Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 772

Search results for: Kotom Mohammed Baba

772 Analysis of Technical Efficiency and Its Determinants among Cattle Fattening Enterprises in Kebbi State, Nigeria

Authors: Gona Ayuba, Isiaka Mohammed, Kotom Mohammed Baba, Mohammed Aabubakar Maikasuwa

Abstract:

The study examined the technical efficiency and its determinants of cattle fattening enterprises in Kebbi state, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample of 160 fatteners between June 2010 and June 2011 using the multistage random sampling technique. Translog stochastic frontier production function was employed for the analysis. Results of the analysis show that technical efficiency indices varied from 0.74 to 0.98%, with a mean of 0.90%, indicating that there was no wide gap between the efficiency of best technical efficient fatteners and that of the average fattener. The result also showed that fattening experience and herd size influenced the level of technical efficiency at 1% levels. It is recommended that credit agencies should ensure that credit made available to the fatteners is monitored to ensure appropriate utilization.

Keywords: technical efficiency, determinants, cattle, fattening enterprises

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771 Public-Public Partnership and Tourism Development Strategy: The Case of Municipality of Gazi Baba in Macedonia

Authors: Dejan Metodijeski, Elizabeta Mitreva, Nako Taskov, Oliver Filiposki

Abstract:

Tourism development strategies are an important link in the tourism policy that is used to make its management better and easier. A public-public partnership (PUP) is a partnership between two or more public authorities or between a public authority and any non-profit organization with the goal of providing services and facilities or transferring technical skills. The paper presents this kind of partnership between two public authorities in Macedonia, the Municipality of Gazi Baba on one hand, and the University of Goce Delcev on the other. The main idea of this partnership is the development of a tourism strategy for the Municipality of Gazi Baba by the University on one side, and on the other, the construction of a mini park in the court of the University by the Municipality. This paper presents the causes and analyzes the procedures relating to this partnership and the methodology of the tourism development strategy. It contains a relevant literature review related to PUPs and tourism development strategy. The results and benefits of this partnership are presented with figures.

Keywords: public-public partnership, tourism development strategy, municipality of Gazi Baba, Macedonia

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770 Dry Season Rice Production along Hadejia Valley Irrigation Scheme in Auyo Local Government Area in Jigawa State

Authors: Saifullahi Umar, Baba Mamman Yarima, Mohammed Bello Usman, Hassan Mohammed

Abstract:

This study was conducted along with the Hadejia valley project irrigation under the Hadejia-Jama’are River Basin Development Authority (HRBDA) in Jigawa State. The multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 72 rice farmers operating along with the Hadejia Valley Irrigation Project. Data for the study were collected using a structured questionnaire. The analytical tools employed for the study were descriptive statistics and Farm budget technique. The result shows that 55% of the farmers were between 31-40 years of age, 66.01% were male, and the result also revealed that the total cost of cultivation of an acre of land for rice production during the dry season was N73,900 with input cost accounting for 63.59% of the total cost of production. The gross return was N332,500, with a net return of N258,600 per acre. The estimated benefit-cost ratio of 3.449 indicates the strong performance of the dry season rice production. The leading constraints to dry season rice production were low access to quality extension services, low access to finance, poor quality fertilizers, and poor prices. The study, therefore, concludes that dry season rice production is a profitable enterprise in the study area hence, to productivity the farmers should be linked to effective extension service delivery institutions, expanding their access to productive sources of finances, the government should strengthen fertilizer quality control measures and comprehensive market linkages for the farmers.

Keywords: Auyo, dry season, Hadejia Valley, rice

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
769 In Vivo Maltase and Sucrase Inhibitory Activities of Five Underutilized Nigerian Edible Fruits

Authors: Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim, Isa Yunusa, Nafisa Kabir, Shazali Ali Baba, Amina Muhammad Yushau, Suraj Suraj Ibrahim, Zaharaddeen Idris Bello, Suleiman Haruna Suleiman, Murtala Bindawa Isah

Abstract:

Background: Inhibition of intestinal maltase and sucrase prevents postprandial blood glucose excursions which are beneficial in ameliorating diabetes-associated complications. Objective: In this study, the inhibitory effects of fruit extracts of Parinari macrophylla, Detarium microcarpum, Ziziphus spina-christi, Z. mairei and Parkia biglobosa were investigated against intestinal maltase and sucrase. Methods: Rats were given co-administration of the fruit extracts with maltose or sucrose and blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 30, 90 and 120 min. Results: The glucose-time curves indicated that all the fruits had the most potent inhibitory effects on both maltase and sucrase within the first 30 min. The computed Area Under the Curves (AUC0-120)for all the fruits indicated more potent inhibitory effects against intestinal maltase than sucrase.The ED50 range for the fruits extract against maltase and sucrase were 647.15-1118.35 and 942.44-1851.94 mg/kg bw respectively. Conclusion: The data suggests that the fruits could prevent postprandial hyperglycemia via inhibition of intestinal maltase and sucrase.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, fruits, α-glucosidases, maltase, sucrase

