Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 53

Search results for: weaning

53 Genetics of Birth and Weaning Weight of Holstein, Friesians in Sudan

Authors: Safa A. Mohammed Ali, Ammar S. Ahamed, Mohammed Khair Abdalla

Abstract:

The objectives of this study were to estimate the means and genetic parameters of birth and weaning weight of calves of pure Holstein-Friesian cows raised in Sudan. The traits studied were:*Weight at birth *Weight at weaning. The study also included some of the important factors that affected these traits. The data were analyzed using Harvey’s Least Squares and Maximum Likelihood programme. The results obtained showed that the overall mean weight at birth of the calves under study was 34.36±0.94kg. Male calves were found to be heavier than females; the difference between the sexes was highly significant (P<0.001). The mean weight at birth of male calves was 34.27±1.17 kg while that of females was 32.51±1.14kg. The effect of sex of calves, sire and parity of dam were highly significant (P<0.001). The overall mean of weight at weaning was 67.10 ± 5.05 kg, weight at weaning was significantly (p<0.001) effected by sex of calves, sire, year and season of birth have highly significant (P<0.001) effect on either trait. Also estimates heritabilities of birth weight was (0.033±0.015) lower than heritabilities of weaning weight (0.224±0.039), and genetic correlation was 0.563, the phenotypic correlation 0.281, and the environmental correlation 0.268.

Keywords: birth, weaning, weight, friesian

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52 Comparative Evaluation of Weaning Knowledge, Attitudes and Feeding Practices among Mothers in Benue and Zamfara States of Nigeria

Authors: Apityan Tume, Sefater Gbashi, Stephanie Dillon

Abstract:

The present study was aimed at investigating the weaning knowledge, attitudes and practices among mothers with infants in Benue and Zamfara States, Nigeria. A questionnaire consisting of both open and close-ended questions was adopted for this study. Socio-demographic information was captured with this questionnaire. This is in addition to capturing data linked to respondents' knowledge and attitude to weaning and the weaning practice itself. 400 questionnaires were distributed, and 329 was filled and returned. Results obtained from the study revealed that the mother's location; mother's level of education, her occupation, her age; and her level of education would have an effect on her practice of and attitude to weaning. Essentially, mothers based in Zamfara who were full-time housewives, tailor or trader were more likely to start weaning at a later age than mothers who have the same occupation but based in Benue. Furthermore, the results revealed mothers who were uneducated and based in Zamfara were more likely to wean their babies later than the uneducated mothers, mothers educated to primary, secondary or tertiary level based in Benue. It was also evident that mothers who were low-income earners and based in Zamfara were more likely to start weaning later than the low, average or high-income earning mothers in Benue. Moreover, younger mothers in Zamfara age 20-25 years were more likely to start weaning later than mothers of other age groups. In overall, mothers had a good understanding of best practices with regards to weaning. Notwithstanding, mothers could be further encouraged and educated about the advantages of exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices as well as the benefits therein to enhance the healthy growth of the children.

Keywords: breastfeeding, complementary feeding, socio-demographic, weaning

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51 Effects of Maternal Nutrition at Different Stages of Pregnancy in Bali Cows on Growth Performance of the Offspring to Weaning

Authors: D. P. Rahardja, A. L. Toleng, M. Yusuf

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to investigate the life-long effect of in utero nutrition fed at different stages of pregnancy in Bali cows (n = 40): (U1) without in utero nutrition (0 – parturition, negative control); (U2) 0 – 90 d of gestation; (U3) 90 - 180 d of gestation; (U4) 180 d – parturition; and (U5) in utero nutrition along gestation period (0 d to parturition – positive control) on the growth performance of the offspring to weaning age. The results indicated that effect of maternal nutrition on male and female offspring were particularly indicated by the growth performance of both the male and female offspring from birth to weaning.

Keywords: Bali cows, birth weight, maternal nutrition, pre-weaning daily gain, weaning weight

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50 Role of Adaptive Support Ventilation in Weaning of COPD Patients

Authors: A. Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed, B. Sameh Kamal el Maraghi

Abstract:

Introduction: Adaptive support ventilation (ASV) is an improved closed-loop ventilation mode that provides both pressure-controlled ventilation and PSV according to the patient’s needs. Aim of the work: To compare the short-term effects of Adaptive support ventilation (ASV), with conventional Pressure support ventilation (PSV) in weaning of intubated COPD patients. Patients and methods: Fifty patients admitted in the intensive care with acute exacerbation of COPD and needing intubation were included in the study. All patients were initially ventilated with control/assist control mode, in a stepwise manner and were receiving standard medical therapy. Patients were randomized into two groups to receive either ASV or PSV. Results: Out of fifty patients included in the study forty one patients in both studied groups were weaned successfully according to their ABG data and weaning indices. APACHE II score showed no significant difference in both groups. There were statistically significant differences between the groups in term of, duration of mechanical ventilation, weaning hours and length of ICU stay being shorter in (group 1) weaned by ASV. Re-intubation and mortality rate were higher in (group 11) weaned by conventional PSV, however the differences were not significant. Conclusion: ASV can provide automated weaning and achieve shorter weaning time for COPD patients hence leading to reduction in the total duration of MV, length of stay, and hospital costs.

Keywords: COPD patients, ASV, PSV, mechanical ventilation (MV)

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49 Preliminary Investigation into the Potentials of Mixed Blend of Acha (Digitaria exiles), Aya (Cyperus esculenta) and Defatted Water Melon Seed (Citrullis lanatus) Flour as a Weaning Formula

Authors: O. G. Onuoha, O. G. Akagu

Abstract:

The potentials of acha (Digitaria exiles), aya (Cyperus esculentus) and defatted water melon seed (Citrullis lanatus) as a weaning formula was investigated using the following blends for acha, aya and defatted water melon seed respectively in percentage proportion to obtain the weaning formulae; WS1(20:50:30); WS2(30:40:30); WS3(40:30:30); WS4(50:20:30). The result of the chemical analysis showed that; the sample WS1 had the highest value (15.6%) for protein while sample WS4 had the least value (14.1%). The fat content sample WS4 having the highest value (30.8%) while sample WS1 had the least value (27.3%). The ash content sample WS4 had the highest value (3.22%) while sample WS1 had the least value (2.63%). The carbohydrate content showed that sample WS1 having the highest value (50.5%) while sample WS4 had the least value (46.58%). While sample WS4 had the highest energy value (528.32 Kcal) and sample WS2 had the least value (515.06 Kcal). However, all the sample results fell within the dietary daily reference intake for infants between 0-3 years and required only local technology in its production.

