been presented in this paper. The non-homogeneous second order differential equation that describes the temperature distribution from the fin base to the fin tip has been solved using the central finite difference method. The effects of variations in parameters including relative humidity, air temperature, air face velocity on temperature distribution and fin efficiency are investigated and compared with those under fully dry fin conditions. Also, the effect of fin pitch on the dimensionless temperature has been studied.

Keywords: Annular fin, Dehumidification, Fin efficiency, Heat and mass transfer, Wet fin.

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2873 Variable Responses of Leaf C, N and P to Climatic Factors in Different Regions and Growth Forms

Authors: Li Wu

Abstract:

Plant ecological stoichiometry, which is one of the most important tools to connect the components among different levels of ecosystem, has obtained increasingly extensive concern, especially on its responses to the environmental gradients. Based on the published literatures and datasets, this article focused on reviewing the variable responses of plant foliar ecological stoichiometry to the climatic factors, such as temperature, water, elevated CO2, and found that foliar ecological stoichiometry responded dynamically to climatic variations among different regions and different growth forms. Then, research status and deficiency were summarized and the expectation on studying the relationships between plant C, N and P ecological stoichiometry and environmental variations which can provide a reference to understand how plants will respond to global change in the future was pointed out.

Keywords: Climatic variations, terrestrial plant, foliar ecological stoichiometry, temperature, precipitation, drought, elevated CO2.

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2872 Power Reduction by Automatic Monitoring and Control System in Active Mode

Authors: Somaye Abdollahi Pour, Mohsen Saneei

Abstract:

This paper describes a novel monitoring scheme to minimize total active power in digital circuits depend on the demand frequency, by adjusting automatically both supply voltage and threshold voltages based on circuit operating conditions such as temperature, process variations, and desirable frequency. The delay monitoring results, will be control and apply so as to be maintained at the minimum value at which the chip is able to operate for a given clock frequency. Design details of power monitor are examined using simulation framework in 32nm BTPM model CMOS process. Experimental results show the overhead of proposed circuit in terms of its power consumption is about 40 μW for 32nm technology; moreover the results show that our proposed circuit design is not far sensitive to the temperature variations and also process variations. Besides, uses the simple blocks which offer good sensitivity, high speed, the continuously feedback loop. This design provides up to 40% reduction in power consumption in active mode.

Keywords: active mode, delay monitor, body biasing, VDD scaling, low power.

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2871 Interannual Variations in Snowfall and Continuous Snow Cover Duration in Pelso, Central Finland, Linked to Teleconnection Patterns, 1944-2010

Authors: M. Irannezhad, E. H. N. Gashti, S. Mohammadighavam, M. Zarrini, B. Kløve

Abstract:

Climate warming would increase rainfall by shifting precipitation falling form from snow to rain, and would accelerate snow cover disappearing by increasing snowpack. Using temperature and precipitation data in the temperature-index snowmelt model, we evaluated variability of snowfall and continuous snow cover duration (CSCD) during 1944-2010 over Pelso, central Finland. Mann- Kendall non-parametric test determined that annual precipitation increased by 2.69 (mm/year, p<0.05) during the study period, but no clear trend in annual temperature. Both annual rainfall and snowfall increased by 1.67 and 0.78 (mm/year, p<0.05), respectively. CSCD was generally about 205 days from 14 October to 6 May. No clear trend was found in CSCD over Pelso. Spearman’s rank correlation showed most significant relationships of annual snowfall with the East Atlantic (EA) pattern, and CSCD with the East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR) pattern. Increased precipitation with no warming temperature caused the rainfall and snowfall to increase, while no effects on CSCD.

Keywords: Variations, snowfall, snow cover duration, temperature-index snowmelt model, teleconnection patterns.

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2870 Exergy Based Performance Analysis of a Gas Turbine Unit at Various Ambient Conditions

Authors: Idris A. Elfeituri

Abstract:

This paper studies the effect of ambient conditions on the performance of a 285 MW gas turbine unit using the exergy concept. Based on the available exergy balance models developed, a computer program has been constructed to investigate the performance of the power plant under varying ambient temperature and relative humidity conditions. The variations of ambient temperature range from zero to 50 ºC and the relative humidity ranges from zero to 100%, while the unit load kept constant at 100% of the design load. The exergy destruction ratio and exergy efficiency are determined for each component and for the entire plant. The results show a moderate increase in the total exergy destruction ratio of the plant from 62.05% to 65.20%, while the overall exergy efficiency decrease from 38.2% to 34.8% as the ambient temperature increases from zero to 50 ºC at all relative humidity values. Furthermore, an increase of 1 ºC in ambient temperature leads to 0.063% increase in the total exergy destruction ratio and 0.07% decrease in the overall exergy efficiency. The relative humidity has a remarkable influence at higher ambient temperature values on the exergy destruction ratio of combustion chamber and on exergy loss ratio of the exhaust gas but almost no effect on the total exergy destruction ratio and overall exergy efficiency. At 50 ºC ambient temperature, the exergy destruction ratio of the combustion chamber increases from 30% to 52% while the exergy loss ratio of the exhaust gas decreases from 28% to 8% as the relative humidity increases from zero to 100%. In addition, exergy analysis reveals that the combustion chamber and exhaust gas are the main source of irreversibility in the gas turbine unit. It is also identified that the exergy efficiency and exergy destruction ratio are considerably dependent on the variations in the ambient air temperature and relative humidity. Therefore, the incorporation of the existing gas turbine plant with inlet air cooling and humidifier technologies should be considered seriously.

Keywords: Destruction, exergy, gas turbine, irreversibility, performance.

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2869 Temperature Sensor IC Design for Intracranial Monitoring Device

Authors: Wai Pan Chan, Minkyu Je

Abstract:

A precision CMOS chopping amplifier is adopted in this work to improve a CMOS temperature sensor high sensitive enough for intracranial temperature monitoring. An amplified temperature sensitivity of 18.8 ± 3*0.2 mV/oC is attained over the temperature range from 20 oC to 80 oC from a given 10 samples of the same wafer. The analog frontend design outputs the temperature dependent and the temperature independent signals which can be directly interfaced to a 10 bit ADC to accomplish an accurate temperature instrumentation system.

Keywords: Chopping, analog frontend, CMOS temperature sensor, traumatic brain injury (TBI), intracranial temperature monitoring.

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2868 Studying the Spatial Variations of Stable Isotopes (18O and 2H) in Precipitation and Groundwater Resources in Zagros Region

Authors: Mojtaba Heydarizad

Abstract:

Zagros mountain range is a very important precipitation zone in Iran as it receives high average annual precipitation compared to other parts of this country. Although this region is important precipitation zone in semi-arid an arid country like Iran, accurate method to study water resources in this region has not been applied yet. In this study, stable isotope δ18O content of precipitation and groundwater resources showed spatial variations across Zagros region as southern parts of Zagros region showed more enriched isotope values compared to the northern parts. This is normal as southern Zagros region is much drier with higher air temperature and evaporation compared to northern parts. In addition, the spatial variations of stable isotope δ18O in precipitation in Zagros region have been simulated by the models which consider the altitude and latitude variations as input to simulate δ18O in precipitation.

Keywords: Groundwater, precipitation, simulation, stable isotopes, Zagros region.

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2867 Three Dimensional Numerical Simulation of a Full Scale CANDU Reactor Moderator to Study Temperature Fluctuations

Authors: A. Sarchami, N. Ashgriz, M. Kwee

Abstract:

Threedimensional numerical simulations are conducted on a full scale CANDU Moderator and Transient variations of the temperature and velocity distributions inside the tank are determined. The results show that the flow and temperature distributions inside the moderator tank are three dimensional and no symmetry plane can be identified.Competition between the upward moving buoyancy driven flows and the downward moving momentum driven flows, results in the formation of circulation zones. The moderator tank operates in the buoyancy driven mode and any small disturbances in the flow or temperature makes the system unstable and asymmetric. Different types of temperature fluctuations are noted inside the tank: (i) large amplitude are at the boundaries between the hot and cold (ii) low amplitude are in the core of the tank (iii) high frequency fluctuations are in the regions with high velocities and (iv) low frequency fluctuations are in the regions with lower velocities.

Keywords: Bruce, Fluctuations, Numerical, Temperature, Thermal hydraulics

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2866 Variation of Metrological Parameters as They Affect the Tropospheric Radio Refractivity for Akure South-West Nigeria

Authors: Famoriji J.Oluwole

Abstract:

This research work examines the effect of variations of metrological parameters on the tropospheric radio refractivity during dry and raining seasons for Akure in 2013. The daily averages of radio refractivity during dry (January) and raining (August) seasons were calculated from the data obtained from the Nigeria Metrological Agency (NIMET). The data that was used for the computation of radio refractivity is a daily interval of the variations of metrological parameters for each day in the troposphere for Akure. Consequently, the daily averages of radio refractivity during raining season (August) were greater than the results in dry season (January) as a result of the variations in meteorological parameters such as temperature, humidity and atmospheric pressure in the lower troposphere.

