Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 613

Search results for: Mohammed Khenfouch

613 Graphene Materials for Efficient Hybrid Solar Cells: A Spectroscopic Investigation

Authors: Mohammed Khenfouch, Fokotsa V. Molefe, Bakang M. Mothudi

Abstract:

Nowadays, graphene and its composites are universally known as promising materials. They show their potential in a large field of applications including photovoltaics. This study reports on the role of nanohybrids and nanosystems known as strong light harvesters in the efficiency of graphene hybrid solar cells. Our system included Graphene/ZnO/Porphyrin/P3HT layers. Moreover, the physical properties including surface/interface, optical and vibrational properties were also studied. Our investigations confirmed the interaction between the different components as well as the sensitivity of their photonics to the synthesis conditions. Remarkable energy and charge transfer were detected and deeply investigated. Hence, the optimization of the conditions will lead to the fabrication of higher conversion efficiency in graphene solar cells.

Keywords: Optoelectronics, Graphene, Solar Cells, nanohybrids

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612 Microwave Assisted Growth of Varied Phases and Morphologies of Vanadium Oxides Nanostructures: Structural and Optoelectronic Properties

Authors: Mohammed Khenfouch, Malik Maaza, Bakang M. Mothudi, Issam Derkaoui, Izeddine Zorkani, Anouar Jorio

Abstract:

Transition metal oxides nanoparticles with different morphologies have attracted a lot of attention recently owning to their distinctive geometries, and demonstrated promising electrical properties for various applications. In this paper, we discuss the time and annealing effects on the structural and electrical properties of vanadium oxides nanoparticles (VO-NPs) prepared by microwave method. In this sense, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-visible absorbance spectra (Uv-Vis) and electrical conductivity were investigated. Hence, the annealing state and the time are two crucial parameters for the improvement of the optoelectronic properties. The use of these nanostructures is promising way for the development of technological applications especially for energy storage devices.

Keywords: Microwave, Electrical Conductivity, optoelectronic properties, Vanadium oxide

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611 Hafnium Doped Zno Nanostructures: An Eco-Friendly Synthesis for Optoelectronic Applications

Authors: Mohammed Khenfouch, Izeddine Zorkani, Mohamed Achehboune, Issam Boukhoubza, Bakang Mothudi, Anouar Jorio

Abstract:

Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanostructures have been attracting growing interest in recent years; their optical and electrical properties make them useful as attractive and promising materials for optoelectronic applications. In this study, pure and Hafnium doped ZnO nanostructures were synthesized using a green processing method. The structural, optical and electrical properties of samples were investigated structural and optical spectroscopies and electrical measurements. The synthesis and chemical composition of pure and Hafnium doped ZnO were confirmed by SEM observation. The XRD studies of Hafnium doped ZnO demonstrate the formation of wurtzite structure with preferred c-axis orientation. Moreover, the optical and electrical properties of doped material have improved after the doping process. The experimental results obtained for our material show that Hf doped ZnO nanostructures could be a promising material in optoelectronic applications such as photovoltaic cell and light emitting diode devices.

Keywords: Nanostructures, Optoelectronic, Green Synthesis, hafnium-doped-zinc oxide

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610 Analysis of Technical Efficiency and Its Determinants among Cattle Fattening Enterprises in Kebbi State, Nigeria

Authors: Gona Ayuba, Isiaka Mohammed, Kotom Mohammed Baba, Mohammed Aabubakar Maikasuwa

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The study examined the technical efficiency and its determinants of cattle fattening enterprises in Kebbi state, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample of 160 fatteners between June 2010 and June 2011 using the multistage random sampling technique. Translog stochastic frontier production function was employed for the analysis. Results of the analysis show that technical efficiency indices varied from 0.74 to 0.98%, with a mean of 0.90%, indicating that there was no wide gap between the efficiency of best technical efficient fatteners and that of the average fattener. The result also showed that fattening experience and herd size influenced the level of technical efficiency at 1% levels. It is recommended that credit agencies should ensure that credit made available to the fatteners is monitored to ensure appropriate utilization.