Keywords: weaning formula, acha, aya, deffted water melon seed

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48 Evaluating the Functional Properties of Flours Varying Percentage Blend of Malted Acha, Aya and Ede flours as Potentials for Weaning Food Formulation

Authors: O. G. Onuoha, E. Chibuzo, H. M. Badau

Abstract:

Traditional weaning foods are dense or thick paste, which are then diluted with large volume of water to produce thin drinkable consistency for infants. This work was aimed at evaluating the functional properties of six varying percentage blends of locally abundant, underutilized crops; malted acha (Digitaria exiles), aya (Cyperus esculentus) and ede (Colocasia esculentum) flours as weaning foods. The results of bulk density and starch digestibility showed a decrease with increasing percentage addition of malted acha with values from 5.889±0.98 to 7.953±0.103; -5.45 to -13.6 respectively. While water absorption capacity, measure of dispersibility, wettability, swelling power, % solubility increased with increase in percentage addition of malted acha with values from 6.6±0.712 to 8.1±0.1; 2.12 to 37.225; 3.21±0.04 to 3.6±0.03; 20.64 to 24.46 respectively. There was no significant difference between all the formula and the control. Results of pasting properties showed that the peak viscosity, break down, final viscosity, setback values from -0.42±0.085 to -3.67±0.085; 5.63±0.045 to 1.79±0.04;-3.88±0.045 to -1.475±0.275; 2.17±0.045 to 2.93±0.045 respectively. There was no significant different between some of the weaning formula and the control for peak viscosity, break down, final viscosity and temperatures required to form paste. The formula compared favorably with the control- a commercially sold formula.

Keywords: weaning food, functional properties, under-utilized crops, blends

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47 Infant Care Practice in Hadiya Culture: Case Study of Harche Auyaya

Authors: Dawit Thomas

Abstract:

Feeding and weaning practices vary from culture to culture and depend on different child-rearing values. The socio-cultural dimensions that influence the acceptable infant feeding practices are varied and complex. Understanding cultural differences in beliefs and practices relating to infant feeding is important to enhance designing programs for delivering successful psychological, social, physiological and economic well-being of mothers and infants. The main purpose of this study was exploring mothers infant feeding practices in the context of Hadiyya culture. After purposively selecting Harche Huyaya Uyaya Kebele eight infant feeding mothers were selected using snowball sampling technique. The study employed interviews and focus group discussion. The study found out early initiation and prolonged breastfeeding and early complementary feeding in some instances immediately after birth. In addition, infants were not forced to wean unless the mothers encounter pressing issues like pregnancy and health related problems. Furthermore, the main weaning techniques were putting unpleasant materials on the tip of nipples and sending infants to grandparents home. The study also found out gender difference in weaning, i.e., early initiation of weaning for girls. This can be indicative of gender-based bias on weaning practice. Finally, health extension workers, office of women and children affairs and Hadiyya Zone Tourism office should organize awareness raising programs to preserve vital infant feeding practices like prolonged breastfeeding and length of weaning. In addition, the offices should raise awareness among communities on negative side effects of sending infant to grandparents home that may weaken infant-mothers attachment and create favorable ground for the development of phobia.

Keywords: feeding, infant, practices, weaning

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46 Inbreeding and Its Effect on Growth Performance in a Closed Herd of New Zealand White Rabbits

Authors: M. Sakthivel, A. Devaki, D. Balasubramanyam, P. Kumarasamy, A. Raja, R. Anilkumar, H. Gopi

Abstract:

The influence of inbreeding on growth traits in the New Zealand White rabbits maintained at Sheep Breeding and Research Station, Sandynallah, The Nilgiris, India was studied in a closed herd. Data were collected over a period of 15 years (1998 to 2012). The traits studied were body weights at weaning (W42), post-weaning (W70) and marketing (W135) age and growth efficiency traits viz., average daily gain (ADG), relative growth rate (RGR) and Kleiber ratio (KR) estimated on a daily basis at different age intervals (1=42 to 70 days; 2=70 to 135 days and 3=42 to 135 days) from weaning to marketing. The effects of inbreeding along with other non-genetic factors (sex of the kit, season and period of birth of the kit) were analyzed using least-squares method. The inbreeding (F) and equivalent inbreeding (EF) coefficients were taken as fixed classes as well as covariates in separate analyses. When taken as covariate, the effect was analyzed as partial regression of respective growth trait on individual inbreeding coefficient (F or EF). The mean body weights at weaning, post-weaning and marketing were 0.715, 1.276 and 2.187 kg, respectively. The maximum growth efficiency was noticed between weaning and post-weaning. Season and period had highly significant influence on all the growth parameters studied and sex of the kit had significant influence on certain growth efficiency traits only. The average coefficients of inbreeding and equivalent inbreeding in the population were 13.233 and 17.585 percent, respectively. About 11.17 percent of total matings were highly inbred in which full-sib, half-sib and parent-offspring matings were 1.20, 6.30 and 3.67 percent, respectively. The regression of body weight traits on F and EF showed negative effect whereas most of the growth efficiency traits showed positive effects. Significant inbreeding depression was observed in W42 and W70. The depression in W42 was 0.214 kg and 0.139 kg and in W70 was 0.269 kg and 0.172 kg for every one unit increase in F and EF, respectively. Though the trait W135 showed positive value and ADG1 showed depression, the effects of inbreeding and equivalent inbreeding were non-significant in these traits. Higher values of inbreeding depression could be due to more variance of F or EF in the population. The analysis of the effect of level of inbreeding on growth traits revealed that the inbreeding class was significant on W70, ADG2, RGR2 and KR2 while EF classes had significant influence only on ADG2, RGR2 and KR2. Obviously, inbreeding does not have a positive effect, therefore, these results suggest that inbreeding had no effect on these traits.

Keywords: growth parameters, equivalent inbreeding, inbreeding effects, rabbit genetics

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45 Assessing Effects of an Intervention on Bottle-Weaning and Reducing Daily Milk Intake from Bottles in Toddlers Using Two-Part Random Effects Models

Authors: Yungtai Lo

Abstract:

Two-part random effects models have been used to fit semi-continuous longitudinal data where the response variable has a point mass at 0 and a continuous right-skewed distribution for positive values. We review methods proposed in the literature for analyzing data with excess zeros. A two-part logit-log-normal random effects model, a two-part logit-truncated normal random effects model, a two-part logit-gamma random effects model, and a two-part logit-skew normal random effects model were used to examine effects of a bottle-weaning intervention on reducing bottle use and daily milk intake from bottles in toddlers aged 11 to 13 months in a randomized controlled trial. We show in all four two-part models that the intervention promoted bottle-weaning and reduced daily milk intake from bottles in toddlers drinking from a bottle. We also show that there are no differences in model fit using either the logit link function or the probit link function for modeling the probability of bottle-weaning in all four models. Furthermore, prediction accuracy of the logit or probit link function is not sensitive to the distribution assumption on daily milk intake from bottles in toddlers not off bottles.

