Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2296

Search results for: switching function

2296 Regional Stability Analysis of Rotor-Ball Bearing and Rotor- Roller Bearing Systems Considering Switching Phenomena

Authors: Jafar Abbaszadeh Chekan, Kaveh Merat, Hassan Zohoor

Abstract:

In this study the regional stability of a rotor system which is supported on rolling bearings with radial clearance is studied. The rotor is assumed to be rigid. Due to radial clearance of bearings and dynamic configuration of system, each rolling elements of bearings has the possibility to be in contact with both of the races (under compression) or lose its contact. As a result, this change in dynamic of the system makes it to be known as switching system which is a type of Hybrid systems. In this investigation by adopting Multiple Lyapunov Function theorem and using Hamiltonian function as a candidate Lyapunov function, the stability of the system is studied. The purpose of this study is to inspect the regional stability of rotor-roller bearing and rotor-ball bearing systems.

Keywords: Stability analysis, Rotor-rolling bearing systems, Switching systems, Multiple Lyapunov Function Method

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2295 Design of Non-Blocking and Rearrangeable Modified Banyan Network with Electro-Optic MZI Switching Elements

Authors: Ghanshyam Singh, Tirtha Pratim Bhattacharjee, R. P. Yadav, V. Janyani

Abstract:

Banyan networks are really attractive for serving as the optical switching architectures due to their unique properties of small depth and absolute signal loss uniformity. The fact has been established that the limitations of blocking nature and the nonavailability of proper connections due to non-rearrangeable property can be easily ruled out using electro-optic MZI switches as basic switching elements. Combination of the horizontal expansion and vertical stacking of optical banyan networks is an appropriate scheme for constructing non-blocking banyan-based optical switching networks. The interconnected banyan switching fabrics (IBSF) have been considered and analyzed to best serve the purpose of optical switching with electro-optic MZI basic elements. The cross/bar state interchange for the switches has been facilitated by appropriate voltage switching or the by the switching of operating wavelength. The paper is dedicated to the modification of the basic switching element being used as well as the architecture of the switching network.

Keywords: MZI switch, Banyan network, Reconfigurable switches.

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2294 Switching Rule for the Exponential Stability and Stabilization of Switched Linear Systems with Interval Time-varying Delays

Authors: Kreangkri Ratchagit

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with exponential stability and stabilization of switched linear systems with interval time-varying delays. The time delay is any continuous function belonging to a given interval, in which the lower bound of delay is not restricted to zero. By constructing a suitable augmented Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional combined with Leibniz-Newton-s formula, a switching rule for the exponential stability and stabilization of switched linear systems with interval time-varying delays and new delay-dependent sufficient conditions for the exponential stability and stabilization of the systems are first established in terms of LMIs. Numerical examples are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the results.

Keywords: Switching design, exponential stability and stabilization, switched linear systems, interval delay, Lyapunov function, linear matrix inequalities.

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2293 Relaxing Convergence Constraints in Local Priority Hysteresis Switching Logic

Authors: Mubarak Alhajri

Abstract:

This paper addresses certain inherent limitations of local priority hysteresis switching logic. Our main result establishes that under persistent excitation assumption, it is possible to relax constraints requiring strict positivity of local priority and hysteresis switching constants. Relaxing these constraints allows the adaptive system to reach optimality which implies the performance improvement. The unconstrained local priority hysteresis switching logic is examined and conditions for global convergence are derived.

Keywords: Adaptive control, convergence, hysteresis constant, hysteresis switching.

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2292 Stabilization of Nonnecessarily Inversely Stable First-Order Adaptive Systems under Saturated Input

Authors: M. De la Sen, O. Barambones

Abstract:

This paper presents an indirect adaptive stabilization scheme for first-order continuous-time systems under saturated input which is described by a sigmoidal function. The singularities are avoided through a modification scheme for the estimated plant parameter vector so that its associated Sylvester matrix is guaranteed to be non-singular and then the estimated plant model is controllable. The modification mechanism involves the use of a hysteresis switching function. An alternative hybrid scheme, whose estimated parameters are updated at sampling instants is also given to solve a similar adaptive stabilization problem. Such a scheme also uses hysteresis switching for modification of the parameter estimates so as to ensure the controllability of the estimated plant model.