Keywords: Troposphere, Radio refractivity, Akure, Meteorological parameters.

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2865 Analysis of Thermal Damping in Si Based Torsional Micromirrors

Authors: R. Resmi, M. R. Baiju

Abstract:

The thermal damping of a dynamic vibrating micromirror is an important factor affecting the design of MEMS based actuator systems. In the development process of new micromirror systems, assessing the extent of energy loss due to thermal damping accurately and predicting the performance of the system is very essential. In this paper, the depth of the thermal penetration layer at different eigenfrequencies and the temperature variation distributions surrounding a vibrating micromirror is analyzed. The thermal penetration depth corresponds to the thermal boundary layer in which energy is lost which is a measure of the thermal damping is found out. The energy is mainly dissipated in the thermal boundary layer and thickness of the layer is an important parameter. The detailed thermoacoustics is used to model the air domain surrounding the micromirror. The thickness of the boundary layer, temperature variations and thermal power dissipation are analyzed for a Si based torsional mode micromirror. It is found that thermal penetration depth decreases with eigenfrequency and hence operating the micromirror at higher frequencies is essential for reducing thermal damping. The temperature variations and thermal power dissipations at different eigenfrequencies are also analyzed. Both frequency-response and eigenfrequency analyses are done using COMSOL Multiphysics software.

Keywords: Eigen frequency analysis, micromirrors, thermal damping, thermoacoustic interactions.

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2864 Off-State Leakage Power Reduction by Automatic Monitoring and Control System

Authors: S. Abdollahi Pour, M. Saneei

Abstract:

This paper propose a new circuit design which monitor total leakage current during standby mode and generates the optimal reverse body bias voltage, by using the adaptive body bias (ABB) technique to compensate die-to-die parameter variations. Design details of power monitor are examined using simulation framework in 65nm and 32nm BTPM model CMOS process. Experimental results show the overhead of proposed circuit in terms of its power consumption is about 10 μW for 32nm technology and about 12 μW for 65nm technology at the same power supply voltage as the core power supply. Moreover the results show that our proposed circuit design is not far sensitive to the temperature variations and also process variations. Besides, uses the simple blocks which offer good sensitivity, high speed, the continuously feedback loop.

Keywords: leakage current, leakage power monitor, body biasing, low power

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2863 Developing the Color Temperature Histogram Method for Improving the Content-Based Image Retrieval

Authors: P. Phokharatkul, S. Chaisriya, S. Somkuarnpanit, S. Phaiboon, C. Kimpan

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new method for image searches and image indexing in databases with a color temperature histogram. The color temperature histogram can be used for performance improvement of content–based image retrieval by using a combination of color temperature and histogram. The color temperature histogram can be represented by a range of 46 colors. That is more than the color histogram and the dominant color temperature. Moreover, with our method the colors that have the same color temperature can be separated while the dominant color temperature can not. The results showed that the color temperature histogram retrieved an accurate image more often than the dominant color temperature method or color histogram method. This also took less time so the color temperature can be used for indexing and searching for images.

Keywords: Color temperature histogram, color temperature, animage retrieval and content-based image retrieval.

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2862 Two-Dimensional Modeling of Seasonal Freeze and Thaw in an Idealized River Bank

Authors: Jiajia Pan, Hung Tao Shen

Abstract:

Freeze and thaw occurs seasonally in river banks in northern countries. Little is known on how the riverbank soil temperature responds to air temperature changes and how freeze and thaw develops in a river bank seasonally. This study presents a two-dimensional heat conduction model for numerical investigations of seasonal freeze and thaw processes in an idealized river bank. The model uses the finite difference method and it is convenient for applications. The model is validated with an analytical solution and a field case with soil temperature distributions. It is then applied to the idealized river bank in terms of partially and fully saturated conditions with or without ice cover influence. Simulated results illustrate the response processes of the river bank to seasonal air temperature variations. It promotes the understanding of freeze and thaw processes in river banks and prepares for further investigation of frost and thaw impacts on riverbank stability.

