Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 651

Search results for: fattening enterprises

651 Analysis of Technical Efficiency and Its Determinants among Cattle Fattening Enterprises in Kebbi State, Nigeria

Authors: Gona Ayuba, Isiaka Mohammed, Kotom Mohammed Baba, Mohammed Aabubakar Maikasuwa

Abstract:

The study examined the technical efficiency and its determinants of cattle fattening enterprises in Kebbi state, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample of 160 fatteners between June 2010 and June 2011 using the multistage random sampling technique. Translog stochastic frontier production function was employed for the analysis. Results of the analysis show that technical efficiency indices varied from 0.74 to 0.98%, with a mean of 0.90%, indicating that there was no wide gap between the efficiency of best technical efficient fatteners and that of the average fattener. The result also showed that fattening experience and herd size influenced the level of technical efficiency at 1% levels. It is recommended that credit agencies should ensure that credit made available to the fatteners is monitored to ensure appropriate utilization.

Keywords: technical efficiency, determinants, cattle, fattening enterprises

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650 Determinants of Internationalization of Social Enterprises: A 20-Year Review

Authors: Xiaoqing Li

Abstract:

Social entrepreneurship drives the global movement as social enterprises create best ways to satisfy social needs through connecting international resources. However, what determines social enterprises to internationalize is underexplored. This study aims to answer this question by conducting a systematic review of studies of past 20 years on social enterprises' internationalization. Findings reveal that factors at the individual (entrepreneur), firm, and environment (home and host country) levels determine the degree of social enterprises' internationalization. Future research is challenged by: a. adopting an integrated approach examining the three levels to explain social enterprises' internationalization; b. the different nature of social enterprises from commercial businesses demands scholars to refine and develop appropriate theoretical models to capture the dynamism of social enterprises' internationalization behavior.

Keywords: determinants, entrepreneurship, internationalization, social enterprises

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649 Effect of Immunocastration Vaccine Administration at Different Doses on Performance of Feedlot Holstein Bulls

Authors: M. Bolacali

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to determine the effect of immunocastration vaccine administration at different doses on fattening performance of feedlot Holstein bulls. Bopriva® is a vaccine that stimulates the animals' own immune system to produce specific antibodies against gonadotropin releasing factor (GnRF). Ninety four Holstein male calves (309.5 ± 2.58 kg body live weight and 267 d-old) assigned to the 4 treatments. Control group; 1 mL of 0.9% saline solution was subcutaneously injected to intact bulls on 1st and 60th days of the feedlot as placebo. On the same days of the feedlot, Bopriva® at two doses of 1 mL and 1 mL for Trial-1 group, 1.5 mL, and 1.5 mL for Trial-2 group, 1.5 mL, and 1 mL for Trial-3 group were subcutaneously injected to bulls. The study was conducted in a private establishment in the Sirvan district of Siirt province and lasted 180 days. The animals were weighed at the beginning of fattening and at 30-day intervals to determine their live weights at various periods. The statistical analysis for normal distribution data of the treatment groups was carried out with the general linear model procedure of SPSS software. The fattening initial live weight in Control, Trial-1, Trial-2 and Trial-3 groups was respectively 309.21, 306.62, 312.11, and 315.39 kg. The fattening final live weight was respectively 560.88, 536.67, 548.56, and 548.25 kg. The daily live weight gain during the trial was respectively 1.40, 1.28, 1.31, and 1.29 kg/day. The cold carcass yield was respectively 51.59%, 50.32%, 50.85%, and 50.77%. Immunocastration vaccine administration at different doses did not affect the live weights and cold carcass yields of Holstein male calves reared under intensive conditions (P > 0.05). However, it was determined to reduce fattening performance between 61-120 days (P < 0.05) and 1-180 days (P < 0.01). In addition, it was determined that the best performance among the vaccine-treated groups occurred in the group administered a 1.5 mL of vaccine on the 1st and 60th study days. In animals, castration is used to control fertility, aggressive and sexual behaviors. As a result, the fact that stress is induced by physical castration in animals and active immunization against GnRF maintains performance by maximizing welfare in bulls improves carcass and meat quality and controls unwanted sexual and aggressive behavior. Considering such features, it may be suggested that immunocastration vaccine with Bopriva® can be administered as a 1.5 mL dose on the 1st and 60th days of the fattening period in Holstein bulls.