Keywords: Hybrid dynamic systems, discrete systems, saturated input, control, stabilization.

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2291 Implementation and Simulation of Half-Bridge Series Resonant Inverter in Zero Voltage Switching

Authors: Buket Turan Azizoğlu

Abstract:

In switch mode power inverters, small sized inverters can be obtained by increasing the switching frequency. Switching frequency increment causes high driver losses. Also, high dt di and dt dv produced by the switching action creates high Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and Radio Frequency Interference (RFI). In this paper, a series half bridge series resonant inverter circuit is simulated and evaluated practically to demonstrate the turn-on and turn-off conditions during zero or close to zero voltage switching. Also, the reverse recovery current effects of the body diode of the MOSFETs were investigated by operating above and below resonant frequency.

Keywords: Driver losses, Half Bridge series resonant inverter, Zero Voltage Switching

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2290 Code-Switching in Facebook Chatting Among Maldivian Teenagers

Authors: Aaidha Hammad

Abstract:

This study examines the phenomenon of code switching among teenagers in the Maldives while they carry out conversations through Facebook in the form of “Facebook Chatting”. The current study aims at evaluating the frequency of code-switching and it investigates between what languages code-switching occurs. Besides the study identifies the types of words that are often codeswitched and the triggers for code switching. The methodology used in this study is mixed method of qualitative and quantitative approach. In this regard, the chat log of a group conversation between 10 teenagers was collected and analyzed. A questionnaire was also administered through online to 24 different teenagers from different corners of the Maldives. The age of teenagers ranged between 16 and 19 years. The findings of the current study revealed that while Maldivian teenagers chat in Facebook they very often code switch and these switches are most commonly between Dhivehi and English, but some other languages are also used to some extent. It also identified the different types of words that are being often code switched among the teenagers. Most importantly it explored different reasons behind code switching among the Maldivian teenagers in Facebook chatting.

Keywords: Code-switching, Facebook, Facebook chatting Maldivian teenagers.

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2289 Using Genetic Algorithms in Closed Loop Identification of the Systems with Variable Structure Controller

Authors: O.M. Mohamed vall, M. Radhi

Abstract:

This work presents a recursive identification algorithm. This algorithm relates to the identification of closed loop system with Variable Structure Controller. The approach suggested includes two stages. In the first stage a genetic algorithm is used to obtain the parameters of switching function which gives a control signal rich in commutations (i.e. a control signal whose spectral characteristics are closest possible to those of a white noise signal). The second stage consists in the identification of the system parameters by the instrumental variable method and using the optimal switching function parameters obtained with the genetic algorithm. In order to test the validity of this algorithm a simulation example is presented.

Keywords: Closed loop identification, variable structure controller, pseud-random binary sequence, genetic algorithms.

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2288 A Comprehensive Evaluation of IGBTs Performance under Zero Current Switching

Authors: Ly. Benbahouche

Abstract:

Currently, several soft switching topologies have been studied to achieve high power switching efficiency, reduced cost, improved reliability and reduced parasites. It is well known that improvement in power electronics systems always depend on advanced in power devices. The IGBT has been successfully used in a variety of switching applications such as motor drives and appliance control because of its superior characteristics.

The aim of this paper is focuses on simulation and explication of the internal dynamics of IGBTs behaviour under the most popular soft switching schemas that is Zero Current Switching (ZCS) environments.

The main purpose of this paper is to point out some mechanisms relating to current tail during the turn-off and examination of the response at turn-off with variation of temperature, inductance L, snubber capacitors Cs, and bus voltage in order to achieve an improved understanding of internal carrier dynamics. It is shown that the snubber capacitor, the inductance and even the temperature controls the magnitude and extent of the tail current, hence the turn-off time (switching speed of the device).