Keywords: two-part model, semi-continuous variable, truncated normal, gamma regression, skew normal, Pearson residual, receiver operating characteristic curve

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44 Joint Modeling of Bottle Use, Daily Milk Intake from Bottles, and Daily Energy Intake in Toddlers

Authors: Yungtai Lo

Abstract:

The current study follows an educational intervention on bottle-weaning to simultaneously evaluate the effect of the bottle-weaning intervention on reducing bottle use, daily milk intake from bottles, and daily energy intake in toddlers aged 11 to 13 months. A shared parameter model and a random effects model are used to jointly model bottle use, daily milk intake from bottles, and daily energy intake. We show in the two joint models that the bottle-weaning intervention promotes bottleweaning, and reduces daily milk intake from bottles in toddlers not off bottles and daily energy intake. We also show that the odds of drinking from a bottle were positively associated with the amount of milk intake from bottles and increased daily milk intake from bottles was associated with increased daily energy intake. The effect of bottle use on daily energy intake is through its effect on increasing daily milk intake from bottles that in turn increases daily energy intake.

Keywords: two-part model, semi-continuous variable, joint model, gamma regression, shared parameter model, random effects model

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43 Choking among Infants and Young Children

Authors: Emad M.Abdullat, Hasan A. Ader-Rahman, Rayyan Al Ali, Arwa.A.Hudaib

Abstract:

This retrospective study aims to determine the epidemiological features of such deaths in one of the general teaching hospitals in Jordan with a focus on weaning practices and its relation to sucking as major factors underlying the mechanism of choking in infants and young children. The study utilized a retrospective design to review the records of forensic cases due to foreign body aspiration examined at the forensic department at the Jordan University Hospital. A total of 27 cases of choking in the pediatric age group were retrieved from the reports of the autopsy cases dissected. All cases of children who died due to chocking by foreign bodies were under 11 years old. Choking by food materials constituted (44.4%) of cases under 3 years of age while choking by non-food material were less prevalent under 3 years of age and comprising 18.5% of the cases. Health care personnel and parents need to be aware that introduction of solid food, unlike exclusive breast or formula-milk feeding, can have serious consequences if occurring in inappropriate timing or consistency during early childhood physical and functional development. Parents need to be educated regarding the appropriate timing and process of weaning.

Keywords: chocking, infants, weaning practices, young children

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42 Estimation of Heritability and Repeatability for Pre-Weaning Body Weights of Domestic Rabbits Raised in Derived Savanna Zone of Nigeria

Authors: Adewale I. Adeolu, Vivian U. Oleforuh-Okoleh, Sylvester N. Ibe

Abstract:

Heritability and repeatability estimates are needed for the genetic evaluation of livestock populations and consequently for the purpose of upgrading or improvement. Pooled data on 604 progeny from three consecutive parities of purebred rabbit breeds (Chinchilla, Dutch and New Zealand white) raised in Derived Savanna Zone of Nigeria were used to estimate heritability and repeatability for pre-weaning body weights between 1st and 8th week of age. Traits studied include Individual kit weight at birth (IKWB), 2nd week (IK2W), 4th week (IK4W), 6th week (IK6W) and 8th week (IK8W). Nested random effects analysis of (Co)variances as described by Statistical Analysis System (SAS) were employed in the estimation. Respective heritability estimates from the sire component (h2s) and repeatability (R) as intra-class correlations of repeated measurements from the three parties for IKWB, IK2W, IK4W and IK8W are 0.59±0.24, 0.55±0.24, 0.93±0.31, 0.28±0.17, 0.64±0.26 and 0.12±0.14, 0.05±0.14, 0.58±0.02, 0.60±0.11, 0.20±0.14. Heritability and repeatability (except R for IKWB and IK2W) estimates are moderate to high. In conclusion, since pre-weaning body weights in the present study tended to be moderately to highly heritable and repeatable, improvement of rabbits raised in derived savanna zone can be realized through genetic selection criterions.

Keywords: heritability, nested design, parity, pooled data, repeatability

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41 Improving the Growth Performance of Beetal Goat Kids Weaned at Various Stages with Various Levels of Dietary Protein in Starter Ration under High Input Feeding System

Authors: Ishaq Kashif, Muhammad Younas, Muhammad Riaz, Mubarak Ali

Abstract:

Poor feeding management during pre-weaning period is one of the factors resulting in compromised growth of Beetal kids fattened for meat purpose. The main reason for this anomaly may be less milk offered to kids and non-serious efforts for its management. This study was planned to find the most appropriate protein level suiting the age of the weaning while shifting animals to high input feeding system. Total of 42 Beetal male kids having 30 (±10), 60 (±10) and 90 (±10) days of age were selected with 16 in each age group. They were designated as G30, G60 and G90, respectively. The weights of animals were; 8±2 kg (G30), 12±2 kg (G60) and 16±2 kg (G90), respectively. All animals were weaned by introducing the total mix feed gradually and withdrawing the milk during the adjustment period of two weeks. The pelleted starter ration (total mix feed) with three various dietary protein levels designated as R1 (16% CP), R2 (20% CP) and R3 (26% CP) were introduced. The control group was reared on the fodder (Maize). The starter rations were iso-caloric and were offered for six-week duration. All animals were exposed to treatment using two-factor factorial (3×3) plus control treatment arrangement under completely randomized design. The data were collected on average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), gain to intake ratio, Klieber ratio (KR), body measurements and blood metabolites of kids. The data was analyzed using aov function of R-software. The statistical analysis showed that starter feed protein levels and age of weaning had significant interaction for ADG (P < 0.001), KR (P < 0.001), ADFI (P < 0.05) and blood urea nitrogen (P < 0.05) while serum creatinine and feed conversion had non-significant interaction. The trend analysis revealed that ADG had significant quadratic interaction (P < 0.05) within protein levels and age of weaning. It was found that animals weaned at 30 or 60 days, on R2 diet had better ADG (46.8 gm/day and 87.06 gm/day, respectively) weaned at 60 days of age. The animals weaned at 90 days had best ADG (127 gm/day) with R1. It is concluded that animal weaned at 30 or 40 days required 20% CP for better growth performance while animal at 90 days showed better performance with 16% CP.

Keywords: average daily gain, starter protein levels, weaning age, gain to intake ratio

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40 Genetic Analysis of Growth Traits in White Boni Sheep under the Central Highlands Region of Yemen

Authors: Abed Al-Bial, S. Alazazie, A. Shami

Abstract:

The data were collected from 1992 to 2009 of White Boni sheep maintained at the Regional Research Station in the Central Highlands of Yemen. Data were analyzed to study the growth related traits and their genetic control. The least square means for body weights were 2.26±0.67, 11.14±0.46 and 19.21±1.25 kg for birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), six-month weight (WM6), respectively. The pre- and post-weaning average daily weight gains (ADG1 and ADG2) were 106.04±4.98g and 46.21±8.36 g/ day. Significant differences associated with the year of lambing were observed in body weight and weight gain at different stages of growth. Males were heavier and had a higher weight gain than females at almost all stages of growth and differences tended to increase with age. Single-born lambs had a distinct advantage over those born in twin births at all stages of growth. The lambs in the dam’s second to fourth parities were generally of heavier weight and higher daily weight gain than those in other parities. The heritabilities of all body weights, weight gains at different stages of growth were moderate (0.11-0.43). The phenotypic and genetic correlation among the different body weights were positive and high. The genetic correlations of the pre- and post-weaning average daily gains with body weights were hight to moderate, except BW with ADG2.