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
768 Assessment of Solid Waste Management in General Mohammed Inuwa Wushishi Housing Estate, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: Garba Inuwa Kuta, Mohammed, Adamu, Mohammed Ahmed Emigilati, Ibrahim Ishiaku, Kudu Dangana

Abstract:

The study sought to identify the problems of solid waste management in General Mohammed InuwaWushishi Housing Estate. The two broad types of data, the secondary and primary data were used in the study. Questionnaires and personal observations were also used to collect some of the data. Factors impeding the effective and efficient solid waste management were identified. The study revealed that sacks disposal method and open dumping are the most commonly used method of disposal, about 30.0% of the respondent use sacks disposal method in the estate while 24.9% dump their refuse on the floor. Wrong attitudes and perceptions of the people about sanitation issues contributed to solid waste management problems of General Mohammed InuwaWushishi Housing Estate. Majority of the households did not educate their members on the need to clean their surroundings and refuse to buy drum for waste disposal from Niger State Environmental Protection Agency (NISEPA) on the basis that the drums are expensive. Virtually, all the people depended on Niger State Environmental Protection Agency (NISEPA) facilities for the disposal of their household refuse. Solid waste management problems were partly the results of NISEPA’s inability to cope with the situation because of lack of equipment. It was recommended that there should be an increase in enlightenment to the people on domestic waste disposal to keep the surroundings clean.

Keywords: housing estate, assessment, solid waste, disposal, management

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767 Potassium Acetate - Coconut Shell Activated Carbon for Adsorption of Benzene and Toluene: Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies

Authors: Jibril Mohammed, Usman Dadum Hamza, Abdulsalam Surajudeen, Baba Yahya Danjuma

Abstract:

Considerable concerns have been raised over the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water. In this study, coconut shell based activated carbon was produced through chemical activation with potassium acetate (PAAC) for adsorption of benzene and toluene. The porous carbons were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), proximate analysis, and ultimate analysis and nitrogen adsorption tests. Adsorption of benzene and toluene on the porous carbons were conducted at varying concentrations (50-250 mg/l). The high BET surface area of 622 m2/g and highly heteroporous adsorbent prepared gave good removal efficiencies of 79 and 82% for benzene and toluene respectively, with 32% yield. Equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms with all the models having R2 > 0.94. The equilibrium data were best represented by the Langmuir isotherm, with maximum adsorption capacity of 192 mg/g and 227 mg/g for benzene and toluene respectively. The Webber and Chakkravorti equilibrium parameter (RL) values are between 0 and 1 confirming the favourability of the Langmuir model. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The PAAC produced can be used effectively to salvage environmental pollution problems posed by VOCs through a sustainable process.

Keywords: adsorption, equilibrium and kinetics studies, potassium acetate, water treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
766 Women Entrepreneurs’ in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Mohammed Mainoma, Abubakar Tijanni, Mohammed Aliyu

Abstract:

Globalization has brought a structural change in industry. It is the breaking of artificial boundaries and given way to new product, new service, new market, and new technology among others. It leads to the realization that men entrepreneurs’ alone cannot meet the demand of the teeming population. Therefore there is a need for the participation, involvement, and engagement of females in the production and distribution of goods and services. This will enhance growth and development of a nation. It is in line with the above that this paper attempt to discuss meaning of women entrepreneurs, roles, types, problems, and prospects. Also, on the basis of conclusion the paper recommended that entrepreneurship education should be introduced in all Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria.

Keywords: women, entrepreneurs, issues, challenges

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
765 Analysing Social Media Coverage of Political Speeches in Relation to Discourse and Context

Authors: Yaser Mohammed Altameemi

Abstract:

This research looks at the representation of the social media for the Saudi Government decrees regarding the developmental projects of the Saudi 2030 vision. The paper analyses a television interview with the Crown Prince Mohammed Bin Salman who talks about the progress of the Saudi vision of 2030, and how the government had acted as response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The interview was on 28/4/2021. The paper analyses the tweets on Twitter that cover the interview for the purpose of investigating the development of concepts and meanings regarding the Saudi peoples’ orientations towards the Saudi projects. The data include all related tweets from the day of the interview and the following seven days after the interview. The finding of the collocation analysis suggests that nationalism notion is explicitly expressed by users in Twitter. The main finding of this paper suggests the importance of further analyses for the concordance lines. However, the collocation network suggests that there is a clear highlight for nationalism.