Keywords: anti-GnRF, fattening, growth, immunocastration

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648 Studying the Implementation of 5S System in Egyptian Garment Enterprises

Authors: K. M. Seddik

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This paper explores the implementation of 5S elements in the Egyptian garment enterprises. The paper depended on a survey questionnaire (established from Summit Business Solutions, New York) and observations to collect data from the respondents. The observations are based on the on-site visits and interviews with the managers, supervisors and labors. The enterprises divided into three groups according to the nature activity. The first group of enterprises encompassed 49.52% of the total samples, the second and third group of enterprises represented 50.48% The results of this research indicated to the influence of the nature activity in implementing 5S systems and conclude that sustain is a difficult element which involve encourage workers for developing and practicing a highly discipline. In addition the results demonstrate that although the enterprises may achieve a higher executing of 5S elements but it may realize a low coherence in implementation.

Keywords: 5S elements, garment enterprises, implementation, lean manufacturing

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647 Influence of Chelators, Zn Sulphate and Silicic Acid on Productivity and Meat Quality of Fattening Pigs

Authors: A. Raceviciute-Stupeliene, V. Sasyte, V. Viliene, V. Slausgalvis, J. Al-Saifi, R. Gruzauskas

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The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of special additives such as chelators, zinc sulphate and silicic acid on productivity parameters, carcass characteristics and meat quality of fattening pigs. The test started with 40 days old fattening pigs (mongrel (mother) and Yorkshire (father)) and lasted up to 156 days of age. During the fattening period, 32 pigs were divided into 2 groups (control and experimental) with 4 replicates (total of 8 pens).  The pigs were fed for 16 weeks’ ad libitum with a standard wheat-barley-soybean meal compound (Control group) supplemented with chelators, zinc sulphate and silicic acid (dosage 2 kg/t of feed, Experimental group). Meat traits in live pigs were measured by ultrasonic equipment Piglog 105. The results obtained throughout the experimental period suggest that supplementation of chelators, zinc sulphate and silicic acid tend to positively affect average daily gain and feed conversion ratio of pigs for fattening (p < 0.05). Pigs’ evaluation with Piglog 105 showed that thickness of fat in the first and second point was by 4% and 3% respectively higher in comparison to the control group (p < 0.05). Carcass weight, yield, and length, also thickness of fat showed no significant difference among the groups. The water holding capacity of meat in Experimental group was lower by 5.28%, and tenderness – lower by 12% compared with that of the pigs in the Control group (p < 0.05). Regarding pigs’ meat chemical composition of the experimental group, a statistically significant difference comparing with the data of the control group was not determined. Cholesterol concentration in muscles of pigs fed diets supplemented with chelators, zinc sulphate and silicic acid was lower by 7.93 mg/100 g of muscle in comparison to that of the control group. These results suggest that supplementation of chelators, zinc sulphate and silicic acid in the feed for fattening pigs had significant effect on pigs growing performance and meat quality.

Keywords: silicic acid, chelators, meat quality, pigs, zinc sulphate

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646 The Organizational Commitment of the Public Enterprises in Thailand

Authors: Routsukol Sunalai

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The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of public enterprise reform policy on the attributes of organizational commitments in the public energy enterprises in Thailand. It compares three structural types of public energy enterprises: Totally state-owned public enterprises (type I), partially transformed public enterprises (type II), and totally transformed public enterprises (type III), based on the degree of state partially transformed public enterprises (type II), and totally transformed public enterprises (type III),based on the degree of reformed organizations, by analyzing the presence of the desirable attributes of organizational commitment as perceived by employees. Findings indicate that there are statistically significant differences in the level of some dimensions of organizational commitment (affective commitment and normative commitment) between the three types of public energy enterprises. The lack of a structural type difference holds for only continuance commitment. The results also indicate empirical evidence concerning the causal relationship between the antecedents and including organizational commitment also.

Keywords: management control, organizational commitment, public enterprises in Thailand, public enterprise reform

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645 Understanding Organizational Capabilities and Dynamic Capabilities in the Context of Micro Enterprises: A Research Agenda

Authors: G. Gurkan Inan, Umit S. Bititci

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Purpose of this study is to understand development of organizational capabilities in micro enterprises. Organizational capabilities underpin companies` competitive advantages as well as their ability to respond internal and external change. Current literature is focused on mainly large enterprises, with some interest on SMEs. However there is little research attempting to understand the applicability of organizational capability theories on micro enterprises. In this paper we propose a research framework and a research agenda for addressing this gap.