Keywords: breed, genetics, growth traits, heritability, sheep

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39 Fatty Acid Binding Protein 3 Gene Polymorphisms and Their Associations with Growth Traits and Blood Parameters in Two Iranian Sheep Breeds

Authors: Sahar Javadi-Novashnagh, Mohammad Moradi-Shahrbabak, Mostafa Sadeghi, Katarzyna Ropka-Molik, Hossein Moradi-Shahrbabak, Maria Consuelo Mura

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to investigate two single nucleotide polymorphisms located in exon 2 (g.939A > G) and intron 3 (g.4349A > G) of fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) gene in two Iranian sheep breeds, Lori-Bakhtiari and Zel, using polymerase chain reaction -restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) approach. The association of the polymorphisms with growth traits and blood parameters was also examined. Results revealed a g.939A > G SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) in the exon 2 exhibiting three genotypes: AA, AG, and GG. Statistical analysis indicated that this polymorphism significantly influenced blood triglyceride (P < 0.05) and cholesterol (P < 0.08) levels as well as weaning weight (P < 0.05). Animals with AG genotype had the highest blood triglyceride level and weaning weight while the highest amount of blood cholesterol was observed in animals with GG genotype. On the other hand, no significant effect was observed on birth and fat-tail weight traits. The intron 3 (g.4349A > G) was monomorphic across the studied samples. Lori-Bakhtiari breed showed significantly higher blood triglyceride and cholesterol levels, as also birth and weaning weight compared to Zel breed (P < 0.01). Considering that the literature is bereft of any report on the association study between FABP3 SNPs and sheep growth traits and blood parameters, our findings suggest that the investigated polymorphism might be one of the main genetic factors affecting growth and physiological traits in sheep.

Keywords: FABP3 gene, fatness, weaning weight, blood triglyceride, cholesterol, Zel, Lori-Bakhtiari

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38 Effects of Some Factors Affecting Optimum Reproductive Capacity of Local Breeds of Sheep in Nigeria

Authors: D. Zahraddeen, N. M. Lemu, P. P. Barje, I. S. R. Butswat

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate some of the factors affecting the optimum reproductive capacity of the indigenous breeds of sheep in Nigeria. A total of 767 sheep of different breeds were investigated. The reproductive indices considered were birth/weaning weights, litter size, parity, mortality, reproductive problems/disorders, body condition score (BCS), as well as growth traits. The results showed that litter size, parity, and BCS had significant (p < 0.05) effects on birth/weaning weights, mortality rates and growth traits of the sheep breeds studied. Similarly, the rearing method/system significantly (p < 0.05) influenced other reproductive traits such as birth/weaning weights, mortality, growth performance of lambs. However, the major reproductive problems/disorders in the ewes were dystocia (30.94%), retained placenta (16.91%), mastitis (15.83), pregnancy toxaemia (11.51%), uterine prolapse (6.48%) and vaginal prolapse (3.24%). In the rams, the incidence of reproductive problems included cryptorchidism (1.08%), orchitis (2.87%) and scrotal dermatophilosis (1.79%), among others. This study concludes that the four breeds of sheep (Balami, Yankasa, Uda, and West African Dwarf sheep) and their crosses exhibited varied genetic make-up and potentials. However, the large number of sheep farmers practicing the extensive production system might be responsible for the low reproductive performance of this species in the country. It is, therefore, recommended that significant improvement could be achieved through enhanced management practices of these animals.

Keywords: sheep, breeds, reproduction, disorders

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37 Safety Evaluation of Intramuscular Administration of Zuprevo® Compared to Draxxin® in the Treatment of Swine Respiratory Disease at Weaning Age

Authors: Josine Beek, S. Agten, R. Del Pozo, B. Balis

Abstract:

The objective of the present study was to compare the safety of intramuscular administration of Zuprevo® (tildipirosin, 40 mg/mL) with Draxxin® (tulathromycin, 100 mg/mL) in the treatment of swine respiratory disease at weaning age. The trial was carried out in two farrow-to-finish farms with 300 sows (farm A) and 500 sows (farm B) in a batch-production system. Farm A had no history of respiratory problems, whereas farm B had a history of respiratory outbreaks with increased mortality ( > 2%) in the nursery. Both farms were positive to Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Haemophilus parasuis. From each farm, one batch of piglets was included (farm A: 644 piglets; farm B: 963 piglets). One day before weaning (day 0; 18-21 days of age), piglets were identified by an individual ear tag and randomly assigned to a treatment group. At day 0, Group 1 was treated with a single intramuscular injection with Zuprevo® (tildipirosin, 40 mg/mL; 1 mL/10 kg) and group 2 with Draxxin® (tulathromycin, 100 mg/mL; 1 mL/40 kg). For practical reasons, dosage of the product was adjusted according to three weight categories: < 4 kg, 4-6 kg and > 6 kg. Within each farm, piglets of both groups were comingled at weaning and subsequently managed and located in the same facilities and with identical environmental conditions. Our study involved the period from day 0 until 10 weeks of age. Safety of treatment was evaluated by 1) visual examination for signs of discomfort directly after treatment and after 15 min, 1 h and 24 h and 2) mortality rate within 24 h after treatment. Efficacy of treatment was evaluated based on mortality rate from day 0 until 10 weeks of age. Each piglet that died during the study period was necropsied by the herd veterinarian to determine the probable cause of death. Data were analyzed using binary logistic regression and differences were considered significant if p < 0.05. The pig was the experimental unit. In total, 848 piglets were treated with tildipirosin and 759 piglets with tulathromycin. In farm A, one piglet with retarded growth ( < 1 kg at 18 days of age) showed an adverse reaction after injection of tildipirosin: lateral recumbence and dullness for ± 30 sec. The piglet recovered after 1-2 min. This adverse reaction was probably due to overdosing (12 mg/kg). No adverse effect of treatment was observed in any other piglet. There was no mortality within 24 h after treatment. No significant difference was found in mortality rate between both groups from day 0 until 10 weeks of age. In farm A, overall mortality rate was 0.3% (2/644). In farm B, mortality rate was 0.2% (1/502) in group 1 (tildipirosin) and 0.9% (4/461) in group 2 (tulathromycin)(p=0.60). The necropsy of piglets that died during the study period revealed no macroscopic lesions of the respiratory tract. In conclusion, Zuprevo® (tildipirosin, 40 mg/mL) was shown to be a safe and efficacious alternative to Draxxin® (tulathromycin, 100 mg/mL) for the early treatment of swine respiratory disease at weaning age.