Keywords: Cattle, technical efficiency, determinants, fattening enterprises

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609 Assessment of Solid Waste Management in General Mohammed Inuwa Wushishi Housing Estate, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: Kudu Dangana, Mohammed, Garba Inuwa Kuta, Adamu, Mohammed Ahmed Emigilati, Ibrahim Ishiaku

Abstract:

The study sought to identify the problems of solid waste management in General Mohammed InuwaWushishi Housing Estate. The two broad types of data, the secondary and primary data were used in the study. Questionnaires and personal observations were also used to collect some of the data. Factors impeding the effective and efficient solid waste management were identified. The study revealed that sacks disposal method and open dumping are the most commonly used method of disposal, about 30.0% of the respondent use sacks disposal method in the estate while 24.9% dump their refuse on the floor. Wrong attitudes and perceptions of the people about sanitation issues contributed to solid waste management problems of General Mohammed InuwaWushishi Housing Estate. Majority of the households did not educate their members on the need to clean their surroundings and refuse to buy drum for waste disposal from Niger State Environmental Protection Agency (NISEPA) on the basis that the drums are expensive. Virtually, all the people depended on Niger State Environmental Protection Agency (NISEPA) facilities for the disposal of their household refuse. Solid waste management problems were partly the results of NISEPA’s inability to cope with the situation because of lack of equipment. It was recommended that there should be an increase in enlightenment to the people on domestic waste disposal to keep the surroundings clean.

Keywords: Management, Assessment, Disposal, Solid Waste, housing estate

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608 Women Entrepreneurs’ in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Mohammed Mainoma, Abubakar Tijanni, Mohammed Aliyu

Abstract:

Globalization has brought a structural change in industry. It is the breaking of artificial boundaries and given way to new product, new service, new market, and new technology among others. It leads to the realization that men entrepreneurs’ alone cannot meet the demand of the teeming population. Therefore there is a need for the participation, involvement, and engagement of females in the production and distribution of goods and services. This will enhance growth and development of a nation. It is in line with the above that this paper attempt to discuss meaning of women entrepreneurs, roles, types, problems, and prospects. Also, on the basis of conclusion the paper recommended that entrepreneurship education should be introduced in all Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria.

Keywords: Challenges, Women, Entrepreneurs, Issues

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607 Serological Screening of Cytomegalovirus Infection among Sudanese Patients with Leukemia, Breast and Prostate Cancers at Radiation-Isotope Center in Khartoum

Authors: Abuelquasim. M. Hassan, Namarig .S. Mohammed, Samah F. Mohammed, Wafaa. A. Mohammed, Wafaa M. Edriss, Amel A. Ahmed, Elfadil M. Abass

Abstract:

Introduction: Cytomegalovirus (CMV), a common virus, usually causes asymptomatic infections in immunocompetent hosts; however, it may lead to serious complications especially in cancer patients. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) among leukemia, breast and prostate cancer patients attending at Radiation Isotope-Center-Khartoum (RICK) from April to August 2016. Material and Methods: A total of 91 subjects were included: 30 leukemic, 22 breast cancer and 29 prostate cancer patients.10 of them were healthy and used as control group, serum samples were collected and tested for CMV IgG & IgM using enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA). Result: Of the control group, 9/10 (9.9%) were seropositive for CMV IgG and 1/10 (1.09%) were sero positive for IgM. Also, all cancer groups demonstrated presence of IgG antibody classes as: The percentage of positive results in prostate, breast cancer and leukemia were 35.8 %, 37.2%, and 35.3% respectively. Conclusion: There was no significant correlation between leukemia, breast, prostate and HCMV.

Keywords: Leukemia, Breast Cancer, cytomegalovirus, serodiagnostic

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606 Orientational Pair Correlation Functions Modelling of the LiCl6H2O by the Hybrid Reverse Monte Carlo: Using an Environment Dependence Interaction Potential

Authors: Rafik Benallal, Mohammed Habchi, Sidi Mohammed Mesli, Mohammed Kotbi

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On the basis of four partial correlation functions and some geometric constraints obtained from neutron scattering experiments, a Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulation has been performed in the study of the aqueous electrolyte LiCl6H2O at the glassy state. The obtained 3-dimensional model allows computing pair radial and orientational distribution functions in order to explore the structural features of the system. Unrealistic features appeared in some coordination peaks. To remedy to this, we use the Hybrid Reverse Monte Carlo (HRMC), incorporating an additional energy constraint in addition to the usual constraints derived from experiments. The energy of the system is calculated using an Environment Dependence Interaction Potential (EDIP). Ions effects is studied by comparing correlations between water molecules in the solution and in pure water at room temperature Our results show a good agreement between experimental and computed partial distribution functions (PDFs) as well as a significant improvement in orientational distribution curves.