Keywords: micro enterprises, organizational capabilities, dynamic capabilities, management

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644 Conditions of Human Resource Development in Small Enterprises: The Results of Comparative Studies Conducted in Poland and Finland

Authors: Ewa Rak

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This paper utilises literature studies and author’s research conducted in small enterprises using survey. The purpose of the study is to identify conditions of employee development in small enterprises. More specifically, it will be barriers to employee development, needs for development expressed by interested employees themselves and the attitude of the company to employee development. Moreover, the enterprises participation in funding and initiating development activities will be presented. Paper presents the results of comparative studies conducted with employees of small enterprises in Poland and Finland in 2015-2016.

Keywords: employee development, Finland, human resources development, Poland, small enterprises

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643 The Antecedents That Effect on Organizational Commitment of the Public Enterprises in Thailand

Authors: Mananya Meenakorn

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of public enterprise reform policy on the attributes of organizational commitments in the public energy enterprises in Thailand. It compares three structural types of public energy enterprises: totally state-owned public enterprises, partially transformed public enterprises and totally transformed public enterprises, based on the degree of state ownership and the level of management control that exist in the public reformed organizations, by analyzing the presence of the desirable attributes of organizational commitment as perceived by employees. Findings indicate that there are statistically significant differences in the level of some dimensions of organizational commitment between the three types of public energy enterprises. The results also indicate empirical evidence concerning the causal relationship between the antecedents and organizational commitment. Whereas change-related behaviors show a direct negative influence on organizational commitment, both HRM practices and work-related values indicate direct positive influences on them also.

Keywords: affective commitment, organizational commitment, public enterprise reform organizations, public energy enterprises in Thailand

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642 Innovativeness of the Furniture Enterprises in Bulgaria

Authors: Radostina Popova

Abstract:

The paper presents an analysis of the innovation performance of small and medium-sized furniture enterprises in Bulgaria, accounting for over 97% of the companies in the sector. It contains advanced features of innovation in enterprises, specific features of the furniture industry in Bulgaria and analysis of the results of studies on the topic. The results from studies of three successive periods - 2006-2008; 2008-2010; 2010-2012, during which were studied 594 small and medium-sized furniture enterprises. There are commonly used in the EU definitions and indicators (European Commission, OECD, Oslo Manual), which allows for the comparability of results.

Keywords: innovation activity, competitiveness of innovation, furniture enterprises in Bulgaria

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641 Variables for Measuring the Impact of the Social Enterprises in the Field of Community Development

Authors: A. Irudaya Veni Mary, M. Victor Louis Anthuvan, P. Christie, A. Indira

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In India, social enterprises are working to create social value in various fields including education; health; women and child development; environment protection and community development. Although social enterprises have brought about tremendous changes in the lives of beneficiaries, the importance of their works is not understood thoroughly. One of the ways to prove themselves is to measure the impact, which in recent times has received much attention. This paper focuses on the study of social value created by the social enterprises in the field of community development. It also aims to put forth a research tool for measuring the social value created by the social enterprises in the field of community development. A close-ended interview schedule was prepared to measure the social value creation and it was administered among 60 beneficiaries of two social enterprises who work in the field of community development. The study results show that the social enterprises have brought four types of impact in the life of their beneficiaries; economic impact, social impact, political impact and cultural impact. This study is limited to the social enterprises those who work towards community development. This empirical finding will enable the reader to understand various types of social value created by the social enterprises working in the field of community development. This study will also serve as guide for social enterprises in community development activities to measure their impact and thereby improve their operation towards the betterment of the society. This paper is derived from an empirical research carried out to describe the different types of social value created by the social enterprises in India.