Moreover, it has also been demonstrated that the ZCS switching can be utilized efficiently to improve and reduce the power losses as well as the turn-off time. Furthermore, the turn-off loss in ZCS was found to depend on the time of switching of the device.

Keywords: PT-IGBT, ZCS, turn-off losses, dV/dt.

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2287 Comparison of Zero Voltage Soft Switching and Hard Switching Boost Converter with Maximum Power Point Tracking

Authors: N. Ravi Kumar, R. Kamalakannan

Abstract:

The inherent nature of normal boost converter has more voltage stress across the power electronics switch and ripple. The presented formation of the front end rectifier stage for a photovoltaic (PV) organization is mainly used to give the supply. Further increasing of the solar efficiency is achieved by connecting the zero voltage soft switching boost converter. The zero voltage boost converter is used to convert the low level DC voltage to high level DC voltage. The inherent nature of zero voltage switching boost converter is used to shrink the voltage tension across the power electronics switch and ripple. The input stage allows the determined power point tracking to be used to extract supreme power from the sun when it is available. The hardware setup was implemented by using PIC Micro controller (16F877A).

Keywords: Boost converter, duty cycle, hard switching, MOSFET, maximum power point tracking, photovoltaic, soft switching, zero voltage switching.

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2286 Synchronization Technique for Random Switching Frequency Pulse-Width Modulation

Authors: Apinan Aurasopon, Worawat Sa-ngiavibool

Abstract:

This paper proposes a synchronized random switching frequency pulse width modulation (SRSFPWM). In this technique, the clock signal is used to control the random noise frequency which is produced by the feedback voltage of a hysteresis circuit. These make the triangular carrier frequency equaling to the random noise frequency in each switching period with the symmetrical positive and negative slopes of triangular carrier. Therefore, there is no error voltage in PWM signal. The PSpice simulated results shown the proposed technique improved the performance in case of low frequency harmonics of PWM signal comparing with conventional random switching frequency PWM.

Keywords: Random switching frequency pulse - width modulation.

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2285 Multi-Level Pulse Width Modulation to Boost the Power Efficiency of Switching Amplifiers for Analog Signals with Very High Crest Factor

Authors: Jan Doutreloigne

Abstract:

The main goal of this paper is to develop a switching amplifier with optimized power efficiency for analog signals with a very high crest factor such as audio or DSL signals. Theoretical calculations show that a switching amplifier architecture based on multi-level pulse width modulation outperforms all other types of linear or switching amplifiers in that respect. Simulations on a 2 W multi-level switching audio amplifier, designed in a 50 V 0.35 mm IC technology, confirm its superior performance in terms of power efficiency. A real silicon implementation of this audio amplifier design is currently underway to provide experimental validation.

Keywords: Audio amplifier, multi-level switching amplifier, power efficiency, pulse width modulation, PWM, self-oscillating amplifier.

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2284 Switching Behaviors of TiN/HfOx/Pt Based RRAM

Authors: B. B. Weng, Z. Fang, Z. X. Chen, X. P. Wang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong

Abstract:

Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) had received great amount of attention from various research efforts in recent years, owing to its promising performance as a next generation memory device. In this paper, samples based on TiN/HfOx/Pt stack were prepared and its electrical switching behaviors were characterized and discussed in brief.

Keywords: HfOx, resistive switching, RRAM.

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2283 Comparison of Different Discontinuous PWM Technique for Switching Losses Reduction in Modular Multilevel Converters

Authors: Kaumil B. Shah, Hina Chandwani

Abstract:

The modular multilevel converter (MMC) is one of the advanced topologies for medium and high-voltage applications. In high-power, high-voltage MMC, a large number of switching power devices are required. These switching power devices (IGBT) considerable switching losses. This paper analyzes the performance of different discontinuous pulse width modulation (DPWM) techniques and compares the results against a conventional carrier based pulse width modulation method, in order to reduce the switching losses of an MMC. The DPWM reference wave can be generated by adding the zero-sequence component to the original (sine) reference modulation signal. The result of the addition gives the reference signal of DPWM techniques. To minimize the switching losses of the MMC, the clamping period is controlled according to the absolute value of the output load current. No switching is generated in the clamping period so overall switching of the power device is reduced. The simulation result of the different DPWM techniques is compared with conventional carrier-based pulse-width modulation technique.