Keywords: LiCl6H2O, glassy state, RMC, HRMC

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605 Quantification of Methane Emissions from Solid Waste in Oman Using IPCC Default Methodology

Authors: Wajeeha A. Qazi, Mohammed-Hasham Azam, Umais A. Mehmood, Ghithaa A. Al-Mufragi, Noor-Alhuda Alrawahi, Mohammed F. M. Abushammala

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Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposed in landfill sites decompose under anaerobic conditions and produce gases which mainly contain carbon dioxide (CO₂) and methane (CH₄). Methane has the potential of causing global warming 25 times more than CO₂, and can potentially affect human life and environment. Thus, this research aims to determine MSW generation and the annual CH₄ emissions from the generated waste in Oman over the years 1971-2030. The estimation of total waste generation was performed using existing models, while the CH₄ emissions estimation was performed using the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) default method. It is found that total MSW generation in Oman might be reached 3,089 Gg in the year 2030, which approximately produced 85 Gg of CH₄ emissions in the year 2030.

Keywords: Emissions, methane, Solid Waste, landfills

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604 Morphological Features Fusion for Identifying INBREAST-Database Masses Using Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines

Authors: Nadia el Atlas, Mohammed el Aroussi, Mohammed Wahbi

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In this paper a novel technique of mass characterization based on robust features-fusion is presented. The proposed method consists of mainly four stages: (a) the first phase involves segmenting the masses using edge information’s. (b) The second phase is to calculate and fuse the most relevant morphological features. (c) The last phase is the classification step which allows us to classify the images into benign and malignant masses. In this step we have implemented Support Vectors Machines (SVM) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), which were evaluated with the following performance criteria: confusion matrix, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, receiver operating characteristic ROC, and error histogram. The effectiveness of this new approach was evaluated by a recently developed database: INBREAST database. The fusion of the most appropriate morphological features provided very good results. The SVM gives accuracy to within 64.3%. Whereas the ANN classifier gives better results with an accuracy of 97.5%.

Keywords: Fusion, Breast Cancer, Mammography, features, CAD system

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603 An Analysis of the Influence of Employee Readiness for Change on TQM Implementation

Authors: Khalil Al-Hyari, Mohammed Hamdan, Ramadane Djbarni, Mohamed Haffar, Mohammed Khair Abu Zaid

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While employee readiness for change (ERFC) is recognised as critical for total quality management (TQM) implementation, there is a lack of systematic and empirical studies regarding the relationship between ERFC dimensions and TQM. Therefore, this study proposes to fill this gap by providing empirical evidence leading to advancement in the understanding of the influences of ERFC components on TQM implementation. The empirical data for this study was drawn from a survey of 400 middle and senior managers of Jordanian firms. The analysis of the collected data, which was conducted using Structural Equation Modeling technique, revealed that three of the ERFC components, namely personally beneficial, change self-efficacy and management support are the most supportive ERFC dimensions for TQM implementation. Therefore, this paper makes a novel contribution by providing a refined and deeper comprehension of the relationships between ERFCs and TQM implementation.

Keywords: Total Quality Management, jordan, manufacturing organisations, employee readiness for change

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602 On the Performance of Improvised Generalized M-Estimator in the Presence of High Leverage Collinearity Enhancing Observations

Authors: Sohel Rana, Habshah Midi, Mohammed A. Mohammed

Abstract:

Multicollinearity occurs when two or more independent variables in a multiple linear regression model are highly correlated. The ridge regression is the commonly used method to rectify this problem. However, the ridge regression cannot handle the problem of multicollinearity which is caused by high leverage collinearity enhancing observation (HLCEO). Since high leverage points (HLPs) are responsible for inducing multicollinearity, the effect of HLPs needs to be reduced by using Generalized M estimator. The existing GM6 estimator is based on the Minimum Volume Ellipsoid (MVE) which tends to swamp some low leverage points. Hence an improvised GM (MGM) estimator is presented to improve the precision of the GM6 estimator. Numerical example and simulation study are presented to show how HLPs can cause multicollinearity. The numerical results show that our MGM estimator is the most efficient method compared to some existing methods.

Keywords: Identification, multicollinearity, high leverage points, GM-estimator, DRGP, DFFITS

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601 Improvement of Antibacterial Activity for Ceftazidime by Partially Purified Tannase from Penicillium expansum

Authors: Sahira N. Muslim, Alaa N. Mohammed, Saba Saadoon Khazaal, Batool Kadham Salman, Israa M. S. AL-Kadmy, Sraa N. Muslim, Ahmed S. Dwaish, Sawsan Mohammed Kareem, Sarah N. Aziz, Ruaa A. Jasim

Abstract:

Tannase has wide applications in food, beverage, brewing, cosmetics and chemical industries and one of the major applications of tannase is the production of gallic acid. Gallic acid is used for manufacturing of trimethoprim. In the present study, a local fungal strain of Penicillium expansum A4 isolated from spoilt apple samples gave the highest production level of tannase. Tannase was partially purified with a recovery yield of 92.52% and 6.32 fold of purification by precipitation using ammonium sulfate at 50% saturation. Tannase led to increased antimicrobial activity of ceftazidime against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and S. aureus and had a synergism effect at low concentrations of ceftazidime, and thus, tannase may be a useful adjuvant agent for the treatment of many bacterial infections in combination with ceftazidime.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, ceftazidime, Penicillium expansum, tannase

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600 Design and Study of a Parabolic Trough Solar Collector for Generating Electricity

Authors: A. A. A. Aboalnour, Ahmed M. Amasaib, Mohammed-Almujtaba A. Mohammed-Farah, Abdelhakam, A. Noreldien

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This paper presents a design and study of Parabolic Trough Solar Collector (PTC). Mathematical models were used in this work to find the direct and reflected solar radiation from the air layer on the surface of the earth per hour based on the total daily solar radiation on a horizontal surface. Also mathematical models had been used to calculate the radiation of the tilted surfaces. Most of the ingredients used in this project as previews data required on several solar energy applications, thermal simulation, and solar power systems. In addition, mathematical models had been used to study the flow of the fluid inside the tube (receiver), and study the effect of direct and reflected solar radiation on the pressure, temperature, speed, kinetic energy and forces of fluid inside the tube. Finally, the mathematical models had been used to study the (PTC) performances and estimate its thermal efficiency.

Keywords: Experimental, Radiation, Mathematical Models, CFD, parabolic trough

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599 Antitrypanosomal Activity of Stigmasterol: An in silico Approach

Authors: Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim, Aminu Mohammed

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Stigmasterol has previously been reported to possess antitrypanosomal activity using in vitro and in vivo models. However, the mechanism of antitrypanosomal activity is yet to be elucidated. In the present study, molecular docking was used to decipher the mode of interaction and binding affinity of stigmasterol to three known antitrypanosomal drug targets viz; adenosine kinase, ornithine decarboxylase and triose phosphate isomerase. Stigmasterol was found to bind to the selected trypanosomal enzymes with minimum binding energy of -4.2, -6.5 and -6.6 kcal/mol for adenosine kinase, ornithine decarboxylase, and triose phosphate isomerase respectively. However, hydrogen bond was not involved in the interaction of stigmasterol with all the three enzymes, but hydrophobic interaction seemed to play a vital role in the binding phenomenon which was predicted to be non-competitive like type of inhibition. It was concluded that binding to the three selected enzymes, especially triose phosphate isomerase, might be involved in the antitrypanosomal activity of stigmasterol but not mediated via a hydrogen bond interaction.

Keywords: Molecular Docking, in silico, stigmasterol, antitrypanosomal

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598 Genetics of Birth and Weaning Weight of Holstein, Friesians in Sudan

Authors: Safa A. Mohammed Ali, Ammar S. Ahamed, Mohammed Khair Abdalla

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The objectives of this study were to estimate the means and genetic parameters of birth and weaning weight of calves of pure Holstein-Friesian cows raised in Sudan. The traits studied were:*Weight at birth *Weight at weaning. The study also included some of the important factors that affected these traits. The data were analyzed using Harvey’s Least Squares and Maximum Likelihood programme. The results obtained showed that the overall mean weight at birth of the calves under study was 34.36±0.94kg. Male calves were found to be heavier than females; the difference between the sexes was highly significant (P<0.001). The mean weight at birth of male calves was 34.27±1.17 kg while that of females was 32.51±1.14kg. The effect of sex of calves, sire and parity of dam were highly significant (P<0.001). The overall mean of weight at weaning was 67.10 ± 5.05 kg, weight at weaning was significantly (p<0.001) effected by sex of calves, sire, year and season of birth have highly significant (P<0.001) effect on either trait. Also estimates heritabilities of birth weight was (0.033±0.015) lower than heritabilities of weaning weight (0.224±0.039), and genetic correlation was 0.563, the phenotypic correlation 0.281, and the environmental correlation 0.268.