Keywords: social enterprise, social entrepreneurs, social impact, social value, tool for social impact measurement

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640 Diffusion of Social Innovation in Thai Community Enterprises

Authors: Thanisa Sirithaporn

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The study aims to examine the diffusion of social innovation among Thai Community Enterprises in conjunction with a singular case study of a medium-sized corporation that has successfully transitioned from a charitable foundation to a sustainable, profitable entity creating value for both shareholders and the communities in which it operates. It seeks to bridge the gap between different streams of aligned research in the fields of diffusion, social innovation, and community enterprises into a more cohesive conceptual framework and thus to better understand the historical and current impediments that have resulted in so many enterprises failing to be sustainable. The methodology is mixed and dual phased. The initial quantitative phase uses a questionnaire as the main research instrument distributed among community enterprises throughout Thailand which will provide the themes for the qualitative phase through semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders at a commercial enterprise actively engaged in social innovation. The findings seek to present a more comprehensive conceptual framework and actionable guidelines to aid community enterprises to develop social innovation in a sustainable manner that creates value to its beneficiaries.

Keywords: diffusion, community enterprises, social innovation, Thailand

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639 Detection Efficient Enterprises via Data Envelopment Analysis

Authors: S. Turkan

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In this paper, the Turkey’s Top 500 Industrial Enterprises data in 2014 were analyzed by data envelopment analysis. Data envelopment analysis is used to detect efficient decision-making units such as universities, hospitals, schools etc. by using inputs and outputs. The decision-making units in this study are enterprises. To detect efficient enterprises, some financial ratios are determined as inputs and outputs. For this reason, financial indicators related to productivity of enterprises are considered. The efficient foreign weighted owned capital enterprises are detected via super efficiency model. According to the results, it is said that Mercedes-Benz is the most efficient foreign weighted owned capital enterprise in Turkey.

Keywords: data envelopment analysis, super efficiency, logistic regression, financial ratios

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638 Effects of Employees’ Training Program on the Performance of Small Scale Enterprises in Oyo State

Authors: Itiola Kehinde Adeniran

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The study examined the effect of employees’ training on the performance of small scale enterprises in Oyo State. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 150 respondents through purposive sampling method. Linear regression was used with the aid of statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20 to analyze the data collected in order to examine the effect of independent variable, employees’ training on dependent variable, performance (profit) of small scale enterprises. The result revealed that employees’ training has a significant effect on the performance of small scale enterprises. It was concluded that predictor variable namely (training) is 55.5% variance of enterprises performance (profitability). Therefore, the paper recommended that all small scale enterprises in Nigeria should embrace manpower training and development in order to improve employees’ performance leading to organizational profitability.

Keywords: training, employee performance, small scale enterprise, organizational profitability

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637 Quantile Smoothing Splines: Application on Productivity of Enterprises

Authors: Semra Turkan

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In this paper, we have examined the factors that affect the productivity of Turkey’s Top 500 Industrial Enterprises in 2014. The labor productivity of enterprises is taken as an indicator of productivity of industrial enterprises. When the relationships between some financial ratios and labor productivity, it is seen that there is a nonparametric relationship between labor productivity and return on sales. In addition, the distribution of labor productivity of enterprises is right-skewed. If the dependent distribution is skewed, the quantile regression is more suitable for this data. Hence, the nonparametric relationship between labor productivity and return on sales by quantile smoothing splines.

Keywords: quantile regression, smoothing spline, labor productivity, financial ratios

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636 The Impact of Social Enterprises on Women Empowerment in South Asia: A Systematic Review

Authors: Saba Aziz

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Social enterprises are playing a growing role in transforming the lives of individuals and communities around the world, providing innovative solutions to critical social and environmental issues such as education, job creation, and health care. Women are increasingly utilising services of these enterprises to overcome socio-economic constraints and increase their access to business and market. This article systematically reviews the available literature on the role of social enterprises on women's empowerment in South Asia. Twelve key terms were specified and researched on five databases. Some of the literature was excluded based on the lack of evidence on the involvement of social enterprises. Remaining literature was rated according to the quality; due to methodological inconsistency, the findings are presented in a descriptive form. The relevant studies review the impact of social enterprises on women’s economic, social, relational, health, personal and political aspects of empowerment. In discussion, we outline areas for further research on social enterprises activity that impacts women’s overall empowerment specifically in South Asia.

Keywords: social enterprise, women empowerment, systematic review, well-being, social impact, micro finance, South Asia, Pakistan

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635 Social Enterprises in Rural Canada

Authors: Prescott C. Ensign

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Social enterprises play a vital role in Canada’s rural and northern communities. Most operate as non-profit organizations, use market approaches, and generate revenue from services or goods to support goals that address social, cultural, and environmental issues. As provincial and federal governments make reductions to programs providing social services to local communities, rural and northern residents who already have fewer resources from which to draw will be especially affected. Social enterprises will be called on to take up the slack. The aim of this paper is to provide a more comprehensive picture of the social enterprise as an organization and to understand the impact that context/ecosystem has on a social enterprise as it develops.