Keywords: Modular multilevel converter, discontinuous pulse width modulation, switching losses, zero-sequence voltage.

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2282 Integration of Resistive Switching Memory Cell with Vertical Nanowire Transistor

Authors: Xiang Li, Zhixian Chen, Zheng Fang, Aashit Kamath, Xinpeng Wang, Navab Singh, Guo-Qiang Lo, Dim-Lee Kwong

Abstract:

We integrate TiN/Ni/HfO2/Si RRAM cell with a vertical gate-all-around (GAA) nanowire transistor to achieve compact 4F2 footprint in a 1T1R configuration. The tip of the Si nanowire (source of the transistor) serves as bottom electrode of the memory cell. Fabricated devices with nanowire diameter ~ 50nm demonstrate ultra-low current/power switching; unipolar switching with 10μA/30μW SET and 20μA/30μW RESET and bipolar switching with 20nA/85nW SET and 0.2nA/0.7nW RESET. Further, the switching current is found to scale with nanowire diameter making the architecture promising for future scaling.

Keywords: RRAM, 1T1R, gate-all-around FET, nanowire FET, vertical MOSFETs

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2281 A Novel Zero Voltage Transition Synchronous Buck Converter for Portable Application

Authors: S. Pattnaik, A. K. Panda, Aroul K., K. K. Mahapatra

Abstract:

This paper proposes a zero-voltage transition (ZVT) PWM synchronous buck converter, which is designed to operate at low output voltage and high efficiency typically required for portable systems. To make the DC-DC converter efficient at lower voltage, synchronous converter is an obvious choice because of lower conduction loss in the diode. The high-side MOSFET is dominated by the switching losses and it is eliminated by the soft switching technique. Additionally, the resonant auxiliary circuit designed is also devoid of the switching losses. The suggested procedure ensures an efficient converter. Theoretical analysis, computer simulation, and experimental results are presented to explain the proposed schemes.

Keywords: DC-DC Converter, Switching loss, Synchronous Buck, Soft switching, ZVT.

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2280 A Supervisory Scheme for Step-Wise Safe Switching Controllers

Authors: Fotis N. Koumboulis, Maria P. Tzamtzi

Abstract:

A supervisory scheme is proposed that implements Stepwise Safe Switching Logic. The functionality of the supervisory scheme is organized in the following eight functional units: Step- Wise Safe Switching unit, Common controllers design unit, Experimentation unit, Simulation unit, Identification unit, Trajectory cruise unit, Operating points unit and Expert system unit. The supervisory scheme orchestrates both the off-line preparative actions, as well as the on-line actions that implement the Stepwise Safe Switching Logic. The proposed scheme is a generic tool, that may be easily applied for a variety of industrial control processes and may be implemented as an automation software system, with the use of a high level programming environment, like Matlab.

Keywords: Supervisory systems, safe switching, nonlinear systems.

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2279 Hybrid Modeling and Optimal Control of a Two-Tank System as a Switched System

Authors: H. Mahboubi, B. Moshiri, A. Khaki Seddigh

Abstract:

In the past decade, because of wide applications of hybrid systems, many researchers have considered modeling and control of these systems. Since switching systems constitute an important class of hybrid systems, in this paper a method for optimal control of linear switching systems is described. The method is also applied on the two-tank system which is a much appropriate system to analyze different modeling and control techniques of hybrid systems. Simulation results show that, in this method, the goals of control and also problem constraints can be satisfied by an appropriate selection of cost function.