Keywords: social media, twitter, political interview, prince Mohammed Bin Salman, Saudi vision 2030

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
764 Serological Screening of Cytomegalovirus Infection among Sudanese Patients with Leukemia, Breast and Prostate Cancers at Radiation-Isotope Center in Khartoum

Authors: Abuelquasim. M. Hassan, Namarig .S. Mohammed, Samah F. Mohammed, Wafaa. A. Mohammed, Wafaa M. Edriss, Amel A. Ahmed, Elfadil M. Abass

Abstract:

Introduction: Cytomegalovirus (CMV), a common virus, usually causes asymptomatic infections in immunocompetent hosts; however, it may lead to serious complications especially in cancer patients. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) among leukemia, breast and prostate cancer patients attending at Radiation Isotope-Center-Khartoum (RICK) from April to August 2016. Material and Methods: A total of 91 subjects were included: 30 leukemic, 22 breast cancer and 29 prostate cancer patients.10 of them were healthy and used as control group, serum samples were collected and tested for CMV IgG & IgM using enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA). Result: Of the control group, 9/10 (9.9%) were seropositive for CMV IgG and 1/10 (1.09%) were sero positive for IgM. Also, all cancer groups demonstrated presence of IgG antibody classes as: The percentage of positive results in prostate, breast cancer and leukemia were 35.8 %, 37.2%, and 35.3% respectively. Conclusion: There was no significant correlation between leukemia, breast, prostate and HCMV.

Keywords: cytomegalovirus, serodiagnostic, breast cancer, leukemia

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763 Gender and Political Participation in Africa

Authors: Ibrahim Baba

Abstract:

The work examines the nature and causes of differential politics in Africa with particular reference to the sub-Saharan region of the continent. It also among other objectives provides alternative panacea to gender discrimination in African politics and offers solutions on how to promote political inclusion of all citizens in respect of gender differences in Africa. The work is conducted using library base documentation analysis.

Keywords: gender, political, participation, differential politics, sub-Saharan Africa

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
762 Batch and Fixed-Bed Studies of Ammonia Treated Coconut Shell Activated Carbon for Adsorption of Benzene and Toluene

Authors: Jibril Mohammed, Usman Dadum Hamza, Muhammad Idris Misau, Baba Yahya Danjuma, Yusuf Bode Raji, Abdulsalam Surajudeen

Abstract:

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been reported to be responsible for many acute and chronic health effects and environmental degradations such as global warming. In this study, a renewable and low-cost coconut shell activated carbon (PHAC) was synthesized and treated with ammonia (PHAC-AM) to improve its hydrophobicity and affinity towards VOCs. Removal efficiencies and adsorption capacities of the ammonia treated activated carbon (PHAC-AM) for benzene and toluene were carried out through batch and fixed-bed studies respectively. Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin adsorption isotherms were tested for the adsorption process and the experimental data were best fitted by Langmuir model and least fitted by Tempkin model; the favourability and suitability of fitness were validated by equilibrium parameter (RL) and the root square mean deviation (RSMD). Judging by the deviation of the predicted values from the experimental values, pseudo-second-order kinetic model best described the adsorption kinetics than the pseudo-first-order kinetic model for the two VOCs on PHAC and PHAC-AM. In the fixed-bed study, the effect of initial VOC concentration, bed height and flow rate on benzene and toluene adsorption were studied. The highest bed capacities of 77.30 and 69.40 mg/g were recorded for benzene and toluene respectively; at 250 mg/l initial VOC concentration, 2.5 cm bed height and 4.5 ml/min flow rate. The results of this study revealed that ammonia treated activate carbon (PHAC-AM) is a sustainable adsorbent for treatment of VOCs in polluted waters.

Keywords: volatile organic compounds, equilibrium and kinetics studies, batch and fixed bed study, bio-based activated carbon

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761 Orientational Pair Correlation Functions Modelling of the LiCl6H2O by the Hybrid Reverse Monte Carlo: Using an Environment Dependence Interaction Potential

Authors: Mohammed Habchi, Sidi Mohammed Mesli, Rafik Benallal, Mohammed Kotbi

Abstract:

On the basis of four partial correlation functions and some geometric constraints obtained from neutron scattering experiments, a Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulation has been performed in the study of the aqueous electrolyte LiCl6H2O at the glassy state. The obtained 3-dimensional model allows computing pair radial and orientational distribution functions in order to explore the structural features of the system. Unrealistic features appeared in some coordination peaks. To remedy to this, we use the Hybrid Reverse Monte Carlo (HRMC), incorporating an additional energy constraint in addition to the usual constraints derived from experiments. The energy of the system is calculated using an Environment Dependence Interaction Potential (EDIP). Ions effects is studied by comparing correlations between water molecules in the solution and in pure water at room temperature Our results show a good agreement between experimental and computed partial distribution functions (PDFs) as well as a significant improvement in orientational distribution curves.