Keywords: weight, birth, weaning, friesian

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597 Optimizing Exposure Parameters in Digital Mammography: A Study in Morocco

Authors: Talbi Mohammed, Oustous Aziz, Ben Messaoud Mounir, Sebihi Rajaa, Khalis Mohammed

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Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of death for women around the world. Screening mammography is the reference examination, due to its sensitivity for detecting small lesions and micro-calcifications. Therefore, it is essential to ensure quality mammographic examinations with the most optimal dose. These conditions depend on the choice of exposure parameters. Clinically, practices must be evaluated in order to determine the most appropriate exposure parameters. Material and Methods: We performed our measurements on a mobile mammography unit (PLANMED Sofie-classic.) in Morocco. A solid dosimeter (AGMS Radcal) and a MTM 100 phantom allow to quantify the delivered dose and the image quality. For image quality assessment, scores are defined by the rate of visible inserts (MTM 100 phantom), obtained and compared for each acquisition. Results: The results show that the parameters of the mammography unit on which we have made our measurements can be improved in order to offer a better compromise between image quality and breast dose. The last one can be reduced up from 13.27% to 22.16%, while preserving comparable image quality.

Keywords: Mammography, Image Quality, phantom, Breast Dose

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596 Pragmatic Discoursal Study of Hedging Constructions in English Language

Authors: Mohammed Hussein Ahmed, Bahar Mohammed Kareem

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This study is concerned with the pragmatic discoursal study of hedging constructions in English language. Hedging is a mitigated word used to lessen the impact of the utterance uttered by the speakers. Hedging could be either adverbs, adjectives, verbs and sometimes it may consist of clauses. It aims at finding out the extent to which speakers and participants of the discourse use hedging constructions during their conversations. The study also aims at finding out whether or not there are any significant differences in the types and functions of the frequency of hedging constructions employed by male and female. It is hypothesized that hedging constructions are frequent in English discourse more than any other languages due to its formality and that the frequency of the types and functions are influenced by the gender of the participants. To achieve the aims of the study, two types of procedures have been followed: theoretical and practical. The theoretical procedure consists of presenting a theoretical background of hedging topic which includes its definitions, etymology and theories. The practical procedure consists of selecting a sample of texts and analyzing them according to an adopted model. A number of conclusions will be drawn based on the findings of the study.

Keywords: Pragmatics, Theoretical, hedging, politeness

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595 Half Mode Substrate Integrated Wave Guide of Band Pass Filter Based to Defected Ground Structure Cells

Authors: Damou Mehdi, Feham Mohammed, Nouri Keltoum, Khazini Mohammed, Bouazza Tayb Habibi Chawki

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The Half mode SIW filter is treated by two softwares (HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulator) and CST (Computer Simulation Technology)). The filter HMSIW has a very simple structure and a very compact size. The simulated results by CST are presented and compared with the results simulated by a high-frequency structure simulator. Good agreement between the simulated CST and simulated results by HFSS is observed. By cascading two of them according to design requirement, a X-band bandpass filter is designed and simulated to meet compact size, low insertion loss, good return loss as well as second harmonic suppression. As an example, we designed the proposed HMSIW filter at X band by HFSS. The filter has a pass-band from 7.3 GHz to 9.8 GHz, and its relative operating fraction bandwidth is 29.5 %. There are one transmission zeros are located at 14.4 GHz.

Keywords: filter, substrate integrated waveguide, HMSIW, defected ground structures (DGS), simulation BPF

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594 Postmortem Analysis of Lidocaine in Women Died of Criminal Abortion

Authors: Mohammed A. Arishy, Sultan M. Alharbi, Mohammed A. Hakami, Farid M. Abualsail, Mohammad A. Attafi, Riyadh M. Tobaiqi, Hussain M. Alsalem, Ibraheem M. Attafi

Abstract:

Lidocaine is the most common local anesthetics used for para cervical block to reduce pain associated with surgical abortion. A 25-year-old pregnant woman who. She died before reaching hospital, and she was undergoing criminal abortion during the first trimester. In post-mortem investigations and autopsy shows no clear finding; therefore, toxic substances must be suspected and searched for routinely toxicology analysis. In this case report, the postmortem concentration of lidocaine was detected blood, brain, liver, kidney, and stomach. For lidocaine identification and quantification, sample was extracted using solid phase extraction and analyzed by GC-MS (Shimadzu, Japan). Initial screening and confirmatory analysis results showed that only lidocaine was detected in all collected samples, and no other toxic substances or alcohol were detected. The concentrations of lidocaine in samples were 19, 17, 14, 7, and 3 ug/m in the brain, blood, kidney, liver, and stomach, respectively. Lidocaine blood concentration (17 ug/ml) was toxic level and may result in death. Among the tissues, brain showed the highest level of lidocaine, followed by the kidney, liver, and stomach.