Keywords: social enterprises, structuration, embeddedness, ecosystem

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634 Modelling Strategy Planning in Multi Business Companies

Authors: Gelareh Changizi, Mahsa Khajavi, Ladan Shahhosseini

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Corporate-level strategy, or simply ‘parent strategy’, is a topic that has received much attention since the very early days of the strategic planning field. Since the multi level enterprises have different sub enterprises which deal with different business environments, we cannot define the same strategic perspective for all of them. Therefore, the determination of a perspective to manage and deal with affiliates of such enterprises is the main challenge. The parent strategy in mother enterprises' level has been analyzed in this research. A case study has been carried to comprehensively describe the proposed model.

Keywords: parent strategy, multi-business companies, performance evaluation, lifecycle

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633 Competitiveness of the Innovations of Furniture Enterprises in Bulgaria

Authors: Radostina Popova

Abstract:

The analysis of the competitiveness of the innovation of furniture enterprises in Bulgaria requires distinguishing types of innovation and innovation activities to determine the results. Main object of the analysis are the results of innovative activities with a high degree of novelty that determine competitiveness and high innovation. It is focused on innovative research in the EU in the last three-year period and its level is directly related to the forms of protection of industrial property, which enterprises use. The results are from studies of innovation of furniture enterprises in Bulgaria during the period - 2006-2012 on a sample of more than 600 furniture companies. The results from studies are focused on product and process (technological) innovations with a high degree of novelty.

Keywords: innovations, competitiveness, furniture enterprises, Bulgaria

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632 Comparative Analysis of Patent Protection between Health System and Enterprises in Shanghai, China

Authors: Na Li, Yunwei Zhang, Yuhong Niu

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The study discussed the patent protections of health system and enterprises in Shanghai. The comparisons of technical distribution and scopes of patent protections between Shanghai health system and enterprises were used by the methods of IPC classification, co-words analysis and visual social network. Results reflected a decreasing order within IPC A61 area, namely A61B, A61K, A61M, and A61F. A61B required to be further investigated. The highest authorized patents A61B17 of A61B of IPC A61 area was found. Within A61B17, fracture fixation, ligament reconstruction, cardiac surgery, and biopsy detection were regarded as common concerned fields by Shanghai health system and enterprises. However, compared with cardiac closure which Shanghai enterprises paid attention to, Shanghai health system was more inclined to blockages and hemostatic tools. The results also revealed that the scopes of patent protections of Shanghai enterprises were relatively centralized. Shanghai enterprises had a series of comprehensive strategies for protecting core patents. In contrast, Shanghai health system was considered to be lack of strategic patent protections for core patents.

Keywords: co-words analysis, IPC classification, patent protection, technical distribution

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631 Support and Development of SMEs in the Slovak Republic: Selected Issues

Authors: Alexander Kelisek, Stanislava Strelcova

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Developing of business in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is a specific especially for its flexibility and rapid adaptation to the conditions of turbulent market environment compared to large enterprises. Therefore, an importance of SMEs is growing rapidly in Slovakia but also in other EU countries. Small and medium enterprises are characterized by transparent organizational structure, as it allows the realization of direct management and information flow without significant negative aspects. In the national economy small and medium-sized enterprises represent a significant potential when performs a several important functions (e.g. social, economic, export-import, etc.) The significance of these enterprises is not only at national, but also at transnational level. Importance of SMEs is also aware of the EU, which declared this statement in a key document for SMEs called Small Business Act. In this document, SMEs are characterized, as the backbone of the EU economy and also as a key source of jobs opportunities. In addition to these aspects, SMEs attaches high innovation and development potential. The authors of the article are dealing with the current status of SMEs development in the Slovak Republic and highlight the current challenges that entrepreneurs face in their small and medium enterprises.