Keywords: LiCl6H2O, glassy state, RMC, HRMC

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760 Medical Images Enhancement Using New Dynamic Band Pass Filter

Authors: Abdellatif Baba

Abstract:

In order to facilitate medical images analysis by improving their quality and readability, we present in this paper a new dynamic band pass filter as a general and suitable operator for different types of medical images. Our objective is to enrich the details of any treated medical image to make it sufficiently clear enough to give an understood and simplified meaning even for unspecialized people in the medical domain.

Keywords: medical image enhancement, dynamic band pass filter, analysis improvement

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759 Polygenetic Iron Mineralization in the Baba-Ali and Galali Deposits, Further Evidences from Stable (S, O, H) Isotope Data, NW Hamedan, Iran

Authors: Ghodratollah Rostami Paydar

Abstract:

The Baba-Ali and Galali iron deposits are located in northwest Hamedan and the Iranian Sanandaj-Sirjan geological structural zone. The host rocks of these deposits are metavolcanosedimentary successions of Songhor stratigraphic series with permo-trriassic age. Field investigation, ore geometry, textures and structures and paragenetic sequence of minerals, all indicate that the ore minerals are crystallized in four stages: primary volcanosedimentary stage, secondary regional metamorphism with formation of ductile shear zones, contact metamorphism and metasomatism stage and the finally late hydrothermal mineralization within uplift and exposure. Totally 29 samples of sulfide, oxide-silicate and carbonate minerals of iron orees and gangue has been purified for stable isotope analysis. The isotope ratio data assure that occurrence of dynamothermal metamorphism in these areas typically involves a lengthy period of time, which results in a tendency toward isotopic homogenization specifically in O and H stable isotopes and showing the role of metamorphic waters in mineralization process. Measurement of δ34S (CDT) in first generation of pyrite is higher than another ones, so it confirms the volcanogenic origin of primary iron mineralization. δ13C data measurements in Galali carbonate country rocks show a marine origin. δ18O in magnetite and skarn forming silicates, δ18O and δ13C in limestone and skarn calcite and δ34S in sulphides are all consistent with the interaction of a magmatic-equilibrated fluid with Galali limestone, and a dominantly magmatic source for S. All these data imply skarn formation and mineralisation in a magmatic-hydrothermal system that maintained high salinity to relatively late stages resulting in the formation of the regional Na metasomatic alteration halo. Late stage hydrothermal quartz-calcite veinlets are important for gold mineralization, but the economic evaluation is required to detailed geochemical studies.

Keywords: iron, polygenetic, stable isotope, BabaAli, Galali

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758 High Viscous Oil–Water Flow: Experiments and CFD Simulations

Authors: A. Archibong-Eso, J. Shi, Y Baba, S. Alagbe, W. Yan, H. Yeung

Abstract:

This study presents over 100 experiments conducted in a 25.4 mm internal diameter (ID) horizontal pipeline. Oil viscosity ranging from 3.5 Pa.s–5.0 Pa.s are used with superficial velocities of oil and water ranging from 0.06 to 0.55 m/s and 0.01 m/s to 1.0 m/s, respectively. Pressure gradient measurements and flow pattern observations are discussed. Numerical simulation of some flow conditions is performed using the commercial CFD code ANSYS Fluent® and the simulation results are compared with experimental results. Results indicate that CFD numerical simulation performed moderately well in predicting the flow configurations observed in this study while discrepancies were observed in the pressure gradient predictions.

Keywords: flow patterns, plug, pressure gradient, rivulet

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757 Quantification of Methane Emissions from Solid Waste in Oman Using IPCC Default Methodology

Authors: Wajeeha A. Qazi, Mohammed-Hasham Azam, Umais A. Mehmood, Ghithaa A. Al-Mufragi, Noor-Alhuda Alrawahi, Mohammed F. M. Abushammala

Abstract:

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposed in landfill sites decompose under anaerobic conditions and produce gases which mainly contain carbon dioxide (CO₂) and methane (CH₄). Methane has the potential of causing global warming 25 times more than CO₂, and can potentially affect human life and environment. Thus, this research aims to determine MSW generation and the annual CH₄ emissions from the generated waste in Oman over the years 1971-2030. The estimation of total waste generation was performed using existing models, while the CH₄ emissions estimation was performed using the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) default method. It is found that total MSW generation in Oman might be reached 3,089 Gg in the year 2030, which approximately produced 85 Gg of CH₄ emissions in the year 2030.