Keywords: Freeze and thaw, river banks, 2D model, heat conduction.

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2861 Studies on Seasonal Variations of Physico- Chemical Parameters of Fish Farm at Govt. Nursery Unit, Muzaffargarh, Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdus Salam, Muhammad Ashraf, Muhammad Imran, Mehtab Ahmad, Muhammad Jamshed Khan, Muhammad Mazhar Ayaz, Muzaffar Ali, Arshad Ali, Memoona Qayyum Abir Ishtiaq

Abstract:

The present study was designed to demonstrate the seasonal variations in physico-chemical parameters of fish farm at Govt. Nursery Unit, Muzaffargarh, Department of Fisheries Govt. of Punjab, Pakistan for a period of eight months from January to August 2008. Water samples were collected on fifteen days basis and have been analyzed for estimation of Air temperature, Water temperature, Light penetration, pH, Total dissolved oxygen, Clouds, Carbonates, Bicarbonates, Total carbonates, Total dissolved solids, Chlorides, Calcium and Hardness. Seasonal fluctuations were observed in all the physico-chemical parameters of fish farm. The overall physicochemical parameters of fish pond water remained within the tolerable range throughout the study period.

Keywords: Freshwater, Fish farm, Water quality, Seasonal variation, Chemical factor

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2860 Historical and Future Rainfall Variations in Bangladesh

Authors: M. M. Hossain, M. Z. Hasan, M. Alauddin, S. Akhter

Abstract:

Climate change has become a major concern across the world as the intensity along with quantity of the rainfall, mean surface temperature and other climatic parameters have been changed not only in Bangladesh but also in the entire globe. Bangladesh has already experienced many natural hazards. Among them changing of rainfall pattern, erratic and heavy rainfalls are very common. But changes of rainfall pattern and its amount is still in question to some extent. This study aimed to unfold how the historical rainfalls varied over time and how would be their future trends. In this context, historical rainfall data (1975-2014) were collected from Bangladesh Metrological Department (BMD) and then a time series model was developed using Box-Jenkins algorithm in IBM SPSS to forecast the future rainfall. From the historical data analysis, this study revealed that the amount of rainfall decreased over the time and shifted to the post monsoons. Forecasted rainfall shows that the pre-monsoon and early monsoon will get drier in future whereas late monsoon and post monsoon will show huge fluctuations in rainfall magnitudes with temporal variations which means Bangladesh will get comparatively drier seasons in future which may be a serious problem for the country as it depends on agriculture.

Keywords: Monsoon, Pre-monsoon, rainfall, pattern, variations, IBM-SPSS.

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2859 Grating Scale Thermal Expansion Error Compensation for Large Machine Tools Based on Multiple Temperature Detection

Authors: Wenlong Feng, Zhenchun Du, Jianguo Yang

Abstract:

To decrease the grating scale thermal expansion error, a novel method which based on multiple temperature detection is proposed. Several temperature sensors are installed on the grating scale and the temperatures of these sensors are recorded. The temperatures of every point on the grating scale are calculated by interpolating between adjacent sensors. According to the thermal expansion principle, the grating scale thermal expansion error model can be established by doing the integral for the variations of position and temperature. A novel compensation method is proposed in this paper. By applying the established error model, the grating scale thermal expansion error is decreased by 90% compared with no compensation. The residual positioning error of the grating scale is less than 15μm/10m and the accuracy of the machine tool is significant improved.

Keywords: Thermal expansion error of grating scale, error compensation, machine tools, integral method.

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2858 Influence of Flash Temperature on Exergetical Performance of Organic Flash Cycle

Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim, Chul Ho Han

Abstract:

Organic Flash Cycle (OFC) has potential of improving efficiency for recovery of low temperature heat sources mainly due to reducing temperature mismatch in the heat exchanger. In this work exergetical performance analysis of ORC is conducted for recovery of low grade heat source. Effects of system parameters such as flash evaporation temperature or heating temperature are theoretically investigated on the exergy destructions (anergies) at various components of the system as well as exergy efficiency. Results show that exergy efficiency has a peak with respect to the flash temperature, and the optimum flash temperature increases with the heating temperature. The component where the largest exergy destruction occurs varies with the flash temperature or heating temperature.

Keywords: Organic flash cycle (OFC), low grade heat source, exergy, anergy, flash temperature.