Keywords: small and medium enterprises (SMEs), business support, SMEs development, SMEs funding

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630 CSR Reporting, State Ownership, and Corporate Performance in China: Proof from Longitudinal Data of Publicly Traded Enterprises from 2006 to 2020

Authors: Wanda Luen-Wun Siu, Xiaowen Zhang

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This paper offered the primary methodical proof on how CSR reporting related to enterprise earnings in listed firms in China in light of most evidence focusing on cross-sectional data or data in a short span of time. Using full economic and business panel data on China’s publicly listed enterprise from 2006 to 2020 over two decades in the China Stock Market and Accounting Research database, we found initial evidence of significant direct relations between CSR reporting and firm corporate performance in both state-owned and privately owned firms over this period, supporting the stakeholder theory. Results also revealed that state-owned enterprises performed as well as private enterprises in the current period. But private enterprises performed better than state-owned enterprises in the subsequent years. Moreover, the release of social responsibility reports had a more significant impact on the financial performance of state-owned and private enterprises in the current period than in the subsequent periods. Specifically, CSR release was not significantly associated with the financial performance of state-owned enterprises on the lag of the first, second, and third periods. But it had an impact on the lag of the first, second, and third periods among private enterprises. Such findings suggested that CSR reporting helped improve the corporate financial performance of state-owned and private enterprises in the current period, but this kind of effect was more significant among private enterprises in the lag periods.

Keywords: China’s listed firms, CSR reporting, financial performance, panel analysis

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629 The Journey to Social Entrepreneurship: Profile Analysis of Social Enterprises in Morocco

Authors: Zeinab Hmama

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Much recent discourse has highlighted the supporting role of social entrepreneurs in solving social problems. However, the identification of social enterprise’s characteristics in emerging countries has not yet been thoroughly examined. This research seeks to explores the profile of social enterprises in Morocco. In this perspective, we conduct a quantitative study on a sample of 87 social enterprises. This study was undertaken in Morocco based on a quantitative study lead among sample consists of 82 organizations qualified as social enterprises. Therefore, the response rate was 45.12% (37/82). Participants in the study were described on the basis of the following demographic characteristics: Gender, Age, Education Level and field, Entrepreneurial activity age, Legal forms, Line of business.

Keywords: social entrepreneurship, social enterprise, problem resolution, value creation

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628 Understanding the Operational Challenges of Social Enterprises: A Review of Real-Life Issues in the Context of Developing Countries

Authors: Humayun Murshed

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There is growing importance of ‘social enterprise’ among the researchers and policy makers around the globe. Such enterprises have been viewed as alternative means for addressing the concerns relating to financing of corporate enterprises and social empowerment. This, some cases, has led to relatively unrealistic and higher level of expectations among policy makers and the members of the society at large. There is a general perception among different social actors that these enterprises provide universal and magic solution towards employment generation, and thus resulting in eradicating poverty, and ensuring equitable distribution of income and wealth. However, in many cases, these enterprises find a challenging journey in terms of prevailing market structure, socio-political environment, and unrealistic perception and expectations of social participants. This paper is focused on reviewing case studies based on empirical research and information from secondary sources and geared to looking at the challenges that social enterprises face. The research will draw the experience primarily from the developing countries’ perspective by adopting case study methodology. A tentative action plan will be suggested for further review by the policy makers and researchers in this growing arena of discipline. This research will attempt to highlight the myths and realities surrounding the operation of social enterprises.

Keywords: social enterprises, social empowerment, economic development, financing need

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627 Analysis of the Internationalisation of Spanish Enterprises in Colombia through Cooperation Agreements

Authors: Sandoval H. Leyla Angélica, Casani Fernando

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The objective of this study is to analyse how enterprises in developed countries use cooperation agreements to expand into developing countries. Starting from the literature review, seven theoretical prepositions were derived. The qualitative methodology used includes case study, through interviews conducted with eight enterprises from Spain and Colombia. Results show that the cooperation agreements have provided a quick and solid connection that facilitates internationalization, bearing in mind aspects such as: strategic factors, partners, network, technology, experience, communication methods, social benefit and the connection between these aspects and allied enterprises.