Keywords: methane, emissions, landfills, solid waste

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756 Morphological Features Fusion for Identifying INBREAST-Database Masses Using Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines

Authors: Nadia el Atlas, Mohammed el Aroussi, Mohammed Wahbi

Abstract:

In this paper a novel technique of mass characterization based on robust features-fusion is presented. The proposed method consists of mainly four stages: (a) the first phase involves segmenting the masses using edge information’s. (b) The second phase is to calculate and fuse the most relevant morphological features. (c) The last phase is the classification step which allows us to classify the images into benign and malignant masses. In this step we have implemented Support Vectors Machines (SVM) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), which were evaluated with the following performance criteria: confusion matrix, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, receiver operating characteristic ROC, and error histogram. The effectiveness of this new approach was evaluated by a recently developed database: INBREAST database. The fusion of the most appropriate morphological features provided very good results. The SVM gives accuracy to within 64.3%. Whereas the ANN classifier gives better results with an accuracy of 97.5%.

Keywords: breast cancer, mammography, CAD system, features, fusion

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755 An Analysis of the Influence of Employee Readiness for Change on TQM Implementation

Authors: Mohamed Haffar, Khalil Al-Hyari, Mohammed Khair Abu Zaid, Ramadane Djbarni, Mohammed Hamdan

Abstract:

While employee readiness for change (ERFC) is recognised as critical for total quality management (TQM) implementation, there is a lack of systematic and empirical studies regarding the relationship between ERFC dimensions and TQM. Therefore, this study proposes to fill this gap by providing empirical evidence leading to advancement in the understanding of the influences of ERFC components on TQM implementation. The empirical data for this study was drawn from a survey of 400 middle and senior managers of Jordanian firms. The analysis of the collected data, which was conducted using Structural Equation Modeling technique, revealed that three of the ERFC components, namely personally beneficial, change self-efficacy and management support are the most supportive ERFC dimensions for TQM implementation. Therefore, this paper makes a novel contribution by providing a refined and deeper comprehension of the relationships between ERFCs and TQM implementation.

Keywords: total quality management, employee readiness for change, manufacturing organisations, Jordan

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754 On the Performance of Improvised Generalized M-Estimator in the Presence of High Leverage Collinearity Enhancing Observations

Authors: Habshah Midi, Mohammed A. Mohammed, Sohel Rana

Abstract:

Multicollinearity occurs when two or more independent variables in a multiple linear regression model are highly correlated. The ridge regression is the commonly used method to rectify this problem. However, the ridge regression cannot handle the problem of multicollinearity which is caused by high leverage collinearity enhancing observation (HLCEO). Since high leverage points (HLPs) are responsible for inducing multicollinearity, the effect of HLPs needs to be reduced by using Generalized M estimator. The existing GM6 estimator is based on the Minimum Volume Ellipsoid (MVE) which tends to swamp some low leverage points. Hence an improvised GM (MGM) estimator is presented to improve the precision of the GM6 estimator. Numerical example and simulation study are presented to show how HLPs can cause multicollinearity. The numerical results show that our MGM estimator is the most efficient method compared to some existing methods.

Keywords: identification, high leverage points, multicollinearity, GM-estimator, DRGP, DFFITS

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753 Improvement of Antibacterial Activity for Ceftazidime by Partially Purified Tannase from Penicillium expansum

Authors: Sahira N. Muslim, Alaa N. Mohammed, Saba Saadoon Khazaal, Batool Kadham Salman, Israa M. S. AL-Kadmy, Sraa N. Muslim, Ahmed S. Dwaish, Sawsan Mohammed Kareem, Sarah N. Aziz, Ruaa A. Jasim

Abstract:

Tannase has wide applications in food, beverage, brewing, cosmetics and chemical industries and one of the major applications of tannase is the production of gallic acid. Gallic acid is used for manufacturing of trimethoprim. In the present study, a local fungal strain of Penicillium expansum A4 isolated from spoilt apple samples gave the highest production level of tannase. Tannase was partially purified with a recovery yield of 92.52% and 6.32 fold of purification by precipitation using ammonium sulfate at 50% saturation. Tannase led to increased antimicrobial activity of ceftazidime against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and S. aureus and had a synergism effect at low concentrations of ceftazidime, and thus, tannase may be a useful adjuvant agent for the treatment of many bacterial infections in combination with ceftazidime.