Keywords: antibiotic treatment, safety, swine respiratory disease, tildipirosin

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36 Effects of Environmental and Genetic Factors on Growth Performance, Fertility Traits and Milk Yield/Composition in Saanen Goats

Authors: Deniz Dincel, Sena Ardicli, Hale Samli, Mustafa Ogan, Faruk Balci

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to determine the effects of some environmental and genetic factors on growth, fertility traits, milk yield and composition in Saanen goats. For this purpose, the total of 173 Saanen goats and kids were investigated for growth, fertility and milk traits in Marmara Region of Turkey. Fertility parameters (n=70) were evaluated during two years. Milk samples were collected during the lactation and the milk yield/components (n=59) of each goat were calculated. In terms of CSN3 and AGPAT6 gene; the genotypes were defined by PCR-RFLP. Saanen kids (n=86-112) were measured from birth to 6 months of life. The birth, weaning, 60ᵗʰ, 90ᵗʰ, 120ᵗʰ and 180tᵗʰ days of average live weights were calculated. The effects of maternal age on pregnancy rate (p < 0.05), birth rate (p < 0.05), infertility rate (p < 0.05), single born kidding (p < 0.001), twinning rate (p < 0.05), triplet rate (p < 0.05), survival rate of kids until weaning (p < 0.05), number of kids per parturition (p < 0.01) and number of kids per mating (p < 0.01) were found significant. The impacts of year on birth rate (p < 0.05), abortion rate (p < 0.001), single born kidding (p < 0.01), survival rate of kids until weaning (p < 0.01), number of kids per mating (p < 0.01) were found significant for fertility traits. The impacts of lactation length on all milk yield parameters (lactation milk, protein, fat, totally solid, solid not fat, casein and lactose yield) (p < 0.001) were found significant. The effects of age on all milk yield parameters (lactation milk, protein, fat, total solid, solid not fat, casein and lactose yield) (p < 0.001), protein rate (p < 0.05), fat rate (p < 0.05), total solid rate (p < 0.01), solid not fat rate (p < 0.05), casein rate (p < 0.05) and lactation length (p < 0.01), were found significant too. However, the effect of AGPAT6 gene on milk yield and composition was not found significant in Saanen goats. The herd was found monomorphic (FF) for CSN3 gene. The effects of sex on live weights until 90ᵗʰ days of life (birth, weaning and 60ᵗʰ day of average weight) were found significant statistically (p < 0.001). The maternal age affected only birth weight (p < 0,001). The effects month at birth on all of the investigated day [the birth, 120ᵗʰ, 180ᵗʰ days (p < 0.05); the weaning, 60ᵗʰ, 90ᵗʰ days (p < 0,001)] were found significant. The birth type was found significant on the birth (p < 0,001), weaning (p < 0,01), 60ᵗʰ (p < 0,01) and 90ᵗʰ (p < 0,01) days of average live weights. As a result, screening the other regions of CSN3, AGPAT6 gene and also investigation the phenotypic association of them should be useful to clarify the efficiency of target genes. Environmental factors such as maternal age, year, sex and birth type were found significant on some growth, fertility and milk traits in Saanen goats. So consideration of these factors could be used as selection criteria in dairy goat breeding.

Keywords: fertility, growth, milk yield, Saanen goats

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
35 An Assessment of Pre-Weaning Performance of Red Sokoto Goat Kids Raised on Complete Diet of Different Energy Levels

Authors: Aliyu Suleiman, Gaddafi Sani, Muhammad Muhammad

Abstract:

This study was conducted at the Livestock Teaching and Research Farm, Federal University Dutsin-Ma to determine the pre-weaning performance of red Sokoto Goat kids raised on a complete diets containing different energy levels. Four experimental diets were formulated containing graded energy level 2400, 2200, 2000, 1800kcal ME/kg designated as treatment T1, T2, T3, and T4, respectively, in a completely randomized design (CRD). Result obtained indicated no significant (P>0.05) difference in terms of morphometric characteristics, milk consumed, though treatment T4 recorded the highest value. Conversely significant (P<0.05) were recorded in terms of average daily gain (ADG), with treatment T1 having the highest value followed by treatment T4. Similarly, result of the cost of feed formulated (N/kg) showed significant (P<0.05) that treatment T1 had the highest cost (₦ 49.14) followed by treatment D (₦ 42.46); while treatment T2 had the least cost (₦ 40.78).

Keywords: pre-weanign, morphometric test, red Sokoto kids, energy levels

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
34 Estimates of (Co)Variance Components and Genetic Parameters for Body Weights and Growth Efficiency Traits in the New Zealand White Rabbits

Authors: M. Sakthivel, A. Devaki, D. Balasubramanyam, P. Kumarasamy, A. Raja, R. Anilkumar, H. Gopi

Abstract:

The genetic parameters of growth traits in the New Zealand White rabbits maintained at Sheep Breeding and Research Station, Sandynallah, The Nilgiris, India were estimated by partitioning the variance and covariance components. The (co)variance components of body weights at weaning (W42), post-weaning (W70) and marketing (W135) age and growth efficiency traits viz., average daily gain (ADG), relative growth rate (RGR) and Kleiber ratio (KR) estimated on a daily basis at different age intervals (1=42 to 70 days; 2=70 to 135 days and 3=42 to 135 days) from weaning to marketing were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood, fitting six animal models with various combinations of direct and maternal effects. Data were collected over a period of 15 years (1998 to 2012). A log-likelihood ratio test was used to select the most appropriate univariate model for each trait, which was subsequently used in bivariate analysis. Heritability estimates for W42, W70 and W135 were 0.42 ± 0.07, 0.40 ± 0.08 and 0.27 ± 0.07, respectively. Heritability estimates of growth efficiency traits were moderate to high (0.18 to 0.42). Of the total phenotypic variation, maternal genetic effect contributed 14 to 32% for early body weight traits (W42 and W70) and ADG1. The contribution of maternal permanent environmental effect varied from 6 to 18% for W42 and for all the growth efficiency traits except for KR2. Maternal permanent environmental effect on most of the growth efficiency traits was a carryover effect of maternal care during weaning. Direct maternal genetic correlations, for the traits in which maternal genetic effect was significant, were moderate to high in magnitude and negative in direction. Maternal effect declined as the age of the animal increased. The estimates of total heritability and maternal across year repeatability for growth traits were moderate and an optimum rate of genetic progress seems possible in the herd by mass selection. The estimates of genetic and phenotypic correlations among body weight traits were moderate to high and positive; among growth efficiency traits were low to high with varying directions; between body weights and growth efficiency traits were very low to high in magnitude and mostly negative in direction. Moderate to high heritability and higher genetic correlation in body weight traits promise good scope for genetic improvement provided measures are taken to keep the inbreeding at the lowest level.