Keywords: internationalisation, firms, cooperation agreement, case study, Spain, Colombia

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626 Pawn or Potentates: Corporate Governance Structure in Indian Central Public Sector Enterprises

Authors: Ritika Jain, Rajnish Kumar

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The Department of Public Enterprises had made submissions of Self Evaluation Reports, for the purpose of corporate governance, mandatory for all central government owned enterprises. Despite this, an alarming 40% of the enterprises did not do so. This study examines the impact of external policy tools and internal firm-specific factors on corporate governance of central public sector enterprises (CPSEs). We use a dataset of all manufacturing and non-financial services owned by the central government of India for the year 2010-11. Using probit, ordered logit and Heckman’s sample selection models, the study finds that the probability and quality of corporate governance is positively influenced by the CPSE getting into a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the central government of India, and hence, enjoying more autonomy in terms of day to day operations. Besides these, internal factors, including bigger size and lower debt size contribute significantly to better corporate governance.

Keywords: corporate governance, central public sector enterprises (CPSEs), sample selection, Memorandum of Understanding (MoU), ordered logit, disinvestment

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625 Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM): A Simplified Alternative for Implementing SCRM for Small and Medium Enterprises

Authors: Paul W. Murray, Marco Barajas

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Recent changes in supply chains, especially globalization and collaboration, have created new risks for enterprises of all sizes. A variety of complex frameworks, often based on enterprise risk management strategies have been presented under the heading of Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM). The literature on promotes the benefits of a robust SCRM strategy; however, implementing SCRM is difficult and resource demanding for Large Enterprises (LEs), and essentially out of reach for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). This research debunks the idea that SCRM is necessary for all enterprises and instead proposes a simple and effective Vendor Selection Template (VST). Empirical testing and a survey of supply chain practitioners provide a measure of validation to the VST. The resulting VSTis a valuable contribution because is easy to use, provides practical results, and is sufficiently flexible to be universally applied to SMEs.

Keywords: multiple regression analysis, supply chain management, risk assessment, vendor selection

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624 Towards the Ideal Life: Quantitative Study on the Impact of Social Enterprises towards Their Employees

Authors: Joseph Daniel Lumain

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The Philippine business sector has witnessed the emergence of a new category that distinguishes itself from the common framework that most enterprises utilize as this new emerging player incorporates social needs as part of its mission and goals. Various literature has manifested the relevance of social enterprises as an instrument towards poverty alleviation, as it concretely increases the capabilities of individuals. This study aims to identify whether or not social enterprises creates an impact towards their employees by positively influencing their respective perceptions on their capabilities on income, health and education. Utilizing Amartya Sen’s Capabilities Framework, this study is grounded on the relationships between social enterprises and increased capabilities, and increased capabilities and developing towards living a life they truly desire. The data gathered was analyzed quantitatively, supplemented by qualitative interviews with one to two employees from the social enterprise itself. Focusing on three social enterprises found within GKonomics, or the platform of Gawad Kalinga for social enterprise development, this purposive study was able to show that employees’ perceptions on their employment positively influenced their perceptions on their capabilities, and that this result affected their improvement towards living a life they desire.

Keywords: social enterprise, Amartya Sen, capabilities framework, Gawad Kalinga

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623 The Development of Asset Valuation Techniques for Government Business Enterprises in Australia

Authors: Malcolm Abbott, Angela Tan-Kantoor

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The purpose of this paper is to look at the varieties of ways in which regulators have undertaken asset valuations in Australia of government business enterprises as part of utility regulation. Regulation of the monopoly elements, through use of a building block approach, led to a need to estimate regulated asset bases. This development has had an influence on the manner in which Australian companies (both government and privately owned ones) have valued assets for the purpose of financial reporting. As the regulators in Australia did not always use a consistent approach it had meant that a variety of ways have been used to value the assets of government owned enterprises, and meant a varied impact on asset valuation more generally.

Keywords: sset valuation, regulation, government business enterprises

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622 The Specificity of Employee Development in Polish Small Enterprises

Authors: E. Rak

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The aim of the paper is to identify some of the specific characteristics of employee development, as observed in the practice of small enterprises in Poland. Results suggest that a sizeable percentage of employers are not interested in improving the development of their employee base. This aspect is often perceived as insignificant. In addition, many employers have no theoretical or practical knowledge of employee development methods. Lack of sufficient financial support is reported as third on the list of the most important barriers to employee development. Employees, on the other hand, typically offload the responsibility of initiating this type of activities onto the employer. Employee development plans are typically flexible and accommodating. The original value offered by this research comes in the form of a detailed characteristics of employee development in small enterprises, accompanied by identification of specificity of human resource development in Polish companies.

Keywords: employee development, human resources development, small enterprises, trainings

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