Keywords: Hybrid systems, optimal control, switched systems, two-tank system

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2278 Resistive Switching in TaN/AlNx/TiN Cell

Authors: Hsin-Ping Huang, Shyankay Jou

Abstract:

Resistive switching of aluminum nitride (AlNx) thin film was demonstrated in a TaN/AlNx/TiN memory cell that was prepared by sputter deposition techniques. The memory cell showed bipolar switching of resistance between +3.5 V and –3.5 V. The resistance ratio of high resistance state (HRS) to low resistance state (HRS), RHRS/RLRS, was about 2 over 100 cycles of endurance test. Both the LRS and HRS of the memory cell exhibited ohmic conduction at low voltages and Poole-Frenkel emission at high voltages. The electrical conduction in the TaN/AlNx/TiN memory cell was possibly attributed to the interactions between charges and defects in the AlNx film.

Keywords: Aluminum nitride, nonvolatile memory, resistive switching, thin films.

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2277 Power Factor Correction Based on High Switching Frequency Resonant Power Converter

Authors: B. Sathyanandhi, P. M. Balasubramaniam

Abstract:

This paper presents Buck-Boost converter topology to maintain the input power factor by using the power factor stage control and regulation stage control. Suppose, if we are using the RL load the power factor will be reduced due to the presence of total harmonic distortion in the current wave. To improve the power factor the current waveform should follow the fundamental component of the voltage waveform. These can be achieved by using the high -frequency power converter. Based on the resonant circuit the converter is able to perform the function of Buck, Boost, and buck-boost converter. Here ,we have used Buck-Boost converter, because, the buck-boost converter has more advantages than the boost converter. Here the switching action of the power converter can  take place by using the external zero comparator PFC stage control. The power converter consisting of the resonant  circuit which is used to control the output voltage gain of the converter. The power converter is operated at a very high switching frequency in the range of 400KHz in order to overcome the switching losses of the power converter. Due to  presence of high switching frequency, the power factor will improve. Therefore, the total harmonics distortion present in the current waveform has also reduced. These results has generated in the form of simulation by using MATLAB/SIMULINK software.  Similar to the Buck and Boost converters, the operation of the Buck-Boost has best understood, in terms of the inductor's "reluctance" for allowing rapid change in current, which also reduces the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) in the input current waveform, which can improve the input Power factor, based on the type of load used.

Keywords: Buck-boost converter, High switching frequency, Power factor correction, power factor correction stage Regulation stage, Total harmonic distortion (THD).

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2276 Efficiency Enhancement of PWM Controlled Water Electrolysis Cells

Authors: S.K. Mazloomi, Nasri b. Sulaiman

Abstract:

By analyzing the sources of energy and power loss in PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) controlled drivers of water electrolysis cells, it is possible to reduce the power dissipation and enhance the efficiency of such hydrogen production units. A PWM controlled power driver is based on a semiconductor switching element where its power dissipation might be a remarkable fraction of the total power demand of an electrolysis system. Power dissipation in a semiconductor switching element is related to many different parameters which could be fitted into two main categories: switching losses and conduction losses. Conduction losses are directly related to the built, structure and capabilities of a switching device itself and indeed the conditions in which the element is handling the switching application such as voltage, current, temperature and of course the fabrication technology. On the other hand, switching losses have some other influencing variables other than the mentioned such as control system, switching method and power electronics circuitry of the PWM power driver. By analyzings the characteristics of recently developed power switching transistors from different families of Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT), Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET) and Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT), some recommendations are made in this paper which are able to lead to achieve higher hydrogen production efficiency by utilizing PWM controlled water electrolysis cells.