Keywords: genetic parameters, growth traits, maternal effects, rabbit genetics

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
33 A Survey to Determine the Incidence of Piglets' Mortality in Outdoor Farms in New Zealand

Authors: Patrick C. H. Morel, Ian W. Barugh, Kirsty L. Chidgey

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to quantify the level of piglet deaths in outdoor farrowing systems in New Zealand. A total of 14 farms were visited, the farmers interviewed, and data collected. A total of 10,154 sows were kept on those farms representing an estimated 33% of the NZ sow herd or 80% of the outdoor sow herd in 2016. Data from 25,911 litters was available for the different analyses. The characteristics and reproductive performance for the years 2015-2016 from the 14 farms surveyed in this study were analysed, and the following results were obtained. The average percentage of stillbirths was 7.1% ranging between 3.5 and 10.7%, and the average pre-weaning live-born mortality was 16.7% ranging between 3.7% and 23.6%. The majority of piglet deaths (89%) occurred during the first week after birth, with 81% of deaths occurring up to day three. The number of piglets born alive was 12.3 (8.0 to 14.0), and average number of piglets weaned per sow per year was 22.4, range 10.5-27.3. The average stocking rate per ha (number of sows and mated gilts) was 15.3 and ranged from 2.8 to 28.6. The sow to boar ratio average was 20.9:1 and the range was 7.1: 1 to 63:1. The sow replacement rate ranged between 37% and 78%. There was a large variation in the piglet live-born mortality both between months within a farm and between farms within a given month. The monthly recorded piglet mortality ranged between 7.7% and 31.5%, and there was no statistically significant difference between months on the number of piglets born, born alive, weaned or on pre-weaning piglet mortality. Twelve different types of hut/farrowing systems were used on the 14 farms. No difference in piglet mortality was observed between A-Frame, A-Frame Modified and for Box-shape huts. There was a positive relationship between the average number of piglets born per litter and the number of piglets born alive (r=0.975) or the number weaned per litter (r=0.845). Moreover, as the average number of piglets born-alive increases, both pre-weaning live-born mortality rate and the number of piglets weaned increased. An increase of 1 piglet in the number born alive corresponds to an increase of 2.9% in live-born mortality and an increase of 0.56 piglets weaned. Farmers reported that staff are the key to success with the key attributes being: good and reliable with attention to detail and skills with the stock.

Keywords: mortality, piglets, outdoor, pig farm

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
32 A Collaborative Approach to Weaning onto Solid Food in Barth Syndrome: Clinical Case Study

Authors: J. Smyth, V. Wilkins, K. Marcham

Abstract:

This case study discusses a multidisciplinary approach and family partnership to support weaning onto solids in an infant with Barth Syndrome. Baby X was diagnosed with Barth Syndrome at 7 months of age. He experienced feeding difficulties from birth. Clinical Findings: Baby X was breastfed initially, although he did not seem satiated. Therefore, his mother introduced bottle feeding with expressed breastmilk (EBM). His intake was variable, and his weight faltered. With dietetics support, he began a 70:30 mix of high-energy formula and EBM. At 5 months of age, Baby X was admitted to hospital with heart failure. His oral intake was inefficient due to his heart function. There was a 5 centile drop from his birth weight. Baby X received fortified EBM via a nasogastric tube. His weight reached the 50th centile on the Barth syndrome growth chart. He transitioned to the standard formula and continued to thrive. By 9 months of age, Baby X was showing little interest in food, and significant oral aversion. He gagged or vomited on most foods that reached his mouth. Therapeutic Intervention and Outcomes: To optimise Baby X’s window for weaning onto solid foods, he received a series of virtual clinical appointments with his mother, an occupational therapist, and dietitian. The intervention aimed to increase his experience of oral tastes. His full nutritional needs were met via the nasogastric tube. Appointment 1: An assessment of feeding skills was conducted. His mother prepared a range of foods and presented them to him at a mealtime. He sat in a Tumble Form feeding seat with a tray. Baby X tolerated chocolate only. Appointment 2: Advice to widen Baby X’s repertoire by chaining foods linked to chocolate was provided. A discussion about gastrostomy as a long-term solution for nutrition was introduced and continued with medical colleagues. Baby X’s presentation suggested that his gagging may, in part, be related to reduced tolerance to food smells. Further advice to consider flooding, masking and desensitisation to smell was given. Appointment 3: Baby X’s parents had continued to offer foods regularly, and he was able to self-feed a biscotti biscuit. His mother had observed his preference for bite-and-dissolve textures and chained foods accordingly. Baby X was orally accepting food at least once a day. Conclusion: Collaboration between the family and multidisciplinary team enabled holistic, early intervention, tailored to Barth syndrome. The approach aimed to promote increased solid food intake as Baby X matures.

Keywords: Barth syndrome, patient collaboration, early intervention, weaning onto solids

Procedia PDF Downloads 7
31 Effect of Different Processing Methods on the Proximate, Functional, Sensory, and Nutritional Properties of Weaning Foods Formulated from Maize (Zea mays) and Soybean (Glycine max) Flour Blends

Authors: C. O. Agu, C. C. Okafor

Abstract:

Maize and soybean flours were produced using different methods of processing which include fermentation (FWF), roasting (RWF) and malting (MWF). Products from the different methods were mixed in the ratio 60:40 maize/soybean, respectively. These composites mixed with other ingredients such as sugar, vegetable oil, vanilla flavour and vitamin mix were analyzed for proximate composition, physical/functional, sensory and nutritional properties. The results for the protein content ranged between 6.25% and 16.65% with sample RWF having the highest value. Crude fibre values ranged from 3.72 to 10.0%, carbohydrate from 58.98% to 64.2%, ash from 1.27 to 2.45%. Physical and functional properties such as bulk density, wettability, gelation capacity have values between 0.74 and 0.76g/ml, 20.33 and 46.33 min and 0.73 to 0.93g/ml, respectively. On the sensory quality colour, flavour, taste, texture and general acceptability were determined. In terms of colour and flavour there was no significant difference (P < 0.05) while the values for taste ranged between 4.89 and 7.1 l, texture 5.50 to 8.38 and general acceptability 6.09 and 7.89. Nutritionally there is no significant difference (P < 0.05) between sample RWF and the control in all parameters considered. Samples FWF and MWF showed significantly (P < 0.5) lower values in all parameters determined. In the light of the above findings, roasting method is highly recommend in the production of weaning foods.

Keywords: fermentation, malting, ratio, roasting, wettability

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
30 Reproductive Performance of Red Sokoto Goats from a Semi-Intensive Management System in Semi-Arid Zone, Nigeria

Authors: Garba Yusuf, Ibrahim Rakson Muhammad, Bashir Fagge Muhammad, Shehu Ahmad Maigandi

Abstract:

On-farm data were collected to evaluate reproductive performance of Red Sokoto does reared under small-holder agro-pastoral production system within metropolitan Kano, semi-arid, Nigeria. The effects of age of dams, parity, litter size(s) and sex of kid(s) on pre-weaning growth rate were investigated. Data was obtained from semi-intensively managed herds of twenty four households for a period of six months. Pregnant does were ear tagged and age determined through dentition. Upon kidding, litter size, parity of dam and sex of kid(s) were recorded. Subsequently, daily liveweight changes of kids was monitored and recorded. Results obtained revealed average weight at birth to be 3.18 kg and 2.87 kg for female and male kids with average daily weight gain of 0.11 and 0.13 kg, respectively. Result also showed that male kids gained higher liveweight from 21st day to weaning and single or twin births had higher liveweight changes relative to triplets. Does at third parity produced kids with higher weight gain. From the results of this study, it is concluded that male kids at 21 days of age (single or twin) or dam at third parity or three years of age be selected for a sound breeding programme.