Keywords: Forensic Toxicology, GC-MS, lidocaine, postmortem

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593 Application of the Piloting Law Based on Adaptive Differentiators via Second Order Sliding Mode for a Fixed Wing Aircraft

Authors: Zaouche Mohammed, Amini Mohammed, Foughali Khaled, Hamissi Aicha, Aktouf Mohand Arezki, Boureghda Ilyes

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In this paper, we present a piloting law based on the adaptive differentiators via high order sliding mode controller, by using an aircraft in virtual simulated environment. To deal with the design of an autopilot controller, we propose a framework based on Software in the Loop (SIL) methodology and we use MicrosoftTM Flight Simulator (FS-2004) as the environment for plane simulation. The aircraft dynamic model is nonlinear, Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) and tightly coupled. The nonlinearity resides in the dynamic equations and also in the aerodynamic coefficients' variability. In our case, two (02) aircrafts are used in the flight tests, the Zlin-142 and MQ-1 Predator. For both aircrafts and in a very low altitude flight, we send the piloting control inputs to the aircraft which has stalled due to a command disconnection. Then, we present the aircraft’s dynamic behavior analysis while reestablishing the command transmission. Finally, a comparative study between the two aircraft’s dynamic behaviors is presented.

Keywords: Microsoft Flight Simulator, MQ-1 predator, adaptive differentiators, second order sliding modes, dynamic adaptation of the gains, Zlin-142

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592 E-Marketing Strategies and Destination Branding for the Tourism Industry in Nigeria

Authors: Murtala Mohammed Alamai, Abdullahi Marshal Idris, Adama Jummai Idris, Bello Mohammed Gwagwada

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The technological revolution of the 1990s have brought about many new opportunities and challenges for the tourism and hospitality industries mostly in Nigeria and with tourism having global industry information as its life-blood and technology becoming fundamental to the ability of the industry to operate effectively and competitively. The whole system of information technologies is being rapidly diffused throughout the tourism industry and no player will escape information technologies impacts. The paper gives an insight into the importance of destination branding and the application of information technologies and the use of Internet in tourism and hospitality industries in Nigeria giving strategic frameworks, providing analysis of the Internet and its impact on these sectors. It also aims to show how technological innovations and information system can be beneficial for destinations companies like game reserves national parks, and other resorts by using the literature of existing efforts in global industry players as well as documented evidences where recommendations for destinations and companies is made to seek to foster the development of this connection by investing considerable resources in marketing activities on social networks and by reinforcing the trust of users, because credibility and reliability are still critical in this area.

Keywords: Marketing, Technology, branding, tourism product

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591 Broad Spectrum Biofilm Inhibition by Chitosanase Purified from Bacillus licheniformis Isolated from Spoilt Vegetables

Authors: Israa M. S. AL-Kadmy, Sahira Nsayef Muslim, Nadheema Hammood Hussein, Alaa Naseer Mohammed Ali, Buthainah Mohammed Taha, Rayim Sabah Abbood, Sarah Naji Aziz

Abstract:

A novel strain of Bacillus licheniformis isolated from spoilt cucumber and pepper samples have the ability to produce the chitosanase enzyme when grown on chitosan substrate. Chitosanase was purified to homogeneity with a recovery yield of 35.71% and 5.5 fold of purification by using ammonium sulfate at 45% saturation followed by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose column and gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100 column. The purified chitosanase inhibited the biofilm formation ability for all Gram-negative and Gram-positive biofilm-forming bacteria (biofilm producers) after using Congo Red agar and Microtiter plates methods. Highly antibiofilm of chitosanase recorded against Pseudomonas aeruginosa followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae with reduction of biofilm formation ratio to 22 and 29%, respectively compared with (100)% of control. Thus, chitosanase has promising benefit as antibiofilm agent against biofilm forming pathogenic bacteria and has promising application as alternative antibiofilm agents to combat the growing number of multidrug-resistant pathogen-associated infections, especially in situation where biofilms are involved.

Keywords: Biofilm, Vegetables, chitosanase, Bacillus licheniformis

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590 Challenges of Climate Change on Agricultural Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Mohammed Sale Abubakar, Kabir Omar, Mohammed Umar Abba

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The effects of climate change continue to ravage globe upsetting or even overturning the entire communities in its wake. It is therefore on the front burner of most global issues affecting the world today. Hardly any field of endeavor has escaped the manifestation of its effects. The effects of climate change on agricultural productivity calls for intense study because of the nexus between agriculture, global food security and provision of employment for the teaming population in sub-saharan Africa. This paper examines current challenges of climate change on agricultural productivity in this region. This challenge indicated that both long and short-term change in climate bring unpleasant repercussion on agricultural productivity as they manifest in the vulnerability of industrial work force. The paper also focused on the impact of agriculture and bio-environmental engineering as a separate entity that will help to fight these major challenges facing humanity currently associated with negative effects of climate change such as scarcity of water, declining agricultural yields, desert encroachment, and damage of coastal structures. Finally, a suggestion was put forward as an effort that should be directed towards mitigating the negative effects of climate change on our environment.