Keywords: ceftazidime, Penicillium expansum, tannase, antimicrobial activity

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752 Design and Study of a Parabolic Trough Solar Collector for Generating Electricity

Authors: A. A. A. Aboalnour, Ahmed M. Amasaib, Mohammed-Almujtaba A. Mohammed-Farah, Abdelhakam, A. Noreldien

Abstract:

This paper presents a design and study of Parabolic Trough Solar Collector (PTC). Mathematical models were used in this work to find the direct and reflected solar radiation from the air layer on the surface of the earth per hour based on the total daily solar radiation on a horizontal surface. Also mathematical models had been used to calculate the radiation of the tilted surfaces. Most of the ingredients used in this project as previews data required on several solar energy applications, thermal simulation, and solar power systems. In addition, mathematical models had been used to study the flow of the fluid inside the tube (receiver), and study the effect of direct and reflected solar radiation on the pressure, temperature, speed, kinetic energy and forces of fluid inside the tube. Finally, the mathematical models had been used to study the (PTC) performances and estimate its thermal efficiency.

Keywords: CFD, experimental, mathematical models, parabolic trough, radiation

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751 Antitrypanosomal Activity of Stigmasterol: An in silico Approach

Authors: Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim, Aminu Mohammed

Abstract:

Stigmasterol has previously been reported to possess antitrypanosomal activity using in vitro and in vivo models. However, the mechanism of antitrypanosomal activity is yet to be elucidated. In the present study, molecular docking was used to decipher the mode of interaction and binding affinity of stigmasterol to three known antitrypanosomal drug targets viz; adenosine kinase, ornithine decarboxylase and triose phosphate isomerase. Stigmasterol was found to bind to the selected trypanosomal enzymes with minimum binding energy of -4.2, -6.5 and -6.6 kcal/mol for adenosine kinase, ornithine decarboxylase, and triose phosphate isomerase respectively. However, hydrogen bond was not involved in the interaction of stigmasterol with all the three enzymes, but hydrophobic interaction seemed to play a vital role in the binding phenomenon which was predicted to be non-competitive like type of inhibition. It was concluded that binding to the three selected enzymes, especially triose phosphate isomerase, might be involved in the antitrypanosomal activity of stigmasterol but not mediated via a hydrogen bond interaction.

Keywords: antitrypanosomal, in silico, molecular docking, stigmasterol

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
750 Genetics of Birth and Weaning Weight of Holstein, Friesians in Sudan

Authors: Safa A. Mohammed Ali, Ammar S. Ahamed, Mohammed Khair Abdalla

Abstract:

The objectives of this study were to estimate the means and genetic parameters of birth and weaning weight of calves of pure Holstein-Friesian cows raised in Sudan. The traits studied were:*Weight at birth *Weight at weaning. The study also included some of the important factors that affected these traits. The data were analyzed using Harvey’s Least Squares and Maximum Likelihood programme. The results obtained showed that the overall mean weight at birth of the calves under study was 34.36±0.94kg. Male calves were found to be heavier than females; the difference between the sexes was highly significant (P<0.001). The mean weight at birth of male calves was 34.27±1.17 kg while that of females was 32.51±1.14kg. The effect of sex of calves, sire and parity of dam were highly significant (P<0.001). The overall mean of weight at weaning was 67.10 ± 5.05 kg, weight at weaning was significantly (p<0.001) effected by sex of calves, sire, year and season of birth have highly significant (P<0.001) effect on either trait. Also estimates heritabilities of birth weight was (0.033±0.015) lower than heritabilities of weaning weight (0.224±0.039), and genetic correlation was 0.563, the phenotypic correlation 0.281, and the environmental correlation 0.268.

Keywords: birth, weaning, weight, friesian

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749 Quick Sequential Search Algorithm Used to Decode High-Frequency Matrices

Authors: Mohammed M. Siddeq, Mohammed H. Rasheed, Omar M. Salih, Marcos A. Rodrigues

Abstract:

This research proposes a data encoding and decoding method based on the Matrix Minimization algorithm. This algorithm is applied to high-frequency coefficients for compression/encoding. The algorithm starts by converting every three coefficients to a single value; this is accomplished based on three different keys. The decoding/decompression uses a search method called QSS (Quick Sequential Search) Decoding Algorithm presented in this research based on the sequential search to recover the exact coefficients. In the next step, the decoded data are saved in an auxiliary array. The basic idea behind the auxiliary array is to save all possible decoded coefficients; this is because another algorithm, such as conventional sequential search, could retrieve encoded/compressed data independently from the proposed algorithm. The experimental results showed that our proposed decoding algorithm retrieves original data faster than conventional sequential search algorithms.