Keywords: agro-pastoral, goats, parity, reproductive, semi-intensive

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
29 Prediction of Slaughter Body Weight in Rabbits: Multivariate Approach through Path Coefficient and Principal Component Analysis

Authors: K. A. Bindu, T. V. Raja, P. M. Rojan, A. Siby

Abstract:

The multivariate path coefficient approach was employed to study the effects of various production and reproduction traits on the slaughter body weight of rabbits. Information on 562 rabbits maintained at the university rabbit farm attached to the Centre for Advanced Studies in Animal Genetics, and Breeding, Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Kerala State, India was utilized. The manifest variables used in the study were age and weight of dam, birth weight, litter size at birth and weaning, weight at first, second and third months. The linear multiple regression analysis was performed by keeping the slaughter weight as the dependent variable and the remaining as independent variables. The model explained 48.60 percentage of the total variation present in the market weight of the rabbits. Even though the model used was significant, the standardized beta coefficients for the independent variables viz., age and weight of the dam, birth weight and litter sizes at birth and weaning were less than one indicating their negligible influence on the slaughter weight. However, the standardized beta coefficient of the second-month body weight was maximum followed by the first-month weight indicating their major role on the market weight. All the other factors influence indirectly only through these two variables. Hence it was concluded that the slaughter body weight can be predicted using the first and second-month body weights. The principal components were also developed so as to achieve more accuracy in the prediction of market weight of rabbits.

Keywords: component analysis, multivariate, slaughter, regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
28 Mechanical Ventilation: Relationship between Body Mass Index and Selected Patients' Outcomes at a University Hospital in Cairo

Authors: Mohamed Mamdouh Al-Banna, Warda Youssef Mohamed Morsy, Hanaa Ali El-Feky, Ashraf Hussein Abdelmohsen

Abstract:

Background: The mechanically ventilated patients need a special nursing care with continuous closed observation. The patients’ body mass index may affect their prognosis or outcomes. Aim of the study: to investigate the relationship between BMI and selected outcomes of critically ill mechanically ventilated patients. Research Design: A descriptive correlational research design was utilized Research questions: a) what is the BMI profile of mechanically ventilated patients admitted to critical care units over a period of six months? b) What is the relationship between body mass index and frequency of organ dysfunction, length of ICU stay, weaning from mechanical ventilation, and the mortality rate among adult critically ill mechanically ventilated patients? Setting: different intensive care units of Cairo University Hospitals. Sample: A convenience sample of 30 mechanically ventilated patients for at least 72 hours. Tools of data collection: Three tools were utilized to collect data pertinent to the current study: tool 1: patients’ sociodemographic and medical data sheet, tool 2: BURNS Wean Assessment Program (BWAP) checklist, tool 3: Sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA score) sheet. Results: The majority of the studied sample (77%) was males, and (26.7 %) of the studied sample were in the age group of 18-28 years old, and (26.7 %) were in the age group of 40-50 years old. Moreover, two thirds (66.7%) of the studied sample were within normal BMI. No significant statistical relationship between BMI category and ICU length of stay or the mortality rate among the studied sample, (X² = 11.31, P value = 0.79), (X² = 0.15, P value = 0.928) respectively. No significant statistical relationship between BMI category and the weaning trials from mechanical ventilation among the studied sample, (X² = 0.15, P value = 0.928). No significant statistical relationship was found between BMI category and the occurrence of organ dysfunction among the studied sample, (X² = 2.54, P value = 0.637). Conclusion: No relationship between the BMI categories and the selected patients’ outcomes (weaning from MV, length of ICU stay, occurrence of organ dysfunction, mortality rate). Recommendations: Replication of this study on a larger sample from different geographical locations in Arab Republic of Egypt, conducting farther studies to assess the effect of the quality of nursing care on the mechanically ventilated patients’ outcomes.

Keywords: mechanical ventilation, body mass index, outcomes of mechanically ventilated patient, organ failure

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
27 Formulation, Nutritive Value Assessment And Effect On Weight Gain Of Infant Formulae Prepared From Locally Available Materia

Authors: J. T. Johnson, R. A. Atule, E. Gbodo

Abstract:

The widespread problem of infant malnutrition in developing countries has stirred efforts in research, development and extension by both local and international organizations. As a result, the formulation and development of nutritious weaning foods from local and readily available raw materials which are cost effective has become imperative in many developing countries. Thus, local and readily available raw materials where used to compound and develop nutritious new infant formulae. The materials used for this study include maize, millet, cowpea, pumpkin, fingerlings, and fish bone. The materials where dried and blended to powder. The powders were weighed in the ratio of 4:4:4:3:1:1 respectively and were then mixed properly. Analysis of nutritive value was conducted on the formulae and compared with NAN-2 standard and results reveals that the formulae had reasonable amount of moisture, lipids, carbohydrate, protein, and fibre. Although NAN-2 was superior in both carbohydrate and protein, the new infant formula was higher in mineral elements, vitamins, fibre, and lipids. All the essentials vitamins and both macro and micro minerals where found in appreciable quantity capable of meeting the biochemical and physiological demand of the body while the anti-nutrients composition were significantly below FAO and WHO safe limits. Finally, the compounded infant formulae was feed to a set of albino Wistar rats while some other set of rats was feed with NAN-2 for the period of twenty seven (27) days and body weight was measure at three days intervals. The results of body weight changes was spectacular as their body weight over shot or almost double that of those animals that were feed with NAN-2 at each point of measurement. The results suggest that the widespread problem of infant malnutrition in the developing world especially among the low income segment of the society can now be reduced if not totally eradicated since nutritive and cost effective weaning formulae can be prepared locally from common readily available materials.