Keywords: Environment, Global food security, Climate Change Mitigation, desert encroachment, greenhouse gases (GHGs)

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589 Seasonal and Species Variations in Incidence of Foetal Loss at the Maiduguri Abattoir in Northern Nigeria

Authors: Abdulrazaq O. Raji, Abba Mohammed, Ibrahim D. Mohammed

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate foetal loss among slaughtered livestock species at the Maiduguri abattoir from 2009 to 2013. Record of animals slaughtered monthly and fetuses recovered were collected from the management of the Maiduguri abattoir. Data was subjected to Analysis of Variance using the General Linear Model of SPSS 13.0 with Season, Species and their interaction as fixed factors. Average yearly slaughter at the Maiduguri abattoir was 63,225 animals with cattle, camel, goat and sheep accounting for 19737, 7374, 19281 and 17540 of the total. The corresponding number of those pregnant were 3117, 839, 2281 and 2432 out of a total of 8522 animals. Thus, cattle, camel, goat and sheep accounted for 30.87, 11.53, 30.16 and 27.44%, respectively of the animals slaughtered at the Abattoir and 35.96, 9.68, 26.31 and 28.05% of the foetal loss. The effect of season and species on foetal loss was significant (P < 0.05). The number of pregnant animals slaughtered and foetal loss were higher during wet than dry season. Similarly, foetal loss at the abattoir was higher in the month of May in respect of camel, goat and sheep, and August for cattle. Camel was the least slaughtered animal and had the least number of pregnant females. Foetal loss (%) was higher (P < 0.05) for cattle compared to other species. The interaction showed that camel was the least slaughtered species in both seasons and cattle in the wet season had the highest foetal loss.

Keywords: Species, abattoir, season, foetal loss

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588 Molecular Study of P53- and Rb-Tumor Suppressor Genes in Human Papilloma Virus-Infected Breast Cancers

Authors: Shakir H. Mohammed Al-Alwany, Saad Hasan M. Ali, Ibrahim Mohammed S. Shnawa

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The study was aimed to define the percentage of detection of high-oncogenic risk types of HPV and their genotyping in archival tissue specimens that ranged from apparently healthy tissue to invasive breast cancer by using one of the recent versions of In Situ Hybridization(ISH) 0.2. To find out rational significance of such genotypes as well as over expressed products of mutants P53 and RB genes on the severity of underlying breast cancers. The DNA of HPV was detected in 46.5 % of tissues from breast cancers while HPV DNA in the tissues from benign breast tumours was detected in 12.5%. No HPV positive–ISH reaction was detected in healthy breast tissues of the control group. HPV DNA of genotypes (16, 18, 31 and 33) was detected in malignant group in frequency of 25.6%, 27.1%, 30.2% and 12.4%, respectively. Over expression of p53 was detected by IHC in 51.2% breast cancer cases and in 50% benign breast tumour group, while none of control group showed P53- over expression. Retinoblastoma protein was detected by IHC test in 49.7% of malignant breast tumours, 54.2% of benign breast tumours but no signal was reported in the tissues of control group. The significance prevalence of expression of mutated p53 & Rb genes as well as detection of high-oncogenic HPV genotypes in patients with breast cancer supports the hypothesis of an etiologic role for the virus in breast cancer development.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, human papilloma virus, P53

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587 Use of High Hydrostatic Pressure as an Alternative Preservation Method for Fresh Dates, Rutab

Authors: Salah Mohammed Al-Eid, Siddig Hussein Hamad, Fahad Mohammed Aljassas

Abstract:

The effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments on microbial contamination, chemical and physical properties of fresh dates (Rutab stage) were studied. Khalas, Barhi and Hilali cultivars were treated at 200, 250, 300 and 350 MPa using HHP research apparatus. The objective of such treatments was to preserve fresh dates without adversely affecting its properties. Treating fresh dates at 300 MPa for 5 minutes at 40°C reduced microbial contamination in about 2.5 log cycles. Applying 250 MPa was enough to control Rutab contamination with molds, yeasts, and coliforms. Both treatments were enough to reduce Rutab microbial contamination to acceptable levels. HHP caused no significant effect on Rutab chemical properties (moisture, sugars, protein, pectin and acidity). However, a slight decrease in moisture contents due to HHP was observed. Rutab lightness (L*) significantly decreased due to the application of HHP. Only Rutab treated at 300 MPs gave lower redness (a*) values compared with an untreated sample. The effect of 300 MPa on increasing yellowness (b*) was observed for Barhi and Hilali but decreasing for Khalas. The hardness of all Rutab cultivars significantly decreased as a result of HHP application. In fact, the pressure applied at 300 MPa had an adverse effect on texture, which may limit its suitability for use in Rutab preservation.