Keywords: matrix minimization algorithm, decoding sequential search algorithm, image compression, DCT, DWT

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748 Optimizing Exposure Parameters in Digital Mammography: A Study in Morocco

Authors: Talbi Mohammed, Oustous Aziz, Ben Messaoud Mounir, Sebihi Rajaa, Khalis Mohammed

Abstract:

Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of death for women around the world. Screening mammography is the reference examination, due to its sensitivity for detecting small lesions and micro-calcifications. Therefore, it is essential to ensure quality mammographic examinations with the most optimal dose. These conditions depend on the choice of exposure parameters. Clinically, practices must be evaluated in order to determine the most appropriate exposure parameters. Material and Methods: We performed our measurements on a mobile mammography unit (PLANMED Sofie-classic.) in Morocco. A solid dosimeter (AGMS Radcal) and a MTM 100 phantom allow to quantify the delivered dose and the image quality. For image quality assessment, scores are defined by the rate of visible inserts (MTM 100 phantom), obtained and compared for each acquisition. Results: The results show that the parameters of the mammography unit on which we have made our measurements can be improved in order to offer a better compromise between image quality and breast dose. The last one can be reduced up from 13.27% to 22.16%, while preserving comparable image quality.

Keywords: Mammography, Breast Dose, Image Quality, Phantom

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747 Pragmatic Discoursal Study of Hedging Constructions in English Language

Authors: Mohammed Hussein Ahmed, Bahar Mohammed Kareem

Abstract:

This study is concerned with the pragmatic discoursal study of hedging constructions in English language. Hedging is a mitigated word used to lessen the impact of the utterance uttered by the speakers. Hedging could be either adverbs, adjectives, verbs and sometimes it may consist of clauses. It aims at finding out the extent to which speakers and participants of the discourse use hedging constructions during their conversations. The study also aims at finding out whether or not there are any significant differences in the types and functions of the frequency of hedging constructions employed by male and female. It is hypothesized that hedging constructions are frequent in English discourse more than any other languages due to its formality and that the frequency of the types and functions are influenced by the gender of the participants. To achieve the aims of the study, two types of procedures have been followed: theoretical and practical. The theoretical procedure consists of presenting a theoretical background of hedging topic which includes its definitions, etymology and theories. The practical procedure consists of selecting a sample of texts and analyzing them according to an adopted model. A number of conclusions will be drawn based on the findings of the study.

Keywords: hedging, pragmatics, politeness, theoretical

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746 Half Mode Substrate Integrated Wave Guide of Band Pass Filter Based to Defected Ground Structure Cells

Authors: Damou Mehdi, Nouri Keltoum, Feham Mohammed, Khazini Mohammed, Bouazza Tayb Habibi Chawki

Abstract:

The Half mode SIW filter is treated by two softwares (HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulator) and CST (Computer Simulation Technology)). The filter HMSIW has a very simple structure and a very compact size. The simulated results by CST are presented and compared with the results simulated by a high-frequency structure simulator. Good agreement between the simulated CST and simulated results by HFSS is observed. By cascading two of them according to design requirement, a X-band bandpass filter is designed and simulated to meet compact size, low insertion loss, good return loss as well as second harmonic suppression. As an example, we designed the proposed HMSIW filter at X band by HFSS. The filter has a pass-band from 7.3 GHz to 9.8 GHz, and its relative operating fraction bandwidth is 29.5 %. There are one transmission zeros are located at 14.4 GHz.

Keywords: substrate integrated waveguide, filter, HMSIW, defected ground structures (DGS), simulation BPF

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745 The Effect of Some Macrofungi Extracts on Cytoplasmic Membrane of Multidrug Resistant Bacteria by Flow Cytometry

Authors: Yener Tekeli, Hayri Baba

Abstract:

The natural active compounds found in medicinal plants are belong to various chemical structures including polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, essential oils, and vitamins and some of these compounds have anticancer, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activity. However, these compounds have been little known about mechanisms to confer antibacterial drug resistance. In this study; some macrofungi extracts (Pholiota lucifera, Gnaoderma applanatum and Pleurotus ostreatus) were investigated for their abilities to enhance bacterial permeability by flow cytometry. This experiments exhibited enhancement of these extracts to disrupt the cytoplasmic membrane of living bacterial (Listeria innocua and Escherichia coli) cells. These experiments were designed to detect uptake of PI&SYT by enhancing with a ranged concentration of herb extracts.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, flow cytometry, macrofungi, multidrug resistant

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744 Comparative Analysis of Biodegradation on Polythene and Plastics Buried in Fadama Soil Amended With Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer

Authors: Baba John, Abdullahi Mohammed

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to compare the analysis of biodegradation on polythene and plastics buried in fadama soil amended with Organic and Inorganic fertilizer. Physico- chemical properties of the samples were determined. Bacteria and Fungi implicated in the biodegradation were identified and enumerated. Physico- chemical properties before the analysis indicated pH range of the samples from 4.28 – 5.80 , While the percentage Organic carbon and Organic matter was highest in cow dung samples with 3.89% and 6.69% respectively. The total Nitrogen percentage was recorded to be highest in Chicken dropping (0.68), while the availability of Phosphorus (P), Sodium (Na), Pottasium (K), and Magnessium (mg) was recorded to be highest in F – soil (Control), with values to be 37ppm, 1.63 Cmolkg-1, 0.35 Cmolkg-1 and 1.18 Cmolkg-1 respectively, except for calcium which was recorded to be highest in Cow dung (5.80 Cmolkg-1). However, physico – chemical properties of the samples after analysis indicated pH range of 4.6 – 5.80, Percentage Organic carbon and Organic matter was highest in Fadama soil mixed with fertilizer, having 0.7% and 1.2% respectively. Total Percentage Nitrogen content was found to be highest (0.56) in Fadama soil mixed with poultry dropping. Availability of Sodium (Na), Pottasium (K), and Calcium (Ca) was recorded to be highest in Fadama Soil mixed with Cow dung with values to be 0.64 Cmolkg-1, 2.07 Cmolkg-1 and 3.36 Cmolkg-1 respectively. The percentage weight loss of polythene and plastic bags after nine months in fadama soil mixed with poultry dropping was 11.9% for polythene and 6.0% for plastics. Weight loss in fadama soil mixed with cow dung was 18.1% for polythene and 4.7% for plastics. Weight loss of polythene and plastic in fadama soil mixed with fertilizer (NPK) was 7.4% for polythene and 3.3% for plastics. While, the percentage weight loss of polythene and plastics after nine months of burial in fadama soil (control) was 3.5% and 0.0% respectively. The bacteria species isolated from Fadama soil, organic and inorganic fertilizers before amendments include: S. aureus, Micrococcus sp, Streptococcus. pyogenes, Psuedomonas aeruginosa Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus. The fungi species include: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium sp, Mucor sp Penicillium sp and Candida sp. The bacteria species isolated and characterized after nine months of seeding include: S. aureus, Micrococcus sp, S. pyogenes, P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis. The fungi species are: A. niger A. flavus, A. fumigatus, Mucor sp, Penicillium sp and Fusarium sp. The result of this study indicated that plastic materials can be degraded in the fadama soil irrespective of whether the soil is amended or not. The Period of composting also has a significant impact on the rate at which polythene and plastics are degraded.

Keywords: Fadama, fertilizer, plastic and polythene, biodegradation

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743 The Importance of Introducing New Academic Programs in ‎Egyptian National Cancer ‎Institute

Authors: Mohammed S. Mohammed, Asmaa M. S. Mohammed

Abstract:

Background: To achieve the quality of cancer care, the oncologic academic programs should be continuously developed with establishing new ones. We highlighted three disciplines, Clinical nutrition, medical biophysics and radiobiology and Psycho-oncology programs; without a doubt, the Egyptian National Cancer Institute, in ‎the accreditation era, will be establishing them ‎ due to their importance in improving the skills of cancer practitioners. Methods: The first suggested program in Clinical Nutrition that is dealing with the assessment of the patient's well-being before, during and after treatment to avoid the defects in the metabolism resulting from the cancer disease and its treatment by giving the supplements in the patient's diet. The second program is Medical Biophysics and Radiobiology, which there's no denying that it ‎is ‎provided ‎in Cairo University as a good program in the faculty of science but lacks the clinical ‎practice. Hence, it is probably better to establish this program in our institute to ‎improve the ‎practitioner skills and introduce a tailored radiation therapy regimen for every patient according to ‎their characteristic profile.‎ While patients are receiving their treatment, the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder arises, so the importance of the third program, Psycho-Oncology, is clearly obtained. This program is concerned with the psychological, social, behavioral, and ethical aspects of cancer. The area of multi-disciplinary interest has boundaries with the major specialties in oncology: the clinical disciplines (surgery, medicine, pediatrics, and radiotherapy), epidemiology, immunology, endocrinology, biology, pathology, bioethics, palliative care, rehabilitation medicine, clinical trials research and decision making, as well as psychiatry and psychology. Results: It is a prospective academic plan which is compatible with the institutional vision and its strategic plan. Conclusion: In this context, evaluating and understanding the suggested academic programs has become a mandatory part of cancer care. And it is essential to be provided by the NCI.

Keywords: clinical nutrition, psycho-oncology, medical biophysics and radiobiology, medical education

Procedia PDF Downloads 95