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2857 Robust Steam Temperature Regulation for Distillation of Essential Oil Extraction Process using Hybrid Fuzzy-PD plus PID Controller

Authors: Nurhani Kasuan, Zakariah Yusuf, Mohd Nasir Taib, Mohd Hezri Fazalul Rahiman, Nazurah Tajuddin, Mohd Azri Abdul Aziz

Abstract:

This paper presents a hybrid fuzzy-PD plus PID (HFPP) controller and its application to steam distillation process for essential oil extraction system. Steam temperature is one of the most significant parameters that can influence the composition of essential oil yield. Due to parameter variations and changes in operation conditions during distillation, a robust steam temperature controller becomes nontrivial to avoid the degradation of essential oil quality. Initially, the PRBS input is triggered to the system and output of steam temperature is modeled using ARX model structure. The parameter estimation and tuning method is adopted by simulation using HFPP controller scheme. The effectiveness and robustness of proposed controller technique is validated by real time implementation to the system. The performance of HFPP using 25 and 49 fuzzy rules is compared. The experimental result demonstrates the proposed HFPP using 49 fuzzy rules achieves a better, consistent and robust controller compared to PID when considering the test on tracking the set point and the effects due to disturbance.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic controller, steam temperature, steam distillation, real time control.

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2856 Effect of Temperature on the Water Retention Capacity of Liner Materials

Authors: Ahmed M. Al-Mahbashi, Mosleh A. Al-Shamrani, Muawia Dafalla

Abstract:

Mixtures of sand and clay are frequently used to serve for specific purposes in several engineering practices. In environmental engineering, liner layers and cover layers are common for controlling waste disposal facilities. These layers are exposed to moisture and temperature fluctuation specially when existing in unsaturated condition. The relationship between soil suction and water content for these materials is essential for understanding their unsaturated behavior and properties such as retention capacity and unsaturated follow (hydraulic conductivity). This study is aimed at investigating retention capacity for two sand-natural expansive clay mixtures (15% (C15) and 30% (C30) expansive clay) at two ambient temperatures within the range of 5 -50 °C. Soil water retention curves (SWRC) for these materials were determined at these two ambient temperatures using different salt solutions for a wide range of suction (up to 200MPa). The results indicate that retention capacity of C15 mixture underwent significant changes due to temperature variations. This effect tends to be less visible when the clay fraction is doubled (C30). In addition, the overall volume change is marginally affected by high temperature within the range considered in this study.

Keywords: Soil water retention curve, sand-expansive clay mixture, suction, temperature.

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2855 Simulation and Design of the Geometric Characteristics of the Oscillatory Thermal Cycler

Authors: Tse-Yu Hsieh, Jyh-Jian Chen

Abstract:

Since polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been invented, it has emerged as a powerful tool in genetic analysis. The PCR products are closely linked with thermal cycles. Therefore, to reduce the reaction time and make temperature distribution uniform in the reaction chamber, a novel oscillatory thermal cycler is designed. The sample is placed in a fixed chamber, and three constant isothermal zones are established and lined in the system. The sample is oscillated and contacted with three different isothermal zones to complete thermal cycles. This study presents the design of the geometric characteristics of the chamber. The commercial software CFD-ACE+TM is utilized to investigate the influences of various materials, heating times, chamber volumes, and moving speed of the chamber on the temperature distributions inside the chamber. The chamber moves at a specific velocity and the boundary conditions with time variations are related to the moving speed. Whereas the chamber moves, the boundary is specified at the conditions of the convection or the uniform temperature. The user subroutines compiled by the FORTRAN language are used to make the numerical results realistically. Results show that the reaction chamber with a rectangular prism is heated on six faces; the effects of various moving speeds of the chamber on the temperature distributions are examined. Regarding to the temperature profiles and the standard deviation of the temperature at the Y-cut cross section, the non-uniform temperature inside chamber is found as the moving speed is larger than 0.01 m/s. By reducing the heating faces to four, the standard deviation of the temperature of the reaction chamber is under 1.4×10-3K with the range of velocities between 0.0001 m/s and 1 m/s. The nature convective boundary conditions are set at all boundaries while the chamber moves between two heaters, the effects of various moving velocities of the chamber on the temperature distributions are negligible at the assigned time duration.

Keywords: Polymerase chain reaction, oscillatory thermal cycler, standard deviation of temperature, nature convective.