Keywords: Power switch, PWM, Semiconductor switch, Waterelectrolysis

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2275 Slip Suppression Sliding Mode Control with Various Chattering Functions

Authors: Shun Horikoshi, Tohru Kawabe

Abstract:

This study presents performance analysis results of SMC (Sliding mode control) with changing the chattering functions applied to slip suppression problem of electric vehicles (EVs). In SMC, chattering phenomenon always occurs through high frequency switching of the control inputs. It is undesirable phenomenon and degrade the control performance, since it causes the oscillations of the control inputs. Several studies have been conducted on this problem by introducing some general saturation function. However, study about whether saturation function was really best and the performance analysis when using the other functions, weren’t being done so much. Therefore, in this paper, several candidate functions for SMC are selected and control performance of candidate functions is analyzed. In the analysis, evaluation function based on the trade-off between slip suppression performance and chattering reduction performance is proposed. The analyses are conducted in several numerical simulations of slip suppression problem of EVs. Then, we can see that there is no difference of employed candidate functions in chattering reduction performance. On the other hand, in slip suppression performance, the saturation function is excellent overall. So, we conclude the saturation function is most suitable for slip suppression sliding mode control.

Keywords: Sliding mode control, chattering function, electric vehicle, slip suppression, performance analysis.

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2274 Optimal Switching Strategies for Tracking of Currents of Voltage Source Converters

Authors: R. Oloomi, M. A. Sadrnia

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new optimal feedback controller for voltage source converters VSC's, for current regulated voltage source converters, which allows compensate the harmonics of current produced by nonlinear loads and load reactive power. The aim of the present paper is to describe a novel switching signal generation technique called optimal controller which guarantees that the injected currents follow the reference currents determined by the compensation strategy, with the smallest possible tracking error and fixed switching frequency. It is compared with well-known hysteresis current controller HCC. The validity of presented method and its comparison with HCC is studied through simulation results.

Keywords: Hysteresis Current Controller, Optimal Controller, Switching pattern, Voltage Source Converter.

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2273 Pulse Skipping Modulated DC to DC Step Down Converter Under Discontinuous Conduction Mode

Authors: Ramamurthy S, Ranjan P V, Raghavendiran T A

Abstract:

Reduced switching loss favours Pulse Skipping Modulation mode of switching dc-to-dc converters at light loads. Under certain conditions the converter operates in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM). Inductor current starts from zero in each switching cycle as the switching frequency is constant and not adequately high. A DC-to-DC buck converter is modelled and simulated in this paper under DCM. Effect of ESR of the filter capacitor in input current frequency components is studied. The converter is studied for its operation under input voltage and load variation. The operating frequency is selected to be close to and above audio range.

Keywords: Buck converter, Discontinuous conduction mode, Electromagnetic Interference, Pulse Skipping Modulation.

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2272 Implementation the Average Input Current Mode Control of Two-Phase Interleaved Boost Converter Using Low-Cost Microcontroller

Authors: Yin Yin Phyo, Tun Lin Naing

Abstract:

In this paper, the average input current mode control is proposed for two-phase interleaved boost converter with two separate input inductors operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM). The required mathematical model is obtained from the equivalent circuits of its different four modes of operation. The small ripple approximation is derived to find the transfer functions from dynamic model using switching function. In average input current mode control, the inner current loop and outer voltage loop are designed with PI controller using bode analysis. Anti-windup structure is applied for PI controllers in control system. Moreover, the simulation work is carried out by MATLAB/Simulink. And, the hardware prototype is implemented by using low-cost microcontroller Arduino Nano. Finally, the laboratory prototype, available from the local market, is constructed to validate the mathematical model. The results show that the output voltage response is the faster rise time and settling time with acceptable overshoot.

Keywords: Average input current mode control, interleaved boost converter, low-cost microcontroller, PI controller, switching function.

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2271 A Single Switch High Step-Up DC/DC Converter with Zero Current Switching Condition

Authors: Rahil Samani, Saeed Soleimani, Ehsan Adib, Majid Pahlevani

Abstract:

This paper presents an inverting high step-up DC/DC converter. Basically, this high step-up DC/DC converter is an appealing interface for solar applications. The proposed topology takes advantage of using coupled inductors. Due to the leakage inductances of these coupled inductors, the power MOSFET has the zero current switching (ZCS) condition, which results in decreased switching losses. This will substantially improve the overall efficiency of the power converter. Furthermore, employing coupled inductors has led to a higher voltage gain. Theoretical analysis and experimental results of a 100W 20V/220V prototype are presented to verify the superior performance of the proposed DC/DC converter.