Keywords: formulation, nutritive value, local, materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
26 Effects of Rations with High Amount of Crude Fiber on Rumen Fermentation in Suckler Cows

Authors: H. Scholz, P. Kuehne, G. Heckenberger

Abstract:

Problems during the calving period (December until May) often are results in a high body condition score (BCS) at this time. At the end of the grazing period (frequently after early weaning), however, an increase of BCS can often be observed under German conditions. In the last eight weeks before calving, the body condition should be reduced or at least not increased. Rations with a higher amount of crude fiber can be used (rations with straw or late mowed grass silage). Fermentative digestion of fiber is slow and incomplete; that’s why the fermentative process in the rumen can be reduced over a long feeding time. Viewed in this context, feed intake of suckler cows (8 weeks before calving) in different rations and fermentation in the rumen should be checked by taking rumen fluid. Eight suckler cows (Charolais) were feeding a Total Mixed Ration (TMR) in the last eight weeks before calving and grass silage after calving. By the addition of straw (30 % [TMR1] vs. 60 % [TMR2] of dry matter) was varied the amount of crude fiber in the TMR (grass silage, straw, mineral) before calving. After calving of the cow's grass, silage [GS] was fed ad libitum, and the last measurement of rumen fluid took place on the pasture [PS]. Rumen fluid, plasma, body weight, and backfat thickness were collected. Rumen fluid pH was assessed using an electronic pH meter. Volatile fatty acids (VFA), sedimentation, methylene-blue, and amount of infusorians were measured. From these 4 parameters, an “index of rumen fermentation” [IRF] in the rumen was formed. Fixed effects of treatment (TMR1, TMR2, GS, and PS) and a number of lactations (3-7 lactations) were analyzed by ANOVA using SPSS Version 25.0 (significant by p ≤ 5 %). Rumen fluid pH was significantly influenced by variants (TMR 1 by 6.6; TMR 2 by 6.9; GS by 6.6 and PS by 6.9) but was not affected by other effects. The IRF showed disturbed fermentation in the rumen by feeding the TMR 1+2 with a high amount of crude fiber (Score: > 10.0 points) and a very good environment for fermentation during grazing the pasture (Score: 6.9 points). Furthermore, significant differences were found for VFA, methylene blue, and the number of infusorians. The use of rations with a high amount of crude fiber from weaning to calving may cause deviations from undisturbed fermentation in the rumen and adversely affect the utilization of the feed in the rumen.

Keywords: rumen fermentation, suckler cow, digestibility organic matter, crude fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
25 Effects of Ig Y Supplementation to Colostrum Having Insufficient Antibodies on Calves Metabolism and Costs

Authors: Cangir Uyarlar, Eyup Eren Gultepe, Mustafa Kabu, Hacı Ahmet Celik

Abstract:

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of orally Immunoglobulin (Ig) Y treatments to calves were fed with colostrum having insufficient antibodies before first suckling. A total of 28 Holstein calves were fed assigned into control and treatment groups. The calves were fed fresh colostrum from their respective mother for the first 4 days. The treatment group calves were orally administered IgLock (10 g/d/calf) immediately before the first colostrum feeding and IgLock was administered just one time in treatment group calves. Then, the calves were offered normal milk until weaning. After weaning, all calves kept same paddock and were fed same ration. Diarrhea and respiratoric diseases were recorded for one year. Blood was collected from all calves in the study on birth day (0 day) before vaccination and IgLock administration, then, collected for the following 2 days in all groups. Albumin (ALB), Total Protein (TP), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Alanine Aminotrasferase (ALT), Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT), Serum Amyloid A (SAA), Haptoglobin (HPT) and Ig G analyses were performed on all samples. Although serum ALB, ALT, GGT and Ig G levels were not shown a time dependent-change within control group; serum TP, AST, HPT and SAA levels were significantly changed by the time within mentioned group. Serum TP level was steady at first 2 days, then, it was increased significantly at 3rd day. Also, serum AST level was significantly increased at 2nd day, then it was descended to first day levels again at 3rd day. Although serum HPT levels were shown a significant gradually decreasing within control group, serum SAA levels were decreased rapidly after first day and there were no significance differences between 2nd and 3rd day in SAA levels. Serum ALB, ALT, HPT and SAA levels were not shown a time dependent-change within treatmet group. After first day Serum TP, GGT, AST and Ig G levels were shown an significant increasing at 2nd day. Serum TP, GGT and Ig G levels were higher as compared to 1st day within treatment group at 3rd day. But, serum AST level was less significantly 3rd day as compared to 2nd day values. The total numbers of calves suffered from diarrhea were significantly less in treatment group as compared to control group (p < 0,05). The pneumonia reappear ratio in calves suffered the diseases is 33,3% in control group and 11,11% in treatment group. Total cost of diseases and additives was 2339,36 $ for control and 1276,4 $ for treatment. As a conclusion, the immunity enhancers like IgLock are important and cost-effective to boost up immunity status in the early age which would be having positive effects on calves were received colostrum included insufficient antibodies.

Keywords: dairy calves, Ig Y, pneumonia, scours

Procedia PDF Downloads 438
24 Effect of Amount of Crude Fiber in Grass or Silage to the Digestibility of Organic Matter in Suckler Cow Feeding Systems

Authors: Scholz Heiko, Kuhne Petra, Heckenberger Gerd

Abstract:

Problems during the calving period (December to May) often result in a high body condition score (BCS) at this time. At the end of the grazing period (frequently after early weaning), however, an increase of BCS can often be observed under German conditions. In the last eight weeks before calving, the body condition should be reduced or at least not increased. Rations with a higher amount of crude fiber can be used (rations with straw or late mowed grass silage). Fermentative digestion of fiber is slow and incomplete; that’s why the fermentative process in the rumen can be reduced over a long feeding time. Viewed in this context, feed intake of suckler cows (8 weeks before calving) in different rations and fermentation in the rumen should be checked by taking rumen fluid. Eight suckler cows (Charolais) were feeding a Total Mixed Ration (TMR) in the last eight weeks before calving and grass silage after calving. By the addition of straw (30 % [TMR1] vs. 60 % [TMR2] of dry matter) was varied the amount of crude fiber in the TMR (grass silage, straw, mineral) before calving. After calving of the cow's grass, silage [GS] was fed ad libitum, and the last measurement of rumen fluid took place on the pasture [PS]. Rumen fluid, plasma, body weight, and backfat thickness were collected. Rumen fluid pH was assessed using an electronic pH meter. Volatile fatty acids (VFA), sedimentation, methylene-blue and amount of infusorians were measured. From these 4 parameters, an “index of rumen fermentation” [IRF] in the rumen was formed. Fixed effects of treatment (TMR1, TMR2, GS and PS) and a number of lactations (3-7 lactations) were analyzed by ANOVA using SPSS Version 25.0 (significant by p ≤ 5 %). Rumen fluid pH was significant influenced by variants (TMR 1 by 6.6; TMR 2 by 6.9; GS by 6.6 and PS by 6.9) but was not affected by other effects. The IRF showed disturbed fermentation in the rumen by feeding the TMR 1+2 with a high amount of crude fiber (Score: > 10.0 points) and a very good environment for fermentation during grazing the pasture (Score: 6.9 points). Furthermore, significant differences were found for VFA, methylene blue and the number of infusorians. The use of rations with the high amount of crude fiber from weaning to calving may cause deviations from undisturbed fermentation in the rumen and adversely affect the utilization of the feed in the rumen.

Keywords: suckler cow, feeding systems, crude fiber, digestibilty of organic matter

Procedia PDF Downloads 51