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2854 Assessment of Compaction Temperatures on Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) Properties

Authors: Houman Saedi

Abstract:

Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) is one of the most commonest constructed asphalts in Iran and the quality control of constructed roads with HMA have been always paid due attention by researchers. The quality control of constructed roads with this method is being usually carried out by measuring volumetric parameters of HMA marshall samples. One of the important parameters that has a critical role in changing these volumetric parameters is “compaction temperature"; which as a result of its changing, volumetric parameters of Marshall Samples and subsequently constructed asphalt is encountered with variations. In this study, considering the necessity of preservation of the compaction temperature, the effect of various temperatures on Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) samples properties has been evaluated. As well, to evaluate the effect of this parameter on different grading, two different grading (Top coat index grading and binder index grading) have been used and samples were compacted at 5 various temperatures.

Keywords: Compaction Temperature, HMA, Volumetric Parameters, Marshall Method

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2853 Temperature Profile Modelling in Flexible Pavement Design

Authors: Csaba Tóth, Éva Lakatos, László Pethő, Seoyoung Cho

Abstract:

The temperature effect on asphalt pavement structure is a crucial factor at the design stage. In this paper, by applying the German guidelines for temperature along the asphalt depth is estimated. The aim is to consider temperature profiles in different seasons in numerical modelling. The model is built with an elastic and isotropic solid element with 19 subdivisions of asphalt layers to reflect the temperature variation. Comparison with the simple three-layer pavement system (asphalt layers, base, and subgrade layers) will be followed to see the difference in result without temperature variation along with the depth. Finally, the fatigue life calculation was checked to prove the validity of the methodology of considering the temperature in the numerical modelling.

Keywords: Temperature profile, flexible pavement modelling, finite element method, temperature modelling.

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2852 Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Only Process Corner Monitoring Circuit

Authors: Davit Mirzoyan, Ararat Khachatryan

Abstract:

A process corner monitoring circuit (PCMC) is presented in this work. The circuit generates a signal, the logical value of which depends on the process corner only. The signal can be used in both digital and analog circuits for testing and compensation of process variations (PV). The presented circuit uses only metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors, which allow increasing its detection accuracy, decrease power consumption and area. Due to its simplicity the presented circuit can be easily modified to monitor parametrical variations of only n-type and p-type MOS (NMOS and PMOS, respectively) transistors, resistors, as well as their combinations. Post-layout simulation results prove correct functionality of the proposed circuit, i.e. ability to monitor the process corner (equivalently die-to-die variations) even in the presence of within-die variations.

Keywords: Detection, monitoring, process corner, process variation.

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2851 A Temperature-Insensitive Wide-Dynamic Range Positive/Negative Full-Wave Rectifier Based on Operational Trasconductance Amplifier using Commercially Available ICs

Authors: C. Chanapromma, T. Worachak, P. Silapan

Abstract:

This paper presents positive and negative full-wave rectifier. The proposed structure is based on OTA using commercially available ICs (LT1228). The features of the proposed circuit are that: it can rectify and amplify voltage signal with controllable output magnitude via input bias current: the output voltage is free from temperature variation. The circuit description merely consists of 1 single ended and 3 fully differential OTAs. The performance of the proposed circuit are investigated though PSpice. They show that the proposed circuit can function as positive/negative full-wave rectifier, where the voltage input wide-dynamic range from -5V to 5V. Furthermore, the output voltage is slightly dependent on the temperature variations.

Keywords: Full-wave rectifier, Positive/negative, OTA, Electronically controllable, Wide-dynamic range

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2850 An Investigation on Hot-Spot Temperature Calculation Methods of Power Transformers

Authors: Ahmet Y. Arabul, Ibrahim Senol, Fatma Keskin Arabul, Mustafa G. Aydeniz, Yasemin Oner, Gokhan Kalkan

Abstract:

In the standards of IEC 60076-2 and IEC 60076-7, three different hot-spot temperature estimation methods are suggested. In this study, the algorithms which used in hot-spot temperature calculations are analyzed by comparing the algorithms with the results of an experimental set-up made by a Transformer Monitoring System (TMS) in use. In tested system, TMS uses only top oil temperature and load ratio for hot-spot temperature calculation. And also, it uses some constants from standards which are on agreed statements tables. During the tests, it came out that hot-spot temperature calculation method is just making a simple calculation and not uses significant all other variables that could affect the hot-spot temperature.

Keywords: Hot-spot temperature, monitoring system, power transformer, smart grid.

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