Keywords: Coupled inductors, high step-up DC/DC converter, zero-current switching, cuk converter, sepic converter.

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2270 Realization of a Temperature Based Automatic Controlled Domestic Electric Boiling System

Authors: Shengqi Yu, Jinwei Zhao

Abstract:

This paper presents a kind of analog circuit based temperature control system, which is mainly composed by threshold control signal circuit, synchronization signal circuit and trigger pulse circuit. Firstly, the temperature feedback signal function is realized by temperature sensor TS503F3950E. Secondly, the main control circuit forms the cycle controlled pulse signal to control the thyristor switching model. Finally two reverse paralleled thyristors regulate the output power by their switching state. In the consequence, this is a modernized and energy-saving domestic electric heating system.

Keywords: Time base circuit, automatic control, zero-crossing trigger, temperature control.

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2269 Low Power Bus Binding Based on Dynamic Bit Reordering

Authors: Jihyung Kim, Taejin Kim, Sungho Park, Jun-Dong Cho

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem of reducing switching activity in on-chip buses at the stage of high-level synthesis is considered, and a high-level low power bus binding based on dynamic bit reordering is proposed. Whereas conventional methods use a fixed bit ordering between variables within a bus, the proposed method switches a bit ordering dynamically to obtain a switching activity reduction. As a result, the proposed method finds a binding solution with a smaller value of total switching activity (TSA). Experimental result shows that the proposed method obtains a binding solution having 12.0-34.9% smaller TSA compared with the conventional methods.

Keywords: bit reordering, bus binding, low power, switching activity matrix

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2268 A Single Phase ZVT-ZCT Power Factor Correction Boost Converter

Authors: Yakup Sahin, Naim Suleyman Ting, Ismail Aksoy

Abstract:

In this paper, a single phase soft switched Zero Voltage Transition and Zero Current Transition (ZVT-ZCT) Power Factor Correction (PFC) boost converter is proposed. In the proposed PFC converter, the main switch turns on with ZVT and turns off with ZCT without any additional voltage or current stresses. Auxiliary switch turns on and off with zero current switching (ZCS). Also, the main diode turns on with zero voltage switching (ZVS) and turns off with ZCS. The proposed converter has features like low cost, simple control and structure. The output current and voltage are controlled by the proposed PFC converter in wide line and load range. The theoretical analysis of converter is clarified and the operating steps are given in detail. The simulation results of converter are obtained for 500 W and 100 kHz. It is observed that the semiconductor devices operate with soft switching (SS) perfectly. So, the switching power losses are minimum. Also, the proposed converter has 0.99 power factor with sinusoidal current shape.

Keywords: Power factor correction, zero-voltage transition, zero-current transition, soft switching.

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2267 Energy Recovery Soft Switching Improved Efficiency Half Bridge Inverter for Electronic Ballast Applications

Authors: A. Yazdanpanah Goharrizi

Abstract:

An improved topology of a voltage-fed quasi-resonant soft switching LCrCdc series-parallel half bridge inverter with a constant-frequency for electronic ballast applications is proposed in this paper. This new topology introduces a low-cost solution to reduce switching losses and circuit rating to achieve high-efficiency ballast. Switching losses effect on ballast efficiency is discussed through experimental point of view. In this discussion, an improved topology in which accomplishes soft switching operation over a wide power regulation range is proposed. The proposed structure uses reverse recovery diode to provide better operation for the ballast system. A symmetrical pulse wide modulation (PWM) control scheme is implemented to regulate a wide range of out-put power. Simulation results are kindly verified with the experimental measurements obtained by ballast-lamp laboratory prototype. Different load conditions are provided in order to clarify the performance of the proposed converter.

Keywords: Electronic ballast, Pulse wide modulation (PWM) Reverse recovery diode, Soft switching.

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