Keywords: Texture, Microbial Contamination, Color, high hydrostatic pressure, fresh dates (Rutab)

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586 The Effective of Training Program Using Neuro- Linguistic Programming (NLP) to Reduce the Test Anxiety through the Use of Biological Feedback

Authors: Mohammed Fakehy, Mohammed Haggag

Abstract:

The problem of test anxiety considered as one of the most important and most complex psychological problems faced by students of King Saud University, where university students in a need to bring their reassurance and psychological comfort, relieves feeling pain and difficulties of the study. Recently, there are programs and science that help human to change, including the science Linguistic Programming this neural science stems from not just the tips of the need to make the effort or continue to work, but provides the keys in which one can be controlled in the internal environment. Even human potential energy is extracted seeking to achieve success and happiness and excellence. Through the work of the researchers as members of the teaching staff at King Saud University and specialists in the field of psychology noticed the suffering of some students of King Saud University, test anxiety. In an attempt by the researchers to mitigate as much as possible of the unity of this concern, students will have a training program in Neuro Linguistic Programming. The main Question of this study is What is the effectiveness of the impact of a training program using NLP to reduce test anxiety by using a biological feedback. Therefore, the results of this study might serve as a good announcement about the usefulness of NLP programs which influence future research to significant effect of NLP on test anxiety.

Keywords: neuro linguistic programming, test anxiety, biological feedback, king saud

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585 Evaluation of Digital Assessment of Anal Sphincter Muscle Strength

Authors: Emmanuel Kamal Aziz Saba, Hussein Al-Moghazy Sultan, Gihan Abd El-Lateif Younis El-Tantawi, Mohammed Hamdy Zahran, Ibrahim Khalil Ibrahim, Mohammed Abd El-Salam Shehata, Medhat Mohamed Anwar

Abstract:

Examination of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction is essential in initial assessment and assessment of efficacy of rehabilitation of patients with faecal incontinence (FI) and obstructed defecation (OD). The present study was conducted to evaluate the digital assessment of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction by using Modified Oxford Scale (MOS) in comparison to anal manometry squeeze pressure. The present cross-sectional study included 65 patients. There were 40 patients (61.5 %) with FI and 25 patients (38.5 %) with OD. All patients were subjected to history taking, clinical examination including assessment of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction by using MOS and anal manometry (mean squeeze pressure and maximal squeeze pressure). There was a statistically significant positive correlation between MOS and anal manometry squeeze pressures including mean squeeze pressure and maximal squeeze pressure among FI group and OD group. In conclusion, assessment of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction by using MOS is a valid method and can substitute anal manometry assessment.

Keywords: Muscle Strength, anal manometry, external anal sphincter muscle, Modified Oxford Scale

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584 Integrated Electric Resistivity Tomography and Magnetic Techniques in a Mineralization Zone, Erkowit, Red Sea State, Sudan

Authors: Khalid M. Kheiralla, Georgios Boutsis, Mohammed Y. Abdelgalil, Mohammed A. Ali, Nuha E. Mohamed

Abstract:

The present study focus on integrated geoelectrical surveys carried out in the mineralization zone in Erkowit region, Eastern Sudan to determine the extensions of the potential ore deposits on the topographically high hilly area and under the cover of alluvium along the nearby wadi and to locate other occurrences if any. The magnetic method (MAG) and the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) were employed for the survey. Eleven traverses were aligned approximately at right angles to the general strike of the rock formations. The disseminated sulfides are located on the alteration shear zone which is composed of granitic and dioritic highly ferruginated rock occupying the southwestern and central parts of the area, this was confirmed using thin and polished sections mineralogical analysis. The magnetic data indicates low magnetic values for wadi sedimentary deposits in its southern part of the area, and high anomalies which are suspected as gossans due to magnetite formed during wall rock alteration consequent to mineralization. The significant ERT images define low resistivity zone as traced as sheared zones which may associated with the main loci of ore deposition. By itself, no geophysical anomaly can simply be correlated with lithology, instead, magnetic and ERT anomalies raised due to variations in some specific physical properties of rocks which were extremely useful in mineral exploration.

Keywords: Magnetic, Mineralization, ERT, sudan, Red Sea

Procedia PDF Downloads 241